WorldWideScience

Sample records for caribbean region lignite

  1. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  2. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  3. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  4. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    OpenAIRE

    Dewailly Eric; Morrison Karen; Forde Martin; Badrie Neela; Robertson Lyndon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Carib...

  5. Faults of the Caribbean Region (flt6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes faults and structural features of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin...

  6. Surface Geology of the Caribbean Region (geo6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes polygons that describe the geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas,...

  7. Lignite; Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Erwin; Maassen, Uwe [Debriv e.V., Berlin und Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The domestic lignite is the most important and in the foreseeable future, the only domestic energy resource that is available in large quantities and economically. It makes an essential contribution to secure and competitive energy supply and has a high regional as macroeconomic importance. The required guarantied capacity for the development of renewable energy, the lignite provides under competition conditions. The flexibility of the lignite power plants is in addition to security of supply and competitiveness, a strategic added value for a reliable power supply. [German] Die heimische Braunkohle ist die wichtigste und in ueberschaubarer Zukunft auch die einzige heimische Energieressource, die in grossen Mengen und wirtschaftlich zur Verfuegung steht. Sie leistet einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur sicheren und wettbewerbsfaehigen Energieversorgung und hat eine hohe regional- wie gesamtwirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Die fuer den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien notwendige gesicherte Leistung stellt die Braunkohle unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen zur Verfuegung. Die Flexibilitaet des Braunkohlenkraftwerksparks ist neben Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ein strategischer Zusatznutzen fuer eine sichere Stromversorgung.

  8. Soil microfungal diversity on spoil sites in Sokolov and Most lignite mining regions (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    Greifswald : University of Greifswald, 2006. s. 137. [Land use changes in Europe as a challenge for restoration . Ecological, economical and ethical dimensions. European Conference on Ecological Restoration /5./. 21.08.2006-25.08.2006, Greifswald] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil microfungal diversity * spoil sites * lignite mining regions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  10. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A focus on development results is at the heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in middle-income and low income countries alike. Through knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we strive to help people across the region create better opportunities and build a better future for themselves, their famil...

  11. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particul

  12. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  13. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  14. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  15. Deformation of the Caribbean region: One plate or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Neal W.; Diebold, John B.

    1998-11-01

    New deep-penetrating high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data collected in the eastern Caribbean during R/V Ewing cruise EW9501 imaged both the crustal structure and overlying stratigraphic successions. On the basis of this new multichannel seismic data, we define the geologic development of the Beata Ridge and Venezuelan basin. The Caribbean crust was formed by seafloor spreading in Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous time. Prior to the Senonian, widespread and rapid eruption of basaltic flows began in concert with extensional deformation of the Caribbean crust. Thick volcanic wedges characterized by divergent reflectors are observed along the boundary that separates rough from smooth oceanic crust, are coincident with an abrupt shallowing of the Moho, and appear to be bounded by a large, northwest-dipping fault system. The locus of major extensional deformation migrated through time from the Venezuelan basin to the western flank of the Beata Ridge. Extensional unloading of the Beata Ridge footwall caused uplift and rotation of the ridge. Sediment thicknesses and stratal geometry observed across the Venezuelan basin and Beata Ridge suggest that the majority of the deformation in this region occurred during and soon after the emplacement of the volcanics. Minor fault reactivation in the Neogene along the eastern flank of the Beata Ridge is associated with an accommodation zone (i.e., tear fault) that records a change in the deformation style from bending and subduction of the Caribbean plate along the Muertos Trough south of Puerto Rico to compressional deformation and obduction of the Caribbean plate south of Hispaniola. We propose that this difference in deformational style is, in part, a consequence of the thicker crust on the Beata Ridge, which is more resistant to subduction.

  16. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lavieren, van, H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particularly chemical contaminants, and the ecological and/or human health risks. Given the substantial cultural and economic importance of coastal environments to WCR communities, this should be cause for...

  17. Agro-climatology of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-meteorology has for object the knowledge of the physical environment where the plants and the animals are developed, to make of him a better use, with the primordial purpose of optimizing the agricultural production. The climatology of the Caribbean Region, it is governed by the zonal processes of thermal and dynamic convection, together with the effect of the Inter-tropical Confluence Area (ITC) however, this extensive plain of the Colombian Caribbean, to be interrupted by the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta and framed by the Caribbean Sea and the Andean mountain ranges, it makes that big differences are presented in their climatic regime. In this study, climatic elements are analyzed in the region, such as the precipitation, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the radiation and the solar shine, the speed of the wind and the potential evapo-perspiration, besides the calculation of the hydraulic balances, those which as integrative of the agriculture-climatic aspects, they serve as base to make the climatic classifications, to know the growth periods and to calculate the potential water demands, fundamental parameters in the planning of the agricultural activities. With these results they stand out the diverse climates in the region, represented in climatic areas from arid until per-humid offer a wide range for the requirements of the different species that are used in the agricultural exploitations

  18. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  19. Regional competitiveness: Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Aramayo, Lourdes Gabriela Daza; Vokoun, Marek; Damborsky, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Regional Competitiveness can be defined as the region's potential in the long run enforce economically in competition with other regions while maintaining social cohesion and environmental sustainability. This ability is determined by many factors, such as innovation, technological progress, investment attractiveness, skills of the labor force, transportation infrastructure and quality of transport services, public sector efficiency and public security. These factors influence the resulting e...

  20. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  1. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  2. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  3. Turkey's major lignite fields and significance of lignite for energy necessity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the lignite use for Turkey's energy necessity. Lignite is the most important energy resource of Turkey when compared with others according to the amount of reserves. Lignite is the dominant source of energy produced (43%) in Turkey. Lignite deposits are encountered in almost every region of Turkey. Total lignite reserves are estimated at 8,375 million tons, of which 7,340 million tons (88%) is economically feasible. Share of lignite reserves of Turkey are 2% in the world. Lignite deposits are encountered in almost every region of Turkey. Afsin-Elbistan, Mugla, Soma, Tuncbilek, Seyitomer, Beypazari and Sivas basins constitutes the most important known lignite reserves. The biggest lignite deposits, 40% of the total, are in Afsin-Elbistan. Lignite extraction is expected to increase as the government feels pressure to close down unprofitable hard coal mines that are geologically difficult, increasing the cost of extraction.

  4. 77 FR 19537 - MARPOL Annex V Special Areas: Wider Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 39334). This notice... Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 19380). That notice... Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization ISM International...

  5. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  6. Assessing the effect of domain size over the Caribbean region using the PRECIS regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centella-Artola, Abel; Taylor, Michael A.; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Martinez-Castro, Daniel; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Vichot, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of the one-way nested PRECIS regional climate model (RCM) to domain size for the Caribbean region. Simulated regional rainfall patterns from experiments using three domains with horizontal resolution of 50 km are compared with ERA reanalysis and observed datasets to determine if there is an optimal RCM configuration with respect to domain size and the ability to reproduce important observed climate features in the Caribbean. Results are presented for the early wet season (May-July) and late wet season (August-October). There is a relative insensitivity to domain size for simulating some important features of the regional circulation and key rainfall characteristics e.g. the Caribbean low level jet and the mid summer drought (MSD). The downscaled precipitation has a systematically negative precipitation bias, even when the domain was extended to the African coast to better represent circulation associated with easterly waves and tropical cyclones. The implications for optimizing modelling efforts within resource-limited regions like the Caribbean are discussed especially in the context of the region's participation in global initiatives such as CORDEX.

  7. MINE - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Weigkricht, E.; Kaden, S.

    1985-01-01

    The game MINE has been developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect to water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water suppl...

  8. Oil and Gas Fields of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (fld6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Caribbean region is part of World Energy Assessment region 6 (Central and South America). A fundamental task in the assessment is to map the locations and type...

  9. Regional Tourism at the Cross-Roads: Perspectives of Caribbean Tourism Organization’s Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Berneece Herbert; Colmore S. Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean has experienced considerable fluctuations with many of the small island-nations of the Region being highly vulnerable to socio-political, environmental and economic changes. The Caribbean Tourism Association (CTO) contends that this Region is highly dependent on tourism, possibly more than any other region in the world, but globalization has left the countries of the Region with limited economic alternatives. The result is that tourism has emerged as the largest employer and the...

  10. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  11. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Resources in the Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    John Charlery

    2011-01-01

    Presentation on climate change adaptation in the Caribbean for a capacity building workshop. Topics discussed include the A1B Model, temperature and rainfall patterns, their implications for water resource management and climate change mitigation.

  12. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  13. Do mining lakes in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Eastern Germany) affect regional precipitation patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Yasemine; Pohle, Ina; Keuler, Klaus; Schaller, Eberhard; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Due to the flooding of former open-pit mines, Europe's largest artificial lake district is created in Eastern Germany. Between 1990 and 2006 more than 80 km² of new lakes have already been formed. These large-scale land cover changes may impact regional meteorological characteristics, therefore it is of interest, whether effects of the mining lakes can already be observed. We especially focus on whether the evaporation from the mining pit lakes leads to a higher precipitation on their lee side. To detect changes in the precipitation patterns, we analysed daily precipitation data (1980-2014) of 25 stations in an area of 10 000 km² widely around the lake district. Under the assumption that the influences of the lakes should be detectable either directly as trends in the observed data or as a deviation from a general measure for precipitation we combined statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA). We applied pre-whitening Mann-Kendall tests to detect precipitation trends and Mann-Whitney tests to detect differences between split samples (before and after the flooding of most of the lakes). The PCA was applied based on the correlation matrix of daily precipitation at the different stations. As the daily precipitation can sufficiently be explained by the first five principal components, the recombination of these five principal components was used as a general measure of precipitation in the region. By regression trees (random forests) a relationship between the eigenvectors of the first five principal components and physiogeographic characteristics of the stations (e.g. altitude) was shown. Both the observed data and the deviations between the measurements and the recombination of the first five principal components showed divergent trends with high spatial variability and also interannual variability, but a pattern consistent with the lee side of the lake could not be detected. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the emerging lakes had no

  14. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova;

    The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed with the...... climate finance opportunities), by looking in closer depth at two potential PoAs in the region. As well as many other SIDS 4, the Caribbean Countries are “heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation. This is likely to continue in the short to medium...... term, however the efficiency of such use can be greatly increased through appropriate technology and national energy policies which promote more economic and environmentally beneficial energy use. Several constraints to the large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain, including...

  15. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Guevara; Floris Gordon; Yvette Irving; Ismae Whyms; Keith Parris; Songee Beckles; Talkmore Maruta; Nqobile Ndlovu; Rachel Albalak; George Alemnji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow.Objective: To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months.Method: Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom te...

  16. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Coal and Lignite Mining in the State of Texas AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of... lignite mining activities may eventually require authorization from the USACE under Section 404 of the... mining projects in the USACE Fort Worth's area of responsibility typically conduct work that results...

  17. Detection of recent regional sea surface temperature warming in the Caribbean and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Equisha; Comarazamy, Daniel; González, Jorge E.; Smith, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We show a sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend for the Caribbean and surrounding region over 1982-2012. Using an optimum interpolated SST product, a 30 year climatological analysis was generated to observe annual, monthly, and seasonal trends. Results show that SSTs are increasing annually for the region. For the two Caribbean rainy seasons, the Early Rainfall Season (ERS) and the Late Rainfall Season (LRS), estimated trends at 0.0161°C yr-1 and 0.0209°C yr-1 were observed, with high statistical significance. Subregional analysis revealed that warming is greatest in the Gulf of Mexico and north of South America during the ERS and LRS. Additionally, LRS averages for 1998-2012 reflect an increase in magnitude and intensity of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) since the 1983-1997 period reflected in the AWP Area Index. Extreme increases/decreases in the time series show potential correlation with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation.

  18. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  19. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  20. MINE-NEC - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas: An Improved Implementation for the NEC PC-8201A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, S.; Varis, O.

    1986-01-01

    The game MINE was developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect t o water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water supply, a...

  1. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  2. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  3. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [English version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  4. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [Spanish version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  5. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Region (ODINCARSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, R.

    2005-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, Dom...

  6. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, 2015, Volume 6

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR) will be center stage in the global development debate as leaders from around the world convene in Lima, Peru for the annual meetings of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund. Critical progress in poverty reduction has been made in the region over the last decade. The region’s bottom 40 percent of the population saw growth eclipsing that ...

  7. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  8. Tsunami Ready Recognition Program for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Launched in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Hinds, K.; Aliaga, B.; Brome, A.; Lopes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years with 4,561 associated deaths according to the NOAA Tsunami Database. The most recent devastating tsunamis occurred in 1946 in Dominican Republic; 1865 died. With the explosive increase in residents, tourists, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coasts, the potential for human and economic loss is enormous. It has been estimated that on any day, more than 500,000 people in the Caribbean could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. In 2005 the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG CARIBE EWS) to coordinate tsunami efforts among the 48 participating countries in territories in the region. In addition to monitoring, modeling and communication systems, one of the fundamental components of the warning system is community preparedness, readiness and resilience. Over the past 10 years 49 coastal communities in the Caribbean have been recognized as TsunamiReady® by the US National Weather Service (NWS) in the case of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and jointly by UNESCO and NWS in the case of the non US jurisdictions of Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands. In response to the positive feedback of the implementation of TsunamiReady, the ICG CARIBE EWS in 2015 recommended the approval of the guidelines for a Community Performance Based Recognition program. It also recommended the adoption of the name "Tsunami Ready", which has been positively consulted with the NWS. Ten requirements were established for recognition and are divided among Preparedness, Mitigation and Response elements which were adapted from the proposed new US TsunamiReady guidelines and align well with emergency management functions. Both a

  9. A conceptual framework to develop long-term ecological research and management objectives in the wider Caribbean region

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Rivera-Monroy; Twilley, R.R.; Bone, D.; Childers, D.L.; Coronado-Molina, C.; Feller, I.C.; Herrera-Silveira, J.; Jaffe, R.; Mancera, E.; Rejmankova, E.; Salisbury, J. E.; Weil, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea and its watersheds show signs of environmental degradation. These fragile coastal ecosystems are susceptible to environmental impacts, in part because of their oligotrophic conditions and their critical support of economic development. Tourism is one of the major sources of income in the Caribbean, making the region one of the most ecotourism dependent in the world. Yet there are few explicit, long-term, comprehensive studies describing the structure and function of Caribbea...

  10. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and along the coast will also be addressed. With the support of Member States and other countries and organizations it has been possible to significantly expand the sea level network thus reducing the amount of time it now takes to verify tsunamis.

  11. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Guevara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow.Objective: To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months.Method: Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS. Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months and post-SLMTA (at 18 months using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps.Results: Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories.Conclusion: The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation.

  12. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 109 t) and Greece (4.0 x 109 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  13. Modeling Circulation Patterns that Influence Connectivity of Remote Ecosystems in the Wider Caribbean Region and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V. H.; Halliwell, G.; Hogan, P.; Kang, H.; Schiller, R.; Paris, C.

    2008-05-01

    The Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) comprises the insular and coastal States and Territories with coasts on the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico as well as waters of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to these States and Territories and includes 28 island and continental countries. The main sub-basins are inter-connected with a large scale current system that includes the North Brazil Current, the Caribbean Current, the Loop Current and the Florida Current. This current system and associated rings and eddies provide the physical background for the connectivity of WCR ecosystems that can be at great distances from each other. A hierarchy of regional numerical models based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been developed to study the physical transport mechanisms and support efforts under the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS): CARIB-HYCOM (WCR region); GoM-HYCOM (Gulf of Mexico region), Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM region), WFS-HYCOM (West Florida Shelf region), SoFLA-HYCOM (South Florida region) and FKEYS- HYCOM (Florida Keys region). The models range in resolution from 900m to 4 km and they are gradually nested to Atlantic basin-wide and global HYCOM models of 7-8 km resolution. This multi-nested approach allows the detailed study of regional processes, while maintaining the interaction with surrounding regions. This is an important methodology in the Wider Caribbean Region, where the presence of complicated topography and the large scale current system dictate strong coastal to offshore interactions and inter-basin exchanges. The multi-nested modeling approach has allowed the study of circulation and transport processes in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Examples will concentrate on the transport of low salinity, nutrient rich waters originating at the Amazon and Mississippi Rivers and the connectivity pathways that influence larval transport. Boundary condition and data assimilation needs for pre-operational forecasting of such pathways

  14. Analysis of Seismic Activity of the last 15 Years Nearby Puerto Rico and Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Torres-Ortíz, D. M.; Fernández-Heredia, A. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    An earthquake catalog of the seismicity occurred during the last 15 years in the Caribbean region, nearby the vicinity of Puerto Rico Island (PRI) was compiled in order to capture the big picture of the regional seismic activity ratio and in particular at the epicentral regions of several historical and instrumentally recorded (during 2008-20015) large to moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred nearby PRI in onshore and offshore, which include the M6.4 earthquake of 01/13/2014, the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally nearby PRI. From the point of view of joint temporal-spatial distribution of epicenters, episodic temporal-spatial seismic activity is clearly seen as temporal-spatial concentrations during certain time intervals in different regions. These localized concentrations of epicenters that occur during certain time intervals in well localized/concentrated regions may suggest "seismic gaps" that shows no regular time interval, neither spatial pattern. In the epicentral region of the M6.4 01/13/2014 earthquake and the historical Mona Passage M7.5 earthquake of 10/11/1918, episodic concentrations in time and space of small magnitude earthquakes epicenters is evident, however do not show temporal pattern. Preliminary results of statistical analysis of an ongoing research in terms of the parameter b (Gutenberg-Richter relationship), and the Omori's law with the aim to relate the tectonic framework of the region (or sub-regions) such as structural heterogeneity stress are here presented/discussed.

  15. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  16. Regional Supplier Associations as the Producers of Transnational Club Goods in Latin American and Caribbean Utility Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Horrall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing the consensus that regional regulatory agencies provide regional club goods, however; there is little evidence of the impact of the collaborations of the utility providers themselves in the literature. Our study analyzes whether regional networks such as the Caribbean Electric Utility corporation contribute to solving energy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. Networks of operators provide cross -border services, and operating as a single entity improves the lobbying opportunities of operators to influence policy. Results suggest that utilities that formed linkages or cooperation regionally are likely to benefit from such collaborations, but a comprehensive approach to capacity building and reform is needed to address the regions energy issues.

  17. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  18. IOC-UNEP regional workshop to review priorities for marine pollution monitoring, research, control and abatement in the wider Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IOC-UNEP Regional Workshop to Review Priorities for Marine Pollution Monitoring, Research, Control and Abatement in the Wider Caribbean Region (San Jose, 24-30 August 1989) examined a possible general framework for a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP programme for marine pollution assessment and control in the Wider Caribbean region (CEPPOL). The overall objective of CEPPOL is to establish a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP Marine Pollution Assessment and Control Programme catering to the immediate and long-term requirements of the Cartagena Convention as well as the requirements of the member States of IOCARIBE. The specific objectives of the programmes are: (i) To organize and carry out a regionally co-ordinated marine pollution monitoring and research programme concentrating on contaminants and pollutants affecting the quality of the marine and coastal environment, as well as the human health in the Wider Caribbean and to interpret/assess the results of the programme as part of the scientific basis for the region; (ii) To generate information on the sources, levels, amounts, trends and effects of marine pollution within the Wider Caribbean region as an additional component of the scientific basis upon which the formulation of proposals for preventive and remedial actions can be based; (iii) To formulate proposals for technical, administrative and legal pollution control, abatement, and preventive measures and to assist the Governments in the region in implementing and evaluating their effectiveness; and (iv) To strengthen and , when necessary, to develop/establish the capabilities of national institutions to carry out marine pollution monitoring and research, as well as to formulate and apply pollution control and abatement measures

  19. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs

  20. The regional response to the greenhouse issue: Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of the increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issue, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, instead of waiting for the consequences of the 1- to 5-degree-Centrigrade increase in average temperature that is being forecast for the planet in the next 50 to 70 years, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas where life cannot be sustained within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, because deforestation basically is not a technological problem but rather has to do with the application of unsustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes

  1. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  2. Diurnal warming in shallow coastal seas: Observations from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.

    2014-07-01

    A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three Caribbean stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by

  3. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411

  4. 'Virtual shock': adult students' perceptions of their emotional experience on an online learning undergraduate degree at a regional Caribbean university

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological case study focuses on the emotional experiences of adult learners on an online undergraduate degree course at a regional Caribbean university. It examines four major elements as they relate to online learning environments: perceptions of the learning environment; perceptions of the learning process; descriptions of emotional experiences; and manifestations of behavioural outcomes. Online learning as an instructional strategy for adult learners has gained global acce...

  5. Effectiveness of a training-of-trainers model in a HIV counseling and testing program in the Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin Robert; Bruce Douglas; Weaver Marcia R; Mandel Brinnon; Hiner Cynthia A; Anderson Jean

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) training program based on a training-of-trainers (TOT) model in the Caribbean Region, we gathered data on the percentage of participants trained as VCT providers who were providing VCT services, and those trained as VCT trainers who were conducting VCT training. Methods The VCT training program trained 3,489 providers in VCT clinical skills and 167 in VCT training skills within a d...

  6. A First Look at the Science-Policy Interface for Ocean Governance in the Wider Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    McConney, Patrick; Fanning, Lucia; Mahon, Robin; Simmons, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    Weak governance is a root cause of the problems constraining the sustainable management of shared living marine resources within the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR). Integral to any fully functioning policy cycle in governance is the communication of marine science data and information, through the stages of the policy cycle, ultimately for use in decision-making. The networks of ties between science and policy constitute science-policy interfaces. Connecting science to policy is a major issue c...

  7. Briquetting of Macedonian lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of investigations prepared by EERC (Energy and Environmental Research Center, USA) with aim to evaluate the potential for producing fuels for home-heating, industrial heating and metallurgical application using selected Macedonian lignites. The specific goals are to: 1) prepare various grades of Macedonian lignite pellets; 2) perform limited chemical, physical and metallurgical characterisations on the pelleted fuels; 3) compare the characteristics of the prepared fuels to criteria of acceptable home-heating, industrial heating and metallurgical fuels. The EERC can facilitate all cleaning and briquetting evaluations to obtain scale up data. (Author)

  8. Cenomanian lignite deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, J.; Kvaček, J.; Svobodová, Marcela; Sýkorová, Ivana

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 20-30 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Lignite oxidative desulphurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volodymyr Gunka; Serhiy Pyshyev

    2014-01-01

    The process of lignite desulphurization via its treatment by an oxidant (air or air–steam mixture) has been studied. The research objective was useful determination of steam application in oxidative lignite desulphurization. It has been proved that the water steam should be included in the oxidant composition to increase the hydrogen sulphide and combustible constituent content in the gases obtained during the processes under research. The impact of factors which affect the reactions between solid (in our case–lignite) and gaseous reagent (oxidant, i.e. air and or air–steam mixture) upon the research process has been investigated, if these reactions occur in the kinetic area. Such factors are linear rate of oxidant movement and coal grain size. The values of oxidant movement linear rate and coal grain size, which the reaction transfer from pyrite sulphur and organic content of lignite from diffusion into kinetic area occurs by, have been determined. Under these‘‘transfer’’ conditions, the values of coefficients of oxidant mass transfer (b, m/s) as well as Sherwood criteria and boiling layer differences have been calculated.

  10. Analysis of environmental pollution caused by open cast mining, processing and utilization of salt-containing lignite in the region of Merseburg, and development of technological measures for minimizing pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a potential utilization scheme for salt-containing lignite and the possibilities of its technological realization, the research project was aimed at investigating the possibilities of achieving environmental compatibility in the mining and utilization of salt-containing lignite from the region of Merseburg. The authors evaluated studies, research reports and publications and carried out their own analyses, concerning the components contained in mine water and other problems. The investigations yielded information on a reasonable limitation of the mining area and the diversified removal of mine water. After an analysis of the current state of technological development and measures of environmental control, fluidized-bed combustion and high-pressure gasification are proposed as variants for utilizing salt-containing lignite. Various methods for treating salt-containing mining and process water are proposed, which will have to be assessed for economic efficiency and profitability as a basis for decision-making with respect to their realization. Proposals are presented for further detailed treatment of the problems involved. (orig.)

  11. Mobilizing Aid For Trade: Focus on Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of the Regional Review Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Integration and Trade Sector (INT) as a contribution to the regional meeting on Mobilizing Aid for Trade: Latin America and the Caribbean, organized jointly by the IDB and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in collaboration with the World Bank, and hosted by the Government of Peru in Lima on September 13¿14, 2007. The meeting is the first of three regional meetings organized by the WTO to prepare for its November 2007 General Council meeting on aid for trade.

  12. Susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti from the Colombian Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Serrano, Ronald; Gomez-Camargo, Doris; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-11-01

    We determined the susceptibility to insecticides and the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in resistance in nine populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) of the Colombian Caribbean region. Bioassays were performed on larvae for susceptibility to temephos and on adults to the insecticides malathion, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, permethrin, deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin. The resistance ratio (RR) for each insecticide in the populations was determined, using the susceptible Rockefeller strain as a susceptible control. Additionally, we evaluated the response of the populations to the diagnostic dose (DD) of the organochlorine pesticide DDT. The following biochemical mechanisms associated with resistance were studied: α-esterases, β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione s-transferases (GST) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (iAChE) as well as the presence of kdr I1,016 mutation and its frequency. All populations studied showed susceptibility to the organophosphates evaluated (RR temephos, respectively, and Sincelejo (Sucre) with moderate resistance to pirimiphos-methyl (RR 5-fold). All populations evaluated with DD of DDT were found to be resistant with 2-28% of mortality. Variability was observed in the resistance to pyrethroids: permethrin (RR 1.2- to 30.8-fold), deltamethrin RR 0.9- to 37.8-fold), λ-cyalothrin (RR 3.4- to 83-fold) and cyfluthrin (RR 0.3- to 33.8-fold). Incipiently α-esterases and MFO levels were found in the Valledupar population; MFO showed the same profile in Cienaga and GST in the Sincelejo population, all other populations showed unaltered profiles of the enzymes evaluated. The kdr I1,016 mutation was found in all populations evaluated with variability in its allelic and genotypic frequencies. PMID:25454522

  13. New Technologies in Libraries and Information Centres in Latin America and the Caribbean: Information and Development--Focus on the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Sub-Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Claudette

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of information systems in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), proposed development strategies for the area, the OECS INFONET project, and resulting recommendations for developing and sustaining regional information networks. An appendix summarizes 1991 Gross National Product and population data for the…

  14. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.

    2014-01-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second dr

  15. New species of the genus Copidognathus (Halacaridae) from the Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, I.

    1984-01-01

    The halacarid fauna of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent waters, the Mediterranean, the North Sea, and the Baltic, has been studied and described in more than 100 papers; but only a few papers deal with the halacarid fauna on the east coast of the United States and the Caribbean area

  16. Some Aspects of the Physical Variability of the Caribbean Sea Relevant to Regional Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooers, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant

  17. The radioactivity of Greek lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements of Greek lignites have shown that all of them contain radioactive isotopes of the uranium series. Radium-226 and uranium-238 concentrations have been found to be higher than those so far reported in the literature of lignites. Concentrations of 238U up to 35 pCi/g have been observed in the lignites of Serres area (Northern Greece). (T.A.)

  18. Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, Bogota, Colombia, 24-30 November 1976. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    This is the final report on the background and proceedings of the Regional Meeting on Environmental Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, convened jointly by UNESCO and the United Nations Environmental Program. The goal of this regional meeting was to examine the problems of the environment within the region, and to recommend lines for…

  19. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to their geographic location

  20. Breastfeeding and the nutritional transition in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: a success story?

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Escamilla Rafael

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine recent breastfeeding duration trends in Latin America and the Caribbean to document: (a) rural-urban differentials, (b) differences in educational levels, and (c) changes in breastfeeding duration across time. Secondary data analyses were conducted with 23 Demographic and Health Surveys collected between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. Results indicate that median breastfeeding duration is still greater in rural (as compared to urban) areas and among l...

  1. Modeling regional coral reef responses to global warming and changes in ocean chemistry: Caribbean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Lane, D.R.; Martinich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic change threatens the future of coral reefs in the Caribbean and the important ecosystem services they provide. We used a simulation model [Combo ("COral Mortality and Bleaching Output")] to estimate future coral cover in the part of the eastern Caribbean impacted by a massive coral bleaching event in 2005. Combo calculates impacts of future climate change on coral reefs by combining impacts from long-term changes in average sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification with impacts from episodic high temperature mortality (bleaching) events. We used mortality and heat dose data from the 2005 bleaching event to select historic temperature datasets, to use as a baseline for running Combo under different future climate scenarios and sets of assumptions. Results suggest a bleak future for coral reefs in the eastern Caribbean. For three different emissions scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; B1, A1B, and A1FI), coral cover on most Caribbean reefs is projected to drop below 5% by the year 2035, if future mortality rates are equivalent to some of those observed in the 2005 event (50%). For a scenario where corals gain an additional 1-1. 5??C of heat tolerance through a shift in the algae that live in the coral tissue, coral cover above 5% is prolonged until 2065. Additional impacts such as storms or anthropogenic damage could result in declines in coral cover even faster than those projected here. These results suggest the need to identify and preserve the locations that are likely to have a higher resiliency to bleaching to save as many remnant populations of corals as possible in the face of projected wide-spread coral loss. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  2. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  3. Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2014; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias; Milojcic, George [DEBRIV, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear energy and gradually realign the electricity system towards more renewables in the future required some extensive changes to electricity generation transmission. One of the issues to be considered is what role lignite can play in the transformation of the electricity system and what application is offered to Germany and its regions. However, lignite has some stable factors and their development is fairly predictable. Domestic lignite is one such example. Beyond its familiar attributes, 'secure, competitive and economically important for the regions', 'flexibility' is a key word that indicates a new dimension for the German lignite industry.

  4. Reconstruction of Regional Environments in the Caribbean During the Neogene Using Gastropod Stable Isotope Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. A.; Grossman, E. L.; O'Dea, A.; Tao, K.

    2011-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) ca. 3.8-3.6 Ma triggered changes in nearshore environments in the Caribbean, causing changes in marine annual range of temperature (MART), carbonate deposition, and the benthic ecosystem. The associated extinction event began ca. 3-2 Ma, peaking between 2-1 Ma. More than two dozen "faunules", discreet packages of fauna which lived under similar environmental conditions, represent time just prior to, during, and after the uplift of the CAI. Multiple parameters including the amount and types of fauna present in each faunule have been used to estimate factors such as paleodepth, MART, extinction rates, and changes in ecological structure over time. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod shells serially-sampled about the spire provide records of seasonal environmental conditions. In the tropics, gastropods that live under conditions of strong seasonal upwelling and freshwater input have a greater range of δ18O values in their profiles compared to those animals that live in non-upwelling waters with little freshwater input. Low δ13C values often represent the isotopically low terrestrial carbon found in river runoff, and may be coupled with low δ18O values during seasonal freshening of marine waters. Preliminary data from Strombus shells representing four faunules ranging in age from before the rise of the isthmus through its completion demonstrate the effectiveness of using these mollusks to study ancient tropical environments. Rio Limoncito (~3 Ma), which is believed to represent water depths of 20-40m based on foraminiferal assemblage, yielded the lowest δ18O values (-0.6±0.4%, representing the warmest temperatures/lowest salinities). The samples from Pueblo Nuevo (~1.6 Ma), with an estimated paleodepth between 50 and 100m, had an average value of 0.4±0.3% and therefore represent cooler waters/higher salinity. A shell from NE Escudo de Veraguas (~3.55 Ma) shows a shift from essentially

  5. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Torrado, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  6. Tomography with P, PP and pP delay-time data and the three-dimensional mantle structure below the Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    I address in this thesis two principal topics. Firstly, in chapters 2 and 3 I discuss improvements on the method of P delay-time tomography which were necessary to obtain reliable tomographic images of the mantle structure below the Caribbean region. These improvements include the reduction of refer

  7. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher A; Schank, Cody J; Urquhart, Gerald R; Dans, Armando J

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species. PMID:27007122

  8. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Jordan

    Full Text Available Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species.

  9. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  10. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  11. Connectivity for Caribbean Countries : An Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.; Cubas, Diana; Millan-Placci, Maria Florencia

    2014-01-01

    Every discussion of the Caribbean states considers their characteristics as sea-locked countries, small economies, highly vulnerable to natural disasters, and a geographic platform that calls for regional cooperation and integration. The Caribbean Sea is the most important vehicle and the most challenging obstacle Caribbean countries have to connect with the world. This report measures and...

  12. ”Hard” infrastructure and regional connectivity in Latin America and the Caribbean: developments in the region’s land-locked economies

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Andy; Sizeland, F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the substantial reduction in tariffs over the past few decades, the competitiveness of the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) has suffered due to a history of underinvestment in hard infrastructure. This paper specifically focuses on transport infrastructure, utilising statistics from the World Bank’s most recent Logistics Performance Indicator (LPI 2010) and the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report (2009) to identify the infrastructural gap in the LAC region. B...

  13. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  14. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ► 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ► Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ► Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  15. A Novel Multiproxy Approach to High-resolution Speleothem Paleoclimate Reconstruction in the Caribbean Region During the Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J.; Ouellette, G.; Celestian, A. J.; Kintzel, E.; Cole, J.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Durkee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Barbados is the easternmost island in the Caribbean region, and is uniquely situated between the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Being an isolated island with a karstified aquifer providing the majority of the nation's water resources, Barbados has found itself in water scarce situations in recent years. Groundwater recharge is determined mainly by precipitation variability, and thus a better understanding of long-term shifts in rainfall patterns in the region will aid in future water resource management. To date, speleothem proxy records provide robust, absolutely-dated records of past climatic changes, such as precipitation, yet continued improvement in analytical methods is needed to fully exploit their usefulness as paleoclimate records. This study presents a paleoclimate reconstruction for the Late Holocene on Barbados using stable and radiogenic isotope ratios in speleothem lamina as proxies. In addition, it introduces the use of novel mineralogical analyses using Raman spectroscopy and large chamber-scanning electron microscopy to supplement the oxygen isotope record. For the past 1,500 years, the speleothem record indicates average δ18O values near -4.1 0/00, maximum δ18O values around -3.2 ‰ that coincide with the Little Ice Age climate event, while minimum δ18O values around -5.3 ‰ occur during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Raman spectral analysis shows a recent period of increased Mg substitution, which may result from changes in groundwater recharge and potentially represents anthropogenic changes to the island's epikarst aquifer caused by European settlement and sugar cane cultivation on Barbados. Electron imaging revealed chemically distinct layers of detritus within the stalagmite sample, facilitating precise sampling for U-series dating while also providing some information on the nature of bedrock weathering. Additionally, time series analysis of the isotope record indicates multidecadal and multicentennial periodicities that conform well

  16. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 13000C and utilizing the released SO2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  17. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  18. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Regions (ODINCARSA): Report of Activities 2005-2006 and Proposed Work Plan 2007-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Güingla, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, ...

  19. Aedes aegypti (L.) in Latin American and Caribbean region: With growing evidence for vector adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Dave D; Martinez, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Within Latin America and the Caribbean region the impact of climate change has been associated with the effects of rainfall and temperature on seasonal outbreaks of dengue but few studies have been conducted on the impacts of climate on the behaviour and ecology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.This study was conducted to examine the adaptive behaviours currently being employed by A. aegypti mosquitoes exposed to the force of climate change in LAC countries. The literature on the association between climate and dengue incidence is small and sometimes speculative. Few laboratory and field studies have identified research gaps. Laboratory and field experiments were designed and conducted to better understand the container preferences, climate-associated-adaptive behaviour, ecology and the effects of different temperatures and light regimens on the life history of A. aegypti mosquitoes. A. aegypti adaptive behaviours and changes in container preferences demonstrate how complex dengue transmission dynamics is, in different ecosystems. The use of underground drains and septic tanks represents a major behaviour change identified and compounds an already difficult task to control A. aegypti populations. A business as usual approach will exacerbate the problem and lead to more frequent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya in LAC countries unless both area-wide and targeted vector control approaches are adopted. The current evidence and the results from proposed transdisciplinary research on dengue within different ecosystems will help guide the development of new vector control strategies and foster a better understanding of climate change impacts on vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26796862

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light fractio

  1. The insulin gene region and susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in four races; new insights from Afro-Caribbean race-specific haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovic, C H; Penny, M A; Jenkins, D; Jacobs, K; Heward, J; Knight, S W; Lucassen, A; Morrison, E; Barnett, A H

    1997-01-01

    The IDDM2 component of the genetic susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been mapped to chromosome 11p15.5. The exact identity of IDDM2 remains uncertain. It has been suggested that IDDM2 maps within the 5' VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) polymorphism upstream of the insulin gene (INS). This has not been confirmed and a contribution from other INS gene region polymorphisms cannot be excluded. We present INS region genotype data from four racial groups: the Japanese, Hong Kong Chinese, North Indian Asians and Afro-Caribbeans (two groups; one born and resident in the UK, one in Jamaica). These races have not been previously studied with the range of INS region polymorphisms included here. No INS polymorphism was associated with IDDM across all races. These data from this study thus do not identify any INS polymorphism as IDDM2. The Afro-Caribbean race showed a very different distribution of INS genotypes from the other races and novel race-specific INS haplotypes were identified. Analysis of these excluded a contribution to susceptibility to IDDM from the- 23HphI INS polymorphism. An Afro-Caribbean INS haplotype which differed only at the VNTR from the very protective INS haplotype (VPH) identified in white Caucasians was detected. Population analysis of this haplotype will allow direct assessment of the role of the VNTR in susceptibility to IDDM. In conclusion, the diverse Afro-Caribbean TH/INS/IGF2 haplotypes identified in this study will be valuable in mapping IDDM2 more precisely. PMID:9556351

  2. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite Ⅱ: protein adsorption onto the lignite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Su-dong; TAO Xiu-xiang; SHI Kai-yi

    2009-01-01

    Lignite bio-solubilization is a promising technology for converting solid lignite into oil. This study concerns the adsorption of lignite-solubilizing enzymes onto the lignite surface. Adsorption capacity, infrared spectral analysis and driving forces analysis are studied as a way to help understand the bio-solubilization mechanism. The results show that the amount of lignite bio-solubilization is proportional to the amount of adsorbed lignite-solubilizing enzymes. An increase in lignite-solubilizing enzyme adsorption of 10% leads to a 7% increase in lignite bio-solubilization. However, limited amounts of enzymes can be adsorbed by the lignite, thus resulting in low percentages of bio-solubilization. Infrared spectral analysis shows that side chains, such as hydroxyl and carbonyl, of the lignite structure are the main, and necessary, structures where lignite-solubilizing enzymes attachto the lignite. Furthermore, driving force analysis indicates that the electrostatic force between lignite and enzymes is the main adsorption mechanism. The forces are influenced by solution pH levels, the zeta potential of the lignite and the isoelectric points of the enzymes.

  3. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  4. Nuclear Education, Training and Outreach in Latin America and the Caribbean Region - LANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was set up to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering the transfer of nuclear knowledge in the Latin American region. LANENT has been actively pursuing joint activities for networking educational institutions at a regional level, the creation of distance learning initiatives and the use of shared facilities. Let us hope that these initial endeavors in nuclear education and training would ultimately contribute to the common and cooperative development of a technology so essential for the present and the future of our region

  5. Briquetting the lignite from Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite found in Macedonia are relatively young and as a consequence, tend to have a low heating value and a high moisture content. Furthermore, these coals are friable, giving rise to enhanced fines formation and dust generation during mining. In mines at Piskupshtina and Brik-Berovo, some 305 of the mined coal becomes dust. Despite the problems associated with exploiting the indigenous lignite, a need for high-quality, hard coals for power generation, heating and industry is generated. Under normal capacity, industry could use over 300 000 tons of dried lignite. Domestic heating consumption could apparently exceed 100 000 tons of briquettes, if available at a price competitive to that of wood. Hence, the goal of the paper is to present the possibility of benefiting Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for electric energy production as well as for use in the industry, metallurgy and home heating. In the initial stage of work, the results of the laboratory studies are presented. (author)

  6. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  7. Observations of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and Implications for Regional Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L.; Einaudi, Franco

    2001-01-01

    Massive quantities of dust aerosol, originating at source locations in the Saharan desert are frequently transported westward across the Atlantic. Saharan dust has been frequently identified at ground-based stations in South America, on Barbados, in Florida and in Texas. Recently, in July of 2000, the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRiDE), consisting of researchers from the U.S. Navy, NASA, the University of Miami and the University of Puerto Rico joined together to study this important phenomenon. Numerical forecast models tracked each dust event as the dust left the African continent and transversed the Atlantic. Ground-based, ship-based, airborne and satellite sensors were used to characterize the physical and radiative properties of the dust aerosol. The dust plays an important role in terms of radiative forcing of regional climate. Satellite sensors such as NASA's EOS-MODIS aboard the Terra satellite will provide important continuing information on the dust aerosol and its climatic effects.

  8. Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013

  9. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  10. What are cleats? Preliminary studies from the Konin lignite mine, Miocene of central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Cleats (fractures, joints) are discontinuities in coals, including lignites. They are important in mining activity because of their gas and water permeability in hard coal, and mainly because of their water permeability in lignites. As opposed to hard-coal cleats, lignite cleats have not been studied in detail before. The present contribution does so, using as an example the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine in central Poland. It should be mentioned here that any remarks in the present contribution concerning MPLS-1 refer exclusively to this lignite seam in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine. The investigated discontinuities consist of two sets, i.e. the face and butt cleats, which are roughly oriented NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively. The mean spacing of the face cleats is ~12.4 cm, while the mean spacing of the butt cleats is ~12.8 cm. The maximum average aperture is ~4.9 mm for the face cleats and ~4.1 mm for the butt cleats. The cleat spacing and aperture do not depend on the lignite thickness, but the cleat spacing increases with increasing mineral-matter and xylite content, whereas the aperture increases when the contents decrease. The regional folding and local salt diapirism tentatively explain the formation of the orthogonal system of the lignite cleats, partly because of the parallelism of the face cleats and the major tectonic directions in central Poland.

  11. Chongqing Bosai Mining Splurged USD 200 Million To Build Aluminum Smelting Factory in the Caribbean Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On March 9,Yuan Zhilun,Chairman of Chongqing Bosai Mining Group,announced that it would invest USD 200 million to build a smelting factory in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago,a country in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea.According to Yuan Zhilun,the investment in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago has

  12. Filling the gap: the Colombo arabes emergence as political actors in Barranquilla and the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Ricco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar, a través de una investigación ex- ploratoria, una preliminar historia política de la participación de los colom- bo-árabes en la política local, regional y nacional, con un enfoque especial en la ciudad de Barranquilla y la región Caribe colombiana. El artículo se centra principalmente en la época que va desde los años cincuenta hasta finales de la década de 1980. Esta se considera como el eslabón perdido para entender la plena participación de la tercera generación de los descendientes de origen árabe en la vida política de la ciudad y la región. Estas décadas fueron ana- lizadas a través de la prensa local, junto con los datos de la Registraduría Nacional respecto a las elecciones locales y nacionales entre 1958 y 1986. La segunda generación de inmigrantes árabes no se involucró masivamente en política, pero algunos tomaron ventaja de la crisis económica y del vacío político en la ciudad con el fin de alcanzar posiciones importantes de poder como representantes locales o nacionales.

  13. Spatially distinct and regionally endemic Symbiodinium assemblages in the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dustin W.; Thornhill, Daniel J.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Fitt, William K.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata was listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite attention to this species' conservation, the extent of geographic variation within O. faveolata warrants further investigation. O. faveolata is unusual in that it can simultaneously harbor multiple genetically distinct and co-dominant species of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Here, we investigate the geographic and within-colony complexity of Symbiodinium- O. faveolata associations from Florida Keys, USA; Exuma Cays, Bahamas; Puerto Morelos, Mexico; and Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. We collected coral samples along intracolony axes, and Symbiodinium within O. faveolata samples was analyzed using the nuclear ITS2 region and chloroplast 23S rDNA genotyping. O. faveolata associated with species of Symbiodinium in clades A (type A3), B (B1 and B17), C (C3, C7, and C7a), and D (D1a/ Symbiodinium trenchii). Within-colony distributions of Symbiodinium species correlated with light availability, cardinal direction, and depth, resulting in distinct zonation patterns of endosymbionts within a host. Symbiodinium species from clades A and B occurred predominantly in the light-exposed tops, while species of clade C generally occurred in the shaded sides of colonies or in deeper-water habitats. Furthermore, geographic comparisons of host-symbiont associations revealed regional differences in Symbiodinium associations. Symbiodinium A3 was detected in Mesoamerican coral colonies, but not in colonies from the Florida Keys or Bahamas. Likewise, Symbiodinium B17 was unique to Mesoamerican O. faveolata, whereas Symbiodinium B1 was found at all localities sampled. However, using cp23S genotyping paired with ITS2 analysis revealed geographically endemic haplotypes among Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C. Since Symbiodinium spatial heterogeneity among this coral species is greater than most corals, a question arises as to whether all

  14. Regional Kinematics of the Cocos-Caribbean-North American Plates Triple Junction Area, Constrained by GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon-Caen, H.; Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Amaya-Zelaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Figueroa, C.; Flores, O.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Robles, V.; Jorge, R.

    2006-12-01

    Northern Central America is located in a complex zone of interraction between three major tectonic plates: The North American (NA), the Caribbean (CA) and the Cocos (CO) plates. While the CO plate is subducting under the NA and CA plates along the Mid-American trench, the on-land relative motion between the NA and CA plates is mainly accomodated by the east-west-trending left-lateral Polochic-Motagua fault system. The relative contributions of the Polochic and Motagua left-lateral faults, of a series of north-south grabens on the CA plate, and of the Mid-American Volcanic Arc (MAVA) in the accomodation of the deformation related to the CO-NA-CA triple junction remain poorly constrained. To adress these issues, we have analyzed GPS campaign data from geodetic networks in Guatemala (24 sites measured in 1999, 2003 and 2006), Salvador (3 sites measured in 2003 and 2006), and Chiapas in Mexico (8 sites measured in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005). These data were combined with GPS data from 14 permanent stations (including 11 stations in Mexico and 3 in Guatemala) and selected IGS stations. They were processed using the GAMIT and GLOBK softwares. Preliminary results computing the 1999-2003 data from the Guatemalan GPS network show that the relative velocity between the NA and CA plates is about 20 mm/yr. The obtained velocity field can be fitted using simple elastic models with a single fault centered on the Motagua fault, locked at a depth of 20 km with a slip-rate decreasing from eastern (20 mm/yr) to central Guatemala (12 mm/yr) towards the CO-NA-CA triple junction. This decrease seems to be accomodated by a 8 mm/yr east-west extension across the grabens south of the Motagua fault. We also observe about 10 mm/yr of dextral slip across MAVA. We will present a new regional velocity field, combining all the available Guatemalan, Salvadorian and Mexican GPS data set in order to better quantify the deformation of northern Central America at a regional scale, and to present a

  15. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  16. Multiple-use marketing of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Marketing of lignite faces difficulties due to moisture and sulfur contents, as well as the sodium content, of the ash. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic viability of multiple-use marketing of lignite as a method to increase the use of North Dakota lignite by recapturing lost niche markets. Multiple-use marketing means using lignite and sulfur-capturing additives to clean agricultural wastewater followed by either direct steam and power generation or briquetting to produce a higher-Btu compliance fuel. Cooperative ownership of the resulting business by a coal company and an agriculture processing company helps ensure that lignite remains the coal of choice, especially when the ``good`` attributes of lignites are maximized, while the agricultural company obtains cleaner wastewater and a long-term supply of coal at a set price. The economic viabilities of the following scenarios were investigated: (1) Agriprocessing wastewater treatment using lignite and an additive followed by (2) the production of compliance fuel for resale or on-site cogeneration of steam and electricity. Laboratory tests were performed utilizing potato-processing plant wastewater with lignite and lime sludge.

  17. Briquetting of Afsin-Elbistan lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbuz-Beker, U.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ozer, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1998-05-01

    Low-quality Afsin-Elbistan lignite was mixed with a high-quality Siberian bituminous coal and optimum briquetting conditions were investigated for blends with and without binder materials. The blends of lignite and bituminous coal were prepared to contain 30, 40 and 50% bituminous coal and briquetted under pressures of 566 MPa and 708 MPa. The blends of lignite and bituminous coal were also briquetted using sunflower shell, sawdust and molasses as additives. In these experiments, the percentage of the lignite in the blends was fixed at 50%, so that the sum of the percentages of the bituminous coal and binder additive was always 50%. In this way, the low-grade lignite and high-quality bituminous coal fines are converted into a compact and stable fuel which has a higher quality. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Caribbean after-shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L; Levy, D

    1988-03-01

    The population of the Caribbean islands, is expected to double by the mid-21st century, placing new pressures on local labor markets and economic resources and increasing the need for social expenditures. Most of this growth will take place in urban areas. Emigration to the US is an increasingly important trend, especially in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, and local Caribbean economies are linked with labor markets in the US through a system of family remittances. Oil price hikes, escalating debt burdens, and falling export prices have created an economic crisis in the Caribbean since the late 1970s. There has been double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, and only sporadic growth in the gross national product. The Caribbean Basin Initiative, established by the Reagan Administration, provides the Caribbean nations with duty-free export entry to the US market for 12 years and targets manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, and foreign investment for growth. Overall, however, the results of this initiative have been an effective subsidy to US investors and little stimulus for growth in locally owned businesses. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the islands with the most poverty, while Trinidad and Tobago are the most prosperous. Puerto Rico plays an important role in the Caribbean region, serving as a link between North and South America and between cultural differences. PMID:12280949

  19. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  20. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  1. Geochemical controls on leaching of lignite-fired combustion by-products from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The metal assemblage in ash fingerprints the geological setting of coal basins. → Free lime in ash influences the total and leachable contents of volatile elements. → The mode of occurrence of elements in lignite controls the fly ash leaching. → Oxyanionic-forming species are the main concern in terms of leaching of ashes. - Abstract: The mobility of inorganic pollutants is of key concern for a range of industrial and engineering applications of fly ash produced during the combustion of lignite in power generation. This paper investigates the role that the geochemical features of lignite, the ash composition and the partitioning of elements during combustion play in determining leaching properties of lignite fired by-products. The work is based on surveys on three lignite-fired power plants in Greece. Calcium-rich ashes show a high abatement potential for SO2 and other gaseous pollutants. For most elements, the concentrations in the parent lignite and the ashes follow the same trend. Relative enrichments in Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, U, V, W, Zn fingerprint the regional and local geological settings of the lignite basins. The total and leachable concentrations of highly volatile elements are strongly influenced by the interaction with ubiquitous free lime. A broad array of elements is highly insoluble in alkaline ash, while a few oxyanionic-forming elements display substantial mobility. Their mode of occurrence in the parent lignite plays a primary role in the leaching of combustion ashes. The outcomes of this study may assist in addressing the impact of co-firing high ash or high Ca alternative fuels on the leaching properties of combustion by-products.

  2. Lignite-fired thermal power plants and SO2 pollution in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 80% of the electric energy production in Turkey is provided by thermal power plants which use fossil fuels. Lignite, the most abundant domestic energy source, is consumed in most of these plants. Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world's lignite reserves; however, the Turkish lignites have low calorific value and contain relatively higher amounts of ash, moisture, and sulfur. Nearly 80% of the lignite mined in Turkey is consumed in the thermal power plants since it is not appropriate for use in other types of industry and heating. In Turkey, 13 large-scale lignite-fired thermal power plants are responsible for a considerable amount of air pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to decide on the optimal place and technology for the future thermal power plants, and to equip the currently operating plants with newer technologies that will reduce amount of contaminants released into the air. In this study, the effects of the lignite-fired thermal power plants which have an important place in the energy politics in Turkey on the air pollution are investigated. We focused on SO2 pollution and the regions in which the SO2 emissions were concentrated and diffused. The pollutant diffusion areas were projected and mapped based on parameters such as wind data, isotherm curves, population density, and topographic features by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcView. The contribution of the thermal power plants to SO2 pollution was also examined

  3. Late Holocene marine terraces of the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean: The product of neotectonism or a former high stand in sea-level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio Martínez, J.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Gomez, Andres; Delgado, Adriana; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rendon, Esteban

    2010-03-01

    The detailed stratigraphic survey and paleontological study (mollusks, corals, foraminifera and ostracods) of four low-level, ˜3 m, marine terrace sections: Punta Canoas, Manzanillo del Mar, Playa de Oro, and Tierra Bomba Island, from the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean, supplemented with 22 radiocarbon dates, reveals that the northern terraces were deposited as parasequences in a clastic depositional system compared to the Tierra Bomba Island succession that was deposited in a carbonate depositional system between ˜3600 and ˜1700 cal yrs BP. Drier conditions and the southern location of the ITCZ at about 3 ka triggered stronger easterly Trades and more dynamic southwestward sediment drift fed by the Magdalena River mouth, thus promoting the formation of sand spits that ultimately isolated the Cienaga de Tesca coastal lagoon from the Caribbean Sea. Our estimates support the hypothesis that the present position of the terraces is the product of neotectonism rather than a higher 3 ka, sea-level. Upheaval of the terraces varies between ˜3.8 mmyr -1 at Punta Canoas and ˜2.2 mmyr -1 at Tierra Bomba to ˜1.5 mmyr -1 at Manzanillo del Mar and Playa de Oro terraces. Our study corroborates previous contentions on the role of mud diapirism and the dynamics of the Dique Fault as late Holocene upheaval mechanisms.

  4. Serbian energy development based on lignite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite, as an energy resource, is a mainstay of electricity generation in the Republic of Serbia. Installed capacity of lignite power plants represents 68% of the total installed capacity of Electric Power Industry of Serbia, the only company in Serbia, which manages electricity generation. In the future, with the increase in demand for electricity, both in Serbia and in Europe, we should expect more extensive and effective utilization of lignite as the main energy potential. In addition, due to increased emissions of CO2, NOX and other pollutants, the Republic of Serbia must accelerate the implementation of flexible mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol and the guidelines set by the European Union. Lignite in the future will retain its existential importance in the electricity generation in the Republic of Serbia. - Research highlights: → Lignite will retain its existential importance in the electricity generation in Serbia. → Energy politics after 2015 will require new and much larger investments in new lignite mines. → Serbia can expect over 7000 MW of installed power from lignite fired energy capacity.

  5. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  6. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  7. Potentially toxic elements in lignite and its combustion residues from a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, L C; Masto, R E; Srivastava, N K; George, J; Selvi, V A; Das, T B; Pal, S K; Maity, S; Mohanty, D

    2015-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements in lignite and coal is a matter of global concern during energy extraction from them. Accordingly, Barsingsar lignite from Rajasthan (India), a newly identified and currently exploited commercial source of energy, was evaluated for the presence of these elements and their fate during its combustion. Mobility of these elements in Barsingsar lignite and its ashes from a power plant (Bikaner-Nagaur region of Thar Desert, India) is presented in this paper. Kaolinite, quartz, and gypsum are the main minerals in lignite. Both the fly ash and bottom ash of lignite belong to class-F with SiO₂ > Al₂O₃ > CaO > MgO. Both the ashes contain quartz, mullite, anhydrite, and albite. As, In, and Sr have higher concentration in the feed than the ashes. Compared to the feed lignite, Ba, Co, U, Cu, Cd, and Ni are enriched (10-5 times) in fly ash and Co, Pb, Li, Ga, Cd, and U in bottom ash (9-5 times). Earth crust-normalization pattern showed enrichment of Ga, U, B, Ag, Cd, and Se in the lignite; Li, Ba, Ga, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se, in fly ash; and Li, Sr, Ga, U, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Se in bottom ash. Hg, Ag, Zn, Ni, Ba, and Se are possibly associated with pyrite. Leaching test by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that except B all the elements are within the safe limits prescribed by Indian Standards. PMID:25446718

  8. Water Security and Services in The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cashman

    2013-01-01

    The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addr...

  9. Caribbean ,More than Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Ou

    2008-01-01

    @@ Have you ever watched the movie of Pirates of the Caribbean?This Hollywood movie hit several headlines in its time and pushed a charming and mysterious Caribbean under limelight.The Latin America and the Caribbean area caught the world's eyesight,so from China.On February 27th,the fourth session of CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)International Forum focus on Latin America and the Caribbean affairs was heldin Beijing,China.

  10. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  11. Scientific Output from Latin America and the Caribbean – Identification of the Main Institutions for Regional Open Access Integration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is a region in which two thirds of the investment in research and development are funded by State resources. It can be foreseen that in the near future governments in the region will encourage and promote, or require by law or mandates, that scientific output from the region become visible and accessible in open access repositories and portals. This paper presents the results of a survey to identify the institutions of the region with the largest volume of scientific output and ...

  12. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  13. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  14. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  15. Co-pyrolysis behaviors of energy grass and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics of one typical kind of energy grasses are firstly investigated in this study. • Co-pyrolysis of energy grass–lignite blends occurs in two-stages. • Interactions between energy grass and lignite are examined. • Co-pyrolysis kinetics is explored by distributed activation energy model. - Abstract: A kind of energy grass (giant reedgrass) with high calorific value, high production, low land requirement and low sulfur dioxide emission is introduced into lignite pyrolysis process in this paper. Individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis characteristics of energy grass and lignite are investigated by the thermogravimetric analyzer together with mass spectrometer. The individual decomposition indicates that energy grass possesses higher thermochemical reactivity and shorter devolatilization time than lignite. The maximum decomposition rate increases with increasing the heating rate for both energy grass and lignite. The mass spectrometric analysis reveals that the emission of sulfur dioxide from energy grass is much lower than that from lignite. The co-pyrolysis of energy grass and lignite blend is characterized by two-stage thermal degradation processes, which is dominant by energy grass content in the first stage but lignite in the second stage. No obvious interaction between energy grass and lignite is observed during the co-pyrolysis process under the operational conditions investigated in this study. Moreover, the distributed activation energy model is applied to determine the activation energy for the pyrolysis of energy grass, lignite and their blends

  16. Uraniferous lignites and bituminous clays of the Serres Basin. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lignites of the southern area (Christos-Vissiani-Lefkes-Perdikari) and the bituminous clay silts of the northern area (Maramena, Ano Metohi, Chrysopigi) are the main uraniferous beds in the Serres Basin. The sediments of the basin (Upper Miocene to recent) have been stratigraphically divided into three informal unities: the Lefkon, Georgios and Spilia formations. The uraniferous lignites pertaining to the Lefkon limnic-fluvial formation are developed into two discrete horizons, the upper Double Seam and the lower Main Seam. The bituminous clays are of the same age with the lignites, those of Maramena being, however, younger, equivalent to the marine and brackish Georgios formation. The continuity, thickness and dip of the strata reveal considerable regional changes resulting from the intense tectonism of the basin. Further to the surface works the upper lignites have been reached through small excavations and also about 100 boreholes totalling 10,000 m have been drilled. The composition of the organic constituents and the calorific value show a dull transitional to shiny hard lignite with ash rich in pyrite and sulphur. There have been no discrete U minerals detected, while the electron microprobe analysis showed that the uranium is uniformly disseminated into the lignite mass, mainly absorbed through its humic acids. More than 75% of the uranium is extractable, the control of its combustion conditions being, however, a major problem. The potential reserves have been up to date estimated to be of over 4,000 tons (uranium metal), this figure resulting mainly from data evaluated from the borehole γ-ray logs using the computer programmes LOGFILE and LOGPLOT developed at the Radioactive Raw Materials Dept. of the Greek AEC. (author)

  17. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document addresses several of the problems of educational planning in Latin America. Emilia Ferreiro, in "Alternatives to Understanding Illiteracy in the Region," suggests that illiteracy in this region is preventing the attainment of democracy. As social inequality increases, so does the percentage of illiterate adults. Revolutionary social…

  18. Lignite and conditioned ash handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibolini, P.; Di Giacomo, L.; Ruga, A.M. [Techint (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    This article discusses Techint's latest contract for the engineering and supply of a lignite and conditioned ash handling system. Techint Italimpianti, the materials handling unit of Techint Technologies has served the market for over 40 years as a leading supplier of a range of systems for the handling of iron ore, pellets, coal, cement, bauxite, and aluminium. 6 figs.

  19. Statistical tests for prediction of lignite quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Kolovos [Public Power Corporation of Greece SA, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    Domestic lignite from large, bucket wheel excavators based open pit mines is the main fuel for electricity generation in Greece. Lignite from one or more mines may arrive at any power plant stockyard. The mixture obtained constitutes the lignite fuel fed to the power plant. The fuel is sampled in regular time intervals. These samples are considered as results of observations of values of spatial random variables. The aim was to form and statistically test many small sample populations. Statistical tests on the values of the humidity content, the ash-water free content, and the lower heating value of the lignite fuel indicated that the sample values form a normal population. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for testing goodness-of-fit of sample distribution for a three year period and different power plants of the Kozani-Ptolemais area, western Macedonia, Greece. The normal distribution hypothesis can be widely accepted for forecasting the distribution of values of the basic quality characteristics even for a small number of samples.

  20. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  1. Development of Simplified Models of Water Quality in Lignite Mining Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Luckner, L.; Hummel, J; Fischer, R.; Kaden, S.

    1985-01-01

    The development of complex decision support model systems for the analysis of regional water policies for regions with intense socio-economic development effecting and being affected by the water resources system is of increasing importance. One of the most illustrative examples are regions with open-pit lignite mining. Such model systems have to be based on appropriate submodels e.g. for water quality processes. The paper describes submodel for groundwater and surface water quality with...

  2. Assessment of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives of Educational Planning and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Fabio M.

    Educational planning in Latin America is about three decades old. In the 1960s and 1970s educational systems in the region expanded dramatically. During this time countries institutionalized educational planning processes and allocated to them considerable human and financial resources. Educational management, however, did not receive sufficient…

  3. Region-wide temporal and spatial variation in Caribbean reef architecture: is coral cover the whole story?

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Filip, L.; Cote, IM; Gill, JA; Watkinson, AR; Dulvy, NK

    2011-01-01

    The architectural complexity of coral reefs is largely generated by reef-building corals, yet the effects of current regional-scale declines in coral cover on reef complexity are poorly understood. In particular, both the extent to which declines in coral cover lead to declines in complexity and the length of time it takes for reefs to collapse following coral mortality are unknown. Here we assess the extent of temporal and spatial covariation between coral cover and reef architectural comple...

  4. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  5. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  6. Privatization and human resource issues in the Caribbean sugar industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Examines privatization of the sugar plantations and sugar processing industry in the Caribbean region. Provides a detailed account of the current state of the Caribbean sugar industry. Examines the modalities and activities of the privatization process in the six countries. Identifies the forces which led to the nationalization policies of the 1970s and their reversal in the 1990s.

  7. Briquetting of Istanbul-Kemerburgaz lignite of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-05-01

    A lignite sample from the Kemerburgaz-Istanbul area was briquetted with or without binder material. Molasses and Sirnak (Turkey) asphaltite were used as binder materials at different ratios. The effects of the moisture content of the lignite and the concentration of the binder on briquette strength were examined at two different briquetting pressures, 150 and 200 MPa. Briquetting of lignite samples without binder material gave products with low strength and low water resistance. The maximum briquette strength was achieved with a lignite moisture content of 13% and an asphaltite concentration of 12% at a briquetting pressure of 200 MPa. The strongest briquettes obtained with lignite-molasses blends were achieved with a molasses concentration of 12% and a lignite moisture content of 8% at a briquetting pressure of 200 MPa. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity. PMID:12294238

  9. Economic efficiency of the radiometric ash content determination of lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with quality-control problems in lignite mining and in use of lignite in generation of power, coal transformation, residential and industrial heating, or briquetting, a radiometric procedure is proposed for the fast determination of the ash content of lignite as one quality parameter among others. The conditions of application and the advantages are discussed. Finally, a cost benefit study for the radiometric method has been carried out

  10. Trace metals in lignites and ashes of greek power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace metal analysis of lignite and its ashes originating from the two main coal fields of low energy lignite in Greece and used in power stations was carried out. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the content of about 30 minor and major elements. The uranium content of southern Greek lignites was found to be exceptionally high. The present data are correlated with those of the authors' previous investigation. (author) 5 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Prebreakup geology of the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean: Its relation to Triassic and Jurassic rift systems of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A review of the prebreakup geology of west central Pangea, comprising northern South America, the Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa, combined with a study of the Mesozoic rift trends of the region confirms a relation between the rift systems and the underlying older grain of deformation. The prebreakup analysis focuses attention on the Precambrian, early Paleozoic, and late Paleozoic tectonic events affecting the region and assumes a Pindell fit. Two late Precambrian orogenic belts are observed in west central Pangea. Along the northern South American margin and Yucatan a paleo northeast trending Pan-African aged fold belt is documented. A second system is observed along West Africa extending from the High Atlas to the Mauritanides and Rockelides. Similar aged orogenies in the Appalachians are compared. During the late Paleozoic, renewed orogenic activity, associated with the Gondwana-Laurentia suture, affected large segments of west central Pangea. The general trend of the system is northeast-southwest and essentially parallels the Guayana craton and West African and eastern North American cratons. Mesozoic rifling closely followed either the Precambrian trends or the late Paleozoic orogenic belt. The Triassic component focused along the western portions of the Gulf of Mexico continuing into eastern Mexico and western South America. The Jurassic rift trend followed along the separation between Yucatan and northern South America. At Lake Maracaibo the Jurassic rift system eventually overlaps the Triassic rifts. The Jurassic rift resulted in the "Hispanic Corridor" that permitted Tethyan and Pacific marine faunas to mix at a time when the Gulf of Mexico underwent continental sedimentation.

  12. Combustion behavior of xylite/lignite mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, D.; Kastanaki, E.; Lasithiotakis, M.; Papanicolaou, C. [Technical University of Crete, Khania (Greece). Dept. of Mining Resources Engineering

    2004-07-01

    The behavior and the kinetics in nitrogen and air of two low-rank coals (lignite and xylite) and their blends, as well as the compatibility of the component coals in the blends were evaluated, in an effort for the rational use of poor coals. The experiments were conducted in a thermobalance system, at non-isothermal heating conditions, with heating rates of 20 and 100{sup o}C/min, in the temperature range of 25-850{sup o}C. Material particle size was -100 {mu}m. A first-order parallel independent reactions model and a power law model fitted successfully the rate data of pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. Activation energy values and reaction orders ranged from 23 to 182 kJ/mol and 0.8 to 2 respectively. The heating rate did not affect the kinetic parameters considerably. However when this was increased the reactions were shifted to higher temperatures and the rates were greater. The pyrolysis kinetics of lignite/xylite blends could be sufficiently predicted, based on the data of the individual fuels. However, this was not true in the case of char combustion. Blending of lignite with xylite, in any proportion, seemed to cause some interactions between the component coals in air.

  13. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of lignite mines of Kutch,India:Age of lignite and fossil vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratul; Kumar; Saraswati; Sonal; Khanolkar; Dalta; Surya; Narayana; Raju; Suryendu; Dutta; Santanu; Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    The lignite deposits of Kutch, India are stratigraphically referred to the Naredi Formation and considered to be Early Eocene in age. The biostratigraphy of the older mine at Panandhro and a newly opened mine at Matanomadh has constrained the upper age limit of lignite to the early Bartonian. Its lower age may extend to the late Lutetian. Temporally the formation of lignite corresponds to the warming event of the Middle Eocene and suggests a humid climate at the onset of the warming. The previous palynological studies have already suggested dominance of tropical angiospermic pollen. A diverse assemblage of fossil whales and other vertebrates, many of them supposedly the oldest representatives, were reported from Panandhro mine. These were initially assigned to the Early Eocene and later to the Lute? tian age. The present biostratigraphic study revises their age to the Early Bartonian.

  14. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical tourism industry that enhances regional access to specialized health care and facilitates the movement of patients and healthcare resources throughout the region to enhance health equity and health outcomes in the Caribbean.

  15. Distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, V.; Ragupathy, S.; Parthipan, B.; Rani, D.B.R.; Mahadevan, A.

    1991-12-31

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorhizzal (VAM) status was assessed for coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils. The three study sites were: The Kothagudem coal field in the south central region where waste materials are piled 1 to 2 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from plants growing on the waste. Neyveli, on the southeastern coast, is a lignite coal mine where the spoil is piled 70 to 100 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from recently revegetated mine spoil and from 25 year old revegetated sites. The calcite mine at Thazhaiyuthu in the south where the spoil is piled up 2 to 3 m on the soil surface. Samples were collected from 4 to 7 year old reclaimed sites. The wastes generally supported different plant species. The level of VAM infection of plants was markedly different in each mine spoil, with the maximum infection in the coal and calcite spoils, and the least in the lignite spoil. There was more infection in the 25 year old lignite spoil than in the newly revegetated spoil. There were different VAM species in each spoil, and no one species was present in all of the samples. The authors conclude that one of the factors leading to the differences between spoils is the amount of topsoil contained in the spoil (least in the lignite spoils which are very deep). The other is age of the spoils. Unfortunately the authors concluded that the best approach is to enrich the spoils with VAM rather than salvaging and replacing topsoil

  16. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, Caribbean Marine Research Center, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Undersea Research Center for the Caribbean Marine Research Center, Perry Institure for Marine Science, for the Caribbean region explores and studies...

  17. An overview of Turkish lignite qualities by logistic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bulent TUTMEZ; Burak HOZATLI; A.Kemal CENGIZ

    2013-01-01

    As an indispensable energy source,lignite is almost exclusively used in power generation in Turkey.To assess the quality level of Turkish lignite,a multivariate statistical analysis was conducted.The relationship among the lignite quality parameters has been investigated using a response method that is the logistic regression method.The analysis determines the effect of multiple predictor variables such as moisture,ash and sulphur presented simultaneously to predict membership of the two calorific value categories.By this way,a reliable binary response regression structure was constructed considering all the lignite fields in Turkey.Both the experiments on identifying the influential measurements and the measure of goodness of fit indicated that the overall model has a big capability to exhibit the relationship among the parameters of the Turkish lignite.

  18. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  19. Alkyl aryl ethers in lignite solubilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustral, A.M.; Cebolla, V.L.; Gavilan, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    The FT-I.R. and /sup 1/H N.M.R. spectroscopic analyses of oils or maltenes from a Spanish lignite (Utrillas, Teruel), are reported. These oils were obtained by depolymerization with alkyl aromatic ethers (anisole, 3-methyl anisole and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene) catalyzed by Lewis acids ZnCl/sub 2/, AlCl/sub 3/, SbCl/sub 3/ and BF/sub 3/ (as boron trifluoride etherate), at atmospheric pressure and temperatures <220/sup 0/C. Bands due to aromatic ethers in the I.R. and N.M.R. spectra of the oils obtained by depolymerization indicate solvent incorporation. Oils obtained by direct lignite extraction showed 25% aromatic H and some H /sub i/ (approx. = 3%) without OH groups. These appeared in some oils obtained by depolymerization with AlCl/sub 3/ and were due to secondary reactions with the aromatic extract. Oils derived from processes with good yields showed increases in aromaticity. The extent of substitution of aromatic rings in oils obtained by depolymerization was less than for oils directly extracted. All the oils studied show a low degree of condensation.

  20. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  1. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Irena; Kawa, Marek; Janecki, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  2. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  3. Briquettability of lignite and woody wastes composite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G.

    2000-03-01

    Woody wastes have favorable burning characteristics compared to lignite, as well as low ash content and reduced smoke emission. The aim of this study was to blend lignite with woody wastes to obtain a solid fuel that retains the advantageous characteristics of woody materials. Blends with lignite were made up with 7, 9, 12, 15, and 20% of waste and then briquetted under pressures of 400, 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and paper mill wastes were used in different amounts with molasses as binder. Studies were carried out on a laboratory scale to determine optimum parameters for briquetting, such as moisture content of lignite and pressure. Briquetting of lignite without waste materials produces products of low strength. The strongest briquettes were obtained with waste contents of 12--20% and lignite moisture contents of 10--12% at briquetting pressures of 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Briquettes with adequate mechanical strength are obtained from lignite-waste blends with the addition of 8% molasses.

  4. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ250nm and λ450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ250nm and λ450nm. The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  5. New colporate pollen taxa from Neyveli lignite, South India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Misra, B.K. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India))

    1991-02-19

    Four new pollen genera: {ital Bacuspinulopollenites} {ital Cuddaloripollis}, {ital Scrobiculatricolporites}, {ital Tamilipollenites} and seven new species from the subsurface lignite samples of the Mine III area of the Neyveli Lignite Field are described. {ital Tricolporopilites} (Kar and Saxena) Kar 1985 is amended and three new species {ital T. uniformis}, {ital T. differentialis} and {ital T. tectatus} are assigned to it. These colporate angiospermous pollen taxa provide additional information on the palynofloral composition of the main lignite seam encountered in three boreholes. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  7. Biosolubilization of lignite by marine soil microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesh, S.; Manivannan, S.; Mahesh, N.; Mohanasrinivasan, V.; Devi, V.S. [Deemed University, Thanjavur (India). School of Chemical and Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Mangrove forest soil samples were collected from different locations. Before starting the experiment, soil pH and EC are analysed. The medium used for cultivation of fungi is Czapek Dox broth. Two different methods are used for extraction of humic acid from fungi culture medium, such as the shakeflask method and the respirometer method. Results from the microbial status production of biosolubilized product humic-acid fungi gives a high amount compared to bacteria and actinomycetes. Hence fungi gave the best result for biosolubilization of lignite to humic acid. In addition to microbial status, physico-chemical parameters, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and organic carbon of soil were also analyzed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  8. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  9. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  10. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...

  11. Caribbean Civil Society: Development Role and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Caribbean countries have performed social service delivery and program implementation roles for many years. Using survey, interview, and document review techniques, this cross-national study explored the potential role of nonprofit, nongovernmental, and community-based organizations in regional integration and development. The study has found that Caribbean CSOs perform functions primarily in four areas – social services, community building, local economi...

  12. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K.; Snyder, J.; V Crooks; L Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical touri...

  13. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  14. Investigation on the EDA - DMF extraction and hydroliquefaction behaviour of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y.; Wu, Q. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry)

    1993-03-01

    The extraction of lignites with a mixture of ethylenediamine (EDA) and dimethylformamide(DMF) (7:3) and their hydroliquefaction behaviour were studied by chemical characterization and CP/MAS [sup 13]C-NMR analysis. The results show that when the aromaticity of lignites increases, the EDA-DMF extract yield, liquefaction conversion and asphaltene yield decrease. Chemical reactions take place between solvents and lignites. The EDA-DMF extract of lignites is mainly complex esters (ethers) with higher aromaticity and less alkyl chains. Therefore CO and -O- groups in lignites may play an important role in initial stage of hydroliquefaction of lignites. 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anadon-Irizarry; D.C. Wege; A. Upgren; Young, R.; Boom, B; Y.M. Leon; Y. Arias; Koenig, K.; Morales, A.L.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive nat...

  16. Future lignite mines of Serbia; Zukunftsbraunkohletagebaue in Serbien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehna, Ullrich; Schmidt, Uwe [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany); Pavlovic, Vladimir [Belgrade Univ. (RS). Opencast Mining Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The Pre-feasibility Study on Selection of Limitation and Opening of Open Pit Mines Radljevo and South Field with Comparative Overview of Technical and Economic Aspects of Coal Mining for the Selection of Priority Coal Supplier of CHP Kolubara B has been prepared by Vattenfall Europe Mining Consulting (VEMC) and the University of Belgrade Faculty of Mining and Geology (UB-FMG) as subcontractor. Strategic and development plans of Electric Power Industry of Serbia anticipate the construction of new thermal power plant capacities in the Kolubara region requiring the provision of necessary coal amounts. One of the essential questions which needed to be analysed and defined more precisely by this study was the question of fuel supply to these new capacities as the precondition for finding the strategic partners in the construction of new power capacities. The RB Kolubara mining company produces around 30 Mt/a of lignite mainly from the large opencast mines Field D and Tamnava-West. It supplies most of it to the existing TPP in Kolubara and TPP Nicola Tesla A and B in Obrenovac. (orig.)

  17. Activating lignite and sludge by electro-hydraulic impulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deshu; LIAO Zhenfang; DENG Xiaogang; ZHAO Jianxin; KANG Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A uewce to activate lignite and SlUdge by electro-hydraulic impulse is presented. It comprises an impulse current generator constituted by a high voltage transformer, a high voltage silicon rectifier, a current-limiting resistor, a capacitor bank and an air-break switch, and a lignite and sludge appliance made up of two plane electrodes and a working chamber. The installation activates the lignite or sludge delivered to the working chamber by the impulse current that is from the generator to puncture the main gap in the working chamber, raise the temperature therein up to (20 000 to 40 000) K and the energy density to as high as 109 J.rn-3, and form a plasma piston. The alternative development and attenuation of plasma expansion makes the lignite in a number of physical and chemical processes resulting in diverse active radicals and ions, and also breaks it into grains mostly smaller than 250 μm. It is founded by experimental study that the technology can raise the content of nitro nitrogen by 1.4 to 1.5 times and that of dissoluble organic substances by 5 to 10 times which is probably attributed to the decomposition of the ample germs in the lignite. The calculated power requirement to activate lignite is about (50 to 60) kW.h.t-1. In comparison with muck applied to cucumber cultivation, the activated lignite demonstrates its features as an effective and economical green fertilizer by the same yield with half amount. These findings imply a promising access to green fertilizer.

  18. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christien Klaufus; Rivke Jaffe

    2015-01-01

    The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a be...

  19. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  20. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever described. Several genera and species have been synonymised. The monotypic family Ricordeidae Watzl, 1922, has been re-established to accommodate Ricordea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. In Ricordea flor...

  1. Systematic study of the lignite located in the neotertiary limnics basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo, J.L.; Rey de la Rosa; Espinosa

    1983-03-01

    The article sets out the methodology for exploration of the lignite deposits and also looks at the origins of the deposits. Particular reference is made to the Giuzo de Limia lignite deposits situated in the Province of Pontevedra, Spain.

  2. Greek lignites as additives for controlling filtration properties of water-bentonite suspensions at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilios C. Kelessidis; Christina Tsamantaki; Athanasios Michalakis; George E. Christidis; Pagona Makri; Kassiani Papanicolaou; Antonios Foscolos [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece). Department of Mineral Resources Engineering

    2007-05-15

    The effectiveness of Greek lignites to control the filtration characteristics of water-bentonite suspensions and to minimize formation damage at high temperatures was studied. Twenty-six lignite samples from various peat/lignite deposits in Greece were used together with a commercial lignite product. The contents of humic and fulvic acids, humins, oxygen, ash and the cation exchange capacity of lignite samples were examined with respect to fluid loss of these suspensions. The results show that most samples provided very good filtration control of the water-bentonite suspensions after exposure to 177{sup o}C with some being superior to the commercial product. Better performance was observed after addition of 3% w/v lignite. Total humic and fulvic acids as percentage of dry lignite matter and the organic matter as lignite percentage showed a weak inverse correlation with the fluid loss volumes. 60 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Un dilema político en la encrucijada histórica del proceso de integración regional de América Latina y el Caribe A political dilemma at the historical crossroads of the process of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha V.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de las dinámicas políticas internas y externas de los esquemas de integración regional y subregional de América Latina y el Caribe se llega a la conclusión de que la región ha logrado concretar un posicionamiento débil en lo económico y disperso en lo político dentro del proceso de negociaciones para el ALCA. Esta situación de la región se complica un poco más debido a la nueva encrucijada histórica que atravieza y, en particular, por el dilema político (integración regional o integración continental que se instala en dicha encrucijada. De manera clara se plantea la hipótesis de una crisis del proyecto y del proceso de integración regional de ALyC y se formulan las ideas generales para un proyecto de integración regional alternativa.Based on the analysis of internal and external political dynamics of Latin America and the Caribbean's regional and subregional integration mechanisms, one concludes that the region has built a weak economic position and a diffused political position within the FTAA negotiation process. This situation in the region becomes even more complex due to the new historical crossroads it faces and particularly for the political dilemma (regional or continental integration that takes place in such crossroads. Clearly, we present the hypothesis of a crisis in the project of regional integration of Latin America and the Caribbean, and articulate the general ideas for a project of alternative regional integration.

  4. Summary of Caribbean managers meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Caribbean Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Managers held their 11th meeting in November 1994. The meeting attracted over 80 attendees from all of the member countries, including Puerto Rico (for the first time), representatives of nongovernmental organizations, and technical personnel. Among the achievements cited were the facts that no cases of indigenous measles have been reported in over 3 years in the Caribbean, no cases of paralytic poliomyelitis have been detected in nearly 12 years, progress has been made in the surveillance of fever and rash illnesses, and immunization coverage levels remain high. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the overall EPI program in the Caribbean in order to identify obstacles to achieving program targets and to evaluate continued efforts towards the elimination of measles by 1995. The discussions about measles focused on 1) the surveillance system for the detection of suspected cases, which has improved, but which could be strengthened and 2) the levels of immunization coverage and the continued increase in the number of children who remain susceptible to the disease (each country projected the number of children under age 5 years who would be susceptible by June 1995). Steps to maintain the polio-free status of the area, including maintaining immunization levels of at least 80%, were also reviewed. In addition, concerns about reducing the number of cases of congenital rubella syndrome were addressed with several recommendations including improving active hospital surveillance and developing an appropriate rubella vaccination strategy. Incidence rates for tuberculosis were reported, and the problems of coinfection with HIV and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the disease were discussed. Tuberculosis control programs in the region are generally inadequate, treatment standards have not been implemented, the availability of drugs is limited, and treatment monitoring is not routine. In order to meet

  5. What are cleats? Preliminary studies from the Konin lignite mine, Miocene of central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Widera, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Cleats (fractures, joints) are discontinuities in coals, including lignites. They are important in mining activity because of their gas and water permeability in hard coal, and mainly because of their water permeability in lignites. As opposed to hard-coal cleats, lignite cleats have not been studied in detail before. The present contribution does so, using as an example the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine in central Poland. It should be ...

  6. Isotopic tracers for the analysis of vegetation-derived organic matter in lignite-containing soils and sediments along a transect ranging from a forest soil to submerged lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbi, A.; Rumpel, C.; Grootes, P.M.; Mariotti, A.; Huttl, R.F. [BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany). Dept. of Soil Protection & Recultivation

    2006-07-01

    The mine soils and sediments in the Lusatian open-cast lignite mining district (Germany) contain substantial amounts of lignite in addition to recent organic matter derived from plant litter. Knowledge of organic matter (OM) types and their transformation in mine soils and sediments is essential for the evaluation of ecosystem functioning in this region. The aim of the study was to use the isotopic signature of OM to: (1) determine lignite C contribution and (2) elucidate the contribution of OM derived from plant litter to three physical fractions in order to deduce its degree of degradation in three contrasting environments. We used stable and radioactive C isotopes to quantify the contribution of lignite C and to characterize humification processes occurring under contrasting vegetation and redox conditions.

  7. Approaches to Post-Mining Land Reclamation in Polish Open-Cast Lignite Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasztelewicz Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the situation regarding the reclamation of post-mining land in the case of particular lignite mines in Poland until 2012 against the background of the whole opencast mining. It discusses the process of land purchase for mining operations and its sales after reclamation. It presents the achievements of mines in the reclamation and regeneration of post-mining land as a result of which-after development processes carried out according to European standards-it now serves the inhabitants as a recreational area that increases the attractiveness of the regions.

  8. Applications of continuous surface mining technology in Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ural, S.; Onur, A.H. [University of Cukurova, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-01-01

    Lignite production projects are being undertaken on the Afsin-Elbistan basin in Turkey as integrated developments with the construction of power stations, four of which have been commissioned. The article discusses the optimal selection of surface mining equipment to remove overburden and produce lignite. Better quality control of the lignite is required to improve power station performance. 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  10. Lignite self ignition and the use of inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tendency of coals, especially lignite, to self ignition, causes enormous losses in coal substance. The frequent mine shaft fires with an endogen character are the greatest hazard because they endanger the peoples security and also cause enormous economic damages. For that reason the contemporary science is trying to find new possibilities to increase the security in coal exploitation, as well as in its further processing and use. One of the possible solutions is the use of inhibitors. In this paper the researches of the lignite self ignition by the Olpinski method are presented. The examined lignite is taken from the coal deposit Zhivojno - Bitola. CaCl2 in concentration of 0-20% is used as a inhibitor. At the end a mathematical model which presents the dependence of the self ignition from the used inhibitor is obtained. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 1 ill

  11. The Landfill Gas-to-Energy Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Terraza, Horacio; Grajales, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the Landfill Gas-to-Energy (LFGTE) Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean are to. 1) contribute to the maximization of methane emissions reductions and the development of carbon trading opportunities; 2) promote LFGTE investment in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve solid waste management practices in the region; 3) create awareness of LFGTE opportunities; ...

  12. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a dive

  13. Briquetting of Konya-Ermenek lignite of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, H.; Kural, O.; Ekinci, E.

    1989-05-01

    As a utilization technology for fragile Turkish lignites briquetting may be considered. For this reason Konya-Ermenek lignite was subjected to cold and hot and binder- and binderless-type briquetting. The hot and cold binderless briquettes failed to meet the necessary product quality. Atactic propylene, sulphite liquor, molasses and coal tar pitch were used as binders and coal tar pitch briquettes were found to be the best quality products. The effects of moisture, briquetting pressure, heat treatment and aging were also investigated. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  15. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction

  16. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  17. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  18. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  19. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  2. Latin America and the Caribbean : A Time to Choose, Caribbean Development in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report seeks to discuss the critical constraints to sustainable, job-creating growth, and to present policy options for the region and country Governments to stimulate such growth. It analyzes growth performance in the Caribbean over the last four decades, and highlights key determinants of past and also future growth. Given the recent deterioration in government finances, the report then studies key areas of government expenditure. A discussion of the climate for private investment foll...

  3. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  4. Regional elemental signatures related to combustion of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmez, E.I.; Kut, D.; Bilge, A.N.; Olmez, I. [Cekmece Nuclear Research & Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In ambient air, arsenic to selenium ratio (As/Se) is generally found to be less than 1, except in areas influenced by specific point sources, such as Cu smelters. However, the annual average of this ratio is found to be much higher than unity in Turkey. This finding is rather unique and may provide a marker for air masses influenced by the coal-related emissions in Turkey.

  5. Lignite bearing Neogene relics in Silesia. Lignite deposit in the vicinity of the village of Uhelná

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 207-216 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  7. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  8. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  9. Resolving regional frequency analysis of precipitation at large and complex scales using a bottom-up approach: The Latin America and the Caribbean Drought Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, J.; Hallack-Alegría, M.; Cadena, M.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrologic frequency analysis is a statistical technique for the assessment of natural hazards, particularly the so-called water hazards caused exclusively by extreme hydrologic events. In particular, L-moments based regional frequency analysis (RFA-LM) has being adopted as the standard method for hydrologic frequency analysis in many parts of the world and for many other applications relating to hydrological extremes. However, despite the widespread use of RFA-LM, its application at large network and high and complex spatial scale conditions (LNHCSSC) has been poorly studied. The lack of studies about RFA-LM under such conditions and its use preferentially at subnational scales and areas with low number of rain gauge stations, or based on grid data, may be explained by the fact that the most difficult, less robust, and most subjective stage of RFA-LM is the delineation of homogeneous regions. This work proposes an integral procedure for the application of RFA-LM under LNHCSSC. The proposed method is applied to the study of drought event frequency in three case studies from Latin America, and incorporates innovating aspects compared to the state-of-the-art RFA-LM. These aspects are specifically (a) the decoupling of the cause of homogeneity from the regionalization stage; (b) the proposal of regionalization efficiency metrics; (c) the development of a regionalization algorithm; and (d) the development of a frequency estimation and mapping method for ungauged sites.

  10. Lignite and hard coal: Energy suppliers for world needs until the year 2100 - An outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For three years, international hard coal prices have been at rather expensive levels. Some argue that these higher prices might indicate the threat of a physical scarcity of fossil fuels - similar to the situation with oil and gas. This is not true. The supply situations with lignite and hard coal appear to be largely not critical. Adjusted to the rise in global coal consumption, which is expected until 2100, nature by and large can meet the world's coal demand. This is shown for lignite in this article and it is illustrated for hard coal here, differentiated in space and time for a world divided into eight regions and viewed for the years 2005, 2020, 2030, 2050, and 2100. The only area of potential concern is Asia (especially China). But today's and coming eager efforts in China to convert coal resources into reserves will most likely deliver the coal needed for the Chinese market. Up to the year 2100, and from a geoscientific point of view, there will be no bottleneck in coal supplies on this planet. (author)

  11. Characterizations of Deposited Ash During Co-Firing of White Pine and Lignite in Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jesse; Preto, Fernando; Tourigny, Guy; Wang, Jinsheng; Badour, Chadi; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    Characterizations of ash deposits from co-firing/co-combusting of a woody biomass (i.e., white pine) and lignite coal were investigated in a fluidized-bed combustor using a custom designed air-cooled probe installed in the freeboard region of the reactor. Ash deposition behaviors on a heat transfer surface were comprehensively investigated and discussed under different conditions including fuel type, fuel blending ratios (20-80% biomass on a thermal basis), and moisture contents. For the combustion of 100% lignite, the compositions of the deposited ash were very similar to those of the fuel ash, while in the combustion of 100% white pine pellets or sawdust the deposited ash contained a much lower contents of CaO, SO3, K2O and P2O5 compared with the fuel ash, but the deposited ash was enriched with SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. A small addition of white pine (20% on a heat input basis) to the coal led to the highest ash deposition rates likely due to the strong interaction of the CaO and MgO (from the biomass ash) with the alumina and silica (from the lignite ash) during the co-combustion process, evidenced by the detection of high concentrations of calcium/magnesium sulfates, aluminates and silicates in the ash deposits. Interestingly, co-firing of white pine pellets and lignite at a 50% blending ratio led to the lowest ash deposition rates. Ash deposition rates in combustion of fuels as received with a higher moisture content was found to be much lower than those of oven-dried fuels.

  12. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  13. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations...

  14. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R.; Spakman, W.; Wortel, R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Ric

  15. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  16. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite Ⅰ: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiu-xiang; PAN Lan-ying; SHI Kai-yi; CHEN-hui; YIN Su-dong; LUO Zhen-fu

    2009-01-01

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelhilar proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had sohibilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelhilar proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present.

  17. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  19. γ-irradiation effect on paramagnetism of lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation effect on paramagnetism of lignite processed at different temperatures in the air and in vacuum has been investigated. In the case of vacuumated samples the concentration of paramagnetic centres (PC) extremely depends on temperatUre and its maximum value corresponds to 400 deg C. Sharp excursion of PC concentration especially at >= 250 deg C is observed for samples processed in the air. Gamma-irradiation (up to 120 kGr) of lignite processed under different conditions results in decrease of PC concentration for all the samples. Energy yields of PC descending make up G(PC)=0.6-6.9 particles for 100 eV of absorbed energy and the highest value is observed for a sample processed at 500 deg C in the air

  20. Economic model for environment protection in lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, environment concerns have attracted a great deal of attention worldwide. It has been acknowledged that the danger of environmental degradation is threatening the very existence of mining industry. Simultaneously ecological awareness and sensitivity have spawned a new commitment, on part of the industry, towards the environment. Pertinent to note in this paper is that an economic model has also been developed, which describes the exploitation of Lignite and its interaction with rest of the economy, including the environmental consequences, to ensure that the damage caused to the environment and society is contained within acceptable limits. This model has been implemented as a workable and viable alternative for environment protection in a lignite mine in India. 5 refs

  1. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  2. The lignite industry in Kosovo; Die Braunkohlenindustrie im Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durchholz, R.; Struwe, J. [Rheinbraun Engineering und Wasser GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The Kosovarian lignite industry was an important producer of base-load power in the former Yugoslavia. After the economic embargo imposed against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the 1990s and the end of the civil war in 1999, the power plants and opencast mines were in a destitute state. The activities of the electric utility KEK and UNMIK (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo) are currently geared among other to safeguarding the country's energy supply. After a repair of the existing plants, long-term competitive power generation on a lignite basis will be possible due to the favourable deposit conditions. Its volume, however, will depend to a high degree on the involvement of Kosovo in energy production and distribution on the Balkans. (orig.)

  3. Determinants and promotion of oral hygiene behaviour in the Caribbean and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Yvonne A. B.; Dijkstra, Arie; Bink, Pim; van Zanten, Sarah; van der Schans, Cees P; van, Zanten S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of oral hygiene behaviour (OHB) based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) among dental care seekers in two cultural different regions: the Caribbean (Aruba/Bonaire) and Nepal. In addition, measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected social outcomes of having healthy teeth (ESO) were investigated. The main effects of the predictors as well as their interactions with region (Caribbean vs. Nepal) were examined. The interactio...

  4. Concerning Caribbean Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Small Island Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte-Gonzalez, Felix Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses one of the biggest challenges that most countries have to face over the coming decades. The transformations in our global weather patterns are expected to bring some very adverse effects for most of the island nations that comprise the Caribbean region. These nations have been continuously identified as one of the territorial groups that are most vulnerable to climate change, while the region barely contributes to the main triggers of these changes. Caribbean island natio...

  5. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  6. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  7. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety. Radiological protection in Latin America and the Caribbean. Vol. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two volumes contain more than 183 complete papers presented during the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin american specialist talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation

  8. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Vladimir V.; Komatina Mirko S.

    2012-01-01

    Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are ...

  9. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110. ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  10. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  11. Thermal exploitation of wastes with lignite for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammelis, Panagiotis; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Skodras, George

    2003-11-01

    The thermal exploitation of wastewood with Greek lignite was investigated by performing tests in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor, a 1-MW(th) semi-industrial circulating fluidized bed combustor, and an industrial boiler. Blends of natural wood, demolition wood, railroad sleepers, medium-density fiberboard residues, and power poles with lignite were used, and the co-combustion efficiency and the effect of wastewood addition on the emitted pollutants were investigated. Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions were continuously monitored, and, during the industrial-scale tests, the toxic emissions (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and heavy metals) were determined. Ash samples were analyzed for heavy metals in an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy spectrophotometer. Problems were observed during the preparation of wastewood, because species embedded with different compounds, such as railway sleepers and demolition wood, were not easily treated. All wastewood blends were proven good fuels; co-combustion proceeded smoothly and homogeneous temperature and pressure profiles were obtained. Although some fluctuations were observed, low emissions of gaseous pollutants were obtained for all fuel blends. The metal element emissions (in the flue gases and the solid residues) were lower than the legislative limits. Therefore, wastewood co-combustion with lignite can be realized, provided that the fuel handling and preparation can be practically performed in large-scale installations. PMID:14649749

  12. Supercritical toluene extraction of a reduced Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Z.; Olcay, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-07-01

    Elbistan-Afsin lignite, 64.2% C (daf), was reduced with lithium in THF in the presence of purified naphthalene as an electron transfer agent. The reduced lignite was then extracted with supercritical toluene. Even under comparatively mild conditions, 340{degree}C, relatively large yields of supercritical extract were obtained, almost all of which dissolved in benzene. The n-pentane-soluble and benzene-soluble fractions of the extract were eluted using column chromatography. Less than half of the originally soluble material could be eluted with n-pentane or benzene, the total methanol eluates amounting to 56.1% of the initial extract. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amount of phenol was 23.6% of the original benzene soluble fraction. It was concluded that bond cleavage had taken place during the reduction of the lignite. The naphthalene used as an electron transfer agent participated in side reactions. 46 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  14. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  15. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Agraniotis Michalis; Karellas Sotirios; Violidakis Ioannis; Doukelis Aggelos; Grammelis Panagiotis; Kakaras Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water an...

  16. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  17. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  18. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin, with the descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species. PMID:27394281

  19. Optimization of a Multi Gravity Separator to produce clean coal from Turkish lignite fine coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk Ozgen; Ozkan Malkoc; Ceyda Dogancik; Eyup Sabah; Filiz Oruc Sapci [Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the beneficiation of two lignite tailings by Multi Gravity Separator (MGS) was investigated. The tailings samples from the Tuncbilek/Kutahya and Soma/Manisa regions have ash contents of 66.21% and 52.65%, respectively. Significant operational parameters of MGS such as solid ratio, drum speed, tilt angle, shaking amplitude, wash water rate, and feed rate were varied. Empirical equations for recovery and ash content were derived by a least squares method using Minitab 15. The equations, which are second-order response functions, were expressed as functions of the six operating parameters of MGS. The results showed that it is possible to produce a coal concentrate containing 22.83% ash with a recovery of 49.32% from Tuncbilek coal tailings, and a coal concentrate containing 22.89% ash with a recovery of 60.01% from Soma coal tailings. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  1. The Anatomy of a Successful Caribbean Substance Abuse Training Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SD Reid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the components of the Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems (CARIAD, a long-standing substance abuse training programme. It seeks to explain how certain strategies and pedagogic techniques may be contributing to its success. Methods: Authors deconstruct the core elements of CARIAD to demonstrate how the programme effectively meets the characteristics of a community of practice. The processes used to develop the learning community and the specific pedagogic strategies and techniques that foster collaborative knowledge construction and sharing are described. Results: Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems brings together a multi-disciplinary, multi-national group of individuals with interest in substance abuse. The programme provides a range of formal and informal learning activities which focus on sharing best practices and creating new sociocultural relevant knowledge to advance the domain of professional practice in substance abuse. The components of CARIAD promote interactivity, rapid bonding and a sense of identity. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems provides a unique platform for cultural sharing that gives participants an opportunity to reveal insights into local and regional expressions of substance abuse challenges. Participants, however, recognize the absence of structured continuity and the diminution of what could be accomplished by graduates over time. Conclusion: The success of CARIAD as a regional learning platform may be related to its success as a Caribbean community of practice for substance abuse. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems would do well to sustain the community of practice, generating and maintaining ongoing participation and collaboration among graduates. This can potentially serve to create new strategies for advancing the region in the area of substance abuse.

  2. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  3. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  4. Women in Physics: A Caribbean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.

  5. Analytical investigation of lignite and its ash samples taken from the Afsin-Elbistan coal basin in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukonder, Adnan; Paksoy, Emine; Biber, Seyma [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Durdu, Burhanettin Goeker [Kilis 7 Aralik Univ., Kilis (Turkey). Opticianry Program; Baskaya, H.; Dogru, Mahmut [Bitlis Eren Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2014-04-15

    Lignite, taken from basin in Afsin-Elbistan region, and ash samples were analyzed according to the qualitative, quantitative and radioactivity properties. An elemental analysis was made by using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. 59.5 keV photons emitted from a {sup 241}Am source and 5.9 keV photons emitted from a {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation. The characteristic K X-rays of the elements were counted with a Si(Li) detector. For the same samples gross alpha, gross beta and radionuclide activities were also measured. (orig.)

  6. Production of beneficiated derivatives from Greek lignite for electrical and non-electrical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek Lignite deposits exploitation started back in 1958 targeting to the further industrialization of Greece. The first plans barely incorporated electrical energy production since the priorities at that time had to do with the direct use of the heat or carbon enclosed in lignite. Today the non electric uses of lignite correspond to a rather negligible 0,5 % of the total coal production. The arrival of natural gas in the near future is considered to be a major drawback towards further non electrical lignite uses and the competition will get tougher. Greek Lignite, poor in quality (that is rich in moisture and inorganic matter) has to be dried before it can be considered for any non-electric use. Briquetting, semi-coking and gasification were the options used during the last 40 years. In Greece today, the most promising use for such a low heat value lignite is its preparation (dried lignite powder or beneficiated coal slurry) so as to be used as a compatible and trouble free supportive fuel during the combustion of raw lignite in the power production sector. Little has been done up to now in the area of enrichment and removal of the inorganic matter. Research on non-electric uses has to be carried on so as to be ready for application when appropriate economic circumstances occur. (Author)

  7. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Benn Torres, Jada; Vilar, Miguel G.; Torres, Gabriel A.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Bharath Hernandez, Ricardo; Browne, Zoila E.; Stevenson, Marlon; Walters, Wendell; Schurr, Theodore G.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people’s contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbe...

  8. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  9. New Kinematic Block Model for the Caribbean Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left- and right-lateral strike slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip faulting along major plate boundaries. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling along the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction zone whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. Previous studies used GPS data and a block modeling approach to infer coupling at the plate interface and strain partitioning at the transition with strike-slip fault in the northeastern Caribbean (Manaker et al., 2008; Benford et al., 2013), with three main findings: (1) a correlation between strong interplate coupling and strain partitioning, (2) low coupling of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico subduction, and, (3) internal deformation within the upper plate in Hispaniola. These studies were however based on a sparse and inhomogeneous GPS data set. Here we use a much updated geodetic GPS data set (~300 stations, 50% continuous) and earthquake slip vectors to expand these previous studies to the entire Caribbean region (excluding Central America, except to define the stable Caribbean plate). We use the block modeling approach described in McCaffrey et al. (2002) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solve for variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries, estimate angular velocities for each block/plate, and determine strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region.

  10. Laboratory experiments and analytical investigations on the transfer of organic substances from lignite into ground water and residue lakes during flooding of opencast lignite mines. Final report; Laborexperimente und analytische Untersuchungen ueber den Eintrag braunkohlebuertiger organischer Stoffe in Grundwaesser und Restseegewaesser bei der Flutung von Braunkohletagebauen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzschuh, R.; Frauendorf, H.; Herrmann, D.; Pietzsch, K.

    2000-05-01

    Lignite samples of diffrent lithotypes and composition from opencast mines of Lusatia and the region near Leipzig were submitted to weathering processes in laboratory scale experiments and the transfer of organic matter from lignite into the hydrosphere has been observed. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry used in combination with data from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry numerous lignite-derived aromatic and heteroaromatic (poly-)carboxylic acids as well as aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could be characterized in the aqueous extracts. Investigations on water samples from lignite mining residue lakes cofirm these results. Furthermore, formation of chlororganic compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), benzenes (PCBz) and phenols (PCPh) has been investigated on different lignite samples under natural weathering conditions and thermal treatment. (orig.) [German] Braunkohlen verschiedener Lithotypen und Zusammensetzung aus Tagebauen der Lausitz und der Region um Leipzig wurden in Laborexperimenten Verwitterungsprozessen unterzogen und der Uebergang organischer Materie aus der Braunkohle in die Hydrosphaere beobachtet. Mit Hilfe der HPLC-Elektrospray-MS-Untersuchungen in Kombination mit Daten aus GC-MS-Messungen konnten zahlreiche aus der Braunkohle stammende aromatische und heteroaromatische (Poly-)Carbonsaeuren sowie aliphatische Dicarbonsaeuren in den waessrigen Extrakten charakterisiert werden. Untersuchungen an Wasserproben aus bereits gefluteten Tagebaurestseen bestaetigen diese Ergebnisse. Weiterhin wurde die Bildung chlororganischer Verbindungen, wie polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und -furane (PCDD/F) sowie polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB), Benzole (PCBz) und Phenole (PCPh) an unterschiedlichen Braunkohleproben unter natuerlichen Bedingungen und nach thermsicher Behandlung untersucht. (orig.)

  11. Possibilities for briquetting of tinny particles of Macedonian lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal reserves in Macedonia are estimated to over 632 million tons. They are mostly immature coals - lignite, with high content of moisture (30-50%), ash (13-22%), and low content of C fix (14-20%). Today the coal deposits in Suvodol and Osiomej are mined which work for the requirements of the thermoelectric power plants in Bitola and Kicevo as well as the deposits of Brik-Berovo and Piskupstina-Struga, which supply the industry and the households. In respect of the fact that these lignite have weak mechanical characteristics, during the coal mining process they are degraded, i.e. small fraction in quantities of 20-30% are created. The interest in buying these quantities is at the minimum due to the limited industrial possibilities, the difficulties in the transportation and impossibility for their use in the households. Therefore the majority of these coal quantities are stored in the vicinity of the mines, which makes large financial losses to the producers on the part, and due to the air, water and soil pollution it is a big ecological problem, on the other part. For resolving these problems, i.e. finding a relevant method for making these small fractions larger at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute - in the framework of Mine and Iron Steelworks, and with the financial support of the Ministry of Science, it is made a detailed exploration of the possibilities for obtaining briquettes from the lignite of the deposits in Suvodol-Bitola, Brik-Berovo and Piskupstina-Struga. (Author)

  12. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  13. Caribbean Regional Communications Service Study. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Gerald C.

    A follow-up to a limited experiment with the use of satellites in education and public service conducted by the University of the West Indies (UWI) in 1978, this study explores the feasibility of providing a number of services, which would include an extension system based on the use of the UWI telecommunications network. The study was designed to…

  14. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  15. Genotype frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a Colombian Caribbean population do not correspond with lactase persistence prevalence reported in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antonio Villanueva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms located upstream of the lactase gene are reliable predictors of lactase persistence in Caucasian-derived populations. Assessing the presence and distribution of these polymorphisms in other populations is central to developing genotyping assays and understanding the evolutionary mechanism behind this trait in several human populations.Objective: Genotyping the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a sample of Colombian Caribbean individuals.Materials and methods: The polymorphisms were identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Amplified fragments were digested using Hinf I and Hha I. Arlequin v. 3.1 was used to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage disequilibrium.Results: Genotypic frequencies were CC (81.4%, CT (18.6%, and TT (0% for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. Frequencies were AA (55.5%, GA (45.5%, and GG (0% for the G/A-22018 polymorphism. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the two loci. Only the locus containing the C/T-13910 polymorphism was found in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.Conclusion: The allelic and genotypic distributions observed in this first genotyping study in a Colombian Caribbean population indicate a distribution pattern different from the one of the North European Caucasians and do not correspond to the lactase persistence prevalence reported for Caribbean populations.

  16. La Nueva Teoría Estratégica y la comunicación científica en la región Caribe / The New Strategic Theory and science communication in the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Antonio Canella López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La Nueva Teoría Estratégica es aplicada en investigaciones desde el Foro Iberoamericano Sobre Estrategias de Comunicación que articula acciones con redes y universidades. Vincula actores internacionales de las Universidades: Sergio Arboleda de Colombia, Autónoma de Santo Domingo, de República Dominicana y Nacional de Lomas Zamora de Argentina. Se pretende promover una estrategia para la comunicación científica en la región Caribe. El caso presentado es la realización de la Revista científica/académica, denominada Comunicaribe, (en construcción. Existe déficit de publicaciones académicas en Open Access en la región y el fomento del estimulo para animar a los autores de la región a la producción global desde lo local. Las metodologías propuestas son elaboradas desde la Nueva teoría Estratégica, centrándonos en la primera seña, conocida como el cambio de paradigma del pensamiento Complejo. Aplicamos tres conceptos para el diagnóstico del caso: el principio dialógico, el principio recursivo y el principio hologramático. Resultados: esperamos lograr la puesta en marcha de la publicación, tal como se ha realizado con una serie de ellas, en América y Europa. Conclusiones: los aspectos de la Teoría son tantos y tan abonados por las metodologías propuestas que permite articular en la diversidad de situaciones. Abstract The New Strategic Theory is applied to research from the FISEC ( Ibero-American Forum on Communication Strategies that articulates shares networks and universities. In the present case relates international actors Universities: Sergio Arboleda from Colombia, Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, and National Lomas Zamora of Argentina. The research is conducted in order to promote a strategy for scientific communication in the Caribbean region. The case presented is to conduct scientific / academic journal called Comunicaribe currently under construction. They motivate this embodiment

  17. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  18. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Single- and dual-porosity modelling of flow in reclaimed mine soil cores with embedded lignitic fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H; Badorreck, Annika; Einecke, Markus

    2009-02-16

    Lignitic mine soils represent a typical two-scale dual-porosity medium consisting of a technogenic mixture of overburden sediments that include lignitic components as dust and as porous fragments embedded within a mostly coarse-textured matrix. Flow and transport processes in such soils are not sufficiently understood to predict the course of soil reclamation or of mine drainage. The objective of this contribution is to identify the most appropriate conceptual model for describing small-scale heterogeneity effects on flow on the basis of the physical structure of the system. Multistep flow experiments on soil cores are analyzed using either mobile-immobile or mobile-mobile type 1D dual-porosity models, and a 3D numerical model that considers a local-scale distribution of fragments. Simulations are compared with time series' of upward infiltration and matric potential heads measured at two depths using miniature tensiometers. The 3D and the 1D dual-permeability models yielded comparable results as long as pressure heads are in local equilibrium; however, could describe either the upward infiltration or the matric potential curves but not both at the same time. The mobile-immobile type dual-porosity model failed to describe the data. A simultaneous match with pressure heads and upward infiltration data could only be obtained with the 1D dual-permeability model (i.e., mobile-mobile) by assuming an additional restriction of the inter-domain water transfer. These results indicate that for unsaturated flow conditions at higher matric potential heads (i.e., here >-40 hPa), water in a restricted part of the fragment domain must be more mobile as compared to water in the sandy matrix domain. Closer inspections of the pore system and first neutron radiographic imaging support the hypothesis that a more continuous pore region exists at these pressure heads in the vicinity of the lignitic fragments possibly formed by fragment contacts and a lignitic dust interface-region

  20. Kinetic Study and Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Lignite Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermogravimetric analyzer was employed to investigate the thermal behavior and extract the kinetic parameters of Canadian lignite coal. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted in temperatures ranging from 298 K to 1173 K under inert atmosphere utilizing six different heating rates of 1, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 K min−1, respectively. There are different techniques for analyzing the kinetics of solid-state reactions that can generally be classified into two categories: model-fitting and model-free methods. Historically, model-fitting methods are broadly used in solid-state kinetics and show an excellent fit to the experimental data but produce uncertain kinetic parameters especially for nonisothermal conditions. In this work, different model-free techniques such as the Kissinger method and the isoconversional methods of Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and Friedman are employed and compared in order to analyze nonisothermal kinetic data and investigate thermal behavior of a lignite coal. Experimental results showed that the activation energy values obtained by the isoconversional methods were in good agreement, but Friedman method was considered to be the best among the model-free methods to evaluate kinetic parameters for solid-state reactions. These results can provide useful information to predict kinetic model of coal pyrolysis and optimization of the process conditions.

  1. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  2. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  3. Caribbean Remittance Forum on Enhancing the Efficiency and Integrity of Remittance Transfers through Effective Regulatory and Supervisory Systems in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Government of Canada

    2011-01-01

    This regional forum aims at sharing knowledge and generating policy dialogue among relevant remittance stakeholders to enhance the efficiency and integrity of the migration and remittance transfer process, through effective regulatory and supervisory systems in the Caribbean region. It allows multiple countries to share their experiences, identify common challenges, learn from each others'...

  4. Economic reform and progress in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman; Palacios, Luisa

    1997-01-01

    In the late 1980s, after decades of poor economic management, many Latin American and Caribbean countries undertook structural reform that placed them on a path toward superior economic performance. The authors examine the experience in structural reform in five areas: governance (reforming public institutions), international trade, financial markets, labor markets, and the generation and use of public resources. To characterize the experience with structural reform in the region, they develo...

  5. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  6. Distribution of tortoises and freshwater turtles of the colombian caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea; Liliana Patricia Saboyá-Acosta; Vivian Páez; Karen Vega; Juan Manuel Renjifo

    2014-01-01

    This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side ...

  7. Exploring the influences on the Caribbean's emerging medical tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Roderick Neil

    2016-01-01

    Governments and hospitals worldwide have increasingly expressed interest in ‘medical tourism’, where medical treatments are privately purchased by foreign visitors seeking non-emergency care. There is steady discussion worldwide about the development of medical tourism, including countries with volumes of health service exports that are currently very small. Caribbean countries are no exception. In a region not well known for its medical tourism destinations (excepting Cuba and Costa Rica), t...

  8. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  9. Study on the comparison of the pyrolysis gas release of lignite and its briquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-feng; CHU Mo; ZHAO Fei-xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment,lignite was refined and processed through binderless briquette preparation process from low-rank coal and became briquette.Then,lignite and its briquette were pyrolysed as materials to compare the nature of their pyrolysis.In this study,the experiment was carried out through a lab tube furnace,at a heating rate of 10 ℃/min,and the gas was analyzed and compared,which was collected at different temperatures.The results show that:in the pyrolysis temperature of 550~850 ℃,the semi-coke yield of briquette is 2%~6% higher than lignite,the tar yield of briquette is 2%~3% higher than lignite and the gas yield of briquette is 4%~9% less than lignite.The time required for complete release of the briquette is about 20 min less than lignite.The components in the pyrolysis gas of lignite and its briquette are the same,and their variation with the pyrolysis temperature is similar.

  10. Effectiveness of the dense medium and the froth flotation methods in cleaning some Turkish lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of cleaning three Turkish lignites (Beypazari, Goelbasi and Kangal lignites) by the dense medium separation or the froth flotation method has been investigated. Solutions of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) with specific gravities ranging from 1.1 to 1.75 have been used as the dense medium. In the case of froth flotation, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), diethyl isohexanol (DEH) and sodium dodesyl sulphonate (SDS) were used as the frother and kerosene was used as the collector. In both methods, each lignite sample was separated into two sub-fractions: the lignite rich part and the mineral matter rich part. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the methods in ash and sulphur removal is appreciably different for the different lignites. An effective pyritic sulphur removal (over 90%) was obtained for Beypazari or Goelbasi lignites by the dense medium separation. The effectiveness of the froth flotation was relatively different depending on both the lignite and frother type. The recovery is generally low and changes considerably depending on the frother type and particle size

  11. Experimental study on the interaction between peat, lignite and germanium-bearing solution at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI; Huawen; HU; Ruizhong

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between peat, lignite and germanium(Ge)-bearing solution with an initial Ge concentration of 5 mg/L was studied at 25-100℃ and at pH 2.96-12.08. The results show that the apparent transfer ratios of peat and lignite for Ge in the solution were positively correlated with temperature in acid environment (initial pH=2.96), and the ratios (up to 86.5%) of lignite were obviously higher than those (up to 58.5%) of peat, but the organic transfer ratios of lignite were lower than those of peat. The activation energy values for interaction between peat, lignite and Ge-bearing solution are 30.96 and 15.67 kJmol-1, respectively. The strong acid (initial pH=2.96) and the strong alkaline (initial pH=12.08) environment contribute to the transfer of Ge in the solution. At 4<pH<10, the influences of pH on the interaction between peat and Ge-bearing solution are not significant, while weak acid environment (initial pH=6.38) conduces to the transfer of Ge into lignite. The interaction between peat, lignite and Ge-bearing solution are mainly attributable for the complexation of Ge with organic substrate. The experimental results from this study provide direct experimental evidence for the hydrothermal sedimentary genesis of abnormal enrichment of Ge in coal.

  12. Brian Meeks, Envisioning Caribbean Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this feature we highlight a recently launched book. We invite specialists in the field to comment on the book, and we invite the author to respond to their comments. In this issue we focus on Brian Meeks's, Envisioning Caribbean Futures. Those invited to comment on the book are Jay Mandle and Rivke Jaffe. [First paragraph] In Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives (2007, Brian Meeks writes “in sympathy with the new social movements that have evolved in the past decade which assert boldly that ‘another world is possible’” (p. 2. His effort is “to explore the horizons for different approaches to social living in Jamaica and the Caribbean in the twenty-first century” (p. 2. In this, he “seeks to move beyond a statement of general principles to propose specific alternatives” in order to “stimulate a conversation that looks beyond the horizon of policy confines, yet is not so far removed as to appear hopelessly utopian” (p. 3. My hope with this essay is to advance that conversation, in the first place by reviewing and assessing Meeks’s contribution and then by extending the discussion to the role that Jamaica’s diaspora (and by extension that of the region’s generally might play in moving the country, as Meeks puts it, from its current “state of crime and murder, and the broad undermining of the rule of law that pervades the society” (p. 71.

  13. Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of a Federation of Radiation Protection Societies in Latin America came up at the First Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety that was held in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in October 1991. At the Second Regional Congress, in Zacatecas (Mexico), in 1993, the Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC) was officially launched. The founder members were the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), the Brazilian Radiation Protection Society (SBPR), the Mexican Radiation Safety Society (SMSR) and the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society (SPR). Now, the FRALC has accepted as members the Radiation Protection Section of the Cuban Physics Society (SPRC) and the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association (AUR). The basic objectives of the FRALC are: to promote the safe use of radiation and radioactive sources in Latin America and the Caribbean; to promote the foundation of new Radiation Protection Societies within the region, as mean of associating radiation protection professionals, and then, to promote of affiliation of this new societies to IRPA; to encourage the cooperation and mutual aid in the study, research and use of resources, in order to promote the radiation protection development in Latin America and the Caribbean

  14. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  15. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraniotis Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water and ash content. The combustion of Greek predried lignite has been investigated experimentally and via numerical simulations in our previous research. This study focuses on the potential integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing Greek power plant with dry lignite co-firing thermal share of up to 30%. The radiative and convective heat fluxes to the boiler and the overall boiler heat balance is calculated for reference and dry lignite co-firing conditions by an in-house calculation code. The overall plant’s thermal cycle is then simulated using commercial thermal cycle calculation software. The net plant efficiency is in this way determined for reference and dry coal co-firing conditions. According to the simulation results the integration of a pre-drying system and the implementation of dry lignite co-firing may bring an efficiency increase of about 1.5 percentage points in existing Greek boilers. It is therefore considered as an important measure towards improving plant efficiency and reducing specific CO2 emissions in existing plants.

  16. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  17. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  18. Elemental characterization of lignite from Afsin-Elbistan in Turkey by k0-NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve samples of lignite from several places and depths of the Kislakoy open cast mine in the south eastern Turkey were characterized by k0-NAA with emphasis on the potentially hazardous elements, such as As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, S, Sb, U. In total 39 elements were determined at least in some of the samples. The results showed a low quality and elemental inhomogeneity of the lignite material, which is used in the nearby thermal power plant. Mean values of element contents were also compared with older data from the same locality and to the world average lignite composition. (author)

  19. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  20. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Determination of excavation schedule of Afsin Elbistan Lignite Establishment (TEAS), Collolar open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dag, A.; Anil, M. [Cukurova Universitesi, Adana (Turkey)

    1998-12-31

    In this study, a computer program that determines the excavation scheduling has been developed on the bases of all constraints and parameters of Bucket Wheel Excavator stripping method. This computer program has been applied successfully at the Afsin-Elbistan Lignite Establishment (TEAS), Collolar district, that is planned to provide lignite for B-power station in the near future, having a capacity of 4 x 340 MW. This computer program would be applied to Afsin district which is planned for the future use of lignite. Due to the number of planning parameters and varying constraints, it is necessary to use a computer in the planning stages. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. IOC Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America - GODAR-V (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-l 1 October 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The GODAR Workshop for IOC Member States of the Caribbean and South America held at Cartagena, Colombia was the fifth in the series after 4 held at: Obninsk Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) for Member States of Central and Eastern Europe; Tianjin, China (8-l 1 March 1994) for Member States of WESTPAC; Dona Paula, Goa, India (6-9 December 1994) for Member States of the Indian Ocean and Malta (25-28 April 1995) for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the current Worksho...

  3. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  4. Using DNA barcoding to assess Caribbean reef fish biodiversity: expanding taxonomic and geographic coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Weigt

    Full Text Available This paper represents a DNA barcode data release for 3,400 specimens representing 521 species of fishes from 6 areas across the Caribbean and western central Atlantic regions (FAO Region 31. Merged with our prior published data, the combined efforts result in 3,964 specimens representing 572 species of marine fishes and constitute one of the most comprehensive DNA barcoding "coverages" for a region reported to date. The barcode data are providing new insights into Caribbean shorefish diversity, allowing for more and more accurate DNA-based identifications of larvae, juveniles, and unknown specimens. Examples are given correcting previous work that was erroneous due to database incompleteness.

  5. Caribbean area food irradiation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Agency for International Development funded the Caribbean Area Food Irradiation Feasibility Study (CAFI) through the US National Food Processors Association and with the collaboration of the US Department of Energy. This study focused on the economic, technical, financial, political and social feasibility of transferring food irradiation technology to the Caribbean area. The study focuses on three areas including the benefits to small farmers and nations interested in the export of crops, including non-traditional tropical commodities. The Feasibility Study Team conducted field work in Guatemala, Haiti, and Trinidad. The benefits of irradiation technology have been shown to have an impact particularly on the small farmer who is more capable of producing non-traditional crops intended for international export marketing. In Haiti, the anthropologists working on the CAFI study found that 74,000 individuals will be directly affected by the ban on the postharvest fumigant ethylene dibromide. Irradiation technology can not only provide the quarantine security needed to allow crops requiring quarantine treatment to move into international trade, but it can promote international co-operation in technology transfer. Training and safety issues related to the transfer, operation, and disposal of nuclear materials must be considered and point out the need for adequate regional co-operative programmes. Research and training programmes will be needed to augment the implementation of food irradiation processing by the private sector. Irradiation firms planning facilities in developing countries may need to provide crop production information, international marketing intelligence, and other assistance needed to integrate an irradiator into the overall postharvest food system. (author)

  6. Resources for Teaching about the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of resources to aid educators in teaching about the Caribbean. Includes outreach centers for Latin American and Caribbean studies, publishers and distributors, curriculum resource guides and monographs for teachers, citations of children's literature, and a website providing links to embassies. (CMK)

  7. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  8. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  9. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  10. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  11. Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Cox, Peter M.; Economou, Theo; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Carilli, Jessica; Guzman, Hector M.

    2013-05-01

    Coral growth rates are highly dependent on environmental variables such as sea surface temperature and solar irradiance. Multi-decadal variability in coral growth rates has been documented throughout the Caribbean over the past 150-200 years, and linked to variations in Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Multi-decadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic, in turn, has been linked to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Here, we examine the drivers of changes in coral growth rates in the western Caribbean between 1880 and 2000, using previously published coral growth chronologies from two sites in the region, and a numerical model. Changes in coral growth rates over this period coincided with variations in sea surface temperature and incoming short-wave radiation. Our model simulations show that variations in the concentration of anthropogenic aerosols caused variations in sea surface temperature and incoming radiation in the second half of the twentieth century. Before this, variations in volcanic aerosols may have played a more important role. With the exception of extreme mass bleaching events, we suggest that neither climate change from greenhouse-gas emissions nor ocean acidification is necessarily the driver of multi-decadal variations in growth rates at some Caribbean locations. Rather, the cause may be regional climate change due to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  12. In house R and D of Neyveli Lignite Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the infra structural facilities already existing, the Neyveli Lignite Corporation set up an in house Centre for Applied Research and Development (CARD) in 1985. In addition to special and routine testing and analyses of materials, CARD carries out research and development (R and D) activities related to raw materials, by-product utilization, waste product utilization and environmental management. Environmental activities of CARD consist of air quality monitoring, stack monitoring of emission from thermal power stations, survey of respirable dust levels and noise levels in industrial units, and testing of effluents from chemical units, mines and thermal power stations. Pretreatment methods are adopted to contain pollutants within permissible limits. (M.G.B.)

  13. Regional Review of Economic Instruments for Solid Waste Management in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Regional Situation and Case Studies about the Private Participation in Santiago and Recycling in La Reina Municipality, Chile: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ducci; Mauricio Arredondo; Alvaro Fisher

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a brief summary of the economic instruments in use for solid waste management in the region and to present two case studies of such use in Chile. These case studies refer to the industrial organization for the collection and disposal of residential solid waste in the city of Santiago and the development of a collection and recycling scheme in the Municipality of La Reina, in Santiago. This document presents, as a frame of reference based on the avail...

  14. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  15. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO43-) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes

  16. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying; Kirk, Donald W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Jia, Charles Q. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)], E-mail: cqjia@chem-eng.toronto.edu; Liu Xinan [College of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2007-09-05

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes.

  17. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  18. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. PMID:27139308

  19. Intimacy’s Politics: New Directions in Caribbean Sexuality Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agard-Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the

  20. Variation in the content and distribution of biomarkers in two closely situated peat and lignite deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, J.C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.; Martin, F. (Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, Seville (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    A peat and two lignite samples taken from closely situated deposits in the Granada Basin (South Spain) were analysed for their lipid composition. Variations in the distributions and abundances of various compound classes including normal, branched and unsaturated fatty acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and steroid alcohols and ketones, aldehydes, diterpenoids and triterpenoids suggest that a gradient in maturity exists among the samples indicating that the lignites were generally more mature than the peat. In spite of their similar rank, a different hopane distribution was observed between both lignite samples. Source materials include contributions from terrigenous (coniferous) higher plants as well as microbial sources. A possible contribution from marine phytoplankton can also be inferred in the lignite on the basis of the sterol distribution. 69 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. THE EFFECT OF REDUCTIVE MEDIUM FOR DECREASED OF UNDESIRED PARTS OF CAN LIGNITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jale Guelen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    Turkey has huge lignite reserves although most of them have low quality. In this study, Can lignite was demineralized by using basic agents. In order to decrease sulfur and mineral matter of coal, basic agents were applied. Can lignite was stirred with 5% NaOH of 50 ml for 20 minutes. After washing with demineralized water, the lignite was dried in the autoclave at 105 C. Then, it was stirred for 20 minutes with 50 ml 5 % aquatic asidic solutions of HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, HCOOH and HF, seperately. The solution was filtered with blue ribbon band, washed with distilled water and dried in the autoclave at 105 C. The ash and sulfur analyses were done in order to see the chemical agents effects applied for and also FTIR and X ray spectra were taken.

  2. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Marios; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2009-04-01

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. (13)C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation 3.5 [equiv kg(-1)]. PMID:19144349

  3. Development state of the lignite project in Afsin-Elbistan/Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, W.

    1979-08-01

    Apart from the main figures of this industrial project, still the biggest in Turkey, the state of development (mid-1979) of the open-cast mine, the lignite power plant, and of the infrastructure is discussed.

  4. A Guide to NGO Directories: How To Find Over 20,000 Nongovernmental Organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Christina N., Comp.; Barry, Maria E.

    This guide provides information on 42 directories that list over 20,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America and the Caribbean. Listings cover NGOs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean Region, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,…

  5. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program. PMID:12381609

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INCREASING RELIABILITY OF BELT CONVEYORS UPON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF LIGNITE QUARRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-MIHAI NIȚESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present belt conveyors have an important role in the mines of lignite quarries because they contribute decisively to achieving an optimum production. From this point of view the management of mines should be constantly preoccupied with ensuring, in optimal conditions, the operation of these elements of fixed capital and, