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Sample records for caribbean sea

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  2. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  3. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  4. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

  5. Depth distribution of benthic dinoflagellates in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnoir, Aurélie; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Cordonnier, Sébastien; Lemée, Rodolophe

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring of benthic dinoflagellates is usually conducted between sub-surface and 5 m depth, where these organisms are supposed to be in highest abundances. However, only few studies have focused on the small-scale depth distribution of benthic dinoflagellates. In the present study, abundances of dinoflagellates were evaluated on an invasive macrophyte Halophila stipulacea in two coastal sites in Guadeloupe (Caribbean Sea) along a depth gradient from sub-surface to 3 m at Gosier and until 20 m at Rivière Sens during the tropical wet and dry seasons. Species of genus Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum were the most abundant. Depth did not influence total dinoflagellate abundance but several genera showed particular depth-distribution preferences. The highest abundances of Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus species were estimated preferentially in surface waters, whereas Coolia spp. were found in the same proportions but in deeper waters. Halophila stipulacea biomass was positively correlated with Ostreopsis spp. abundance. Our study suggests that sampling of benthic dinoflagellates should be conducted at different water depths taking into account the presence of the macroalgal substrate as well. In the Caribbean area, special attention should be addressed to the presence of H. stipulacea which tends to homogenize the marine landscape and represents a substrate for hosting dinoflagellate growth.

  6. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224 Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224 Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228 Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228 Ra/ 226 Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228 Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224 Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224 Ra and 228 Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232 Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  10. Effects of UV radiation on DNA photodamage and production in bacterioplankton in the coastal Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M; Snelder, E; Kop, A.J; Boelen, P.; Buma, A.G.J.; van Duyl, F.C

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on bacterioplankton. The effect of different parts of the sunlight spectrum on the leucine and thymidine incorporation and on the induction of DNA damage in natural bacterial populations in the coastal Caribbean Sea off Curacao were

  11. First visual record of a living basking shark Cetorhinus maximus in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Janinhoff, N.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of basking sharks in the Caribbean Sea is only recently documented by satellite tagging studies, which show that some individuals migrate through the region en route from waters off the east coast of the USA to waters off northeastern South-America. The observation of a basking shark

  12. Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Nancy Marie

    1971-01-01

    Although there have been several collections of polychaetous annelids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, very few spionids have been included in the published species lists. This is not because they are poorly represented in this area but probably a result of their small size and the fact

  13. TBT pollution and effects in molluscs at US Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Jørgensen, Anne; Tairova, Zhanna

    2009-01-01

    Thais deltoidea, Thais rustica and Purpura patula all seem to have potential as suitable and sensitive bioindicators for assessing levels and effects of TBT pollution in coastal areas including coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. However, considerable interspecies differences in especially accumulation...

  14. The Turbellarian Hofstenia miamia in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrêa, Diva Diniz

    1963-01-01

    Some years ago I described Hofstenia miamia from Virginia Key, in the Miami area (CORREA 1960, p. 211 ff.). The species was based on a single specimen found among algae in the intertidal zone. When a grant from the Government of the Netherlands gave me the chance to work at the Caribbean Marine

  15. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botello, Alfonso V; Villanueva F, Susana [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    1996-07-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  16. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Villanueva F, Susana

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  17. Diel foraging behavior of gravid leatherback sea turtles in deep waters of the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James; Garner, Jeanne; Garner, Steve; Williard, Amanda Southwood

    2010-12-01

    It is generally assumed that leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), like other species of sea turtle, do not feed while offshore from nesting beaches, and rely instead on fat reserves to fuel reproductive activities. Recent studies, however, provide evidence that leatherbacks may forage during the internesting interval while offshore in the Western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Bio-logging technology was used to investigate the foraging behavior of female leatherback turtles at St Croix, US Virgin Islands. Leatherback gastrointestinal tract temperatures (T(GT)) were analyzed for sudden fluctuations indicative of ingestions, and laboratory ingestion simulations were used to characterize temperature fluctuations associated with ingestion of prey versus seawater. Dive patterns associated with prey ingestion were characterized and the proportion of prey ingestion during the day (05:00-18:59 h) and night (19:00-04:59 h) were compared. A combined total of 111 prey ingestions for seven leatherback turtles were documented during the internesting interval. The number of prey ingestions ranged from six to 48 for individual turtles, and the majority (87.4%) of these events occurred during the daytime. Prey ingestions were most frequently associated with V-shaped dives, and the mean (±1 s.d.) maximum dive depth with prey ingestion ranged from 154±51 to 232±101 m for individual turtles. Although leatherbacks were found to opportunistically feed during the internesting interval, the low prey ingestion rates indicate that energy reserves acquired prior to the breeding season are critical for successful reproduction by leatherbacks from the St Croix, USVI nesting population.

  18. Patterns of variability of the superficial temperatures of the sea in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Gladys; Poveda, German; Roldan, Paola; Andrade, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The space - time variability of sea surface temperature (SST) along the Colombian coastal Caribbean zone was analyzed with monthly time series spanning the period 1982- 2000. Analyses included the spatial variability associated with the annual cycle, and inter annual time scales associated with el Nino southern oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), as well as long-term trends. Analyses were included to study two tropical low-level atmospheric jets affecting the climatology of the northwestern corner of South America (the so-called Choco and San Andres low level jets). Two separate regions have been found along the Caribbean sea to exhibit quite different climatic behavior: the southwestern region with a warm pool directly related to panama Colombia gyre, and the northeastern region with a cold pool related to the Guajira upwelling system

  19. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 38 cells in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Charles; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data with monthly resolution are provided for 38 cells in the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas region, plus Bermuda. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 coupled climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Statistical scaling of the forecast data sets are performed to produce confluent SST series according to a now established method. These SST series are available for download. High water temperatures in 1998 killed enormous amounts of corals in tropical seas, though in the Caribbean region the effects at that time appeared less marked than in the Indo-Pacific. However, SSTs are rising in accordance with world-wide trends and it has been predicted that temperature will become increasingly important in this region in the near future. Patterns of SST rise within the Caribbean region are shown, and the importance of sub-regional patterns within this biologically highly interconnected area are noted.

  20. Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the rainy season and relationship to the equatorial Pacific and tropical Atlantic SST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Kirtman, Ben P. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The present study investigates the Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the early and late rainy seasons and its association with sea surface temperature (SST) and air-sea interaction based on observational estimates, the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) and Global Forecast System (GFS) simulations, and the CFS retrospective forecasts. Analysis of the observational estimates indicates that air-sea interaction is important over the Caribbean Sea, whereas the atmospheric forcing of SST dominates over the Gulf of Mexico. The CFS simulation captures the basic elements of this observed air-sea relationship. The GFS simulation produces spurious SST forcing of the atmosphere over the Gulf of Mexico largely due to prescribing SST. The CFS forecasts capture the air-sea relationship in the late rainy season (August-October), but cannot reproduce the SST forcing of atmosphere over the Caribbean Sea in the early rainy season (May-July). An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis indicates that the leading modes of percent anomalies of the rainy season precipitation have the largest loading in the southern Caribbean Sea in observations. The model simulations and forecasts skillfully reproduce the spatial pattern, but not the temporal evolution. The Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the early rainy season is mainly due to the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST anomalies in observations, is contributed by both the TNA and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) SST anomalies in the CFS simulation, and has an overly large impact from the EEP SST anomalies in the GFS simulation and the CFS forecasts. The observed Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the late rainy season has a leading impact from the EEP SST anomalies, with a secondary contribution from the TNA SST anomalies. In comparison, the model simulations and forecasts overestimate the impacts of the EEP SST anomalies due to an earlier development and longer duration of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the CFS

  1. Freshwater exchanges and surface salinity in the Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Emilio; Bernal, Gladys; Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio; Barton, Eric Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Despite the heavy regional rainfall and considerable discharge of many rivers into the Colombian Basin, there have been few detailed studies about the dilution of Caribbean Surface Water and the variability of salinity in the southwestern Caribbean. An analysis of the precipitation, evaporation and runoff in relation to the climate variability demonstrates that although the salt balance in the Colombian Basin overall is in equilibrium, the area south of 12°N is an important dilution sub-basin. In the southwest of the basin, in the region of the Panama-Colombia Gyre, Caribbean Sea Water is diluted by precipitation and runoff year round, while in the northeast, off La Guajira, its salinity increases from December to May by upwelling. At the interannual scale, continental runoff is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, and precipitation and evaporation south of 12°N are related to the Caribbean Low Level Jet. During El Niño years the maximum salinification occurs in the dry season (December-February) while in La Niña years the maximum dilution (or freshening), reaching La Guajira Coastal Zone, occurs in the wet season (September-November).

  2. Miocene and Pleistocene mollusks from San Andres Island (Caribbean Sea, Colombia) and Paleogeographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz M, Juan Manuel; Garcia Llano, Cesar Fernando

    2010-01-01

    San Andres Island is the largest emerged portion of the oceanic archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, southwestern Caribbean Sea; it originated as a coralline atoll during Miocene times. The central and highest part of the island consists of a calcareous crest, the San Andres Formation, formed by Neogene lagoonal and reefal deposits. This crest is surrounded by a calcareous platform of Pleistocene age (San Luis Formation) which emerges only along the island coast, whereas its most part is submerged and covered by a Recent reef complex. Fossil material of molluscs from these two formations was collected in various sites throughout the island and taxonomically identified. In the four sites sampled in the San Andres Formation, material belonging to 19 gastropod and 37 bivalve species was obtained, most of them relatively well represented in other geologic formations of the Caribbean region that are stratigraphically situated between the upper Miocene and the middle Pliocene. Some elements occurring in this formation, such as Ostrea haitiensis, Meretrix dariena and Siphocypraea henekeni, were widely distributed in the Caribbean Miocene Province. In the San Luis Formation, material belonging to 18 gastropod and 11 bivalve species was obtained, most of them also represented in the Recent molluscan fauna of the region. The estimated age of this formation is Sangamonian, hence corresponding to similar formations occurring in Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean islands, with which it also shows a great similarity in the composition of the molluscan fauna.

  3. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  4. Morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of the deep-sea Caribbean lobster Metanephrops binghami (Decapoda: Nephropidae in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of deep-sea Caribbean lobster. Data were obtained in the Colombian Caribbean in four trawling surveys in November and December 2009 between 200 and 550 m depth. 709 individuals with sizes between 53.65 and 191.00 mm (TL (mean 121.17 ± 27.13 mm were measured. M. binghami had a positive allometric growth. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae have a worldwide distribution and economic importance. High levels of biomass of Metanephrops binghami have been reported in the Colombian Caribbean and this species could become a potential new resource for the Western Atlantic fishery. However, prior to the development of a new fishery, more biological research is needed to understand the life cycle of this species. Aspects such as growth, spawning, recruitment, mortality, nursery areas and associated biodiversity should be carefully studied.

  5. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  6. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    North Atlantic Oscillation; more (less) WT 2 and less (more) WT 8 than usually occur from January to early April during warm (cold) ENSO events, the strongest anomalies being recorded during eastern events. Multinomial logistic regression is used to hindcast the 11-day low-pass filtered occurrence of WTs from local (Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) and remote (Eastern and Central Tropical Pacific) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In boreal summer, the interannual variability of the seasonal occurrence of WTs 4-6 is well hindcast when at least the Caribbean Sea and Eastern Tropical Pacific are included as predictors with anomalously warm (cold) SSTs over the Caribbean Sea (Eastern Tropical Pacific) being related to more WT 5-6 and less WT 4 and vice-versa. Using antecedent SST to forecast WT frequency shows that the SST forcing is negligible at the start of boreal summer and increases toward its end.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  8. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from PAUL in the TOGA Area - Pacific and Caribbean Sea from 1991-11-17 to 1991-12-11 (NODC Accession 9200003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Caribbean Sea, TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from ship PAUL between November 17, 1991 and December 11, 1991. The...

  10. CAS (CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SOCIETY) PARAMETER CODES and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Caribbean Sea and Others from 19790205 to 19890503 (NCEI Accession 9100017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Chemical Abstracts Society (CAS) parameter codes and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico from February 5,...

  11. Holocene relative sea-level changes from North America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Benjamin; Engelhart, Simon; Vacchi, Matteo; Khan, Nicole; Peltier, Dick; Roy, Keven

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of Holocene relative sea level (RSL) are important for identifying the ice equivalent meltwater contribution to sea-level change during deglaciation. Holocene RSL reconstructions from near, intermediate and far field regions enable the assessment of earth and ice parameters of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. RSL reconstructions provide data for estimating rates of spatially variable and ongoing vertical land motion; a requirement for understanding the variation in modern and late Holocene sea level as recorded by instrumental and proxy records. Here we explain the methodology employed to reconstruct former sea levels, which follows the practice of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP). We produce sea level index points from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and the Caribbean. Index points are defined as the most reliable observations of former sea levels. They consist of an estimate of X (age) and Y (the position of former RSL). Where a suite of index points are developed for a locality or region, they describe changes in RSL through time and estimate rates of change. A valid index point must meet the following four criteria; (1) location of the sample is known; (2) the altitude of the sample (and the error associated with measuring that altitude) is known; (3) the indicative meaning (the relationship between the sample and a tide level) is estimated; and (4) the age of the sample, which is commonly radiocarbon dated is calibrated to sidereal years using the latest calibration curves. In total databases have over 2000 sea-level index points from formerly ice covered, uplifting regions of Canada, to the region of forebulge collapse along the subsiding mid-Atlantic and mid-Pacific coastlines of the United States, to the tropical regions of the Caribbean. Recent analyses of these new published databases have led to a further refinement of the most recent of the ICE-NG (VMX) series of global models of GIA. The records

  12. Forecasting decadal changes in sea surface temperatures and coral bleaching within a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angang; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2014-09-01

    Elevated sea surface temperature (SST) caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. While increased SST has been shown to negatively affect the health of coral reefs by increasing rates of coral bleaching, how changes to atmospheric heating impact SST distributions, modified by local flow environments, has been less understood. This study aimed to simulate future water flow patterns and water surface heating in response to increased air temperature within a coral reef system in Bocas del Toro, Panama, located within the Caribbean Sea. Water flow and SST were modeled using the Delft3D-FLOWcomputer simulation package. Locally measured physical parameters, including bathymetry, astronomic tidal forcing, and coral habitat distribution were input into the model and water flow, and SST was simulated over a four-month period under present day, as well as projected warming scenarios in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Changes in SST, and hence the thermal stress to corals, were quantified by degree heating weeks. Results showed that present-day reported bleaching sites were consistent with localized regions of continuous high SST. Regions with highest SST were located within shallow coastal sites adjacent to the mainland or within the interior of the bay, and characterized by low currents with high water retention times. Under projected increases in SSTs, shallow reef areas in low flow regions were found to be hot spots for future bleaching.

  13. Characterisation of nutrients wet deposition under influence of Saharan dust at Puerto-Rico in Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desboeufs, Karine; Formenti, Paola; Triquet, Sylvain; Laurent, Benoit; Denjean, Cyrielle; Gutteriez-Moreno, Ian E.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    Large quantities of African dust are carried across the North Atlantic toward the Caribbean every summer by Trade Winds. Atmospheric deposition of dust aerosols, and in particular wet deposition, is widely acknowledged to be the major delivery pathway for nutrients to ocean ecosystems, as iron, phosphorus and various nitrogen species. The deposition of this dustis so known to have an important impact on biogeochemical processes in the Tropical and Western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean including Puerto-Rico. However, very few data exists on the chemical composition in nutrients in dusty rain in this region. In the framework of the Dust-ATTAcK project, rainwater was collected at the natural reserve of Cape San Juan (CSJ) (18.38°N, 65.62°W) in Puerto-Ricobetween 20 June 2012 and 12 July 2012 during thedusty period. A total of 7 rainwater events were sampled during various dust plumes. Complementary chemical analyses on aerosols in suspension was also determined during the campaign. The results on dust composition showed that no mixing with anthropogenic material was observed, confirming dust aerosols were the major particles incorporated in rain samples. The partitioning between soluble and particulate nutrients in rain samples showed that phosphorous solubility ranged from 30 and 80%. The average Fe solubility was around 0.5%, in agreement with Fe solubility observed in rains collected in Niger during African monsoon. That means that the high solubility measurements previously observed in Caribbean was probably due to an anthropogenic influence. Atmospheric wet deposition fluxes of soluble and total nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn) to Caribbean Sea were determined. Atmospheric P and N inputs were strongly depleted relative to the stoichiometry of phytoplankton Fe, N, P and Si requirements.The nitrogen speciation was also determined and showed the predominance of ammonium form. 3-D modeling was used to estimate the spatial extend of these fluxes over the

  14. Nonlinear analysis of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rojo-Garibaldi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are complex systems that carry large amounts of energy. Their impact often produces natural disasters involving the loss of human lives and materials, such as infrastructure, valued at billions of US dollars. However, not everything about hurricanes is negative, as hurricanes are the main source of rainwater for the regions where they develop. This study shows a nonlinear analysis of the time series of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea obtained from 1749 to 2012. The construction of the hurricane time series was carried out based on the hurricane database of the North Atlantic basin hurricane database (HURDAT and the published historical information. The hurricane time series provides a unique historical record on information about ocean–atmosphere interactions. The Lyapunov exponent indicated that the system presented chaotic dynamics, and the spectral analysis and nonlinear analyses of the time series of the hurricanes showed chaotic edge behavior. One possible explanation for this chaotic edge is the individual chaotic behavior of hurricanes, either by category or individually regardless of their category and their behavior on a regular basis.

  15. An unprecedented aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de la Parra Venegas

    Full Text Available Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed "the Afuera" that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km(2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts.

  16. An Unprecedented Aggregation of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican Coastal Waters of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed “the Afuera”) that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508

  17. Sr/Ca-Sea surface temperature calibration in the branching Caribbean coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Christina D.; Olson, Donna M.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Gruhn, Leah M.; Winter, Amos; Taylor, Frederick W.

    2006-02-01

    We measured Sr/Ca ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in radial and axial growth of modern Caribbean Acropora palmata corals. Comparison of our results with sea surface temperature (SST) allows radial and axial Sr/Ca-SST calibrations of Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.30 - 0.07072 × SST (°C) and Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.32 - 0.06281 x SST (°C), respectively. Application of the calibrations to fossil Acropora palmata from the last glacial maximum in Barbados (Guilderson et al., 1994) imply ~7°C cooler conditions than the present, much larger than the 1-1.5° cooling suggested by modern analog technique foraminifera-based estimates (Trend-Staid and Prell, 2002). If the foraminifera-based estimates are correct, then the excess cooling suggested by the Barbados corals could be explained by a 5% shift in the marine Sr/Ca ratio or an addition of ~20% abiotic secondary aragonite.

  18. Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Martínez Díaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1 and fuscoside E peracetate (6, acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

  19. Nonlinear analysis of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Garibaldi, Berenice; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Adela Monreal-Gómez, María; Sánchez-Santillán, Norma Leticia; Salas-Monreal, David

    2018-04-01

    Hurricanes are complex systems that carry large amounts of energy. Their impact often produces natural disasters involving the loss of human lives and materials, such as infrastructure, valued at billions of US dollars. However, not everything about hurricanes is negative, as hurricanes are the main source of rainwater for the regions where they develop. This study shows a nonlinear analysis of the time series of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea obtained from 1749 to 2012. The construction of the hurricane time series was carried out based on the hurricane database of the North Atlantic basin hurricane database (HURDAT) and the published historical information. The hurricane time series provides a unique historical record on information about ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Lyapunov exponent indicated that the system presented chaotic dynamics, and the spectral analysis and nonlinear analyses of the time series of the hurricanes showed chaotic edge behavior. One possible explanation for this chaotic edge is the individual chaotic behavior of hurricanes, either by category or individually regardless of their category and their behavior on a regular basis.

  20. A Case of Equitable Maritime Delimitation: Nicaragua and Colombia in the Western Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Reichler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The unanimous judgment the International Court of Justice in November 2012 which resolved the boundary dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia in the western Caribbean Sea has generated considerable attention and commentary. Almost all of it has been highly favorable, with the sole exception of the reaction by Colombia, which purported to “reject” the Court’s Judgment and commenced procedures to withdraw its acceptance of ICJ jurisdiction in regard to future cases. This article demonstrates that the Court’s Judgment reflects the application of well-established legal principles of maritime boundary delimitation, and results in an equitable solution that is balanced and fair to both Parties. By analyzing the unique geographical circumstances of this case and discussing the methodologies and reasoning the Court employed in these circumstances to delimit the disputed maritime area, the article demonstrates that the delimitation line established by the Court was a creative solution to a difficult and complex geographic situation, which at the same time is firmly rooted in and consistent with well-established jurisprudence. As a result, the maritime boundary that the Court fixed between Nicaragua and Colombia allows the coasts of both States to generate maritime entitlements in a reasonable and mutually balanced way. Not only is the Court’s Judgment equitable to both Parties; it is also legally binding on them. There is no basis for either State to “reject” it, and no justification for refusing to entrust future cases to the Court, which remains an indispensable forum for the peaceful resolution of disputes between States according to the rule of law.

  1. Horizontal movements, migration patterns, and population structure of whale sharks in the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Robert E; Tyminski, John P; de la Parra, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate by the hundreds in a summer feeding area off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Caribbean Sea. The aggregation remains in the nutrient-rich waters off Isla Holbox, Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo for several months in the summer and then dissipates between August and October. Little has been known about where these sharks come from or migrate to after they disperse. From 2003-2012, we used conventional visual tags, photo-identification, and satellite tags to characterize the basic population structure and large-scale horizontal movements of whale sharks that come to this feeding area off Mexico. The aggregation comprised sharks ranging 2.5-10.0 m in total length and included juveniles, subadults, and adults of both sexes, with a male-biased sex ratio (72%). Individual sharks remained in the area for an estimated mean duration of 24-33 days with maximum residency up to about 6 months as determined by photo-identification. After leaving the feeding area the sharks showed horizontal movements in multiple directions throughout the Gulf of Mexico basin, the northwestern Caribbean Sea, and the Straits of Florida. Returns of individual sharks to the Quintana Roo feeding area in subsequent years were common, with some animals returning for six consecutive years. One female shark with an estimated total length of 7.5 m moved at least 7,213 km in 150 days, traveling through the northern Caribbean Sea and across the equator to the South Atlantic Ocean where her satellite tag popped up near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We hypothesize this journey to the open waters of the Mid-Atlantic was for reproductive purposes but alternative explanations are considered. The broad movements of whale sharks across multiple political boundaries corroborates genetics data supporting gene flow between geographically distinct areas and underscores the need for management and conservation strategies for

  2. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  3. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth.

  4. Lectotype designations of new species of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), described by C.M. Fraser, from Allan Hancock Pacific and Caribbean Sea Expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.; Hochberg, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroids of the Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, and those of the Allan Hancock Caribbean Sea Expedition, were examined by Charles McLean Fraser in a series of reports published between 1938 and 1948. A total of 159 new nominal species was described from material collected in the eastern Pacific

  5. WIND DIRECTION, pH and other data from FOX in the Caribbean Sea from 1974-08-30 to 1974-08-31 (NCEI Accession 7601844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected in the Caribbean Sea from August 30-31, 1974. HMS FOX of the British navy was used to collect the data. Mr. Paul Ruiz, Tauton, Somerset, UK...

  6. The genus Gnathia Leach (Isopoda) from the Santa Marta area, northern Colombia, with a review of Gnathiidea from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    1988-01-01

    Six species of the genus Gnathia (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidea) are recorded from the Caribbean Sea of northern Colombia. Gnathia gonzalezi n. sp., Gnathia magdalenensis n. sp., Gnathia samariensis n. sp., and Gnathia vellosa n. sp. are described; Gnathia beethoveni Paul & Menzies, 1971 and

  7. A modified Wyllie equation for the relationship between porosity and sonic velocity of mixed sediments and carbonates from the Caribbean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ida

    1997-01-01

    Continuous drill cores from the Caribbean Sea of up to 1 km thick mixed sediments and carbonates were recovered by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 165. The sediments range in porosity from 10% to 80% and in carbonate content from 20% to 95%. Unconfined P-wave velocities from this material were measured...

  8. A low-cost and reliable technique to monitor the spread of an invasive seagrass in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobsis, D.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.

    2016-02-01

    In 2002 the seagrass Halophila stipulacea was observed in Grenada in the Eastern Caribbean Sea. Since then this invasive species has spread northward through the Lesser Antilles and Leeward Islands into the US Virgin Islands. There are native Halophila species as well as other seagrass species in Eastern Caribbean therefore it is essential to accurately identify H. stipulacea before an invasion event is reported. Moreover, because the consequences of H. stipulaceapresence and spread are not known in many locations, after accurate identification is made it is also important to map patch expansion as a first step in process studies designed to determine impact. We now report a low-cost (GoPro video camera placed inside underwater housing, a weighted towfish and a GPS tracking device. The camera, set in the time-lapse mode, is fixed to the towfish; Afterward using a series of straight line transects, our array is towed at low speeds while synched to GPS. The accuracy of an underwater video system is based on knowing the accurate position of seagrass on the seafloor during filming (Norris et al. 1997). After sampling images and their associated GPS coordinates are imported to a spreadsheet and coded such that H. stipulaceais related to a known position on the bottom. With this system we produce accurate maps that specifically identify H. stipulacea patches, regardless of water depth, on the seafloor. During our poster presentation we will show a series of images from 2015 sampling and display mapping results. Since the 2002 sighting in Grenada, H. stipulaceae has spread northward to nineteen Eastern Caribbean Islands (Williette et al 2014). Our technique will allow those charged with protecting natural resources to track the spread of this invasion and potentially provide an early warning system for islands nations not yet invaded.

  9. Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaterman, E.; Rice, A. N.; Mann, D. A.; Paris, C. B.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater soundscapes vary due to the abiotic and biological components of the habitat. We quantitatively characterized the acoustic environments of two coral reef habitats, one in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama) and one in the Caribbean (Florida Keys), over 2-day recording durations in July 2011. We examined the frequency distribution, temporal variability, and biological patterns of sound production and found clear differences. The Pacific reef exhibited clear biological patterns and high temporal variability, such as the onset of snapping shrimp noise at night, as well as a 400-Hz daytime band likely produced by damselfish. In contrast, the Caribbean reef had high sound levels in the lowest frequencies, but lacked clear temporal patterns. We suggest that acoustic measures are an important element to include in reef monitoring programs, as the acoustic environment plays an important role in the ecology of reef organisms at multiple life-history stages.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-27 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0108232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108232 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from New Century 2 in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2014-04-11 to 2015-01-12 (NCEI Accession 0157356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157356 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from New Century 2 in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-02-08 to 2004-01-03 (NODC Accession 0081032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081032 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-01-02 to 2005-12-18 (NODC Accession 0109924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109924 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081041 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 1994-06-03 to 1995-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0157050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157050 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from PRINCE OF SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2006-01-15 to 2006-12-24 (NODC Accession 0109925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109925 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-03-31 to 2013-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0157260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157260 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1991-07-27 to 1997-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157239 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea, English Channel, North Atlantic...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-01-03 to 2005-01-02 (NODC Accession 0081033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081033 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  20. Punishing the sea wolf: corsairs and cannibals in the early modern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Lane

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Looks at how Western law was interpreted and applied to perceived cannibals and corsairs in the Spanish Caribbean in the 16th and 17th c., by Spanish jurists in the period, and at the development of the cannibal and corsair image in Spanish culture. Author outlines the convergence of terms suggesting a growing semantic linkage between certain indigenous peoples, specially the famed "Carib cannibals", and foreign, mostly Western European, corsairs poaching on Spanish wealth. He describes how of the Caribs, said to be cannibals, involved in piracy, an image was constructed of not only cannibals, but also greedy criminals, or rebelers against Catholicism, in order to (legally justify punishments or wars against them, and thus Spanish rule. He then discusses how of French, British, and other corsairs in the Caribbean involved in piracy against the Spanish, an in some ways similar image was painted of fanatical canine types ruled by appetites, and also of anti-Catholic heretics and criminals, in order to justify punishments as well as the Spanish claim on rule of the Caribbean.

  1. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  2. COCONet enhancements to circum-Caribbean tsunami warning, tidal, and sea-level monitoring: update on tide gauge installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausz, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Feaux, K.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Normandeau, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Continually Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded multi-hazard geodetic and meteorological network distributed throughout the Caribbean, which provides infrastructure and capacity building for a broad range of earth science questions. The network is a multi-national collaboration consisting of 46 newly constructed continuous Global Positioning Systems (cGPS) and 21 refurbished existing GPS stations, all co-located with meteorological sensors. One recommendation of the COCONet working group was to improve the vertical reference frame for long-term sea level monitoring. A COCONet supplement was awarded by the NSF to further address this particular objective through the co-location of GPS and tide gauges. This COCOnet infrastructure, along with the new tide gauges, will have broad scientific implications for hazards mitigation, solid earth, and atmospheric science research. UNAVCO engineers have meet with members of the Caribbean tide gauge community to establish target locations and design station layout. Allocated NSF funds allow for the construction of two complete new tide gauge systems each with two complimentary cGPS. Following the recommendations of NOAA and the sea level monitoring community, the two "new" locales will be Port Royal, Jamaica and Puerto Morelos, Mexico. Both locations had previously existing, but currently non-operational tide gauges. UNAVCO engineers will install a Sutron Radar Level Recorder and a backup pressure sensor tide gauge with GOES satellite telemetry. Tide data will be freely available by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org). The NSF supplement also provided funds for adding cGPS to two additional locations where currently functioning tide gauge systems exist. Proposed locations for this additional infrastructure are Barahona, Dominican Republic and Bocas del Toro, Panama. All four locations will feature two standard

  3. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 1979-09-27 to 1979-12-01 (NODC Accession 8100607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from September 27, 1979 to December 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  4. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  5. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 30 April 1988 to 31 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8800173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIOT LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data...

  6. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 1979-02-15 to 1980-02-01 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by University...

  8. Status of aspergillosis and sea fan populations in Curaçao ten years after the 1995 Caribbean epizootic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M Nugues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, a survey of sea fan corals was conducted in Curaçao during a Caribbean-wide outbreak of the sea fan disease aspergillosis. The survey was repeated in 2005 using the same methodology and identical sites to examine changes in sea fan populations 10 years after the initial epizootic. Necrotic lesions typical of aspergillosis were present on as many sea fans in 2005 as in 1995 (mean ± SE: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. The disease also showed no significant variation in virulence (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0% tissue loss per diseased colony. However, the average number of sea fan colonies per 10 m² decreased from 2.7 ± 1.1 to 0.7 ± 0.2 over the 10-year period, a decline of almost 75%. This decrease occurred for all colony sizes, but was more pronounced among small colonies, resulting in an overall trend of domination by large colonies. These results support that aspergillosis can have a significant, long-term impact on sea fan population size and structure. The continued presence of the disease in 2005 could be contributing to reduced recruitment and/or selective mortality among the smallest colonies. This study provides no indication that host resistance against aspergillosis could reverse the decline of Caribbean sea fan corals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 153-160. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.En 1995, se realizó un sondeo de los abanicos de mar durante un brote de aspergilosis, una enfermedad de abanicos de mar extendida en todo el Caribe. En el año 2005 se repitió el sondeo utilizando exactamente la misma metodología y los mismos sitios para examinar cambios en las poblaciones tras 10 años del inicio del brote. Se presentaron lesiones necróticas típicas de la aspergilosis en tantos abanicos en el 2005, como en 1995 (promedio ± ES: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. La enfermedad tampoco mostró variaciones significativas en la virulencia (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0%, pérdida de tejido por colonia enferma. Sin embargo, el número promedio de colonias de

  9. Storm-wave trends in Mexican waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ojeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-year time series of hindcast wave data were analysed for 10 coastal locations along the eastern Mexican coast to obtain information about storm events occurring in the region, with the goal of examining the possible presence of interannual trends in the number of storm-wave events and their main features (wave height, duration and energy content. The storms were defined according to their significant wave height and duration, and the events were classified as related to either tropical cyclones or Norte events. The occurrence and characteristics of both types of events were analysed independently. There is no statistically significant change in the number of storm-wave events related to Nortes or their characteristics during the study period. However, there is a subtle increase in the number of events related to tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean region and a more evident increase in wave height and energy content of these events.

  10. Near-surface distribution of radium in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea: temporal and spatial variability and hydrographic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Only a few radium measurements have been made in the near-surface (0-600m) Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Published 228 Ra data from 1968 and 1973 reveal a significant increase of 228 Ra activity in the near-surface Gulf of Mexico. The increase has been attributed to factors affecting the water prior to its entry into the Caribbean-Gulf system. It has been proposed that 228 Ra can be used to study thermocline mixing rates, but few detailed studies have been made to test the validity of this hypothesis. Physical oceanographic evidence indicates that vertical mixing significantly impacts the upper 100 to 150 meters of the water column in the Gulf of Mexico. This dissertation reports and discusses the results of 123 measurements of the 228 Ra: 226 Ra activity ratio (radium activity ratio), and 73 measurements of 226 Ra in the 1975-1976 near-surface water columns of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. 228 Ra activities are calculated from the activity ratio and 226 Ra data

  11. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using flow through pump and other instruments from Explorer of the Seas (ID: 33KF) in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic ocean during the Ocean Acidification Cruise EX1507 from 2015-02-14 to 2015-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0154385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH in the Caribbean Sea. Increasing amounts of...

  13. Comparative Profiling of coral symbiont communities from the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Chatchanit

    2014-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are in rapid decline due to global and local anthropogenic factors. Being among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, a loss will decrease species diversity, and remove food source for people along the coast. The coral together with its symbionts (i.e. Symbiodinium, bacteria, and other microorganisms) is called the ‘coral holobiont’. The coral host offers its associated symbionts suitable habitats and nutrients, while Symbiodinium and coral-associated bacteria provide the host with photosynthates and vital nutrients. Association of corals with certain types of Symbiodinium and bacteria confer coral stress tolerance, and lack or loss of these symbionts coincides with diseased or bleached corals. However, a detailed understanding of the coral holobiont diversity and structure in regard to diseases and health states or across global scales is missing. This dissertation addressed coral-associated symbiont diversity, specifically of Symbiodinium and bacteria, in various coral species from different geographic locations and different health states. The main aims were (1) to expand the scope of existing technologies, (2) to establish a standardized framework to facilitate comparison of symbiont assemblages over coral species and sites, (3) to assess Symbiodinium diversity in the Arabian Seas, and (4) to elucidate whether coral health states have conserved bacterial footprints. In summary, a next generation sequencing pipeline for Symbiodinium diversity typing of the ITS2 marker is developed and applied to describe Symbiodinium diversity in corals around the Arabian Peninsula. The data show that corals in the Arabian Seas are dominated by a single Symbiodinium type, but harbor a rich variety of types in low abundant. Further, association with different Symbiodinium types is structured according to geographic locations. In addition, the application of 16S rRNA gene microarrays to investigate how differences in microbiome structure relate to

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-13 to 2008-12-11 (NODC Accession 0109928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109928 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  15. Attempt of absolute dating and reconstitutions of climate changes in the Caribbean Sea: multi-proxy approaches to planktonic foraminifera and fine aragonitic fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulcre, S.

    2008-06-01

    Absolute dating of climate archives is essential to better understand climate mechanisms. A marine sediment core from the Caribbean Sea enriched in fine-grained aragonite (suitable to U/Th dating) has been studied for both planktonic foraminifera tests (≥150 μm) and fine fraction (≤63 μm) over the last one million years using mineralogical and geochemical approaches. This study aims at i) examining lead/lag of δ 18 O and radiometric ages of the different-size fractions and ii) reconstructing paleo-environment in the area. The fine fraction mineralogy is strongly influenced by glacial-interglacial sea level changes. The offset of δ 18 O and 14 C ages between the fine and foraminifera fractions during Termination I is partly explained by a bioturbation model. Attempt of U/Th dating to Termination II and V reveals that the fine fraction contains non-radiogenic Th, which needs further analytical development. Reconstructed surface water δ 18 O changes suggest a decrease in surface water salinity at the end of Mid-Pleistocene Transition related to ITCZ position over the Caribbean Sea. (author)

  16. Downscaled projections of Sea Surface Temperatures and Degree Heating Weeks in the wider Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Projections of the onset of annual coral bleaching conditions in the Caribbean under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 are produced using an ensemble of...

  17. Retrograde Accretion of a Caribbean Fringing Reef Controlled by Hurricanes and Sea-level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Blanchon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of sea-level (SL rise on coral reefs requires reliable models of reef accretion. Most assume that accretion results from vertical growth of coralgal framework, but recent studies show that reefs exposed to hurricanes consist of layers of coral gravel rather than in-place corals. New models are therefore needed to account for hurricane impact on reef accretion over geological timescales. To investigate this geological impact, we report the configuration and development of a 4-km-long fringing reef at Punta Maroma along the northeast Yucatan Peninsula. Satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB shows the crest is set-back a uniform distance of 315 ±15 m from a mid-shelf slope break, and the reef-front decreases 50% in width and depth along its length. A 12-core drill transect constrained by multiple 230Th ages shows the reef is composed of an ~2-m thick layer of coral clasts that has retrograded 100 m over its back-reef during the last 5.5 ka. These findings are consistent with a hurricane-control model of reef development where large waves trip and break over the mid-shelf slope break, triggering rapid energy dissipation and thus limiting how far upslope individual waves can fragment corals and transport clasts. As SL rises and water depth increases, energy dissipation during wave-breaking is reduced, extending the clast-transport limit, thus leading to reef retrogradation. This hurricane model may be applicable to a large sub-set of fringing reefs in the tropical Western-Atlantic necessitating a reappraisal of their accretion rates and response to future SL rise.

  18. How a collaborative integrated taxonomic effort has trained new spongiologists and improved knowledge of Martinique Island (French Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea marine biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pérez

    Full Text Available Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites. We explored only shallow water habitats (0-30 m, such as mangroves, reefs or rocky bottoms and underwater caves. According to this study, the sponge fauna of Martinique is currently represented by a minimum of 191 species, 134 of which we could assign species names. One third of the remaining non-identified sponge species we consider to be new to science. Martinique appears very remarkable because of its littoral marine fauna harboring sponge aggregations with high biomass and species diversity dominating over coral species. In mangroves, sponges cover about 10% of the surface of subtidal roots. Several submarine caves are true reservoirs of hidden and insufficiently described sponge diversity. Thanks to this new collaborative effort, the Eastern Caribbean has gained a significant increase of knowledge, with sponge diversity of this area potentially representing 40% of the total in the Caribbean Sea. We thus demonstrated the importance of developing exploratory and educational research in areas historically devoid of biodiversity inventories and systematics studies. Finally, we believe in the necessity to consider not only the number of species but their distribution in space to evaluate their putative contribution to ecosystem services and our willingness to preserve them.

  19. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  20. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, E; Callicó-Fortunato, R; Buitrago, J; Volpedo, A V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela). The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method). Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State) were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State). A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area.

  1. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Avigliano

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela. The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method. Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State. A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area.

  2. Monthly-Diurnal Water Budget Variability Over Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea Basin from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Santos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system design d to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective in identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a "leaky" operational radiosonde network than in

  3. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  4. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from LEWIS B. PULLER, ELLIOT and USS DE WERT in the TOGA Area - Pacific, Caribbean Sea and NW Atlantic from 1986-11-07 to 1987-05-31 (NCEI Accession 9400029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Caribbean Sea, NW Atlantic (limit-40 W), and TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from ship ELLIOT, USS DE WERT, and LEWIS...

  6. Distribución de cangrejos ermitaños (Anomura: Paguroidea en el mar Caribe colombiano Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian Martínez Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cangrejos ermitaños son un grupo representativo de la fauna marina del Caribe colombiano, además, son importantes en el mantenimiento del equilibrio dinámico, en los ecosistemas por sus interacciones ecológicas y también por el impacto en la estabilidad de las redes tróficas. Sus patrones de distribución se identificaron mediante análisis multivariados de clasificación y ordenación espacial, se usaron registros históricos desde 1916 hasta el 2006. Los resultados indican diferencias por profundidad entre la fauna costera y la del talud continental y diferencias en la distribución latitudinal, en donde se encontraron tres grupos: Noreste, Centro y Suroeste, sustentados por diferencias en la composición faunística. Con base en los mapas de ecosistemas marinos de Colombia, se determinó que los principales factores que afectan su distribución son la influencia del talud Caribaná (profundidad, la temperatura de las masas de agua, las praderas de pastos marinos de la Guajira y las condiciones particulares de las ecorregiones Archipiélagos coralinos y Darién. Se identificó la distribución mundial de las especies colombianas y su afinidad geográfica, y se encontró mayor afinidad con el Atlántico norte y las Antillas que con el Atlántico sur y el Golfo de México, asimismo, las subprovincias geográficas que incluyen a Colombia son zonas de transición dentro de la subprovincias septentrionales y australes del Gran CaribeHermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for policies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in

  7. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  8. ICE-6G models of postglacial relative sea-level history applied to Holocene coral reef and mangrove records of the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M. A.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Gonzalez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil coral reefs and mangrove peat accumulations at western Caribbean sites along a latitudinal gradient from the Florida Keys through Belize and Panama provide dated and interpreted 8,000 year Holocene sea-level records for comparison with RSL predictions of the ICE-6G (VM5A, VM5B; L90) models of glacio-hydro-isostatic adjustment, with and without rotational feedback. These presumably passive continental margin sites provide the means to establish a N-S spatial trend in the varying influences of GIA, eustatic components of Holocene sea level, extent of forebulge collapse and influence of rotational feedback over a 20° latitudinal range. Previous ICE6G (VM5A) model-coral data comparisons for St Croix, USVI, Antigua, Martinique and Barbados (Toscano, Peltier and Drummond, 2011, QSR) along the eastern Caribbean plate and island arc illustrated the close model-data compatibility, the influence of rotational feedback acting as a significant factor in reducing misfits, and the need for high quality in situ data to confirm the extension of the proglacial forebulge into tropical latitudes. The gradient of western Caribbean continental shelf sites comprises a much more varied range of model-data relationships based on extensive combined Acropora palmata (reef crest coral) and Rhizophora mangle (microtidal mangrove) peat datasets in all cases. Starting at the northernmost region with the Florida Keys, there exist negative model misfits to the data, suggesting the possibility of a positive tectonic overprint upon expectations related to the glacial isostatic adjustment process acting alone, even though this region is normally believed to be tectonically stable. The largest multi-proxy database from Belize supports the likelihood of increasing rates of subsidence from north to south in the Belize Lagoon, which may account for numerous positive GIA model-data misfits. The southernmost site at Panama is most similar to Belize in the possible nature of tectonic influences on

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2009-03-15 to 2009-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108229 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2010-01-14 to 2011-01-02 (NODC Accession 0108230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108230 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2011-01-02 to 2011-11-20 (NODC Accession 0108231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108231 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2006-02-16 to 2006-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081021 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from New Century 2 in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2015-03-16 to 2015-10-23 (NCEI Accession 0157369)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157369 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from New Century 2 in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal...

  15. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-08-13 to 2005-09-19 (NODC Accession 0116566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116566 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-11-02 to 1997-09-03 (NODC Accession 0115005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115005 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2003-02-06 to 2003-11-21 (NODC Accession 0081017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081017 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  18. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-06-07 to 2002-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115586 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-07-10 to 2004-08-07 (NODC Accession 0116644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116644 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-09-22 to 2003-11-13 (NODC Accession 0108060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108060 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109915 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-04-12 to 2003-04-25 (NODC Accession 0117494)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117494 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-01-08 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0160490)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160490 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-04-30 to 2013-12-07 (NODC Accession 0117689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117689 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These data...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait and others from 2008-03-08 to 2009-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0157314)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157314 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-04-30 to 2014-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0159093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0159093 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-01-10 to 2009-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157285 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-01-09 to 2010-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157319 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_La_Parguera_67W_18N in the Caribbean Sea from 2009-01-16 to 2015-12-15 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_La_Parguera_67W_18N in the Caribbean Sea from...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  15. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-05-25 to 2003-06-13 (NODC Accession 0116705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116705 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2004-02-12 to 2004-12-22 (NODC Accession 0081018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081018 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  17. Decadal- to interannual-scale source water variations in the Caribbean Sea recorded by Puerto Rican coral radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourne, K H; Quinn, T M; Guilderson, T P; Webb, R S; Taylor, F W

    2006-12-05

    Water that forms the Florida Current, and eventually the Gulf Stream, coalesces in the Caribbean from both subtropical and equatorial sources. The equatorial sources are made up of, in part, South Atlantic water moving northward and compensating for southward flow at depth related to meridional overturning circulation. Subtropical surface water contains relatively high amounts of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), whereas equatorial waters are influenced by the upwelling of low {sup 14}C water and have relatively low concentrations of {sup 14}C. We use a 250-year record of {Delta}{sup 14}C in a coral from southwestern Puerto Rico along with previously published coral {Delta}{sup 14}C records as tracers of subtropical and equatorial water mixing in the northern Caribbean. Data generated in this study and from other studies indicate that the influence of either of the two water masses can change considerably on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Variability due to ocean dynamics in this region is large relative to variability caused by atmospheric {sup 14}C changes, thus masking the Suess effect at this site. A mixing model produced using coral {Delta}{sup 14}C illustrates the time varying proportion of equatorial versus subtropical waters in the northern Caribbean between 1963 and 1983. The results of the model are consistent with linkages between multidecadal thermal variability in the North Atlantic and meridional overturning circulation. Ekman transport changes related to tradewind variability are proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the observed switches between relatively low and relatively high {Delta}{sup 14}C values in the coral radiocarbon records.

  18. Intrareef variations in Li/Mg and Sr/Ca sea surface temperature proxies in the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, Sara E.; Sandford, Kate; Stewart, Joseph A.; Castillo, Karl D.; Ries, Justin B.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2016-10-01

    Caribbean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have increased at a rate of 0.2°C per decade since 1971, a rate double that of the mean global change. Recent investigations of the coral Siderastrea siderea on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) have demonstrated that warming over the last 30 years has had a detrimental impact on calcification. Instrumental temperature records in this region are sparse, making it necessary to reconstruct longer SST records indirectly through geochemical temperature proxies. Here we investigate the skeletal Sr/Ca and Li/Mg ratios of S. siderea from two distinct reef zones (forereef and backreef) of the MBRS. Our field calibrations of S. siderea show that Li/Mg and Sr/Ca ratios are well correlated with temperature, although both ratios are 3 times more sensitive to temperature change in the forereef than in the backreef. These differences suggest that a secondary parameter also influences these SST proxies, highlighting the importance for site- and species-specific SST calibrations. Application of these paleothermometers to downcore samples reveals highly uncertain reconstructed temperatures in backreef coral, but well-matched reconstructed temperatures in forereef coral, both between Sr/Ca-SSTs and Li/Mg-SSTs, and in comparison to the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature record. Reconstructions generated from a combined Sr/Ca and Li/Mg multiproxy calibration improve the precision of these SST reconstructions. This result confirms that there are circumstances in which both Li/Mg and Sr/Ca are reliable as stand-alone and combined proxies of sea surface temperature. However, the results also highlight that high-precision, site-specific calibrations remain critical for reconstructing accurate SSTs from coral-based elemental proxies.

  19. Namalycastis occulta n. sp. and a new record of N. borealis (Polychaeta: Nereididae: Namanereidinae) from the Northwestern Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Vela, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The nereidid polychaete genus Namalycastis Hartman, 1959 has been recorded almost exclusively in non-marine environments. This genus includes species having four pairs of tentacular cirri, and its species mainly differ by the relative size of dorsal cirri in posterior chaetigers. Namalycastis occulta n. sp. is described based upon non-mature and mature specimens collected in the intertidal from Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Its distinctive features are the lack of notopodial spinigers, eyes, and teeth in the mandibles. Namalycastis borealis Glasby was found in Tamalcab Island, Chetumal Bay and it is the first record for Mexico. Analyses of the intraspecific variability, a key to the known species in the Grand Caribbean region, and commentaries about some taxonomic topics are also included.

  20. Operation Sea Signal: U.S. Military Support for Caribbean Migration Emergencies, May 1994 to February 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bentley, David

    1996-01-01

    Both Haitian and Cuban migration flows during this emergency were prompted by a migrant perception that the risk of a hazardous sea voyage was justified by an increased chance of reaching the United States...

  1. Impact of Intraseasonal Oscillations on the Tropical Cyclone Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean Sea in GFDL HiRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Chen, Jan-Huey; Harris, Lucas M.; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Xiang, Baoqiang; Zhao, Ming

    2017-12-01

    The tropical cyclones (TCs) that form over the warm waters in the Gulf of Mexico region pose a major threat to the surrounding coastal communities. Skillful subseasonal prediction of TC activity is important for early preparedness and reducing the TC damage in this region. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a 25 km resolution Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) in simulating the modulation of the TC activity in the Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean Sea by the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) based on multiyear retrospective seasonal predictions. We demonstrate that the HiRAM faithfully captures the observed influence of ISO on TC activity over the region of interest, including the formation of tropical storms and (major) hurricanes, as well as the landfalling storms. This is likely because of the realistic representation of the large-scale anomalies associated with boreal summer ISO over Northeast Pacific in HiRAM, especially the enhanced (reduced) moisture throughout the troposphere during the convectively enhanced (suppressed) phase of ISO. The reasonable performance of HiRAM suggests its potential for the subseasonal prediction of regional TC risk.

  2. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  3. Utilization of shallow-water seagrass detritus by Caribbean deep-sea macrofauna: delta13C evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchanek, T.H.; Williams, S.L.; Ogden, J.C.; Hubbard, D.K.; Gill, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Three dives were made using the DSRV Alvin in the deep-sea basin north of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Detrital seagrasses and macrofaunal distributions at 2455 to 3950 m depth were assessed quantitatively. Counts of the manatee grass Syringodium filiforme contrasted sharply with those of the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum, reflecting an abundance proportional to previously reported export rates of the same species from Tague Bay, a nearby shallow source lagoon. Of the macrofaunal consumers that could potentially utilize this detrital nutrient source, three species of holothurians and two species of sea urchins were collected and/or observed. Gut content analyses revealed that all three holothurians deposit-feed on sediment and at least one species of sea urchin feeds almost exclusively on Syringodium. Carbon:nitrogen analyses of naturally occurring abyssal Thalassia detritus showed very low nitrogen content and a high C:N ratio, thus yielding a low nutritional value. Fresh Thalassia blades held in a litter bag experiment at 3950 m changed little in nitrogen content and C:N ratio after four years. A comparison was made of the stable carbon isotope ratios of 13 C: 12 C for abyssal seagrass detritus and other potential carbon sources with those for tissues from the holothurian and urchin consumers. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  5. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2011-03-24 to 2011-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0157279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157279 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2012-02-27 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157425 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1997-07-28 to 1997-11-14 (NODC Accession 0081011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081011 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 1998-01-08 to 1998-11-22 (NODC Accession 0081012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081012 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2013-02-28 to 2013-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0144355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144355 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico,...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Mississippi and others from 2010-04-08 to 2010-11-23 (NCEI Accession 0157268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157268 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  12. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de León, R.; Vane, K.; Bertuol, P.; Chamberland, V.C.; Simal, F.; Imms, E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  13. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning for independence, our countries won the right to chart... those enduring achievements. It is also a chance to recognize men and women who trace their roots to the Caribbean. Through every chapter of our Nation's history, Caribbean Americans have made our country stronger...

  14. Physical and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V HERMANO GINES from the continental shelf of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea in support of the project: Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean (CARIACO) from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007 (NODC Accession 0014920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the R/V HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007. Data...

  15. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  16. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  17. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from PAUL in the Caribbean Sea from 1991-03-16 to 1991-03-24 (NODC Accession 9100075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Carribbean Sea from Ship Paul between March 16, 1991 to March 24, 1991. The real time data of water temperature at...

  18. Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean: Resilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... The Caribbean Sea is the second largest sea in the world, including more than 30 insular and continental countries with an approximate population of 35 million. In addition to its highly fractionalized territory, it is characterized by a great linguistic and cultural diversity, a phenomenon enhanced by ...

  19. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  20. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from the Mayan sea catfish, Ariopsis assimilis, off the Caribbean coast of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2002-08-01

    Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. is described from the stomach and intestine of the Mayan sea catfish Ariopsis assimilis (Günther, 1864), from the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México. It is characterized by bifurcate deirids; males have 3 pairs of preanal papillae, 6 pairs of postanal papillae, 2 pairs of transverse elongate adanal papillae surrounding the cloacal aperture, wide caudal alae, spicules of unequal length, and a gubernaculum, and females have a rounded tail bearing a digit-like process terminating in 2 spines. This is the seventh Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) species reported from fishes in Mexico and the first one recorded in sea catfishes of the Ariidae.

  1. Pinnotherid crabs of the genus Dissodactylus Smith, 1870, associated with irregular sea urchins at the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pinnotheridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werding, B.; Sanchez, H.

    1989-01-01

    Three species of the pinnotherid genus Dissodactylus were observed at the northern coast of the Colombian mainland and at Isla Providencia, associated with irregular sea urchins. While D. crinitichelis was previously known to occur at the continental coast of South America, D. rugatus and D.

  2. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  3. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  4. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  5. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  6. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  7. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  8. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  9. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  10. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  11. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keigwin, L.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 (western Caribbean) and 503 (eastern Pacific) indicate that the difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific in the per mil enrichment in carbon-13 of total dissolved carbon dioxide increased about 6 million years ago and again 3 million years ago, when the difference reached the modern level (1 per mil). Comparisons of planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data for the Caribbean and the Pacific suggest that the salinity of Caribbean surface waters began increasing 4 million years ago, possibly in response to shoaling of the Panama isthmus. These results suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bering Sea and others from 1955-01-01 to 1974-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157456)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157456 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  14. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jaime Orlando

    1986-11-01

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  15. Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project. Caribbean countries are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (ICTs) in ... The Government of Jamaica is willing to donate the solution to other ... Related content ...

  16. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  17. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  18. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices. © 2013

  19. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  20. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price; Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  1. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  2. New species of the genus Copidognathus (Halacaridae) from the Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, I.

    1984-01-01

    The halacarid fauna of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent waters, the Mediterranean, the North Sea, and the Baltic, has been studied and described in more than 100 papers; but only a few papers deal with the halacarid fauna on the east coast of the United States and the Caribbean

  3. Network analysis in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Veenstra (Albert); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); R.A. Sels

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe Caribbean region is a cross road of international and regional container traffic. Most of the islands in the region have also adopted ambitious strategies to become prime locations for container transshipment. This paper introduces a tool that can be used to visualise and analyse the

  4. Caribbean land and development revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, James; Momsen, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The book is an interdisciplinary collection of fifteen essays, with an editorial introduction, on a range of territories in the Commonwealth, Francophone, and Hispanic Caribbean. The authors focus on land and development, providing fresh perspectives through a collection of international contributing authors.

  5. Towards an Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Vanacore, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean region (CR) has a documented history of large damaging earthquakes and tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of Jamaica in 1692, Virgin Islands in 1867, Puerto Rico in 1918, the Dominican Republic in 1946 and Haiti in 2010. There is clear evidence that tsunamis have been triggered by large earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor around the Caribbean Plate boundary. The CR is monitored jointly by national/regional/local seismic, geodetic and sea level networks. All monitoring institutions are participating in the UNESCO ICG/Caribe EWS, the purpose of this initiative is to minimize loss of life and destruction of property, and to mitigate against catastrophic economic impacts via promoting local research, real time (RT) earthquake, geodetic and sea level data sharing and improving warning capabilities and enhancing education and outreach strategies. Currently more than, 100 broad-band seismic, 65 sea levels and 50 GPS high rate stations are available in real or near real-time. These real-time streams are used by Local/Regional or Worldwide detection and warning institutions to provide earthquake source parameters in a timely manner. Currently, any Caribbean event detected to have a magnitude greater than 4.5 is evaluated, and sea level is measured, by the TWC for tsumanigenic potential. The regional cooperation is motivated both by research interests as well as geodetic, seismic and tsunami hazard monitoring and warning. It will allow the imaging of the tectonic structure of the Caribbean region to a high resolution which will consequently permit further understanding of the seismic source properties for moderate and large events and the application of this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the virtual network has been designed following the highest technical standards: BB sensors, 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Here we will discuss the state of the PR

  6. Les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement l’espace caribéen ? Can algae be a sea resource to be exploited to have a sustainable development of Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Litzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’algue est une ressource marine peu étudiée par la géographie ; elle offre pourtant des potentialités de développement économique. Les macro-algues cultivées à des fins alimentaires sont une alternative à la pêche. Les micro-algues constituent une biomasse valorisable : molécule pharmaceutique, Oméga 3 et biocarburants. De ces différents usages naît la question suivante : les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement les territoires de la zone intertropicale ? Nous présenterons tout d’abord l’algoculture à l’échelle mondiale en soulignant le faible poids de cette activité dans le bassin caribéen. Puis nous montrerons que l’algoculture s’inscrit dans un processus de développement durable en assurant un revenu à des communautés rurales (Petites Antilles. Enfin, dans une approche comparative (États-Unis, nous verrons que l’espace caribéen est une région de projets et d’aménagements durables qui a des atouts pour développer l’algoculture : exposition solaire, hautes températures, proximité de la recherche américaine.Algae as sea resource have not been largely explored in Geography, yet it offers the potential for economic development. Macro-algae are cultivated for food purposes and they can substitute for fishing. Micro-algae can be valued as biomass: “nutraceutics”, Omega 3, biofuel. These various utilizations raise a question: are algae a key to a sustainable development in intertropical islands? We shall present Algaculture on a global scale, while emphasizing its low importance in the Caribbean. Then we shall show how algaculture can be part of a process of sustainable development by providing revenue to rural communities (Lesser Antilles. Finally, in a comparative approach (with the US, we shall see that the Caribbean Region has a number of assets for algaculture that make it suitable for sustainable projects and infrastructures: solar exposure

  7. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room (n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration (R(2) = 0.036, p asthma was positively correlated with rainfall (R(2) = 0.055, p asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure (R(2) = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity (R(2) = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  8. Agro-climatology of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro Rizo, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    The agro-meteorology has for object the knowledge of the physical environment where the plants and the animals are developed, to make of him a better use, with the primordial purpose of optimizing the agricultural production. The climatology of the Caribbean Region, it is governed by the zonal processes of thermal and dynamic convection, together with the effect of the Inter-tropical Confluence Area (ITC) however, this extensive plain of the Colombian Caribbean, to be interrupted by the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta and framed by the Caribbean Sea and the Andean mountain ranges, it makes that big differences are presented in their climatic regime. In this study, climatic elements are analyzed in the region, such as the precipitation, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the radiation and the solar shine, the speed of the wind and the potential evapo-perspiration, besides the calculation of the hydraulic balances, those which as integrative of the agriculture-climatic aspects, they serve as base to make the climatic classifications, to know the growth periods and to calculate the potential water demands, fundamental parameters in the planning of the agricultural activities. With these results they stand out the diverse climates in the region, represented in climatic areas from arid until per-humid offer a wide range for the requirements of the different species that are used in the agricultural exploitations

  9. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  10. Contraband, free ports, and British merchants in the Caribbean world, 1739-1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hunt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of contraband to legitimate trade in the eighteenth century Caribbean world during the War of Jenkins’ Ear and Seven Years’ War. It focuses on the informal networks of the British South Sea Company and the trade of informal actors. The article explores how British legislators shifted Jamaican and Dominican colonial economies away from contraband trade by opening free ports in 1766. The British Parliament passed the Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica following Danish and Dutch colonial efforts to crack down on contraband trade in the Caribbean world. This transition from contraband to legitimate trade enabled British merchants to engage in free trade by importing and exporting an assortment of commodities and enslaved people to and from Jamaica to other colonies in the Caribbean world.

  11. Regional P-wave Tomography in the Caribbean Region for Plate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Bedle, H.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complex plate-tectonic interactions around the Caribbean Sea have been studied and interpreted by many researchers, but questions still remain regarding the formation and subduction history of the region. Here we report current progress towards creating a new regional tomographic model, with better lateral and spatial coverage and higher resolution than has been presented previously. This new model will provide improved constraints on the plate-tectonic evolution around the Caribbean Plate. Our three-dimensional velocity model is created using taut spline parameterization. The inversion is computed by the code of VanDecar (1991), which is based on the ray theory method. The seismic data used in this inversion are absolute P wave arrival times from over 700 global earthquakes that were recorded by over 400 near Caribbean stations. There are over 25000 arrival times that were picked and quality checked within frequency band of 0.01 - 0.6 Hz by using a MATLAB GUI-based software named Crazyseismic. The picked seismic delay time data are analyzed and compared with other studies ahead of doing the inversion model, in order to examine the quality of our dataset. From our initial observations of the delay time data, the more equalized the ray azimuth coverage, the smaller the deviation of the observed travel times from the theoretical travel time. Networks around the NE and SE side of the Caribbean Sea generally have better ray coverage, and smaller delay times. Specifically, seismic rays reaching SE Caribbean networks, such as XT network, generally pass through slabs under South American, Central American, Lesser Antilles, Southwest Caribbean, and the North Caribbean transform boundary, which leads to slightly positive average delay times. In contrast, the Puerto Rico network records seismic rays passing through regions that may lack slabs in the upper mantle and show slightly negative or near zero average delay times. These results agree with previous tomographic

  12. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  13. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  14. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  15. Assessing the potential of Southern Caribbean corals for reconstructions of Holocene temperature variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giry, Cyril; Felis, Thomas; Scheffers, Sander; Fensterer, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    We present a 40-year long monthly resolved Sr/Ca record from a fossil Diploria strigosa coral from Bonaire (Southern Caribbean Sea) dated with U/Th at 2.35 ka before present (BP). Secondary modifiers of this sea surface temperature (SST) proxy in annually-banded corals such as diagenetic alteration of the skeleton and skeletal growth-rate are investigated. Extensive diagenetic investigations reveal that this fossil coral skeleton is pristine which is further supported by clear annual cycles in the coral Sr/Ca record. No significant correlation between annual growth rate and Sr/Ca is observed, suggesting that the Sr/Ca record is not affected by coral growth. Therefore, we conclude that the observed interannual Sr/Ca variability was influenced by ambient SST variability. Spectral analysis of the annual mean Sr/Ca record reveals a dominant frequency centred at 6-7 years that is not associated with changes of the annual growth rate. The first monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca record from the Southern Caribbean Sea for preindustrial time suggests that fossil corals from Bonaire are suitable tools for reconstructing past SST variability. Coastal deposits on Bonaire provide abundant fossil D. strigosa colonies of Holocene age that can be accurately dated and used to reconstruct climate variability. Comparisons of long monthly resolved Sr/Ca records from multiple fossil corals will provide a mean to estimate seasonality and interannual to interdecadal SST variability of the Southern Caribbean Sea during the Holocene.

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-08 to 2011-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0157237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157237 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-07 to 2012-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0157312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157312 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-09-18 to 2014-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0157352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157352 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean...

  19. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...

  20. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  1. Deepwater marine litter densities and compsoition from submersible video-gransects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Vinke, E.; Wende, van der G.; Hylkema, A.; Reed, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80–900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m

  2. Presence of Foraminifera of Superfamily Komokioidea (Order Astrorhizida) in Colombian deep Caribbean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera-Martínez, Laura; Marchant, Margarita

    2017-10-20

    Research regarding deep-sea benthic foraminifera in the Colombian Caribbean requires further development given the complete lack of information related to the different groups that constitute associations and the ecological functions they fulfill. For this purpose, a taxonomic description of Superfamily Komokioidea was composed from macrofauna samples from between 1,215 m and 3,179 m depth, obtained during the research cruise ANH-COL 4 and COL 5 carried out in 2014. Results showed foraminifera belonging to the three families: Komokiidae, Baculellidae, and Normaninidae, inclu-ding five genera (Lana, Komokia, Ipoa, Normaninam, and Catena) and five species (Lana neglecta, Komokia multiramosa, Normanina conferta, Ipoa fragila, and Catena piriformis). This study presents knowledge regarding deep-sea Colombian Caribbean benthic foraminifera, which to date have not been recorded from this region. Their depth distribution when compared with other studies from the Atlantic and Pacific, allows the expansion of taxonomic inventories and the characterization of biodiversity within poorly explored regions.

  3. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  4. A Collaborative Effort Between Caribbean States for Tsunami Numerical Modeling: Case Study CaribeWave15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor

    2018-04-01

    Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring

  5. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  6. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  7. Size structure of a heavily fished benthic/demersal community by shrimp trawling in the Colombian Caribbean Sea Estructura de tamaños de una comunidad bentónica/demersal fuertemente impactada por la pesca de arrastre camaronero en el Mar Caribe de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gómez-Canchong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The benthic and demersal communities in the Colombian Caribbean Sea (CCS are heavily fished by the shrimp trawling fishery, which presents very high discard levels. Here, we conducted an analysis of the size structure of these benthic and demersal communities in the northern and southern zones of the CCS. Sampling was conducted onboard shrimp trawlers throughout an entire year. No significant differences were found in the size distributions of the two zones, among sites within southern ecoregions, or among the analyzed cruises. This homogeneity in size structure is remarkable since the zones analyzed possess very different species compositions and environmental conditions. The observed size structures were adequately described by non-linear distributions rather than the traditionally employed linear normalized biomass size spectra. It is hypothesized that the non-linearity is due to the effect of fishing and particularly, of discarding. This study emphasizes the need for a greater understanding of the impacts that trawl fishing has on community size structure and the applicability of this knowledge towards fishery resource management in ecosystems with high diversity.Las comunidades bentónico-demersales en el Mar Caribe de Colombia (MCC son fuertemente explotadas por la pesca de arrastre camaronero, presentando niveles de descarte muy altos. Se efectuó un análisis de la estructura de tamaños de estas comunidades bentónico-demersales en las zonas norte y sur del MCC. Se realizaron muéstreos a bordo de las embarcaciones de arrastre de camarón a lo largo de un año. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las distribuciones de tamaños de las diferentes zonas, ecorregiones de la zona sur y cruceros analizados. Esta homogeneidad en la estructura de tamaños es destacable ya que las areas analizadas difieren en composición de especies y condiciones medioambientales. Las estructuras de tamaño observadas, fueron descritas

  8. Estudio anual del zooplancton: composición, abundancia, biomasa e hidrología del norte de Quintana Roo, mar Caribe de México Annual study of zooplankton: composition, abundance, biomass and hydrology from the north of Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José N Álvarez-Cadena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo muestreos de zooplancton en la zona lagunar y costera del Caribe mexicano, desde Puerto Morelos hasta Cancún. Las recolectas se llevaron a cabo de enero a diciembre de 2004 en 12 localidades. Se identificaron 41 grupos del zooplancton donde los copépodos fueron los más abundantes (61% seguidos de las larvas de equinodermos (17% y decápodos (5%. El copépodo Acartia tonsa fue la especie más abundante de este grupo en el Sistema Lagunar Nichupté (SLN. En la zona marina adyacente los copépodos estuvieron representados en orden de importancia por Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp. y Calanopia americana. En todas las estaciones se capturaron equinodermos del tipo equinopluteus-ofiopluteus, pero con mayor abundancia en el SLN. El quetognato Ferosagitta hispida fue la única especie que se encontró en el SLN, donde fue más abundante. Los decápodos estuvieron representados principalmente por larvas zoeas; las larvas de peces por 54 familias, de las cuales los góbidos de los géneros Ctenogobius sp., Gobionellus sp. y Gobiosoma sp. fueron los mejor representados, particularmente para el SLN. La biomasa fue mayor en el SLN.Zooplankton sampling was carried out in the northern coast of the Mexican Caribbean Sea, from Puerto Morelos to Cancun. Captures were made with a conic net 0.4m diameter, 1.40m length and 0.330 mm mesh from January to December 2004 at twelve locations. A total of 41 zooplankton groups were identified. Copepods were the most abundant taxa making up 61%, followed by echinoderms (17% and decapods (5%. Acartia tonsa at the Nichupte Lagoon System (SLN over numbered the copepod fauna and occasionally the whole zooplankton population. Along the coast Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp, and Calanopia americana were the most important copepods. Echinoderms larvae such as echinopluteus-ophiopluteus were present at all sampled stations but were more abundant at the NLS. For chaetognaths, Ferosagitta hispida dominated

  9. Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island, Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez E, Angelica; Mancera Pineda, J Ernesto; Gavio, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weights. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

  10. A new estuarine species, Nereis garwoodi (Polychaeta: Nereididae), from Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escalante, Luis E; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2003-03-01

    Nereis garwoodi n. sp. is described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two heteronereis) collected in Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD = 1.9); II:30 (SD = 2.6); III:41 (SD = 5.2); IV:29 (SD = 3.5), V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII: > 30. Its eyes are big and its longest tentacular cirri reaches setiger 11. A revised key to species of Nereis recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea is included.

  11. Caribbean Knowledge Economy : Coordinating Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Diasporic Tourism and Investment (105228) and Networks for Development : the ... The project will include training in the use of Outcome Mapping for impact ... (UWI) to establish a virtual institute for the Caribbean knowledge economy.

  12. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  13. Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of them, however, face daunting development challenges, including pervasive ... And, what policies would allow Caribbean entrepreneurs to play this role? ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  14. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1996 Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, D.J.; Rossum, van J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles (12°12’N, 68°77’W) is an island in the Caribbean sea, situated about 50 km east of Curacao and 80 km north of the South American continent (Venezuela). Its 288 2 km of land hold about 14,000 inhabitants. Bonaire has a strongly growing population, which is mostly due to

  15. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from 1979-02-05 to 1987-10-30 (NODC Accession 8700038)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from...

  16. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored.

  17. Some aspects of nutrient chemistry of the Caribbean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A; DileepKumar, M.; Khan, A.A; Knight, D.; O'Reilly, A; Yen, I.C.; Wagh, A; Desai, B.N.

    waters showed a decrease up to 110 mu mol.dm sup(-3) at around 400 m. Within the euphotic zone considerable amounts of oxygen (30-60 mu mol.dm sup(-3)) were utilized for organic matter degradation, even within the euphotic zone. Two nitrate maxima, one...

  18. Magnetic studies in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Grahm, B.; Welsh, R.; Pathak, M.C.

    the spreading axis with crustal block thickness of 1 km and a susceptibility of 0.002 cgs units. The anomaly numbers 1 to 8 have been identified on the west and anomalies 1 to 5A on the east of the spreading axis which is located around 81 degrees 39'W. The half...

  19. Earlier (late Pliocene) first appearance of the Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata: Stratigraphic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Donald F.; Budd, Ann F.; Borne, Pamela F.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated stratigraphic study of reefal deposits on the Caribbean side of the Isthmus of Panama (Limon, Costa Rica) has discovered a significantly earlier first appearance of the major reef-building coral Acropora palmata. A. palmata is here reported from the early late Pliocene, constrained in age to within the Gauss chron (ca. 3.6 2.6 Ma). This coral was previously thought to have originated in the earliest Pleistocene and has subsequently been used as a Quaternary marker throughout the Caribbean and the Bahamas. An earlier appearance in the southern Caribbean implies a diachronous first appearance datum relative to the northern Caribbean. This older age also places A. palmata well within the transition phase of a Pliocene (4 1 Ma) faunal turnover that was marked by widespread extinction and origination of Caribbean coral species. An early late Pliocene origination is coincident with formation of the Isthmus, climate reorganization, and frequent sea-level changes associated with onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The rapid growth and accumulation rates that characterize A. palmata may therefore be adaptive to these fluctuating environmental conditions, enabling its success during the subsequent Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  20. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Kurvits

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified.

  1. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  2. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... held at the Caribbean Fishery Management Council Headquarters, located at 270 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera...

  3. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  4. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  5. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  6. Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the Caribbean region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the Caribbean Sea region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.

  7. Saharan dust - a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H Garrison

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI, Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs, trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago. Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable micro-organisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable micro-organisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 9-21. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  8. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel

    2016-01-01

    The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns. PMID:26942575

  9. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  10. From the past to the globalized future for Caribbean birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Extinctions of Caribbean animals were well underway during the period of Amerindian occupation and have continued since the arrival of Columbus. Despite high extinction rates, the Caribbean still retains high levels of terrestrial biodiversity and, for some taxa, exceptionally high levels of endemism relative to other parts of the world. The fate of the Caribbean’s...

  11. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity.

  12. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic Network. The CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX 13 scenario simulated a tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.5 earthquake originating north of Oranjestad, Aruba in the Caribbean Sea. For the first time earthquake impact was included in addition to expected tsunami impact. The initial message was issued by the warning centers over the established channels, while different mechanisms were then used by participants for further dissemination. The enhanced PTWC tsunami products for the Caribbean were also made available to the participants. To provide feedback on the exercise an online survey tool with 85 questions was used. The survey demonstrated satisfaction with exercise, timely receipt of bulletins and interest in the enhanced PTWC products. It also revealed that while 93% of the countries had an activation and response process, only 59% indicated that they also had an emergency response plan for tsunamis and even fewer had tsunami evacuation plans and inundation maps. Given that 80% of those surveyed indicated that CARIBE WAVE should be conducted annually, CARIBE EWS decided that the next exercise be held on March 26, 2014, instead of waiting until 2015.

  13. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  14. Storminess trends in the Gulf and Mexican Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Ojeda, E.; Appendini, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on whether the attributes of tropical cyclones have varied, or how they are expected to vary in a warming climate and yet, a defined conclusion has not been reached. However, an increase in storm intensity, with the inherent increase of wave height and storm surge, will be responsible of heavy economic loss on coastal areas. This contribution analyzes possible variations in the long term storminess pattern observed in 10 nearshore locations along the southern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean using modeled wave data from the last 30 years (Appendini et al., 2013). Storminess is studied in terms of wave energy content focusing on extreme event conditions. Wave storm events are obtained using the Peak Over Threshold method. The wave conditions during the events are separated into those caused by tropical cyclones (TC) and extratropical storm (ETS) events because they are expected to behave differently in response to changing climate conditions. In order to characterize the waves generated by these different phenomena the data set is inspected separating individual storm events into TC and ETS using the IBtracks information. The trend and Mann-Kendall test are performed for each node to account for possible trends in the frequency, mean and maximum significant wave heights, and the mean energy content (taken as E=integral(Hs*dt) of TC and ETS. For the TC and ETS events, the results of the MK test show an absence of significant temporal trends for the majority of the nodes even at the 90% confidence interval. The significant trends in the number of ETS events show differential results (negative trend in the northernmost node and positive trends in the two Caribbean nodes and the easternmost GoM node). Regarding the TC events, the two nodes located in the Caribbean Sea present significant temporal (positive) trends in the energy content of the events. However, this trend is related to an increase in the magnitude of

  15. Ascidians from Caribbean shallow water localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodbody, Ivan

    1984-01-01

    Between 1930 and 1973 PIETER WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK of the Zoölogisch Laboratorium of the State University of Utrecht made nine collecting trips to the Caribbean. While most collecting was undertaken in the territories of the Netherlands Antilles, visits were also made to several other West Indian

  16. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... “This is what IDRC is all about: Not only do we invest in solutions, but we make sure ... Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empoweri.

  17. Migration and rural development in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, J D

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between migration and agricultural development in the Caribbean is examined. The data, collected by survey, concern the islands of Nevis, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia. The results show that migration is not associated with agricultural innovation or the use of specific technical inputs and that it frequently has a negative impact on agricultural productivity and attitudes toward farming.

  18. Caribbean | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... we've supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean. ... Languages ... Home · What we do · Regions and countries · Latin America and the ... We have funded research with a focus on trade and the economy, which ... IDRC-supported research broke new ground with one of the first analyses of ...

  19. An assessment of global warming stress on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, D.K.; Hendec, J.C.; Mendez, A. (NOAA, Miami, FL (USA). Atlantic Oceanography and Meteorology Laboratory)

    1992-07-01

    There is evidence that stress on coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean region is increasing. Recently numerous authors have stated that the major stress results from 'abnormally high' seasonal sea surface temperatures (SST) and have implicated global warming as a cause, stating that recent episodes of coral bleaching result therefrom. However, an analysis of available SST data sets shows no discernible warming trend that could cause an increase in coral bleaching. Given the lack of long-term records synoptic with observations of coral ecosystem health, there is insufficient evidence available to label temperatures observed in coincidence with recent regional bleaching events as 'abnormally' high.

  20. Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibs, S; Mebs, D; Werding, B

    1995-11-01

    In coral reefs of the Caribbean Sea (Colombia) palytoxin (PTX) has been detected in zoanthid species of the genera Palythoa and Zoanthus by assaying the delayed haemolysis in human erythrocytes produced by aqueous extracts, which is inhibited by ouabain pretreatment, and by HPLC. The toxin content of the polyps and colonies is highly variable and is not correlated with their reproductive cycle or with the amount of symbiotic algae. Sequestration of PTX has been observed in crustaceans (Platypodiella sp.) living in close association with Palythoa colonies and in polychaete worms (Hermodice carunculata) feeding on the zoanthids. Resistance of marine animals to the toxin may enable it to enter food chains.

  1. An assessment of global warming stress on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, D K; Hendec, J C; Mendez, A [NOAA, Miami, FL (USA). Atlantic Oceanography and Meteorology Laboratory

    1992-07-01

    There is evidence that stress on coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean region is increasing. Recently numerous authors have stated that the major stress results from 'abnormally high' seasonal sea surface temperatures (SST) and have implicated global warming as a cause, stating that recent episodes of coral bleaching result therefrom. However, an analysis of available SST data sets shows no discernible warming trend that could cause an increase in coral bleaching. Given the lack of long-term records synoptic with observations of coral ecosystem health, there is insufficient evidence available to label temperatures observed in coincidence with recent regional bleaching events as 'abnormally' high.

  2. A new species of Caligus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the plankton of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela with a key to species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Camisotti, Humberto; Martín, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the zooplankton community of Bahía Amuay, Venezuelan Caribbean, specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller were collected. It resembles Caligus xystercus Cressey and Caligus ocyurus Cressey, both known only from the Caribbean Sea. The new species can be distinguished from these and other congeners by a combination of characters including the armature of legs 1 and 4, but mainly by its unique female genital complex. This is the first species of Caligus described from Venezuela. The species is described in full and a key to the species of the genus recorded in Venezuela is provided. PMID:22768004

  3. A new species of Caligus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida from the plankton of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela with a key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez-Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During a survey of the zooplankton community of Bahía Amuay, Venezuelan Caribbean, specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller were collected. It resembles C. xystercus Cressey and C. ocyurus Cressey, both known only from the Caribbean Sea. The new species can be distinguished from these and other congeners by a combination of characters including the armature of legs 1 and 4, but mainly by its unique female genital complex. This is the first species of Caligus described from Venezuela. The species is described in full and a key to the species of the genus recorded in Venezuela is provided.

  4. Shipwreck rates reveal Caribbean tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta

    2016-03-22

    Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the Caribbean during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645-1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610-present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707-2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale Caribbean TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, El Niño-like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections.

  5. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  6. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2009-04-17 to 2009-10-18 (NODC Accession 0109931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109931 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean...

  8. Modeling regional coral reef responses to global warming and changes in ocean chemistry: Caribbean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Lane, D.R.; Martinich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic change threatens the future of coral reefs in the Caribbean and the important ecosystem services they provide. We used a simulation model [Combo ("COral Mortality and Bleaching Output")] to estimate future coral cover in the part of the eastern Caribbean impacted by a massive coral bleaching event in 2005. Combo calculates impacts of future climate change on coral reefs by combining impacts from long-term changes in average sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification with impacts from episodic high temperature mortality (bleaching) events. We used mortality and heat dose data from the 2005 bleaching event to select historic temperature datasets, to use as a baseline for running Combo under different future climate scenarios and sets of assumptions. Results suggest a bleak future for coral reefs in the eastern Caribbean. For three different emissions scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; B1, A1B, and A1FI), coral cover on most Caribbean reefs is projected to drop below 5% by the year 2035, if future mortality rates are equivalent to some of those observed in the 2005 event (50%). For a scenario where corals gain an additional 1-1. 5??C of heat tolerance through a shift in the algae that live in the coral tissue, coral cover above 5% is prolonged until 2065. Additional impacts such as storms or anthropogenic damage could result in declines in coral cover even faster than those projected here. These results suggest the need to identify and preserve the locations that are likely to have a higher resiliency to bleaching to save as many remnant populations of corals as possible in the face of projected wide-spread coral loss. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  9. Is climate change intensifying the drying-trend in the Caribbean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D. A.; Ault, T.; Fasullo, J.; Carrillo, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1950, the Caribbean (11ºN-25ºN; 85ºW-60ºW) has seen a significant drying trend characterized by several recent droughts, some of them contemporaneous with El Niño events. Moreover, the most recent drought from 2013 to 2016 was both the most severe and widespread event since at least 1950, and was associated with high temperatures, likely driven in part by climate change. This work examines the role of increased evaporative demand resulting from warmer temperatures on the drying trend observed in the Caribbean since 1950, using observations and model simulations. Large-scale dynamics associated with drought are also analyzed using sea surface temperature, geopotential height, wind, and precipitation anomalies, as well as radiative fluxes anomalies. Furthermore, land surface model soil moisture and high-resolution self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) datasets are used to quantify drought severity at local scales. The anthropogenic contribution to drought severity is estimated as the difference between the scPDSI calculated using linearly-detrended temperatures, and the scPDSI computed with the observed trend, with unadjusted precipitation, net radiation, and wind speed. Soil moisture anomalies driven by climate change are derived by comparing a large ensemble of forced simulations against a pre-industrial control. The resulting analysis indicates that anthropogenic forcing has intensified the drying trend in the Caribbean by -0.4 scPDSI-units over 60 years, and has increased the dry-land area by 10%. These findings are consistent with observed potential evapotranspiration (PET) anomalies, which are 30% higher than PET-anomalies estimated using detrended temperatures. These results suggest that climate change is already increasing the risk of drought in the Caribbean by enhancing the atmospheric demand of moisture through temperature, and provide insights into the role of climate change in future drought risk in the region.

  10. Madness and the Middle Passage: Warner-Vierya's Juletane as a Paradigm for Writing Caribbean Women's Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elizabeth Willey

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article links Glissant's theory of an inherent Caribbean madness due to the originary rupture and alienation from Africa with Foucault's theory of the ritual significance and essential liminality of the madman as exemplified in the medieval figure of the "Ship of Fools." In calling the madman the "passenger par excellence," Foucault implies a connection between sanity and linear narratives, such as that of a voyage. Myriam Warner-Vierya's novel, Juletane , suggests that European paradigms of narrative and voyage are inadequate to provide a sense of self for Caribbean women. The novel takes the form of a diary that chronicles the steadily disintegrating marriage and sanity of Juletane, a Caribbean woman orphaned at ten, raised in Paris, who meets and marries an African student in an effort to find a new identity in her husband and a return to Africa. The novel suggests that the linear narrative of a return to the source in Africa denies the rupture with Africa and the immediate circumstances of Caribbean subject-hood. In her efforts, Juletane ignores the alternative narrative possibilities that the novel presents in the circular and shared narratives of women that do not depend on a sense of closure or arrival, but like the voyage of the madman, remain open to the infinite crossroads of the sea and narration.

  11. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  12. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  13. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Cathleen; Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011).

  14. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  15. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  16. Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2017-05-01

    Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-sea depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern Caribbean, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern Caribbean. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE Caribbean, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and may be driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8-24.4 °C) and dissolved oxygen (2.2-9.5 mg per l). Our study suggests the importance of water masses in influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding

  17. Proximate response of fish, conch, and sea turtles to the presence of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Bussel, T.; Engel, M.S.; Christianen, M.; Debrot, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this report we examined the proximate response of fish assemblages, queen conch, and sea turtles on H. stipulacea meadows in Lac Bay, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Here we primarily focused on the differences between the invasive species H. stipulacea and the principal species of native sea

  18. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean; Erosion costera: Problema de la costa del Caribe Colombiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jaime Orlando

    1986-11-01

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral.

  19. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  20. Caribbean Reef Response to Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Diaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.

    2014-12-01

    Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along the southern coast of the DR. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, and stable isotope profiles have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. Faunal records suggest most extinction occurred prior to ~1 Ma. Following this extinction, fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals.

  1. Caribbean ciguatera: a changing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R Tosteson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of ciguatoxicity in the great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda and quantity of toxic benthic dinoflagellates on coastal reefs (correlated with the number of cases of human ciguatera intoxications in Puerto Rico were used to construct a model formulated on data obtained during the period of 1985-1988. The validity of the proposed model has been questioned by recent data obtained during the period of 1990-2000. Barracuda ciguatoxicity no longer showed a prominent seasonality while the fraction of randomly caught barracuda that were ciguatoxic significantly increased during this period. These two changes, accompanied by the discovery that ciguatoxic fish contained a variety of multiple toxins, appear to be correlated with the steadily increasing periods of elevated sea surface temperatures in this regionPruebas de ciguatoxicidad en la gran barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda y la cantidad de dinoflagelados bentónicos tóxicos en los arrecifes de la costa están correlacionados con el número de casos de intoxicaciones por ciguatera en humanos, en Puerto Rico. Estos hechos fueron utilizados para construir un modelo que fue formulado con la información recopilada durante el período de 1985- 1988. La validez de este modelo propuesto ha sido cuestionada debido a la información recientemente obtenida durante el período 1990-2000. La ciguatoxicidad en la barracuda ya no demostraba una marcada asociación con las temporadas mientras que la cantidad de barracuda ciguatóxica capturada al azar tuvo un aumento significativo durante este período. Estos dos cambios estuvieron acompañados por el descubrimiento de que peces ciguatóxicos contienen una gran variedad de toxinas que parecen estar relacionadas con los períodos de elevadas temperaturas en la superficie del mar. Estas temperaturas continúan aumentando de manera que a su vez continúan en un aumento estable en esta región

  2. 350 Year Cloud Reconstruction Deduced from Northeast Caribbean Coral Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Jury, M.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds are a major factor influencing the global climate and its response to external forcing through their implications for the global hydrological cycle, and hence for the planetary radiative budget. Clouds also contribute to regional climates and their variability through, e.g., the changes they induce in regional precipitation patterns. There have been very few studies of decadal and longer-term changes in cloud cover in the tropics and sub-tropics, both over land and the ocean. In the tropics, there is great uncertainty regarding how global warming will affect cloud cover. Observational satellite data are too short to unambiguously discern any temporal trends in cloud cover. Corals generally live in well-mixed coastal regions and can often record environmental conditions of large areas of the upper ocean. This is particularly the case at low latitudes. Scleractinian corals are sessile, epibenthic fauna, and the type of environmental information recorded at the location where the coral has been living is dependent upon the species of coral considered and proxy index of interest. Skeletons of scleractinian corals are considered to provide among the best records of high-resolution (sub-annual) environmental variability in the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Zooxanthellate hermatypic corals in tropical and sub-tropical seas precipitate CaCO3 skeletons as they grow. This growth is made possible through the manufacture of CaCO3crystals, facilitated by the zooxanthellae. During the process of crystallization, the holobiont binds carbon of different isotopes into the crystals. Stable carbon isotope concentrations vary with a variety of environmental conditions. In the Caribbean, d13C in corals of the species Montastraea faveolata can be used as a proxy for changes in cloud cover. In this contribution, we will demonstrate that the stable isotope 13C varies concomitantly with cloud cover for the northeastern Caribbean region. Using this proxy we have been able to

  3. Structure and financing of nature management costs in Caribbean Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Debrot, A.O.; Rockmann, C.; Jak, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Nature Policy Plan Caribbean Netherlands identifies the need to “Evaluate the financial instruments available for nature conservation in the Caribbean Netherlands and make recommendations aimed at guaranteeing a sustainable financial future” as one of its strategic actions. Three preceding

  4. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan...

  5. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Prima facie , more demonstrative of a policy is to retain primacy in the region while engaging the interests and cooperation of Caribbean states. In...and diplomatic cooperation with Caribbean nations. The prima facie implications are therefore, without evidence to the contrary, that these

  6. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...

  7. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Initiative. 25.405 Section 25.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  8. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  9. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  10. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  11. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  12. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  13. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  14. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  15. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  16. Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    vigorously communicate results in simple and straightforward terms to foster more effective conservation and management.This and subsequent reports will focus on separate biogeographic regions in a stepwise fashion and combine all of the results for a global synthesis in the coming years. We began in the wide Caribbean region because the historical data are so extensive and to refine methods of analysis before moving on to other regions. This report documents quantitative trends for Caribbean reef corals, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on data from 90 reef locations over the past 43 tears. This is the first report to combine all these disparate kinds of data in a single place to explore how the different major components of coral reef ecosystems interact on a broadly regional oceanic scale.We obtained data from more than 35,000 ecological surveys carried out by 78 principal investigators (PIs) and some 200 colleagues working in 34 countries, states, and territories throughout the wide Caribbean region. We conducted two workshops in Panama and Brisbane, Australia to bring together people who provided the data to assist in data quality control, analysis, and synthesis. The first workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in the Republic of Panama 29 April to 5 May, 2012 included scientists from 18 countries and territories to verify and expand the database and to conduct exploratory analyses of status and trends. Preliminary results based on the Panama workshop were presented to the DC Marine Community and Smithsonian Institution Senate of Scientists in May 2012 and at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and annual ICRI meeting in Cairns, Australia in July 2012. The second workshop in Brisbane, Australia in December 2012 brought together eight coral reef scientists for more detailed data analysis and organization of results for this report and subsequent publications. Subsequent presentations to solicit comments while the report was

  17. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  18. US Military interventions in the Caribbean from 1898 to 1998 Lessons for Caribbean Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    live in fear of the destructive power which can accompany the Atlantic hurricane season. With sizes ranging from 35 acres (Young Islands in the...Grenadines) to 42, 803 square miles (Cuba), any Caribbean island can be completely devastated by a single hurricane , necessitating outside aid. The...Since the completion of this work the Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez hosted a two-day, 33

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  20. A comparison of eight country plans for the Invasive Indo-Pacific Lionfish in the Wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne E. Graham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change and marine invasive species have posed a major threat to significant ecological, aesthetic, economic and amenity value to the countries and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region. Today, the Caribbean Sea is plagued with the invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles. As the range and abundance of the lionfish throughout the Caribbean has grown, recognition of the grave threat it poses to the native marine ecosystems has prompted the development of lionfish management plans across the region. The efforts of eight countries in the region to manage lionfish are evaluated using the US Environmental Protection Agency Aquatic Invasive Species framework and the inclusion of climate change and/or changing conditions. The countries and overseas territories evaluated were Anguilla, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Grenada, St. Eustatius, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the US Virgin Islands. Although specific strategies differed amongst the islands depending upon needs, culture, and individual circumstances, most of the plans included aspects of education and outreach, control and monitoring protocols, and research and information management. Areas that were found to be notably weak to nonexistent included leadership, prevention, early detection and rapid response and restoration; This comparative analysis provides opportunities for knowledge sharing and intra- and inter-country cooperation, facilitating the transfer and development of interventions that contribute to the conservation of significant island biodiversity.

  1. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Libro

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals--the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience.

  2. Contemporary white-band disease in Caribbean corals driven by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, C. J.; van Woesik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, two of the dominant reef-building corals in the Caribbean, Acropora palmata and Acropora cervicornis, have experienced unprecedented declines. That loss has been largely attributed to a syndrome commonly referred to as white-band disease. Climate change-driven increases in sea surface temperature (SST) have been linked to several coral diseases, yet, despite decades of research, the attribution of white-band disease to climate change remains unknown. Here we hindcasted the potential relationship between recent ocean warming and outbreaks of white-band disease on acroporid corals. We quantified eight SST metrics, including rates of change in SST and contemporary thermal anomalies, and compared them with records of white-band disease on A. palmata and A. cervicornis from 473 sites across the Caribbean, surveyed from 1997 to 2004. The results of our models suggest that decades-long climate-driven changes in SST, increases in thermal minima, and the breach of thermal maxima have all played significant roles in the spread of white-band disease. We conclude that white-band disease has been strongly coupled with thermal stresses associated with climate change, which has contributed to the regional decline of these once-dominant reef-building corals.

  3. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Silvia; Vollmer, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD) alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals--the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs) were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience.

  4. Increased recruitment rates indicate recovering populations of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum on Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.; Debrot, A.O.; Hal, van der N.; Bakker, J.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum philippi, 1845 was studied on artificial recruitment panels along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Data were compared with historical data from the same coast that were collected before (1982-1983) and after (1984) the

  5. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  6. Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean: Resilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Mobilisation and Education in Contaminated Coastal Ecosystems ...... The global environmental change and Caribbean food. .... The word oikoumene means the historical production of a distinctive synthesis, with outcomes that ...

  7. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange Grants Program ... and LAC researchers opportunities for joint research on development issues of ... academics (graduate students and professors) to support their professional ...

  8. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  9. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  10. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  11. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  12. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... ... in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development ... understand the causes and effects of the the virus, and ultimately prevent its ...

  13. 75 FR 47274 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Drive, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management... contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, in accordance with the Magnuson- Stevens...

  14. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulay, E A; Hoyte, O P-A

    2015-06-01

    Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated cost of 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this "non-communicable" disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation.

  15. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  16. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  17. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world.Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my.Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life

  18. The Use of Satellite Imagery in the Monitoring and Forecasting of Sargassum Seaweed in the Caribbean Phase II of the Sargassum Early Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, J.; Webster, R.; Linton, T.; Hill, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Southern Caribbean was plagued by an unusually massive amount of seaweed wrack, an event so rare that locals couldn't think of a season where Sargassum had been that abundant, for sixty years. At this time, the SEAS program had been created, however the path of the seaweed from the Atlantic to the beaches of Texas had yet to be determined. This event sparked the idea that seaweed migrated through the Caribbean then North through the Yucatan Peninsula. While this idea was only partially correct, it did initiate the second phase of the SEAS Program. As it turns out, the seaweed drifts through the Northern passages of the Caribbean (Windward, Mona, and Anegada Passages) and migrates westward, rather than entering the Caribbean from the Southeastern islands (the Virgin Islands down to Granada). Monitoring these passes using ground-truthing and local reports has proven difficult, so in order to determine the presence of seaweed, one can use remote sensing. NASA's satellite Landsat 7 produces images of the passes every eight days, allowing the SEAS Team to monitor the Sargassum. These images have a sufficient resolution to see seaweed mats in the ocean. Based on several factors, such as ocean and wind currents, time of the year, and size of seaweed mats, one can ultimately forecast Sargassum as it makes its journey through the loop system. The seaweed is monitored as it migrates westward, and eventually gets pushed North in massive blooms as a result of neritic waters. These blooms can travel North in warm water gyres. The Sargassum can then break off and wash up on the beaches of Texas or get caught in the Gulf Stream where it is flushed out the Florida Straits back into the Atlantic. Remote sensing makes the first ever system of monitoring Sargassum possible and allows for advanced warning of these troublesome seaweed wracks up and down the coast.

  19. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE VENEZUELA ROUND STINGRAY UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE SCHULTZ FROM THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY ACEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As for most batoid species, little is known about the basic biology of the Venezuela round stingray Urotrygon venezuelae (Urotrygonidae. This study presents information about the reproductive biology of the species, including fecundity, embryonic development stage, relationship between maternal size and fecundity, gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, sex ratios, maturity size and size at birth. With all this information, a preliminary reproductive cycle is proposed. A total of 269 specimens were caught with beach seine in Salguero beach, Colombian Caribbean Sea, between August 2005 and October 2006. We propose for U. venezuelae a biological cycle with three reproductive peaks: November-December, March-April and August. Size at sexual maturity was calculated in 176 mm (total length for females and 227 mm for males; fecundity ranged between one and six embryos per female. We found that cloacal diameter and liver weight were better predictors for fecundity than total length for U. venezuelae.

  20. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  1. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  2. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  3. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  4. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  5. Energy review 2004 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In an environment of energy uncertain caused by the constant increases in the prices of the oil and its derivates, it is very important the selection of public policies that promote the diversification of the energetic matrix, the efficient use of the energy and, if possible, the maximum usage of local resources, which in turn generate the development of productive chains, to supports the social and economic development of our countries. We are in the constant search of mechanism that members assure the strengthening of our member countries, in this respect and to give support to the decisions making, the 2004 Energy Report of Latin America and the Caribbean for second consecutive year, makes an analysis of the energy situation, regional and by country in the different areas of specialization of our Organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, renewable energy and environment, possessing the support of the statistical area and of energy information. We hope that this document helps to your institutions for the best understanding of the big challenges in the energy sector of our region, which undoubtedly will rebound in the development of our countries. (The author)

  6. Tracking the Caribbean sound: three current hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Bilby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Zouk: World Music in the West lndies. JOCELYNE GuiLBAULT (with GAGE AVERILL, ÉDOUARD BENOIT & GREGORY RABESS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xxv + 279 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 27.75 Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad. DONALD R. HlLL. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. xvi + 344 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Calypso & Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. GORDON ROHLEHR. Port of Spain: Gordon Rohlehr, 1990. x + 613 pp. (Paper US$ 40.00 In 1983, from my Hstening post in Cayenne, the southernmost extension of the French Caribbean, I reported that "popular musicians in the Lesser Antilles are in the process of breathing life into new musical varieties blending soka, cadence, and reggae" (Bilby 1985:211. Little did I know that what I was describing was the sudden emergence, at that very moment, of an entirely new music in French Guiana's fellow Départements d'Outre-Mer to the north, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Down in Cayenne, which has always had close ties to the French Antilles, there was a feeling in the air that some fresh and invigorating cultural trend was about to burst forth. Even in the Maroon villages of the French Guianese interior, where I relocated in early 1984, the excitement was palpable.

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  8. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  9. Dog Food Consumption in the Caribbean: A Baseline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare.

  10. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  11. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  12. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  13. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  14. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba,

  15. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...: Participants will present summary data and will discuss data needs and treatments. Although non-emergency... the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 35 data webinar for Caribbean Red Hind. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Caribbean...

  16. Productivity links morphology, symbiont specificity and bleaching in the evolution of Caribbean octocoral symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M; Freeman, Christopher J; Knowlton, Nancy; Thacker, Robert W; Kim, Kiho; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2015-12-01

    Many cnidarians host endosymbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. It is generally assumed that the symbiosis is mutualistic, where the host benefits from symbiont photosynthesis while providing protection and photosynthetic substrates. Diverse assemblages of symbiotic gorgonian octocorals can be found in hard bottom communities throughout the Caribbean. While current research has focused on the phylo- and population genetics of gorgonian symbiont types and their photo-physiology, relatively less work has focused on biogeochemical benefits conferred to the host and how these benefits vary across host species. Here we examine this symbiosis among 11 gorgonian species collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. By coupling light and dark bottle incubations (P/R) with (13)C-bicarbonate tracers, we quantified the link between holobiont oxygen metabolism with carbon assimilation and translocation from symbiont to host. Our data show that P/R varied among species, and was correlated with colony morphology and polyp size. Sea fans and sea plumes were net autotrophs (P/R>1.5), while nine species of sea rods were net heterotrophs with most below compensation (P/R<1.0). (13)C assimilation corroborated the P/R results, and maximum δ(13)Chost values were strongly correlated with polyp size, indicating higher productivity by colonies with high polyp SA:V. A survey of gorgonian-Symbiodinium associations revealed that productive species maintain specialized, obligate symbioses and are more resistant to coral bleaching, whereas generalist and facultative associations are common among sea rods that have higher bleaching sensitivities. Overall, productivity and polyp size had strong phylogenetic signals with carbon fixation and polyp size showing evidence of trait covariance.

  17. Late Neogene benthic stable isotope record of ODP Site 999: Implications for Caribbean paleoceanography, organic carbon burial and the Messininian salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickert, T.; Haug, G.; Tiedemann, R.

    2003-04-01

    The late Neogene closure of the seaway between the North and South American continents is thought to have caused extensive changes in ocean circulation and Northern Hemisphere climate. The timing and consequences of the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama for the ocean circulation have been addressed in several papers which indicate a marked reorganization of surface and deep ocean circulation starting 4.6 million years ago. However, the biogeographic development of marine faunas and floras on both sides of the Panama Isthmus suggests that the paleoceanographic changes related to the closing of the isthmus started much earlier. Furthermore, the closing history of the Panama Seaway overlaps with the tectonic evolution of other ocean gateways in the late Miocene, especially the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar, which led to a transient isolation of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We report on epibenthic foraminiferal d18O and d13C and percentage sand records of the carbonate fraction from Caribbean ODP Site 999 (12°44´N, 78° 44´W, water depth 2828 m) spanning the interval from 8.6 to 5.3 Ma. Low epibenthic d13C values and low sand contents indicate a poorly ventilated deep Caribbean throughout the late Miocene. At this time the deep Caribbean was dominated by a nutrient-rich Southern Ocean water mass. A mostly constant d13C gradient between the Caribbean and deep Atlantic records suggests that the fluctuations in d13C reflect rather global changes in d13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon due to varying erosion of organic carbon from terrigenous soils and shelf sediments. The observed 100-ky cyclicity of epibenthic d13C is in well accordance with the variability of the terrigenous input to the equatorial Atlantic as recorded by susceptibility records of the Ceara Rise. However, some gradient changes between 6.8 and 5.6 Ma indicate a poorer ventilation of the deep Atlantic related to a reduced production of

  18. Another possible risk for the Mediterranean Sea? Aspergillus sydowii discovered in the Port of Genoa (Ligurian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G; Capello, M; Cecchi, G; Cutroneo, L; Di Piazza, S; Zotti, M

    2017-09-15

    Aspergillus sydowii is a cosmopolitan fungus that has been responsible for the mass destruction of coral in the Caribbean Sea over the last 15years. To our knowledge, this study has found the first case of A. sydowii in the Mediterranean Sea, in marine-bottom sediments, water and calcareous shells of bivalve molluscs sampled during a campaign to characterise the mycobiota in the Port of Genoa (Italy). The area is characterised by adverse environmental conditions (high turbidity, organic pollution and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds). These parameters, in combination with a rising temperature, could contribute to A. sydowii bloom and dispersal. This fungal strain may have been imported into the Port of Genoa in the bilge water of vessels or by torrent input. This work represents the first step in the implementation of a monitoring programme to safeguard calcareous sponges and sea fan corals endemic in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased recruitment rates indicate recovering populations of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum on Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Debrot, A.O.; van der Hal, N.; Bakker, J.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum philippi, 1845 was studied on artificial recruitment panels along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Data were compared with historical data from the same coast that were collected before (1982-1983) and after (1984) the

  20. The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D.; Gallegos, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS) web-app was designed to automatically detect Sargassum at sea, forecast movement of the seaweed, and alert users of potential landings. Inspired to help address the economic hardships caused by large landings of Sargassum, the web app automates and enhances the manual tasks conducted by the SEAS group of Texas A&M University at Galveston. The SEAS web app is a modular, mobile-friendly tool that automates the entire workflow from data acquisition to user management. The modules include: 1) an Imagery Retrieval Module to automatically download Landsat-8 Operational Land Imagery (OLI) from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2) a Processing Module for automatic detection of Sargassum in the OLI imagery, and subsequent mapping of theses patches in the HYCOM grid, producing maps that show Sargassum clusters; 3) a Forecasting engine fed by the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) model currents and winds from weather buoys; and 4) a mobile phone optimized geospatial user interface. The user can view the last known position of Sargassum clusters, trajectory and location projections for the next 24, 72 and 168 hrs. Users can also subscribe to alerts generated for particular areas. Currently, the SEAS web app produces advisories for Texas beaches. The forecasted Sargassum landing locations are validated by reports from Texas beach managers. However, the SEAS web app was designed to easily expand to other areas, and future plans call for extending the SEAS web app to Mexico and the Caribbean islands. The SEAS web app development is led by NASA, with participation by ASRC Federal/Computer Science Corporation, and the Naval Research Laboratory, all at Stennis Space Center, and Texas A&M University at Galveston.

  1. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

  2. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  3. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  4. Coral reefs chronically exposed to river sediment plumes in the southwestern Caribbean: Rosario Islands, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D; Park, Edward; Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M

    2016-05-15

    Politicians do not acknowledge the devastating impacts riverine sediments can have on healthy coral reef ecosystems during environmental debates in Caribbean countries. Therefore, regional and/or local decision makers do not implement the necessary measures to reduce fluvial sediment fluxes on coral reefs. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers water and sediment fluxes into the Rosario Islands National Park, an important marine protected area in the southwestern Caribbean. Until now, there is no scientific consensus on the presence of sediment fluxes from the Magdalena River in the coral reefs of the Rosario Islands. Our hypothesis is that high sediment and freshwater inputs from the Magdalena have been present at higher acute levels during the last decade than previously thought, and that these runoff pulses are not flashy. We use in-situ calibrated MODIS satellite images to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the distribution of suspended sediment over the coral reefs. Furthermore, geochemical data are analyzed to detect associated sedimentation rates and pollutant dispersion into the coastal zone. Results confirm that turbidity levels have been much higher than previous values presented by national environmental authorities on coral reefs off Colombia over the last decade. During the 2003-2013-period most of the Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) values witnessed in the sampled regions were above 10mg/l, a threshold value of turbidity for healthy coral reef waters. TSS concentrations throughout the analyzed time were up to 62.3mg/l. Plume pulses were more pronounced during wet seasons of La Niña events in 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. Reconstructed time series of MODIS TSS indicates that coral reef waters were exposed to river plumes between 19.6 and 47.8% of the entire period of analysis (2000-2013). Further analyses of time series of water discharge and sediment load into the coastal zone

  5. Saharan dust - a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H Garrison

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI, Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs, trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago. Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable micro-organisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable micro-organisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 9-21. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Un grupo internacional de agencias gubernamentales y universidades de los Estados Unidos, las Islas Vírgenes (EUA, Trinidad y Tobago, la República de Cabo Verde y la República de Mali (África Oeste, está trabajando en conjunto para elucidar el papel que el polvo del Sahara puede estar jugando en el deterioro de los ecosistemas caribeños. El

  6. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-06-21

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia\\'s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world\\'s most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Management Competencies and Tourism Graduates: Future Leaders of Caribbean Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acolla Lewis-Cameron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean is challenged to remain competitive in a dynamic global tourism arena. Tourism education plays a critical role in preparing individuals to effectively manage this industry in order to gain that competitive edge. The focus of this study is the determination of the essential management competencies of tourism graduates. The findings reveal that the focus of the tourism programme should be on producing graduates that are flexible, ethical and knowledgeable. The onus is on tourism educators to establish close collaboration among key stakeholders to ensure that there is understanding as to what is of critical importance in preparing future Caribbean leaders.

  8. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhawan [Department of Geography, University of Montreal, Montreal, QU (Canada)

    1997-10-30

    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results

  9. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  10. SIRGAS: the core geodetic infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L.; Brunini, C.; Drewes, H.; Mackern, V.; da Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Studying, understanding, and modelling geophysical phenomena, such as global change and geodynamics, require geodetic reference frames with (1) an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects we want to study, (2) consistency and reliability worldwide (the same accuracy everywhere), and (3) a long-term stability (the same order of accuracy at any time). The definition, realisation, maintenance, and wide-utilisation of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) are oriented to guarantee a globally unified geometric reference frame with reliability at the mm-level, i.e. the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The densification of the global ITRF in Latin America and The Caribbean is given by SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para Las Américas), primary objective of which is to provide the most precise coordinates in the region. Therefore, SIRGAS is the backbone for all regional projects based on the generation, use, and analysis of geo-referenced data at national as well as at international level. Besides providing the reference for a wide range of scientific applications such as the monitoring of Earth's crust deformations, vertical movements, sea level variations, atmospheric studies, etc., SIRGAS is also the platform for practical applications such as engineering projects, digital administration of geographical data, geospatial data infrastructures, etc. According to this, the present contribution describes the main features of SIRGAS, giving special care to those challenges faced to continue providing the best possible, long-term stable and high-precise reference frame for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  11. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    , Mediterranean Sea level would follow global changes with departures lower than + 5 cm. In a second step we use the same methodology to obtain SLR projections at global scale in order to assess the vulnerability of other coastal areas. Namely, we define a vulnerability index based on relating the characteristics of present day variability with SLR projections under different scenarios. Results show that the averaged vulnerability index is 0.5 for scenario RCP8.5 (projected SLR is about a half of the maximum sea level recorded in the last decades). However, in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and the Sea of Japan the vulnerability index is much higher (2.6, 2.4 and 2.1, respectively). From this point of view, therefore, these regions could be considered the most vulnerable regions in the world.

  12. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) in partnership with the Fisheries Leadership and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management of Data Poor Stocks.'' The intent of this workshop is to discuss tools that the region may find...

  13. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  14. Caribbean dry forest networking: an opportunity for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Banda-Rodriguez; J. Weintritt; R.T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is the most threatened tropical forest in the world. Though its overall plant species diversity is lower than in neighboring biomes such as rain forest, species endemism can be high, and its conservation has often been neglected. Caribbean dry forests face diverse threats including tourism, agriculture, and climate change. The Latin...

  15. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  16. Citizen science regarding invasive lionfish in Dutch Caribbean MPAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo-Cárdenas, Eira C.; Tobi, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers and barriers to participation in citizen science initiatives for conservation is important if long-term involvement from volunteers is expected. This study investigates the motivations of individuals from five marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Dutch Caribbean to (not)

  17. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  18. Disaster-induced displacement in the Caribbean and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Hamza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available People in Small Island Developing States are particularly vulnerable to displacement by disaster. Governments in the Caribbean and the Pacific need urgently to do more risk management and planning, rather than focusing almost exclusively on response and relocation.

  19. Contemporary Irish identity on the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Ryzewski, Krysta; Cherry, John F

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the island of Montserrat has been noticeably repositioning itself within the Caribbean as a place with a unique Irish heritage. Using the tag-line ‘the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean’, there has been an explicit attempt to evoke images of a verdant, green island with a long Irish...

  20. The social relations of bereavement in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ronald; Sutherland, Patsy

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the various types of behaviors associated with grief and bereavement, and to examine the relationships, consequences, and outcomes of bereavement practices among the various religious and ethnic groups in the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados. The rituals associated with death and grief differs across cultures and is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and traditions. How these rituals are played out depend on the culture of origin and level of acculturation of the various groups into mainstream society. In the Caribbean region, expressions of grief represent religious and cultural traditions that may have a significant impact on social relations, particularly in multi-ethnic and multicultural societies. In the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados, mourning follows the patterns of traditional religious practices which have remained consistent over time. While families and friends may offer social support before and after burial or cremation, the social aspects of bereavement may also have implications for inter-group relations. Insights into bereavement practices and what it holds for ethnic and religious groups in contemporary Caribbean are presented.

  1. Central American and Caribbean Citizen Security Platform | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Collaborative research platform This initiative will establish a real and virtual space known as the Central American and Caribbean Security Platform. It will bring together the region's scholars, practitioners, attorneys, journalists, and other stakeholders into regular, constructive dialogue with specialists dedicated to finding ...

  2. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants,

  3. 78 FR 43860 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ....m.--at the Holiday Inn Ponce & Tropical Casino, 3315 Ponce By Pass, Ponce, Puerto Rico. In the U.S. Virgin Islands: August 6, 2013--7 p.m.--10 p.m.--Windward Passage Hotel, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 270 Mu...

  4. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Among the attendees were the Honourable Julian Robinson, Jamaica's Minister of State for the Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining and Celia Champagnie, Trade Commissioner ... IDRC project: Harnessing Open Data to Achieve Development Results in Latin America and the Caribbean ...

  5. Origins and genetic legacies of the Caribbean Taino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Sikora, Martin; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    The Caribbean was one of the last parts of the Americas to be settled by humans, but how and when the islands were first occupied remains a matter of debate. Ancient DNA can help answering these questions, but the work has been hampered by poor DNA preservation. We report the genome sequence of a...

  6. Premiere of "Forward Home:" The economic power of Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... The documentary "Forward Home," produced as part of IDRC'sOpportunities in CARICOM Migration : Brain Circulation, Diasporic Tourism, and Investment project, reveals the economic power of the Caribbean's overseas communities. The 30-minute film showcases the experiences of peoples who ...

  7. Intertidal and shallow water Cirripedia of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southward, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some 22 taxa of barnacles, including 19 Balanomorpha, are recorded from a large number of Caribbean localities, ranging from S. Florida to Trinidad, and from the Panama Canal Zone to Barbados. Balanus reticulatus Utinomi is recorded for the first time from the region and its morphology compared with

  8. The Caribbean Netherlands, five years after the transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Rob Bijl .

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland On 10 October 2010 the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, under the flag of the Caribbean Netherlands, acquired the status of new Dutch public bodies, as part of the Netherlands. This transition marked the end of the Netherlands Antilles as

  9. 75 FR 32081 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... During National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we pay tribute to the diverse cultures and... community, many who continue to mourn the loss of loved ones as they help rebuild their homeland. These... fabric of our culture, and we are proud they are part of the American family. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  10. Productivity in services in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias Ortiz, E.; Crespi, G.A.; Rasteletti, A.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on the service sector. It shows that the low levels of productivity observed in the region are not only a consequence of low productivity at the firm level, but also of misallocation of workers across firms. These

  11. 77 FR 5775 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XA981 Caribbean... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The... --Bulletin/Newsletter --Social Network Pages --Streaming of Council Meetings --Other Business The meeting is...

  12. Breastfeeding and food pattern in overweight children in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaux, K.; Schwiebbe, L.; Renders, C.M.; Doak, C.M.; Visser, R.; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As in most countries around the globe, overweight and obesity are a major threat to public health on the Caribbean island of Aruba. Increasing evidence confirms that breastfeeding protects against overweight and obesity. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the

  13. Regional variation in Caribbean dry forest tree species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Franklin; Julie Ripplinger; Ethan H. Freid; Humfredo Marcano-Vega; David W. Steadman

    2015-01-01

    How does tree species composition vary in relation to geographical and environmental gradients in a globally rare tropical/subtropical broadleaf dry forest community in the Caribbean? We analyzed data from 153 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), along with 42 plots that we sampled in the Bahamian Archipelago (...

  14. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  15. The Caribbean Basin: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    40 to200 km). A ridge in the center of theislanrises toI 1,017 feet (310 meters), but most of the island is mangrove swamp. The Isle of Pines (or Isle...The highest port of Plymouth . The southern range rises to 3,000 feet (914 point is 669 feet (204 meters). meters) in the Soufriere Hills. LES SAINTES...and de Margarita aft. from west to est: Islas de Ayes, Islas Ins barren . r; -ing from sea level to 617 feet (188 metes). Roques. La Orchila, Isla Is

  16. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  17. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  18. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  19. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  20. The politics of representing the African diaspora in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Roots of Jamaican Culture. MERVYN C. ALLEYNE. London: Pluto Press, 1988. xii + 186 pp. (Paper US$ 15.95 Guinea's Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture. MAUREEN WARNER-LEWIS. Foreword by Rex Nettleford. Dover MA: The Majority Press, 1991. xxii + 207 pp. (Paper US$ 9.95 A recent trend in anthropology is defined by the interest in the role of historical and political configurations in the constitution of local cultural practices. Unfortunately, with some notable individual exceptions, this is the same anthropology which has largely ignored the Caribbean and its "Islands of History."1 Of course, this says much, much more about the way in which anthropology constructs its subject than it says about the merits of the Caribbean case and the fundamental essence of these societies, born as they were in the unforgiving and defining moment of pervasive, persuasive, and pernicious European construction of "Otherness." As Trouillot (1992:22 writes, "Whereas anthropology prefers 'pre-contact' situations - or creates 'no-contact' situations - the Caribbean is nothing but contact." If the anthropological fiction of pristine societies, uninfluenced and uncontaminated by "outside" and more powerful structures and cultures cannot be supported for the Caribbean, then many anthropologists do one or both of the two anthropologically next best things: they take us on a journey that finds us exploding the "no-contact" myth over and over (I think it is called "strawpersonism", suddenly discovering political economy, history, and colonialism, and/or they end up constructing the "pristine" anyway by emphasizing those parts of a diaspora group's pre-Caribbean culture that are thought to remain as cultural "survivals."

  1. The Anatomy of a Successful Caribbean Substance Abuse Training Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SD Reid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the components of the Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems (CARIAD, a long-standing substance abuse training programme. It seeks to explain how certain strategies and pedagogic techniques may be contributing to its success. Methods: Authors deconstruct the core elements of CARIAD to demonstrate how the programme effectively meets the characteristics of a community of practice. The processes used to develop the learning community and the specific pedagogic strategies and techniques that foster collaborative knowledge construction and sharing are described. Results: Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems brings together a multi-disciplinary, multi-national group of individuals with interest in substance abuse. The programme provides a range of formal and informal learning activities which focus on sharing best practices and creating new sociocultural relevant knowledge to advance the domain of professional practice in substance abuse. The components of CARIAD promote interactivity, rapid bonding and a sense of identity. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems provides a unique platform for cultural sharing that gives participants an opportunity to reveal insights into local and regional expressions of substance abuse challenges. Participants, however, recognize the absence of structured continuity and the diminution of what could be accomplished by graduates over time. Conclusion: The success of CARIAD as a regional learning platform may be related to its success as a Caribbean community of practice for substance abuse. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems would do well to sustain the community of practice, generating and maintaining ongoing participation and collaboration among graduates. This can potentially serve to create new strategies for advancing the region in the area of substance abuse.

  2. Report on a collection of Hydroida from the Caribbean region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean Hydroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1968-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present report deals with a collection of Hydroids from the Zoological Museum, Munich, German Federal Republic (Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München), collected during various expeditions in the Caribbean region. I have thought it advisable to include in this report

  3. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  4. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  5. Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs; Knutson, T.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, NJ (United States). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab.; Oppenheimer, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2007-03-27

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching around the world in recent decades have been attributed to periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures. In 2005, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the tropical North Atlantic that may have contributed to the strong hurricane season caused widespread coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean. Here, the authors use two global climate models to evaluate the contribution of natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing to the thermal stress that caused the 2005 coral bleaching event. Historical temperature data and simulations for the 1870-2000 period show that the observed warming in the region is unlikely to be due to unforced climate variability alone. Simulation of background climate variability suggests that anthropogenic warming may have increased the probability of occurrence of significant thermal stress events for corals in this region by an order of magnitude. Under scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, mass coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean may become a biannual event in 20-30 years. However, if corals and their symbionts can adapt by 1-1.5{sup o}C, such mass bleaching events may not begin to recur at potentially harmful intervals until the latter half of the century. The delay could enable more time to alter the path of greenhouse gas emissions, although long-term 'committed warming' even after stabilization of atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may still represent an additional long-term threat to corals.

  6. The performance of RegCM4 over the Central America and Caribbean region using different cumulus parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castro, Daniel; Vichot-Llano, Alejandro; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Centella-Artola, Abel; Campbell, Jayaka; Giorgi, Filippo; Viloria-Holguin, Cecilia C.

    2018-06-01

    A sensitivity study of the performance of the RegCM4 regional climate model driven by the ERA Interim reanalysis is conducted for the Central America and Caribbean region. A set of numerical experiments are completed using four configurations of the model, with a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km for a period of 6 years (1998-2003), using three of the convective parameterization schemes implemented in the model, the Emanuel scheme, the Grell over land-Emanuel over ocean scheme and two configurations of the Tiedtke scheme. The objective of the study is to investigate the ability of each configuration to reproduce different characteristics of the temperature, circulation and precipitation fields for the dry and rainy seasons. All schemes simulate the general temperature and precipitation patterns over land reasonably well, with relatively high correlations compared to observation datasets, though in specific regions there are positive or negative biases, greater in the rainy season. We also focus on some circulation features relevant for the region, such as the Caribbean low level jet and sea breeze circulations over islands, which are simulated by the model with varied performance across the different configurations. We find that no model configuration assessed is best performing for all the analysis criteria selected, but the Tiedtke configurations, which include the capability of tuning in particular the exchanges between cloud and environment air, provide the most balanced range of biases across variables, with no outstanding systematic bias emerging.

  7. A new estuarine species, Nereis garwoodi (Polychaeta: Nereididae, from Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. González-Escalante

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Nereis garwoodi n. sp. is described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two heteronereis collected in Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD=1.9; II:30 (SD=2.6; III:41 (SD=5.2; IV:29 (SD=3.5, V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII: >30. Its eyes are big and its longest tentacular cirri reaches setiger 11. A revised key to species of Nereis recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea is included.Se describe N. garwoodi n. sp. con base en ocho ejemplares sintipos (seis atokos y dos heteronereis recolectados en el sublitoral (1 m en la bahía de Chetumal y se define la variación en los paragnatos de las áreas diag-nósticas de la faringe usando 180 ejemplares, las cuáles son I:10(SD=1.9; II:30 (SD=2.6; III:41 (SD=5.2; IV:29 (SD=3.5, V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII:>30. Se caracteriza por tener un cirro tentacular que alcanza el setígero 11. Se incluye una clave revisada para las especies de Nereis registradas en el Gran Caribe.

  8. Unraveling the structure and composition of Varadero Reef, an improbable and imperiled coral reef in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Pizarro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are commonly associated with oligotrophic, well-illuminated waters. In 2013, a healthy coral reef was discovered in one of the least expected places within the Colombian Caribbean: at the entrance of Cartagena Bay, a highly-polluted system that receives industrial and sewage waste, as well as high sediment and freshwater loads from an outlet of the Magdalena River (the longest and most populated river basin in Colombia. Here we provide the first characterization of Varadero Reef’s geomorphology and biological diversity. We also compare these characteristics with those of a nearby reference reef, Barú Reef, located in an area much less influenced by the described polluted system. Below the murky waters, we found high coral cover of 45.1% (±3.9; up to 80% in some sectors, high species diversity, including 42 species of scleractinian coral, 38 of sponge, three of lobster, and eight of sea urchin; a fish community composed of 61 species belonging to 24 families, and the typical zonation of a Caribbean fringing reef. All attributes found correspond to a reef that, according to current standards should be considered in “good condition”. Current plans to dredge part of Varadero threaten the survival of this reef. There is, therefore, an urgent need to describe the location and characteristics of Varadero as a first step towards gaining acknowledgement of its existence and garnering inherent legal and environmental protections.

  9. Checklist of sea turtles endohelminth in Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.

  10. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  11. A 350 Year Cloud Cover Reconstruction Deduced from Caribbean Coral Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amos; Sammarco, Paul; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Jury, Mark; Zanchettin, Davide

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are a major factor contributing to climate change with respect to a variety of effects on the earth's climates, primarily radiative effects, amelioration of heating, and regional changes in precipitation patterns. There have been very few studies of decadal and longer term changes in cloud cover in the tropics and sub-tropics, both over land and the ocean. In the tropics, there is great uncertainty regarding how global warming will affect cloud cover. Observational satellite data is so short that it is difficult to discern any temporal trends. The skeletons of scleractinian corals are considered to contain among the best records of high-resolution (sub-annual) environmental variability in the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Corals generally live in well-mixed coastal regions and can often record environmental conditions of large areas of the upper ocean. This is particularly the case at low latitudes. Scleractinian corals are sessile, epibenthic fauna, and the type of environmental information recorded at the location where the coral has been living is dependent upon the species of coral considered and proxy index of interest. Zooxanthellate hermatypic corals in tropical and sub-tropical seas precipitate CaCO3 skeletons as they grow. This growth is made possible through the manufacture of CaCO3 crystals, facilitated by the zooxanthellae. During the process of crystallization, the holobiont binds carbon of different isotopes into the crystals. Stable carbon isotope concentrations vary with a variety of environmental conditions. In the Caribbean, δ13C in corals of the species Montastraea faveolata can be used as a proxy for changes in cloud cover. In this contribution, we will demonstrate that the stable isotope 13C varies concomitantly with cloud cover and present a new reconstruction of cloud cover over the Caribbean Sea that extends back to the year 1760. We will show that there is good agreement between the main features of our coral proxy record of

  12. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  13. The Caribbean Basin: A Refractivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    482 110.1 90 137 603 18.6 394 6360 20072 1 3.4 90 432 1614 ;7000-6000 1 7.6 33 236 432 110.6 36 235 831 13.7 384 037 27003 3.6 80 60e 1090 6000-3000 3...1 - -- - - - - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- -2906-4100 ll -J IO.4 Z 9,0 .12 70 12 . .1.200Z0 25000_27IGUR o og3o ! Iso -C 0 2?.)O...S00 4.7 g1 292 ISO 19.9 91 292 310 94.3 2306 9461 30207 16.0 194 290 sea 500-1000 : 0.2 91 344 492 0.5 so L97 1003 1 3.4 94 $841 34246 0.9 as as

  14. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  15. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B. [AWS Scientific, Inc., Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  17. Trends in marine debris in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.

    2011-01-01

    .S. Caribbean. Lower magnitude decreases were seen in indicator debris along the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In contrast, only land-based indicators declined in the western Gulf of Mexico; total, ocean-based and general-source indicators remained unchanged. Decreases in land-based indicators were not related to human population in the coastal regions; human population increased in all regions over the time of the study. Significant monthly patterns for indicator debris were found only in the Gulf of Mexico; counts were highest during May through September, with peaks occurring in July. Inclement weather conditions before the time of the survey also accounted for some of the variation in the western Gulf of Mexico; fewer items were found when there were heavy seas or cold fronts in the weeks prior to the survey, while tropical storms (including hurricanes) increased the amount of debris. With the development around the globe of long-term monitoring programs using standardized methodology, there is the potential to help management at individual sites, as well as generate larger-scale perspectives (from regional to global) to inform decision makers. Incorporating mechanisms producing debris into marine debris programs would be a fruitful area for future research.

  18. Late Quaternary Palaeoceanographic Changes in Sea Surface Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Andrea; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic changes and the variability in surface water mass hydrography are reconstructed in order to track tropical ocean and climate variability and inter-hemispheric heat exchange through the last 42,000 year BP. Our studies are based on the relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera combined with sea surface temperature approximation based Mg/Ca measurements, XRF scanning and stable oxygen isotope analyses in a 5 m long gravity core Ga307-Win-12GC (17°50.80N, 64°48.7290W), retrieved in the Virgin Island Basin in approx. 3,960 m water depth. The Virgin Island Basin is the deepest part of the Anegada-Jungfern Passage in the northeast Caribbean, one of the most important pathways for water mass exchange between the Central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Due to its bathymetry surface waters as well as deep water mass strata from the northern and southern hemisphere enter the basin, comprising Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage suggests rather stable sea-surface conditions during the Holocene in the NE Caribbean. However, major changes in the hydrographic setting could be identified within the glacial period. During the glacial period, clear millennial-scale variability in sea-surface temperature and productivity are present. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of Globigerinoides ruber in the sediment core may be correlated to Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the northern North Atlantic. Furthermore an increase in relative abundance of Globorotalia rubescens occurs synchronous with ice rafted debris layers described from the North Atlantic. The faunal changes in the tropical Atlantic may thus be correlated to major climate changes in the North Atlantic, mainly D-O cyclicity as well as Heinrich events. Thus, the synchronous change in water mass distribution and hydrographic cyclicity suggests a possible linkage

  19. The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at Crossroads: Towards a New Approach of Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel Nogueira

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL) has inaugurated a Working Papers Series with the publication of a study by Uziel Nogueira, the Institute's Economist. Entitled "The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at the Crossroads: Towards a New Approach to Integration", the study opens with an overview of the movement towards integration among the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. It continues with an analysis of the integration process during thi...

  20. Tangled roots: Kalenda and other neo-African dances in the circum-Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Gerstin

    2004-01-01

    Investigates descriptions of Afro-Caribbean dances in early chronicles and historical material. Author focuses on choreography, as well as on musical instruments and their use. He pays special attention to descriptions of the Martinican kalenda dance. He discusses descriptions from the 18th c. of black Caribbean dance in French and other colonies, by priests and others, of the kalenda as a couple dance within a ring, and descriptions of other widespread early dances in the Caribbean, such as ...

  1. Initial evaluations of a Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean ocean forecast system in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaron, Edward D.; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Cross, Scott L.; Harding, John M.; Bub, Frank L.; Wiggert, Jerry D.; Ko, Dong S.; Lau, Yee; Woodard, Katharine; Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill event in 2010, the Naval Oceanographic Office deployed a nowcast-forecast system covering the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent Caribbean Sea that was designated Americas Seas, or AMSEAS, which is documented in this manuscript. The DwH disaster provided a challenge to the application of available ocean-forecast capabilities, and also generated a historically large observational dataset. AMSEAS was evaluated by four complementary efforts, each with somewhat different aims and approaches: a university research consortium within an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) testbed; a petroleum industry consortium, the Gulf of Mexico 3-D Operational Ocean Forecast System Pilot Prediction Project (GOMEX-PPP); a British Petroleum (BP) funded project at the Northern Gulf Institute in response to the oil spill; and the Navy itself. Validation metrics are presented in these different projects for water temperature and salinity profiles, sea surface wind, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and volume transport, for different forecast time scales. The validation found certain geographic and time biases/errors, and small but systematic improvements relative to earlier regional and global modeling efforts. On the basis of these positive AMSEAS validation studies, an oil spill transport simulation was conducted using archived AMSEAS nowcasts to examine transport into the estuaries east of the Mississippi River. This effort captured the influences of Hurricane Alex and a non-tropical cyclone off the Louisiana coast, both of which pushed oil into the western Mississippi Sound, illustrating the importance of the atmospheric influence on oil spills such as DwH.

  2. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  3. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Children’s mobility is analysed in this article as an important foundation of the migration tradition that has been an integral aspect of most Caribbean societies. I show that, because of their position as dependents who are not yet fully socialised and who are subject to adult authority, children...... move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations....... This leads to the suggestion that young adults’ migration for domestic work*which often builds on informal inter-personal social relations and offers the only means of migration for the many women who do not have access to more attractive forms of wage-labour migration*can be viewed as an extension...

  4. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  5. Tourism, Sexuality and Power in the Spanish Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivke Jaffe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available – Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, by Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009. – The Devil behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the Dominican Republic, by Steven Gregory. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. – Caribbean Pleasure Industry: Tourism, Sexuality and AIDS in the Dominican Republic, by Mark Padilla. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

  6. Intimacy’s Politics: New Directions in Caribbean Sexuality Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agard-Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the

  7. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  8. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision mak...

  9. Potential production of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Decapoda, Palinura) fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Ortiz, Ernesto Aarón

    2009-01-01

    Spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) constitutes the most important fishery of the Caribbean; it accounts for nearly 42,000 tonnes. Evidence suggests that high fishing mortality (F) may have been overexploiting most stocks. An assessment was carried out providing the basis for a sustainable exploitation of the nine most important producing countries. Values were assessed and each fishery was simulated; age structure was reconstructed linking biological, economic, and social variabl...

  10. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  11. Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Gustavo; Winters, Paul C.; Corral, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations have proceeded in addressing the issues of food insecurity and vulnerability in response to the 1996 Rome Declaration on World Food Security. The data suggests that while the food insecurity situation has improved in LAC over the past few years, many nations are worse off in terms of food insecurity than they were at the beginning of the 1990s. Nations that reduced food insecurity tend to be those who have effectively reduced ...

  12. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  13. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  14. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  15. Cookbooks and Caribbean cultural identity : an English-language hors d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Higman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 119 English-language cookbooks (1890-1997 published in or having to do with the Caribbean. This study of the history of cookbooks indicates what it means to be Caribbean or to identify with some smaller territory or grouping and how this meaning has changed in response to social and political developments. Concludes that cookbook-writers have not been successful in creating a single account of the Caribbean past or a single, unitary definition of Caribbean cuisine or culture.

  16. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  17. Exploring emotional intelligence in a Caribbean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-03-01

    To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, the University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI.

  18. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  19. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M H; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin.

  20. Regionally isolated populations of an imperiled Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Miller, Margaret W; Hellberg, Michael E

    2005-04-01

    The movements of larvae between marine populations are difficult to follow directly and have been the subject of much controversy, especially in the Caribbean. The debate centres on the degree to which populations are demographically open, such that depleted populations can be replenished by recruitment from distant healthy populations, or demographically closed and thus in need of local management. Given the depressed state of many tropical reef populations, the understanding of these movements now bears critically on the number, placement, and size of marine reserves. Most genetic analyses assume that dispersal patterns have been stable for thousands of generations, thus they commonly reflect past colonization histories more than ongoing dispersal. Recently developed multilocus genotyping approaches, however, have the demonstrated ability to detect both migration and population isolation over far shorter timescales. Previously, we developed five microsatellite markers and demonstrated them to be both Mendelian and coral-specific. Using these markers and Bayesian analyses, we show here that populations of the imperiled reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and the eastern Caribbean. Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. As a consequence of this regional isolation, populations in the western and eastern Caribbean should have the potential to adapt to local conditions and will require population-specific management strategies.

  1. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  2. Distribution and structure of the southernmost Caribbean coral reefs: golfo de Urabá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Díaz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Urabá represents the southernmost portion of the Caribbean Sea. Due to the large amounts of sediment and freshwater discharged by the Atrato river and several minor streams, water conditions in the area are far from being optimal for coral settlement and growth. However, fringing and patch reefs are developed along the rocky shores of the northwest margin of the Gulf. Based on field observations performed at 44 sites (12 of them assessed quantitatively, interpretation of air photography of the area and depth profiles, the distribution, structure and zonation of the reefs are described. Classification analysis of the 12 sample sites yielded four coral assemblages: Diploria strigosa, crustose algae, Siderastrea siderea, Agaricia spp., and mixed massive corals. Other two assemblages, dominated respectively by Millepora complanata and thickets of Acropora palmata were noticed during reconnaissance dives. The distribution of these zones within the reef seems likely to be mainly controlled by wave exposure, bottom topography, sedimentation, and light penetration. Reef development, coral diversity and live coral cover increase along the coast in a SE-NW direction, with an evident maximum near to the cove of Sapzurro, suggesting an overall improvement of conditions for coral growth and settlement in that direction. A total of 33 species of hard corals were recorded during the survey. It is apparent that the live coral cover, particularly of foliose and branching species, has notably declined recently.

  3. Proteomic analysis of bleached and unbleached Acropora palmata, a threatened coral species of the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaurte, Martha; Schizas, Nikolaos V; Ciborowski, Pawel; Boukli, Nawal M

    2016-06-15

    There has been an increase in the scale and frequency of coral bleaching around the world due mainly to changes in sea temperature. This may occur at large scales, often resulting in significant decline in coral coverage. In order to understand the molecular and cellular basis of the ever-increasing incidence of coral bleaching, we have undertaken a comparative proteomic approach with the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Using a proteomic tandem mass spectrometry approach, we identified 285 and 321 expressed protein signatures in bleached and unbleached A. palmata colonies, respectively, in southwestern Puerto Rico. Overall the expression level of 38 key proteins was significantly different between bleached and unbleached corals. A wide range of proteins was detected and categorized, including transcription factors involved mainly in heat stress/UV responses, immunity, apoptosis, biomineralization, the cytoskeleton, and endo-exophagocytosis. The results suggest that for bleached A. palmata, there was an induced differential protein expression response compared with those colonies that did not bleach under the same environmental conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  5. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  6. Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a pathogen of gorgonian sea fans in the marine sponge Spongia obscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Gil, Neta; Ilan, Micha; Carmeli, Shmuel; Smith, Garriet W; Pawlik, Joseph R; Yarden, Oded

    2009-06-01

    The fungus Aspergillus sydowii is the causative agent of epidemics that affect gorgonian corals (sea fans) and has significantly affected their populations in the Caribbean Sea. We have isolated a strain of A. sydowii from healthy marine sponges (Spongia obscura) collected in Bahamian inshore waters. After its identification on the basis of morphology, molecular markers and chemical profiling followed by pathogenicity tests, we found this strain to be highly similar to a strain isolated from diseased coral, and have shown the capacity of this fungus to persist in sponge environment. Our findings suggest that sponges have the possibility of being reservoirs of a potential marine pathogen.

  7. Palaeoenvironmental Evolution of Cenote Aktun Ha (Carwash) on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and its Response to Holocene Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, J. J.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Peros, M. C.; Davidson, D. E.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Beddows, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    A 61-cm core was obtained from 4 metres below the water table in Cenote Aktun Ha, on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The cenote is 8.6 km from the Caribbean coast and its formation and evolution have been largely affected by sea-level change. The base of the core dates to 6940 - 6740 cal yr BP and overlying sediments were deposited rapidly over the subsequent ~200 years. The pollen record shows that the cenote evolved from a marsh dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and fern (Polypodiaceae) to an open-water system. These vegetation changes were controlled by water level and salinity and are thus useful indicators of past sea level. At the base, the d13C isotopic ratios reveal the influence of terrestrial vegetation (-29‰), but shift to more negative values up-core (-33‰), indicating an influence from particulate matter in the flooded cenote pool. Although microfossil populations were nearly absent through most of the core, the microfossil assemblage in the upper 6 cm of the core is dominated by juvenile Ammonia tepida and the thecamoebian genus Centropyxis. These populations indicate open-water conditions in the cenote and a major environmental shift around 6600 cal yr BP, which is related to sea-level rise in the Caribbean basin. These data fit well with previously established sea-level curves for the Caribbean Sea. Our reconstruction of the environmental history of Cenote Aktun Ha helps elucidate the floral and hydrological history of the region, and highlights the utility of cenote sediments for studying the Holocene sea-level history of the Caribbean Sea.

  8. The deep-water Scleractinia of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cairns, Stephen D.

    1979-01-01

    Ahermatypic Seleractinia are very common throughout the tropical western Atlantic, both in number of species and individuals. Of the Scleractinia known from the western Atlantic, there are over twice as many species of ahermatypes (species that do not have symbiotic zooxanthellae) as hermatypes (the

  9. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in marine organisms from the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Fabio; Amaya-García, Fabián; Tello, Edisson; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Umaña, Adriana; Puyana, Mónica; Resende, Jackson A L C; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2018-06-04

    The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 89 organic extracts from marine organisms was evaluated through a TLC bioautography methodology. Extracts from soft corals (Eunicea and Plexaura) were the most active compared with extracts from sponges. The bioguided chemical study of the most active extract, obtained from Pseudoplexaura porosa, led to the isolation of a diterpene with spectroscopic properties consistent to those published to the cembrane Steylolide. However, further analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated that the compound was the 14-acetoxycrassine (1), correcting the structure reported to the Styelolide. Additionally, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of fourteen cembranoids (2-15) isolated from soft corals Eunicea knighti and Pseudoplexaura flagellosa was evaluated. Cembranoids 2, 3 and 4 were the most active compounds in the TLC bioassay. Then, the most promising cembranoids, 14-acetoxycrassine (1) and asperdiol (2), were tested quantitatively and they exhibited IC 50 values of 1.40 ± 0.113 and 0.358 ± 0.130 μM, respectively.

  10. Tracing organic matter sources in a tropical lagoon of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Garcia-Moya, Alejandro; Tolosa, Imma; Diaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, Jose Antonio; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Fanelli, Emanuela

    2017-09-01

    The natural protected lagoon of Guanaroca, located between Cienfuegos Bay and the Arimao River, Cuba, has been heavily impacted by human-induced environmental changes over the past century. Sources of organic matter in the Guanaroca lagoon and concentrations of radioisotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs and 239,240Pu), as tracers of anthropogenic impacts, were investigated in a 78 cm sediment core. Variations in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) were analysed. On such a basis, environmental changes in the lagoon were revealed. Down core variation patterns of the parameters representing sources of organic matter were predominantly related to the impacts of human activities. Up to the nineteenth century, the principal sources of organic matter to sediments (more than 80%) were a mixing of terrestrial vascular plants ( 48%) and freshwater phytoplankton ( 8%), with minimal contribution from the marine component ( 16%). In the period 1900-1980, due to the strong influence of human activities in the catchment area, the water exchange capacity of the lagoon declined substantially, as indicated by the relatively high proportion of organic matter originated from human activities (58%). Since 1980, as a result of management actions in the protected area, the lagoon has regained gradually its capability to exchange freshwater, showing sources of organic matter similar to the natural conditions recorded previous to 1900, although an indication of human impact (treated sewage contributed for 26% to the organic matter in sediments) was still observed and further management measures would be required.

  11. Hydrographic characteristics and circulation in the Caribbean Sea during April and May 1990

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Khan, A.A; Jones, M.A; Wagh, A; Desai, B.N.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Caribb_Mar_Stud_2_69.pdf.txt stream_source_info Caribb_Mar_Stud_2_69.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. A Probabilistic Model of Illegal Drug Trafficking Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    production, drug-trafficking, and drug consumption . The South American countries in the Andean region, particularly Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, are... cocoa production in these three countries at 187,500 hectares in 2010. This is down from a peak in 2007 of 232,500 hectares. Combining the Andean...operations. They tax cocoa farmers and buyers and have controlling interests in various operations of the drug supply chain (Seelke et al., 2011). When the

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke; Sun, Jin; Lee, On On; Yim, Him Wong; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2011-01-01

    ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria

  14. 3 CFR 8390 - Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., linguistic, ethnic, and social diversity. Generations of immigrants have preserved the traditions of their... enriched the diversity of our Nation. Millions of individuals in the United States have Caribbean roots... Caribbean nations. In a world of increasing communication and connectivity, this friendship has become even...

  15. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  16. Library and Archival Resources for Social Science Research in the Spanish, French, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas G.

    The working paper describes how a social scientist might go about locating resources for any particular study. Researchers are directed to non-Caribbean based material in European Archives as well as collections in the United States. Caribbean resources are analyzed by county. The countries include Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico,…

  17. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  18. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  19. Geolocator Data Reveal the Migration Route and Wintering Location of a Caribbean Martin (Progne dominicensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlut, N.G.; Klak, T.C.; Rakhimberdiev, E.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean Martins (Progne dominicensis)are common breeders on most Caribbean islands, where theyregularly roost and nest in urban areas from Februarythrough August. However, from September through January,the basic ecology of this species—its migration andwintering locations—are largely unknown. In

  20. Post Doctorate Award on Central America and the Caribbean at St ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... a 2-year post doctoral position on Central America and the Caribbean under the leadership of Canadian historian, Margaret MacMillan. ... Between 1965 and 2000, about 12% of the Caribbean labour force moved to ...

  1. Sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marie Veisegaard

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women in the town of Christiansted, St. Croix, the Danish-Norwegian West Indies, were affected by discourses of race and gender during the period c. 1780–1820. To further the understanding of the conditions...... of the free Afro-Caribbean women in Christiansted, the article relates to the situation in other Caribbean colonies, especially the British West Indies, based on the assumption that it was the same discourses of race and gender that swept through all the Caribbean slave societies. In its approach, the article...... is inspired by concepts of race and gender in postcolonial studies. The investigation shows the prevalence in the Danish-Norwegian West Indies of discourses of Afro-Caribbean women as, on the one hand, unwomanly and physically strong and, on the other hand, promiscuous and of easy virtue. On this basis...

  2. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  3. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  4. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  5. Women’s leadership in local government in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzann Lee Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Women and men are traditionally cast in different roles, with males being leaders in the workplace, home and government. In contrast, communities promote women as caregivers who support male leaders and shape future generations as mothers, mentors and teachers. In recognition of this societal view of women that often led to inequality and inequity, the UNDP listed Gender Equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the United Nations in autumn 2015, also included gender equality and empowering women as Goal 5. In its work in the Caribbean, the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED examined gender as it relates to micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME development in six Caribbean countries.  The findings of this study showed gender gaps for both male and female entrepreneurs in different areas of development.  Traditionally gendered roles for MSME sectors, access to financing and lack of adequate guidance or community support were some areas that affected men and women differently in the region.  The study outlines ways in which male and female leaders can address traditional gender roles by identifying priority areas for development, creating an enabling environment for start-ups and expansion, and fostering a policy and legislative base that facilitates ease of doing business.  The recommendations further describe the public–private partnerships needed to successfully meet gender gaps, and the importance of both elected officials and technocrats in inter alia community engagement and advocacy towards local economic development. The importance of gender equality among elected officials and technocrats, and the influence gender has on determining priority areas of focus within local government strategic plans for communities are also set out within this paper.

  6. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  7. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Introduction to littoral erosion problem in Uraba (Arboletes-Turbo area) Colombian Caribbean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa; Ivan D; Vernette, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreat of about 50-100 m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximum of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4.5 km 2 , at exceptional rates of 40 rn/year. The synthesis of the available information suggest that the general susceptibility to erosion between Arboletes and turbo could be related primarily to relative sea level rise, associated to tectonic movements as well as to the effects of mud diapirism and hydroisostacy. In the more critical areas (Arboletes, Turbo), the natural erosive trends were accelerated by anthropic actions, including river diversion (Turbo), beach mining and inadequate (or total absence) practices for controlling residual and natural waters. Up to august 2000, there were invested about $ Col 10.000 billions in 155 engineering defenses (groins, sea walls and rip-rap which totalize 6.2 km of total length and a volume of materials of 37.000 m 3 ). With few exceptions, groins have not been successful and are now part of the problem, accelerating shore erosion along the adjacent sectors. In the short term, the littoral erosion between Arboletes and turbo is caused both by marine and by sub aerial factors. it is facilitated by the poor lithological strengths of cliffs and marine terraces, mainly composed of highly fractured and weathered claystones and mudstones (with stratification and weakness planes dipping toward sea) and non-consolidated, easily liquefacted, fine sediments; both conditions facilitate the occurrence of rocks falls, slides and mud flows that result in high figures of cliff retreat (3 to 4 m), specially during the first 15 days of the summer-winter transition (April) and in high waves periods. The case of the littoral erosion between Arboletes

  9. Tourism, globalization and the environment in the Mexican Caribbean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Córdoba y Ordóñez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The terms globalization and tourism tend to be regarded as synonyms in the Mexican Caribbean, an area which shifted from a virtually uninhabited borderline territory to a tourism center receiving over six million visitors peryear. Territorial occupation patterns derived from tourism -identified during field work through a physiognomic analysiswere used to investigate some of the implications of the complex relationship between tourism and development, the latter including not only economic but human factors, as well as with the natural and cultural environment characterized by both a great diversity and a great fragility.

  10. How to Avoid a Darkening Debt Storm in the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    Using the euro area and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union as case studies, this chapter argues that a comprehensive policy framework should comprise not only a rule for fiscal policy but also, and equally important, a broader set of strategies designed to improve competitiveness and economic...... of a fiscal and competitiveness compact. We use this framework to show how different policy institutions can retain different priorities in their own economies, and hence individual policies that are internally consistent, while also maintaining a degree of flexibility that allows them to deal with problems...

  11. Blackness and mestizaje: Afro-Caribbean music in Chetumal, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cunin, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Hierba Santa, Chan Santa Roots, Korto Circuito, Roots and Wisdom, Escuadrón 16, etc.: these are a few of the numerous reggae and ska groups from the state of Quintana Roo, in the south-eastern part of Mexico bordering Belize. While this region is traditionally associated with a dominant Maya culture or with the first mestizaje in Mexico, I will study Afro-Caribbean music in order to analyze, from a different perspective, socio-historical mechanisms of inclusion, transf...

  12. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion.

  13. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...... allowing ICs to become engines of integration lie for the most part outside the direct control of the judges, most notably, in other institutional, political, and societal actors, such as national judges, regional organs, legal and political elites, as well as academics. The article, hence, suggests...

  14. Reduced density of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum inside a Caribbean marine reserve linked to increased predation pressure by fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A. R.; Renaud, P. G.; Tyler, E. H. M.; Mumby, P. J.

    2009-09-01

    Disease has dramatically reduced populations of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Caribbean reefs, contributing to an increased abundance of macroalgae and reduction of coral cover. Therefore, recovery of D. antillarum populations is critically important, but densities are still low on many reefs. Among the many potential factors limiting these densities, the focus of this study is on predation pressure by fishes. Marine reserves provide opportunities to examine large-scale manipulations of predator-prey interactions and, therefore, D. antillarum densities were compared inside and outside a reserve in The Bahamas (Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park; ECLSP). Urchins and their fish predators were surveyed at nine sites inside and outside the ECLSP. Because of lower fishing effort, the total biomass of urchin predators, weighted by their dietary preferences for urchins, was significantly higher inside the ECLSP. Furthermore, fish community structure was significantly different inside the Park because of the increased biomass of the majority of species. No urchins were seen inside the ECLSP and this was significantly lower than the density of 0.04 urchin m-2 outside the Park. Regression analysis indicated that the relationship between the biomass of urchin predators and the proportion of transects containing urchins was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in fish biomass dramatically reduce urchin abundances. The link between lower density of urchins and higher density of their predators inside the ECLSP is strengthened by discounting five alternative primary mechanisms (variations in macroalgal cover, larval supply, environmental setting, density of other urchin species and abundance of predators not surveyed). Caribbean marine reserves have an important conservation role, but increased fish predation appears to reduce densities of D. antillarum. Urchins currently have limited functional significance on Bahamian reefs, but any future recovery of

  15. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  16. Caribbean small-island tourism styles and sustainable strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Klaus; McElroy, Jerome L.

    1992-09-01

    This article focuses on developing a sustainable tourism in small Caribbean islands, defined here as those that have populations of fewer than 500,000. Such islands share a very fragile ecology and a high dependence on tourism. They differ in their degree of tourist penetration and visitor density and the related degree of environmental degradation. To explain the link between tourism intensity and ecological vulnerability, the so-called “destination life-cycle model” is presented. This suggests that islands pass through three primary stages of tourist development low-density exploration, rapid growth and consolidation, and high-density maturation involving the substitution of man-made for natural attractions. A broad empirical test of the model is performed through a quantitative examination of the tourism characteristics and visitor densities of a cross section of 23 small Caribbean islands. The three basic stages or tourism styles are identified: low-impact emerging areas, high-density mass-market mature destinations, and rapidly growing intermediate islands in between. Some broad strategies consistent with the systems framework for a sustainable tourism with moderate densitites are briefly explored.

  17. Cost containment through pharmaceutical procurement: a Caribbean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Burnett, F

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the potential for health sector cost containment in developing countries through improved pharmaceutical procurement. By describing the specific example of the Eastern Caribbean Drug Service (ECDS), which provides a pooled procurement service to nine ministries of health in the small island nations of the Caribbean, it examines the elements of the procurement operation that allowed ECDS to reduce unit costs for pharmaceuticals by over 50 per cent during its first procurement cycle. The analysis of ECDS considers: (1) political will, institutional alliances, and the creation of a public sector monopsony; (2) pooling demand; (3) restricted international tendering and the pharmaceutical industry; (4) estimating demand and supplier guarantees; (5) reducing variety and increasing volume through standardizing pack sizes, dosage forms and strengths; (6) generic bidding and therapeutic alternative bidding; (7) mode of transport from foreign suppliers; (8) financing mechanisms, including choice of currency, foreign exchange, and terms of payment; (9) market conditions and crafting and enforcing supplier contracts; and, (10) the adjudication process, including consideration of suppliers' past performance, precision requirements in the manufacturing process, number of products awarded to suppliers, and issues of judgment. The authors consider the relevance of this agency's experience to other developing countries by providing a blueprint that can be adopted or modified to suit other situations.

  18. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  19. Substance Abuse and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Arreola, Iliana Alexandra; Bastos, Francisco I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    The Caribbean and Central America represent a formidable challenge for researchers and policy makers in the HIV field, due to their pronounced heterogeneity in terms of social, economic, and cultural contexts and the different courses the HIV epidemic has followed in the region. Such contrasting contexts and epidemics can be exemplified by 2 countries that share the island of Hispaniola, the French Creole-speaking Haiti, and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic. Haiti has experienced the worst epidemics outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Following a protracted economic and social crisis, recently aggravated by a devastating earthquake, the local HIV epidemic could experience resurgence. The region, strategically located on the way between coca-producing countries and the profitable North American markets, has been a transshipment area for years. Notwithstanding, the impact of such routes on local drug scenes has been very heterogeneous and dynamic, depending on a combination of local mores, drug enforcement activities, and the broad social and political context. Injecting drug use remains rare in the region, but local drug scenes are dynamic under the influence of increasing mobility of people and goods to and from North and South America, growing tourism and commerce, and prostitution. The multiple impacts of the recent economic and social crisis, as well as the influence of drug-trafficking routes across the Caribbean and other Latin American countries require a sustained effort to track changes in the HIV risk environment to inform sound drug policies and initiatives to minimize drug-related harms in the region.

  20. The 2009/2010 Caribbean drought: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Everson J

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of drought in the Caribbean have not been as dramatic as in some other parts of world, but it is not exempt from the experiences of drought. As a result of the effects of a prolonged drought in 2009/2010, the agenda for the 21st Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) paid particular attention to the issue of drought. This paper reviews the management framework for responding to drought disasters in five CARICOM countries. The paper also reports on some of the effects of the 2009/2010 drought with particular reference to Grenada and the Grenadines. During the drought in these islands there were numerous bush fires with devastating effects on agriculture, severe water shortages that impacted on the tourism industry and other social effects. It is evident that there was inadequate preparation for the event. Greater planning and investment are therefore required to reduce future impacts. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  1. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching. PMID:24400078

  2. Impact of Undertreated Sickle Cell Pain in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD Shah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Undertreated pain around the world includes the acute and chronic pain caused by sickle cell disease (SCD. In collaboration with a Caribbean association that aims to provide assistance to those diagnosed with SCD, we surveyed adults with SCD about pain management and impact of SCD pain. Methods: Participants were recruited from a group of 55 adults with SCD. A survey was administered to those who agreed to participate. Questions centred on their self-assessed level of pain due to SCD, the extent to which that pain interferes with daily activities, and how they seek and obtain pain relief. Results: Responses were received from 39 participants (female: n = 28, 72%, male: n = 11, 28%; mean age: 31.6 (SD ± 13.7 years. Sickle cell disease pain significantly disrupts participants’ daily activities (62%, mood (72%, work (64% and sleep (69%. Prescription medicine was ineffective for 41% and about half (n = 19 sought alternate means of relief. Conclusion: Sickle cell disease pain is undertreated in the Caribbean, disrupts daily activities and affects quality of life by impinging on education, employment and marital status. Sickle cell disease and other types of pain can be clinically managed safely, effectively and inexpensively. By failing to palliate and overcome the problem of undertreated pain, healthcare systems and providers contribute to socio-economic amongst other repercussions for sufferers, their families and caregivers, and their nations.

  3. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  4. Ostracods biostratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene carbonate platform in the Northeastern Amazonia coast and its correlation with the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anna Andressa Evangelista; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Oligocene-Miocene ostracods biozones are proposed for the ∼65 m-thick platform carbonate succession exposed in the Northeastern Amazonia coast, Brazil. Previous biostratigraphic studies based on planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and palynomorphs are poorly age constrained and have hindered the correlation with other units of the Atlantic Equatorial margin. Tectonic stability of the Northeastern Amazonia coast during Neogene, associated with reduced riverine inflow and continuous sea level rise, allowed the establishment of lagoon/mangroves, tidal channel and shallow platform settings favoring massive proliferation of benthic ostracods. The recurrence of these depositional systems along of entire Oligocene-Miocene succession contributed mainly for the preservation of typical assemblages of lagoonal ostracods. Among thirty-two ostracods genera identified, the most of them are generally polyhalines associated with a mesohaline genus as Perissocytheridea. Rare ostracods genera typical of offshore zone indicate limited oceanic connection with lagoon. Additionally, the rare presence of Cyprideis indicates a relatively stable salinity degree suggesting change in the lagoon dynamic until estuarine conditions. The ostracods comprise more than 100 species, ranging from Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene with five index species correspondent to a single zone called the Cytherella stainforthi Zone that was subdivided in four sub-biozones: 1) Jugosocythereis pannosa, 2) Quadracythere brachypygaia, 3) Triebelina crumena and 4) Neocaudites macertus. This new zonation was calibrated with the Blow's and Wade's planktonic foraminifers zones (N.3 to N.7 zones corresponding to O6 to M4b of Wade) and with van den Bold's zonation in the Neogene Caribbean region. Ostracod assemblages described here provide an excellent biostragraphic framework for local, intrabasinal and regional correlation for the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Northeastern Amazonia coast and Caribbean regions

  5. Downscaled projections of Caribbean coral bleaching that can inform conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki

    2015-09-01

    Projections of climate change impacts on coral reefs produced at the coarse resolution (~1°) of Global Climate Models (GCMs) have informed debate but have not helped target local management actions. Here, projections of the onset of annual coral bleaching conditions in the Caribbean under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 are produced using an ensemble of 33 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 models and via dynamical and statistical downscaling. A high-resolution (~11 km) regional ocean model (MOM4.1) is used for the dynamical downscaling. For statistical downscaling, sea surface temperature (SST) means and annual cycles in all the GCMs are replaced with observed data from the ~4-km NOAA Pathfinder SST dataset. Spatial patterns in all three projections are broadly similar; the average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching is 2040-2043 for all projections. However, downscaled projections show many locations where the onset of annual severe bleaching (ASB) varies 10 or more years within a single GCM grid cell. Managers in locations where this applies (e.g., Florida, Turks and Caicos, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, among others) can identify locations that represent relative albeit temporary refugia. Both downscaled projections are different for the Bahamas compared to the GCM projections. The dynamically downscaled projections suggest an earlier onset of ASB linked to projected changes in regional currents, a feature not resolved in GCMs. This result demonstrates the value of dynamical downscaling for this application and means statistically downscaled projections have to be interpreted with caution. However, aside from west of Andros Island, the projections for the two types of downscaling are mostly aligned; projected onset of ASB is within ±10 years for 72% of the reef locations. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Physiological response of the Caribbean Coral O. annularis to Pollution Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. L.; Sivaguru, M.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Orbicella annularis is an abundant ecological cornerstone framework-building Scleractinian coral throughout the Caribbean Sea. The O. annularis holobiont (biotic and abiotic components of the coral) is negatively impacted by increased exposure to anthropogenic pollution. This is consistently evidenced by altered tissue cellular composition, and skeletal structure. The O. annularis' holobiont is weakened by increased exposure to sewage and ship bilge pollution. Pollution exposure is characterized by decreased skeletal growth, as well as decreased zooxanthellae and chromatophore tissue cell densities. Healthy colonies studied at five sites on the leeward coast of Curacao, along a systematically decreasing pollution concentration, were sampled from the back-reef depositional facies of a protected fringing reef tract. A unidirectional oceanographic current flows to the NW past the city of Willemstad, a large point source of human sewage and ship bilge. This setting creates an ideal natural laboratory for in situ experimentation that quantitatively tracks the impact to coral physiology along a gradient from unimpacted to polluted seawater. Our lab has established laser scanning microscopy for three-dimensional (3D) quantification of zooxanthellae, and chromatophore cellular tissue density. X-ray computed tomography (BioCT) was used for analysis of skeletal density. Zooxanthellae density decreased as pollution concentration increased. Chromatophore density showed no significant relationship with pollution concentration but varied dramatically within each site. This suggests zooxanthellae density is highly impacted by environmental stress while variation in chromatophore density is driven by genetic variation. These results will be used to create a new model for environmental impacts on coral physiology and skeletal growth.

  7. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (−1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic

  8. Natural Hazard Mitigation Strategies in the Continental Caribbean: The Case of Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem M. Usher

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La petite nation de Belize est nichée au cœur de l’Amérique Centrale, bordée au nord par le Mexique, à l'ouest et au sud par le Guatemala ; la mer Caraïbe constituant sa frontière orientale. Situé sur la trajectoire des cyclones tropicaux atlantiques, le pays est exposé aux catastrophes atmosphériques. Parmi les plus notables dans l’histoire de Bélize : l'ouragan de 1931 et l'ouragan Hattie qui ont fait 275 victimes et causé des dommages évalués à plus de 1 milliard de dollars. En réponse, le pays a mis en place diverses politiques responsables et inédites visant la réduction des risques afin de sauvegarder sa population et de protéger l’essor du tourisme. Malgré ces efforts, la majorité des populations côtières demeure vulnérable aux ouragans et aux inondationsThe small nation of Belize is nestled on the Central American Continent bounded on its north by Mexico, the west and south by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea on its eastern border.  Located in the path of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, the country is susceptible to atmospheric disasters.  Most notably are the Hurricane of 1931 and Hurricane Hattie which claimed 275 lives and caused damages in excess of US$1 Billion. Consequently, Belize has implemented several responsible and original mitigation policies to safeguard its population and protect the bourgeoning tourism industry. In spite of those efforts, most of its coastal populations remain vulnerable to hurricanes and floods.

  9. Spatial variation in basic chemistry of streams draining a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, C.M.; Triska, F.J.; Browder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variability in selected chemical, physical and biological parameters was examined in waters draining relatively pristine tropical forests spanning elevations from 35 to 2600 meters above sea level in a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope. Waters were sampled within three different vegetative life zones and two transition zones. Water temperatures ranged from 24-25 ??C in streams draining lower elevations (35-250 m) in tropical wet forest, to 10 ??C in a crater lake at 2600 m in montane forest. Ambient phosphorus levels (60-300 ??g SRP L-1; 66-405 ??g TP L-1) were high at sites within six pristine drainages at elevations between 35-350 m, while other undisturbed streams within and above this range in elevation were low (typically <30.0 ??g SRP L-1). High ambient phosphorus levels within a given stream were not diagnostic of riparian swamp forest. Phosphorus levels (but not nitrate) were highly correlated with conductivity, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and SO4. Results indicate two major stream types: 1) phosphorus-poor streams characterized by low levels of dissolved solids reflecting local weathering processes; and 2) phosphorus-rich streams characterized by relatively high Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca and other dissolved solids, reflecting dissolution of basaltic rock at distant sources and/or input of volcanic brines. Phosphorus-poor streams were located within the entire elevation range, while phosphorus-rich streams were predominately located at the terminus of Pleistocene lava flows at low elevations. Results indicate that deep groundwater inputs, rich in phosphorus and other dissolved solids, surface from basaltic aquifers at breaks in landform along faults and/or where the foothills of the central mountain range merge with the coastal plain. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  10. Estimates of the non-market value of sea turtles in Tobago using stated preference techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazabon-Mannette, Michelle; Schuhmann, Peter W; Hailey, Adrian; Horrocks, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Economic benefits are derived from sea turtle tourism all over the world. Sea turtles also add value to underwater recreation and convey non-use values. This study examines the non-market value of sea turtles in Tobago. We use a choice experiment to estimate the value of sea turtle encounters to recreational SCUBA divers and the contingent valuation method to estimate the value of sea turtles to international tourists. Results indicate that turtle encounters were the most important dive attribute among those examined. Divers are willing to pay over US$62 per two tank dive for the first turtle encounter. The mean WTP for turtle conservation among international visitors to Tobago was US$31.13 which reflects a significant non-use value associated with actions targeted at keeping sea turtles from going extinct. These results illustrate significant non-use and non-consumptive use value of sea turtles, and highlight the importance of sea turtle conservation efforts in Tobago and throughout the Caribbean region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular responses in sea fan corals: granular amoebocytes react to pathogen and climate stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Mydlarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate warming is causing environmental change making both marine and terrestrial organisms, and even humans, more susceptible to emerging diseases. Coral reefs are among the most impacted ecosystems by climate stress, and immunity of corals, the most ancient of metazoans, is poorly known. Although coral mortality due to infectious diseases and temperature-related stress is on the rise, the immune effector mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of corals to such events remain elusive. In the Caribbean sea fan corals (Anthozoa, Alcyonacea: Gorgoniidae, the cell-based immune defenses are granular acidophilic amoebocytes, which are known to be involved in wound repair and histocompatibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time in corals that these cells are involved in the organismal response to pathogenic and temperature stress. In sea fans with both naturally occurring infections and experimental inoculations with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii, an inflammatory response, characterized by a massive increase of amoebocytes, was evident near infections. Melanosomes were detected in amoebocytes adjacent to protective melanin bands in infected sea fans; neither was present in uninfected fans. In naturally infected sea fans a concurrent increase in prophenoloxidase activity was detected in infected tissues with dense amoebocytes. Sea fans sampled in the field during the 2005 Caribbean Bleaching Event (a once-in-hundred-year climate event responded to heat stress with a systemic increase in amoebocytes and amoebocyte densities were also increased by elevated temperature stress in lab experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection and temperature stress. The ability to mount an inflammatory response may be a contributing factor that allowed the survival of even infected sea fan corals during a

  12. Temporal Relationships Between African Dust and Chlorophyll-a in the Eastern Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Andujar, N. X.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Torres-Delgado, E.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal African Dust (AD) transports soluble iron to oligotrophic Caribbean waters, and when bioavailable, it could increase marine primary productivity (PP). Recently, the region has experienced the proliferation of unusually high quantities of Sargassum, an iron-absorbing macroalgae inhabiting the air-sea interface, which possess ecological and economic challenges and whose driving factors are still uncertain. AD events reach Puerto Rico (PR) mostly during boreal summer months. This is also the season when chlorophyll-α (CHL) concentrations are highest, when the algae starts to bloom, and when sediment plumes from the Orinoco River (ORP) also reach nutrient discharge maxima.This study seeks to better understand the temporal relationships between increases in chlorophyll-α and the presence of african dust events in the region. Aerosol data collected at the Cabezas de San Juan Atmospheric Observatory was used to identify AD events between January 2005 and December 2015. Light scattering coefficients were measured with an integrating Nephelometer, while light absorption coefficients were obtained from either the Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer (PSAP) or the Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP). Spectral properties suggesting AD events were cross-referenced with surface dust concentration image models and source-attributed air masses corresponding to dusty periods using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories (HYSPLIT). For all years with spectral data, modeled monthly wet dust deposition was correlated (r=0.64) with mean CHL concentrations from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Daily dust mass column densities from NASA's MERRA-2 model were also correlated (r2= 0.53) to sea surface iron concentrations from NASA's Ocean Biogeochemical Model. We present the 2010 case study, which coincides with the start of the Sargassum bloom and shows CHL peaks occurring a month before ORPs but during the AD season

  13. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  14. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  15. Antiparasitic bromotyrosine derivatives from the Caribbean marine Sponge Aiolochroia crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Elkin; Martinez, Alejandro; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Six bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Aiolochroia crassa: 3-bromo-5-hydroxy Ο-methyltyrosine (1), 3-bromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyrosinium (2), 3-bromo-N,N,N,ο-tetramethyltyrosinium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,Ntrimethyltyrosinium (4), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N,O-tetramethyltyrosinium (5), and aeroplysinin-1 (6). Structural determination was performed using NMR, MS and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compound 4 showed selective antiparasitic activity against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites. This is the first report of compounds 1, 4 and 5 in the sponge A. crassa and the first biological activity reports for compounds 2-4. This work shows that bromotyrosines are potential antiparasitic agents. (author)

  16. The First World War in the Caribbean: Research Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Calmettes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the eve of World War I, the countries of the Caribbean basin are absent from the international arena. In Cuba, the Platt amendment - inscribed in the constitutional statute of the Republic - deprives the island of all diplomatic independence. Dominican Republic and Haití construct their nationalistic discourses in relation to their historical oppositions for the dominion of the island. In Cuba, a large part of the members of the independence elite express sincere admiration for the “civilized” culture of their neighbor. They perceive the latter as a means of erasing the vestiges of a Spanish “barbarism” that should be definitively relegated to a distant past. The American intervention of 1906-1909, the invasion of Nicaragua and the Enrique Mazas case contributed to the birth of an anti-imperialist intellectual movement in the period immediately prior to the war whose first manifesto titled Contra el Yankee was published in 1913 by Cesar Gandarilla.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Induced Air-Sea Interactions Over Oceanic Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Recent severe tropical cyclones underscore the inherent importance of warm background ocean fronts and their interactions with the atmospheric boundary layer. Central to the question of heat and moisture fluxes, the amount of heat available to the tropical cyclone is predicated by the initial mixed layer depth and strength of the stratification that essentially set the level of entrainment mixing at the base of the mixed layer. In oceanic regimes where the ocean mixed layers are thin, shear-induced mixing tends to cool the upper ocean to form cold wakes which reduces the air-sea fluxes. This is an example of negative feedback. By contrast, in regimes where the ocean mixed layers are deep (usually along the western part of the gyres), warm water advection by the nearly steady currents reduces the levels of turbulent mixing by shear instabilities. As these strong near-inertial shears are arrested, more heat and moisture transfers are available through the enthalpy fluxes (typically 1 to 1.5 kW m-2) into the hurricane boundary layer. When tropical cyclones move into favorable or neutral atmospheric conditions, tropical cyclones have a tendency to rapidly intensify as observed over the Gulf of Mexico during Isidore and Lili in 2002, Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005, Dean and Felix in 2007 in the Caribbean Sea, and Earl in 2010 just north of the Caribbean Islands. To predict these tropical cyclone deepening (as well as weakening) cycles, coupled models must have ocean models with realistic ocean conditions and accurate air-sea and vertical mixing parameterizations. Thus, to constrain these models, having complete 3-D ocean profiles juxtaposed with atmospheric profiler measurements prior, during and subsequent to passage is an absolute necessity framed within regional scale satellite derived fields.

  18. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC......As part of their capacity development efforts to promote mitigation actions, the UNEP DTU Partnership, together with the UNFCCC Regional Collaborating Centre in the Caribbean, UNDP and OLADE, agreed to collaborate with Caribbean countries willing to update or establish their grid emission factors...... emission factor for countries with generation units with similar characteristics. Data on the power systems of the different countries have been collected from several centres and institutions, including the UNEP DTU Partnership, the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), the Caribbean Community...

  19. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a letter of 28 January 1994, the Director General was informed that on 18 January 1994, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean entered into force for the Argentine Republic

  20. 76 FR 34656 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and... evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and stock status criteria, and project future.... SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the Caribbean stocks of silk snapper, queen snapper and redtail...

  1. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; Ingen, J. van; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2016-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen.

  2. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  3. Pilot Testing HIV Prevention in an Afro Caribbean Faith-Based Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Cynthia M; Newman, David

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to test an HIV prevention intervention for Afro-Caribbean female teens. The purpose was to improve knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS, improve mother-daughter sexual communication, and to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Using a community-based approach, sixty mother and daughter pairs were randomly assigned. One condition was experimental using the Making Proud Choices Caribbean Style (MPCCS); another was a comparison of General Health Education. Independent t-tests were used for analysis between the pretest, posttest and 90 days posttests. MPCCS indicated clear usage with other Caribbean teens. This study helped to support the theory when Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens feel they need to become sexually active (subjective norm), and have referent support (parental support), they may blend values, knowledge, and skills (control beliefs), and are likely to make proud choices to reduce risky sexual behavior in minimizing HIV in their communities.

  4. 76 FR 45231 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries..., South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  5. Cervical cancer screening programs: technical cooperation in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, D B

    1996-12-01

    This article presents the findings and recommendations of the evaluation of a project that aimed to decrease mortality from cervical cancer in the Caribbean. The Cervical Cancer Control Project was initiated in 1990 in 10 countries in the Caribbean with a total population of 850,000. The project was directed at women aged 25-69 years and sought to increase cervical screening. The production of education materials was based on a KAP survey conducted in Barbados and Grenada. Findings indicate that Pap smears were more popular among young, better educated women. Men contributed to decision making on reproductive health issues, but women would follow the advice of health professionals. The following informative materials were produced: brochures on prevention, public service announcements, and posters. A follow-up survey indicated little impact of the IEC campaign to increase screenings. Training materials were produced that aimed to assure the quality in performance of Pap smear procedures among health workers. Laboratory-based cervical cytology registries were established that were compatible with PAHO/WHO systems. Quality control in laboratories was reinforced by meetings with pathologists and by exploration of the use of semi-automated cytology screening systems. Meetings were conducted in 1996 to assess whether project goals had been met. It was recommended that cost-benefit studies be conducted in order to prove to policy makers that there was a need to invest in screening programs. It was recommended that community and women's groups be encouraged to participate in awareness creation. Recruitment of the target population should be more flexible and involve possible use of mobile clinics in the workplace and communities. Simple, accurate information needs to be communicated through all available channels, including social marketing. Clinicians need to learn to manage their time and to prioritize their work load.

  6. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  7. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  8. Blindness and visual impairment in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, B; West, S K

    2002-05-01

    To summarise available data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the Americas and the Caribbean. The published literature was searched in Medline and LILACS using the following key words: blindness, visual impairment, prevalence. Articles were reviewed, and the references of the articles were also searched for relevant articles, which were also reviewed. Using the mortality in children under the age of 5 as an indicator, the overall prevalence of childhood blindness (in the under age 15 group) for the region was estimated at 0.45/1000, with the majority (67%) living in countries with mortality of children under age 5 above 30/1000 live births. Corneal opacities were more common in countries where the under 5 year mortality are above 30/1000 live births and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was an important cause in countries with intermediate death rates. For adults, overall blindness rates were not estimated because of the social, economic, and ethnic diversity in the region. The primary causes of visual loss in adults in the Americas were age related eye diseases, notably cataract and glaucoma in the African-American and Hispanic populations, and age related macular degeneration in the white population. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of decreased vision across ages, ethnic groups, and countries. More data are needed on the magnitude and causes of visual loss for the Caribbean and Latin American countries. Rates of blindness and visual loss from available data within these countries are widely disparate. Prevention and control of avoidable blindness needs to be an ongoing focus in this region.

  9. Genomic timetree and historical biogeography of Caribbean island ameiva lizards (Pholidoscelis: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Derek B.; Hedges, Stephen Blair; Colli, Guarino R.; Pyron, Robert Alexander; Sites, Jack W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of Caribbean island ameivas (Pholidoscelis) are not well?known because of incomplete sampling, conflicting datasets, and poor support for many clades. Here, we use phylogenomic and mitochondrial DNA datasets to reconstruct a well?supported phylogeny and assess historical colonization patterns in the group. We obtained sequence data from 316 nuclear loci and one mitochondrial marker for 16 of 19 extant species of the Caribbean e...

  10. “Profiles of Depressive Symptoms among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks”

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert J; Jackson, James S

    2007-01-01

    Latent profile analysis was used to summarize profiles of depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Blacks. Analyses are based on the responses of 4,915 African Americans and Caribbean Blacks from the National Survey of American Life. A high symptoms and a low symptoms class were identified. Age, gender, negative social interaction within the individual's social network (e.g., conflict demands, criticism) and racial discrimination were associ...

  11. 48 CFR 25.504-2 - WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin... 25.504-2 WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs. Example 1. Offer A 304,000 U.S.-made end... the acquisition is covered by the WTO GPA and there is an offer of a U.S.-made or an eligible product...

  12. Benefits and Costs of LORAN-C Expansion into the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    exported by Caribbean islands are sugar, citrus, rice, bananas, avocados , green coffee, and papaya. However, despite the fact that the Caribbean...xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 3-1 Cruise Ship Arrivals in the Bahamas, San Juan, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 3-3 3-2 Imports- Exports ...manufacturing activity as well. There are several watch and textile plants, and one aluminum plant. In recent years U.S. firms have been exporting

  13. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    block, the Perija Range, and the Merida Andes (Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). The steep descent of the CAR under Maracaibo implies that the CAR plate is torn somewhere between the Merida Andes and the Caribbean Sea, where it forms the ocean floor. An upcoming broadband seismic experiment will examine the CAR flat slab and the suspected slab tear in detail.

  14. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant Benthic Species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier M de Bakker

    Full Text Available Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we examined the population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two prominent benthic species, the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Xestospongia muta. Sequence data were collected from 34 colonies of M. cavernosa (nDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2; 892 bp and 68 X. muta sponges (mtDNA I3-M11 partition of COI; 544 bp on Saba Bank and around Saba Island, and compared with published data across the wider Caribbean. Our data indicate that there is genetic connectivity between populations on Saba Bank and the nearby Saba Island as well as multiple locations in the wider Caribbean, ranging in distance from 100s-1000s km. The genetic diversity of Saba Bank populations of M. cavernosa (π = 0.055 and X. muta (π = 0.0010 was comparable to those in other regions in the western Atlantic. Densities and health status were determined along 11 transects of 50 m2 along the south-eastern rim of Saba Bank. The densities of M. cavernosa (0.27 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.12-0.52 were average, while the densities of X. muta (0.09 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.02-0.32 were generally higher with respect to other Caribbean locations. No disease or bleaching was present in any of the specimens of the coral M. cavernosa, however, we did observe partial tissue loss (77.9% of samples as well as overgrowth (48.1%, predominantly by cyanobacteria. In contrast, the majority of observed X. muta (83.5% showed signs of presumed bleaching. The combined results of apparent gene flow among populations on Saba Bank and surrounding reefs, the high abundance and unique genetic diversity, indicate that Saba Bank could function as an important buffer for the region. Either as a natural source of larvae to

  15. Tectonic and environmental factors controlling on the evolution of Oligo-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along a tropical SE Circum-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Lara, M. E.; Nana Yobo, L.; Erdal, Y. D.; Sanchez, J.; Zapata-Ramirez, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    carbonate factory. This shift in the carbonate factory was favored by a major extensional component that resulted in subsidence and relative sea level rise along the Caribbean - South American margin. This extensional component is evidenced by the occurrence of normal faults that controlled the thickness and lateral extension of shallow marine rodalgal biostromes. The onset of the rodalgal biostromes, which elsewhere is associated with excellent carbonate reservoirs, also parallels the initiation of the Urumaco Trough and a further increase in silicilastic input toward the Cocinetas sub-basin. It also parallels a major tectonic reactivation along the Caribbean - South American plate boundary which resulted from the initial closure of the Panama Seaway.

  16. New Hf-Nd evidence supports a heterogeneous plume source for the Caribbean Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.M.E; Kempton, P.D; White, R.V; Kerr, A.C; Tarney, J.; Sauders, A.D

    2001-01-01

    Hf-Nd systematics provide us with a valuable tool for tracing mantle sources and signatures in ancient or altered rocks. Hf and Nd are amongst the most resistant of all elements to secondary alteration processes (Pearce et al., 1999) and hence can give us insights into the source compositions of altered plateau basalts that other isotopic systems will not. Here we use Hf-Nd systematics to probe the depths of the Cretaceous Caribbean Plateau, in order to characterise its isotope systematics, and hence determine the geochemical nature of the mantle plume responsible for its formation. Much of the plateau is already well characterised in terms of trace elements and isotopes such as Sr, Nd, Pb and Os (Kerr et al., 1997; White et al., 1999; Walker et al., 1999). Unfortunately, isotope system resetting due to sub- solidus alteration, amongst other factors, has ensured that these isotopes have been inconclusive in resolving many important issues, such as whether the Caribbean plateau is a product of an earlier Galapagos plume phase, and how the apparently unique Gorgona komatiites relate to the rest of the Caribbean plateau. We present new Hf-Nd isotopic data which reveal that the Caribbean plume must have been compositionally heterogeneous, comprising at least three different source components. We then compare this 'Caribbean plume' to other present-day plumes, (e.g. Galapagos) and from this speculate whether initial magmatism from the Galapagos plume could indeed have been responsible for the formation of the Caribbean Plateau (au)

  17. Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B

    2008-06-22

    The productivity and biomass of pristine coral reef ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly in the Caribbean where communities have been impacted by overfishing and multiple other stressors over centuries. Using historical data on the spatial distribution and abundance of the extinct Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis), this study reconstructs the population size, structure and ecological role of this once common predator within coral reef communities, and provides evidence that historical reefs supported biomasses of fishes and invertebrates up to six times greater than those found on typical modern Caribbean reefs. An estimated 233,000-338,000 monk seals were distributed among 13 colonies across the Caribbean. The biomass of reef fishes and invertebrates required to support historical seal populations was 732-1018 gm(-2) of reefs, which exceeds that found on any Caribbean reef today and is comparable with those measured in remote Pacific reefs. Quantitative estimates of historically dense monk seal colonies and their consumption rates on pristine reefs provide concrete data on the magnitude of decline in animal biomass on Caribbean coral reefs. Realistic reconstruction of these past ecosystems is critical to understanding the profound and long-lasting effect of human hunting on the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.

  18. Genetic variation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida and the Caribbean using microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Dean, David; Beerli, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.

  19. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  20. An Experimental Real-Time Ocean Nowcast/Forecast System for Intra America Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, D. S.; Preller, R. H.; Martin, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    An experimental real-time Ocean Nowcast/Forecast System has been developed for the Intra America Seas (IASNFS). The area of coverage includes the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The system produces nowcast and up to 72 hours forecast the sea level variation, 3D ocean current, temperature and salinity fields. IASNFS consists an 1/24 degree (~5 km), 41-level sigma-z data-assimilating ocean model based on NCOM. For daily nowcast/forecast the model is restarted from previous nowcast. Once model is restarted it continuously assimilates the synthetic temperature/salinity profiles generated by a data analysis model called MODAS to produce nowcast. Real-time data come from satellite altimeter (GFO, TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-2) sea surface height anomaly and AVHRR sea surface temperature. Three hourly surface heat fluxes, including solar radiation, wind stresses and sea level air pressure from NOGAPS/FNMOC are applied for surface forcing. Forecasts are produced with available NOGAPS forecasts. Once the nowcast/forecast are produced they are distributed through the Internet via the updated web pages. The open boundary conditions including sea surface elevation, transport, temperature, salinity and currents are provided by the NRL 1/8 degree Global NCOM which is operated daily. An one way coupling scheme is used to ingest those boundary conditions into the IAS model. There are 41 rivers with monthly discharges included in the IASNFS.

  1. Global Culture, Island Identity: Continuity and Change in the Afro-Caribbean Community of Nevis by Karen Fog Olwig

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, WM

    1995-01-01

    This important book sheds light on the interplay of hierarchy and equality, the local and the global, and the Caribbean and the European in the cultural history of Nevis. In addition to bringing recent theoretical concerns with transnationalism and identity to Caribbean studies, Karen Olwig directs Caribbean ethnology away from static conceptions of kinship and household, religion and social life, and African cultural retentions, and toward an integration of kinship, gender,...

  2. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  3. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats. PMID:26488163

  4. Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Polunin, N.

    2001-05-01

    Since the 1970s, macroalgae have become considerably more abundant on many Caribbean reefs and overfishing of grazing fishes has been implicated as a contributory factor. We explored relationships between algal cover and grazers (biomass of herbivorous fishes and abundance of the sea-urchin Diadema antillarum) on mid-depth reefs (12-15 m) in 19 areas at seven locations in Jamaica, Barbados, Belize, Grand Cayman and Cuba, between April 1997 and April 1998. Diadema antillarum density was never >0.01 m-2, while herbivorous fish biomass (acanthurids and scarids ≥12 cm total length) varied from 2-5 g m-2 in Jamaica to 17.1 g m-2 in Barbados, and was strongly correlated, negatively with macroalgal cover and positively with 'cropped' substratum (sum of 'bare', turf and crustose-coralline substrata) cover. However, overfishing of herbivorous fishes alone cannot explain the widespread abundance of macroalgae, as even on lightly fished reefs, macroalgal cover was mostly >20%. Herbivorous fish populations on those reefs were apparently only able to maintain approximately 40-60% of reef substratum in cropped states, but due to low space-occupation by coral and other invertebrates, 70-90% of substratum was available to algae. The abundance of macroalgae on lightly fished reefs may therefore be a symptom of low coral cover in combination with the continuing absence of Diadema antillarum.

  5. Resolving Carbonate Platform Geometries on the Island of Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands through Semi-Automatic GPR Facies Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, R. D.; Laya, J. C.; Everett, M. E.

    2018-05-01

    The study of exposed carbonate platforms provides observational constraints on regional tectonics and sea-level history. In this work Miocene-aged carbonate platform units of the Seroe Domi Formation are investigated, on the island of Bonaire, located in the Southern Caribbean. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to probe near-surface structural geometries associated with these lithologies. The single cross-island transect described herein allowed for continuous mapping of geologic structures on kilometer length scales. Numerical analysis was applied to the data in the form of k-means clustering of structure-parallel vectors derived from image structure tensors. This methodology enables radar facies along the survey transect to be semi-automatically mapped. The results provide subsurface evidence to support previous surficial and outcrop observations, and reveal complex stratigraphy within the platform. From the GPR data analysis, progradational clinoform geometries were observed on the northeast side of the island which supports the tectonics and depositional trends of the region. Furthermore, several leeward-side radar facies are identified which correlate to environments of deposition conducive to dolomitization via reflux mechanisms.

  6. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño

    Full Text Available The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.. Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats.

  7. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Maxwell, Erin; Aguilera, Orangel A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats.

  8. Static measurements of the resilience of Caribbean coral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Bruckner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The progressive downward shift in dominance of key reef building corals, coupled with dramatic increases in macroalgae and other nuisance species, fields of unstable coral rubble ,loss of structural relief, and declines of major functional groups of fishes is a common occurrence throughout the Caribbean today. The incorporation of resilience principles into management is a proposed strategy to reverse this trend and ensure proper functioning of coral reefs under predicted scenarios of climate change, yet ecosystem processes and functions that underlie reef resilience are not fully understood. Rapid assessments using the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA and the IUCN Resilience Assessment protocol can provide baseline information on reef resilience. A key aspect of these surveys focuses on coral population dynamics, including measures of coral cover, size, partial and whole-colony mortality, condition, and recruitment. One challenge is that these represent static measures involving a single assessment. Without following individual corals over time, it is difficult to determine rates of survival and growth of recruits and adult colonies, and differentiation of juveniles from small remnants of older colonies may not be possible, especially when macroalgal cover is high. To address this limitation, corals assessed in Bonaire in July 2010 were subdivided into two categories: 1 colonies on the reef substrate; and 2 colonies colonizing dead corals and exposed skeletal surfaces of living corals. Coral populations in Bonaire exhibited many features indicative of high resilience, including high coral cover (often 30-50%, high levels of recruitment, and a large number of corals that settled on dead corals and survived to larger size-classes. Overall, the skeletal surfaces of 12 species of corals were colonized by 16 species of corals, with up to 12 settlers on each colony, most (67% on M. annularis (complex skeletons. Nevertheless, completely

  9. Octocoral Species Assembly and Coexistence in Caribbean Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Johanna; Sánchez, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    What are the determinant factors of community assemblies in the most diverse ecosystem in the ocean? Coral reefs can be divided in continental (i.e., reefs that develop on the continental shelf, including siliciclastic reefs) and oceanic (i.e., far off the continental shelf, usually on volcanic substratum); whether or not these habitat differences impose community-wide ecological divergence or species exclusion/coexistence with evolutionary consequences, is unknown. Studying Caribbean octocorals as model system, we determined the phylogenetic community structure in a coral reef community, making emphasis on species coexistence evidenced on trait evolution and environmental feedbacks. Forty-nine species represented in five families constituted the species pool from which a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using mtDNA. We included data from 11 localities in the Western Caribbean (Colombia) including most reef types. To test diversity-environment and phenotype-environment relationships, phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution we carried out comparative analyses implementing ecological and evolutionary approaches. Phylogenetic inferences suggest clustering of oceanic reefs (e.g., atolls) contrasting with phylogenetic overdispersion of continental reefs (e.g., reefs banks). Additionally, atolls and barrier reefs had the highest species diversity (Shannon index) whereas phylogenetic diversity was higher in reef banks. The discriminant component analysis supported this differentiation between oceanic and continental reefs, where continental octocoral species tend to have greater calyx apertures, thicker branches, prominent calyces and azooxanthellate species. This analysis also indicated a clear separation between the slope and the remaining habitats, caused by the presence or absence of Symbiodinium. K statistic analysis showed that this trait is conserved as well as the branch shape. There was strong octocoral community structure with opposite diversity

  10. Octocoral Species Assembly and Coexistence in Caribbean Coral Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Velásquez

    Full Text Available What are the determinant factors of community assemblies in the most diverse ecosystem in the ocean? Coral reefs can be divided in continental (i.e., reefs that develop on the continental shelf, including siliciclastic reefs and oceanic (i.e., far off the continental shelf, usually on volcanic substratum; whether or not these habitat differences impose community-wide ecological divergence or species exclusion/coexistence with evolutionary consequences, is unknown.Studying Caribbean octocorals as model system, we determined the phylogenetic community structure in a coral reef community, making emphasis on species coexistence evidenced on trait evolution and environmental feedbacks. Forty-nine species represented in five families constituted the species pool from which a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using mtDNA. We included data from 11 localities in the Western Caribbean (Colombia including most reef types. To test diversity-environment and phenotype-environment relationships, phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution we carried out comparative analyses implementing ecological and evolutionary approaches.Phylogenetic inferences suggest clustering of oceanic reefs (e.g., atolls contrasting with phylogenetic overdispersion of continental reefs (e.g., reefs banks. Additionally, atolls and barrier reefs had the highest species diversity (Shannon index whereas phylogenetic diversity was higher in reef banks. The discriminant component analysis supported this differentiation between oceanic and continental reefs, where continental octocoral species tend to have greater calyx apertures, thicker branches, prominent calyces and azooxanthellate species. This analysis also indicated a clear separation between the slope and the remaining habitats, caused by the presence or absence of Symbiodinium. K statistic analysis showed that this trait is conserved as well as the branch shape.There was strong octocoral community structure with opposite

  11. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  12. Parrotfish size: a simple yet useful alternative indicator of fishing effects on Caribbean reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of "commercial" carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today's Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species.

  13. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  14. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  15. Sexual reproduction in the Caribbean coral genus Isophyllia (Scleractinia: Mussidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Soto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000–2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I. sinuosa and from August through June in I. rigida. Oocytes began development 7–8 months prior to spermaries but both sexes matured simultaneously. Zooxanthellate planulae were observed in I. sinuosa during April and in I. rigida from June through September. Higher polyp and mesenterial fecundity were found in I. rigida compared to I. sinuosa. Larger oocyte sizes were found in I. sinuosa than in I. rigida, however larger planula sizes were found in I. rigida. Hermaphroditism is the exclusive sexual pattern within the Mussidae while brooding has been documented within the related genera Mussa, Scolymia and Mycetophyllia. This study represents the first description of the sexual characteristics of I. rigida and provides an updated description of I. sinuosa.

  16. Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Fullerton, Megan M; Cooper, Roland A; Kauffman, Kathryn M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Ratzlaff, Robert E

    2007-06-07

    Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) is a pathogenic virus that infects Caribbean spiny lobsters P. argus in the Florida Keys. We have developed a PCR detection assay for PaV1 for the purpose of studying the natural history of the virus and for monitoring the prevalence of infection. The detection of the virus in hemolymph and other tissues is based on the PCR amplification of a 499 bp product using specific primers designed from a cloned fragment of the PaV1 genome. The sensitivity limit for the assay was 1.2 fg of purified viral DNA. The PaV1 primers did not react with lobster DNA, oyster DNA, Ostreid Herpesvirus 1, or murine cytomegalovirus. Using this assay, we successfully followed the course of infection in lobsters inoculated with PaV1 and we detected infections in wild-caught lobsters from the Florida Keys. We have also established guidelines for interpreting infection results from the PCR assay for PaV1.

  17. The isolation and purification of a caribbean maitotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.E.; Knoepp, S.M.; Lanoue, B.A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The phenomenon known as red tide has been a topic of great interest in that there is concern that the scale and complexity of this natural phenomenon are expanding. It is known that the benthic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, produces a variety of polyether toxins that contaminate seafood and result in human illness. Maitotoxin (MTX) is one of the toxins that have been implicated in ciguatera seafood poisoning. There is a need for the development of a much broader understanding of the nature of the poisoning toxins. MTX cogeners can be difficult to isolate due to its size and chemical nature. A major goal is to obtain a purified standard of a Caribbean MTX so that more efficient assays can be developed to test seafood for the presence of toxins and thus avoid human harm. The primary goal of this project is to obtain large amounts of pure maitotoxin. The procedure described is also useful as a starting point for the purification of other toxins.

  18. Coral identity underpins architectural complexity on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Côte, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R; Gill, Jennifer A

    2011-09-01

    The architectural complexity of ecosystems can greatly influence their capacity to support biodiversity and deliver ecosystem services. Understanding the components underlying this complexity can aid the development of effective strategies for ecosystem conservation. Caribbean coral reefs support and protect millions of livelihoods, but recent anthropogenic change is shifting communities toward reefs dominated by stress-resistant coral species, which are often less architecturally complex. With the regionwide decline in reef fish abundance, it is becoming increasingly important to understand changes in coral reef community structure and function. We quantify the influence of coral composition, diversity, and morpho-functional traits on the architectural complexity of reefs across 91 sites at Cozumel, Mexico. Although reef architectural complexity increases with coral cover and species richness, it is highest on sites that are low in taxonomic evenness and dominated by morpho-functionally important, reef-building coral genera, particularly Montastraea. Sites with similar coral community composition also tend to occur on reefs with very similar architectural complexity, suggesting that reef structure tends to be determined by the same key species across sites. Our findings provide support for prioritizing and protecting particular reef types, especially those dominated by key reef-building corals, in order to enhance reef complexity.

  19. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  20. Herpetofauna of Neguanje, Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Castellanos Barliza, Jeiner

    2010-01-01

    The Herpetofauna of the Tayrona National Natural Park (Neguanje sector) was studied during 30 days between September and October 2004 by visual records, an active search and the arrangement of barriers with pitfall traps interception. 44 species (11 of amphibians and 33 of reptiles), distributed in 18 families and 37 genera, were registered. The species accumulation curves showed that approximately 20 days are sufficient to record all species of lizards, but not for the species of frogs and snakes. The lizard Lepidoblepharis sanctaemartae was the most abundant species recorded on the sector, which implies a potential advantage to assure its protection. The local distribution of the Colostethus ruthveni species, which had been reported in 1997 elsewhere for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, was extended. Finally, this study reveals that the herpetofauna at Neguanje represents 33% of the total number of species reported for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which has positioned this area as one of the most representative in terms of biodiversity in the Colombian Caribbean.

  1. Health and entrepreneurship in four Caribbean Basin countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Bailey, Henry; Hessels, Jolanda; van der Zwan, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The literature dealing with health and entrepreneurship has focused on developed countries. We use a sample of almost 5000 business owners and wage-workers from four Caribbean Basin countries to study this relationship. Analyses are performed using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor along with the Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ-5D-5L instrument as an overall health rating. The results show that business owners are healthier than wage-workers, which is in line with the findings from studies in developed countries. Furthermore, better health is associated with a lower likelihood for fear of business failure to be a deterrent to new business formation, a greater likelihood of self-belief in having the skills to run a business, and an increased recognition of start-up business opportunities among wage-workers. These positive associations between health and entrepreneurial perceptions provide new evidence about why less healthy individuals refrain from entrepreneurship. Finally, we find that the healthiest business owners run the companies with the highest growth expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Weak prezygotic isolating mechanisms in threatened Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Fogarty

    Full Text Available The Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, recently have undergone drastic declines primarily as a result of disease. Previous molecular studies have demonstrated that these species form a hybrid (A. prolifera that varies in abundance throughout the range of the parental distribution. There is variable unidirectional introgression across loci and sites of A. palmata genes flowing into A. cervicornis. Here we examine the efficacy of prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms within these corals including spawning times and choice and no-choice fertilization crosses. We show that these species have subtly different mean but overlapping spawning times, suggesting that temporal isolation is likely not an effective barrier to hybridization. We found species-specific differences in gametic incompatibilities. Acropora palmata eggs were relatively resistant to hybridization, especially when conspecific sperm are available to outcompete heterospecific sperm. Acropora cervicornis eggs demonstrated no evidence for gametic incompatibility and no evidence of reduced viability after aging four hours. This asymmetry in compatibility matches previous genetic data on unidirectional introgression.

  3. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  4. Weak prezygotic isolating mechanisms in threatened Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Nicole D; Vollmer, Steven V; Levitan, Don R

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, recently have undergone drastic declines primarily as a result of disease. Previous molecular studies have demonstrated that these species form a hybrid (A. prolifera) that varies in abundance throughout the range of the parental distribution. There is variable unidirectional introgression across loci and sites of A. palmata genes flowing into A. cervicornis. Here we examine the efficacy of prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms within these corals including spawning times and choice and no-choice fertilization crosses. We show that these species have subtly different mean but overlapping spawning times, suggesting that temporal isolation is likely not an effective barrier to hybridization. We found species-specific differences in gametic incompatibilities. Acropora palmata eggs were relatively resistant to hybridization, especially when conspecific sperm are available to outcompete heterospecific sperm. Acropora cervicornis eggs demonstrated no evidence for gametic incompatibility and no evidence of reduced viability after aging four hours. This asymmetry in compatibility matches previous genetic data on unidirectional introgression.

  5. Distribution of tortoises and freshwater turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Correa, Andres Camilo; Saboya Acosta, Liliana Patricia; Paez, Vivian; Vega, Karen; Renjifo, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris, Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, Department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded in the Canas River, Department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in the village of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, Department of Magdalena. Three of the four species included in this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.

  6. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (≥60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  7. High risk of tsunami in the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Nancy R.; Hearne, Meghan; Mann, Paul

    The magnitude Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 claimed the lives of an estimated 300,000 people living in coastal areas of seven different countries around the Indian Ocean. This event raised the question of whether similar far-traveled tsunamis generated by plate boundary faulting could affect the estimated 150 million people living in coastal areas of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.Aside from the Pacific plate margin of North America, the North America-Caribbean plate boundary is the closest (˜2000 km) active plate boundary to coastal areas in the Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic seaboard. Researchers also have proposed that other possible tsunami-generating sources that could affect coastal areas of the United States include slumping of the shelf margin along the Virginia-North Carolina margin [Driscoll et al., 2000] and slumping of volcanic edifices in the Canary Islands [Ward and Day, 2001].

  8. Corruption and Political Participation in the Americas and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bonifácio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an issue as yet little explored in the vast literature about political participation: the role of corruption in political engagement. It investigates whether the coexistence, the values and the perception of citizens in relation to corrupt practices and actors have effects on political activism, and it verifies the direction in which this is evolving, whether it is in the direction of engagement in or withdrawal from politics. The unit of analysis is the individual, the geographic sector includes the Americas and the Caribbean, and the time frame includes biennial intervals between 2004 and 2012. A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis of the data from the Americas Barometer is used. Five distinct types of political participation were identified: contact with political and governmental actors, community activism, partisan and electoral activism, voter turnout and protest activism. The article concludes that the experience with corruption and the tolerance for bribe increase the chances of engagement in participative activities, going against the principal contributions of the specialized literature.

  9. Drivers and inhibitors of renewable energy: A qualitative and quantitative study of the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, David; Vredenburg, Harrie; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the factors that affect the development of renewable energy in the Caribbean. The Caribbean region can serve as a laboratory in studying the institutional issues relating to energy development due to the differences in political jurisdictions over a short distance. Based on 12 case studies and 75 in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders, we identified five factors that appear to be critical for the development of renewable energy in the Caribbean: entrepreneurship attitudes, the role of local champions, the electric utility influence, informal institutions and the influence of international agencies. We built a multiple regression model to test these relationships through a survey of 34 political jurisdictions in the Caribbean. The statistical analysis we conducted suggests that informal institutions have a significant impact on the extent of renewable energy development, while the incumbent electricity utilities’ influence may impede the development of renewable energy. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations on how best to make use of these factors identified, in order to develop effective energy policies throughout the Caribbean. - Highlights: • Informal institutions impact the effectiveness of renewable energy policies • Electric utilities’ positioning can impede the development of renewable energy. • Entrepreneurship attitude may impact renewable energy development. • Role of champions and impact of international agencies may be additional factors

  10. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  11. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. A Modernized National Spatial Reference System in 2022: Focus on the Caribbean Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2022, the National Geodetic Survey will replace all three NAD 83 reference frames the four new terrestrial reference frames. Each frame will be named after a tectonic plate (North American, Pacific, Caribbean and Mariana) and each will be related to the IGS frame through three Euler Pole parameters (EPPs). This talk will focus on practical application in the Caribbean region. A working group is being re-established for development of the North American region and will likely also result in analysis of the Pacific region as well. Both of these regions are adequately covered with existing CORS sites to model the EPPs. The Mariana region currently lacks sufficient coverage, but a separate project is underway to collect additional information to help in defining EPPs for that region at a later date. The Caribbean region has existing robust coverage through UNAVCO's COCONet and other data sets, but these require further analysis. This discussion will focus on practical examination of Caribbean sites to establish candidates for determining the Caribbean frame EPPs as well as an examination of any remaining velocities that might inform a model of the remaining velocities within that frame (Intra-Frame Velocity Model). NGS has a vested interest in defining such a model to meet obligations to U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Beyond this, NGS aims to collaborate with other countries in the region through efforts with SIRGAS and UN-GGIM-Americas for a more acceptable regional model to serve everyone's needs.

  13. Satellite Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Budget over Gulf of Mexico- Caribbean Basin: Seasonal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Santos, Pablo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5 Imager and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometer (SSM/I) have been acquired for the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology is being tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the SSM/I passive microwave signals in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, we have sought to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is partly validated by first cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. More fundamental validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithm to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin. Total columnar atmospheric water budget results will be presented for an extended annual cycle consisting of the months of October-97, January-98, April-98, July-98, October-98, and January-1999. These results are used to emphasize

  14. Fluvial fluxes from the Magdalena River into Cartagena Bay, Caribbean Colombia: Trends, future scenarios, and connections with upstream human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Escobar, Rogger; Tosic, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Fluxes of continental runoff and sediments as well as downstream deposition of eroded soils have severely altered the structure and function of fluvial and deltaic-estuarine ecosystems. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers important amounts of water and sediments into Cartagena Bay, a major estuarine system in northern Colombia. Until now, trends in fluvial fluxes into the bay, as well as the relationship between these tendencies in fluvial inputs and associated upstream changes in the Magdalena catchment, have not been studied. Here we explore the interannual trends of water discharge and sediment load flowing from the Magdalena River-Canal del Dique system into Cartagena Bay during the last three decades, forecast future scenarios of fluxes into the bay, and discuss possible connections between observed trends in fluvial inputs and trends in human intervention in the Magdalena River basin. Significant upward trends in annual runoff and sediment load during the mid-1980s, 1990s, and post-2000 are observed in the Magdalena and in the Canal del Dique flowing into Cartagena Bay. During the last decade, Magdalena streamflow and sediment load experienced increases of 24% and 33%, respectively, compared to the pre-2000 year period. Meanwhile, the Canal del Dique witnessed increases in water discharge and sediment load of 28% and 48%, respectively. During 26 y of monitoring, the Canal del Dique has discharged 177 Mt of sediment to the coastal zone, of which 52 Mt was discharged into Cartagena Bay. Currently, the Canal drains 6.5% and transports 5.1% of the Magdalena water discharge and sediment load. By 2020, water discharge and sediment flux from the Canal del Dique flowing to the coastal zone will witness increments of 164% and 260%, respectively. Consequently, sediment fluxes into Cartagena Bay will witness increments as high as 8.2 Mt y- 1 or 317%. Further analyses of upstream sediment load series for 21

  15. Genetics reveal the identity and origin of the lionfish invasion in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariche, Michel; Kleitou, Periklis; Kalogirou, Stefanos; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2017-07-28

    Following aquarium releases, invasive lionfishes have colonized large areas of the Caribbean and western Atlantic, resulting in an immense ecological damage. The early stages of that invasion are poorly known. Indeed, a lag of time between the introduction and detection often preclude genetic characterization of that crucial phase. With elevated awareness, the recent invasion of Pterois miles was quickly detected in the Mediterranean Sea. We hereby show that the very first individuals establishing populations in the Mediterranean Sea display haplotypes that nest within the large genetic diversity of Red Sea individuals, thus indicating an invasion via the Suez Canal. We also show that only two haplotypes are detected in the Mediterranean Sea, suggesting that few individuals may have been involved in the invasion. Thus, we conclude that the Mediterranean invasion is the result of a movement of individuals from the Red Sea, rather than from other means, and that low genetic diversity does not seem to have a negative effect on the success and spread of lionfish into the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. The Contribution of Women's Writing to the Literature and Intellectual Achievements of the Caribbean: "Moi, Tituba Sorciere" and "Amour, Colere et Folie."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Nara

    1994-01-01

    Explores literary universe of Caribbean women writers, discusses contributions as reflective of their self-image, and examines Caribbean literature as collective identity of region. Author explains use of writing as means of linking events that reveal experiences of Caribbean women through more detailed analysis of two novels: "Moi, Tituba…

  17. Between Community Law and Common Law: The Rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice at the Intersection of Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) post-colonial legacies. Topics discussed include Caribbean Community (CARICOM) which accepted the Court's jurisdiction to interpret and apply the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (RTC); empowerment of CCJ for hearing cases invol...... involving Caribbean Community law (Community law); and CCJ's unique double jurisdiction.....

  18. Evidence of Last Interglacial sea-level oscillations and recent tectonism in the Late Pleistocene Falmouth Formation of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrivanek, A.; Dutton, A.; Stemann, T.

    2015-12-01

    The timing and rates of sea-level change during Marine Isotope Stage 5e (MIS 5e) are poorly constrained. Across the Caribbean, many MIS 5e reefs are exposed above modern sea level, and have been studied extensively to understand sea level and ice sheet dynamics during an interglacial climate. This study investigates potential evidence for sub-orbital sea-level oscillations in the limestone Falmouth Formation from the northern and southwestern coastlines of Jamaica, a tectonically active island on the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate. Vertical exposures of MIS 5e reefs contain multiple facies transitions that are sometimes associated with sharp unconformities. Outcrops at East Rio Bueno contain a distinct change in coral taxonomy from an assemblage of in situ Montastraea spp., Siderastrea and Diploria sp. encrusted by coralline algae, next to a repeated succession of Porites furcata, Acropora cervicornis, coralline algae and Porites astreoides, to in situ P. furcata. This is overlain by a fining-upwards sequence of coral rubble, a laterally persistent layer of small in situ Siderastrea and a ~1-m thick caprock. Near Oracabessa, a unit dominated by Acropora palmata clearly transitions into in situ Montastraea spp., Siderastrea, Colpophyllia natans, and Diploria sp. overlain by A. cervicornis. An abrupt vertical displacement of the sequence, indicating faulting, was observed at Oracabessa. Along the south coast, transitions in coral assemblages were also noted upsection. Common facies observed include in situ A. palmata and/or rubble, with a trend of reduction in algal encrustation upsection, capped by head corals and a regressive beach unit. The structure and composition of reefs preserved in the Falmouth Formation provide detailed information about sea-level behavior during MIS 5e, that will be used to test the hypothesis that sub-orbital sea-level oscillations occurred during the MIS 5e highstand. Evidence of tectonic activity along portions of the northern

  19. A review of bottom-up vs. top-down control of sponges on Caribbean fore-reefs: what’s old, what’s new, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Pawlik

    2018-01-01

    demonstrating predator preferences for sponge species that are abundant in these lagoonal habitats, but grazed away in fore-reef habitats. We conclude that sponge communities on Caribbean fore-reefs of the past and present are largely structured by predation, and offer new directions for research, such as determining the environmental conditions under which sponges may be food-limited (e.g., deep sea, lagoonal habitats and monitoring changes in sponge community structure as populations of hawksbill turtles rebound.

  20. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic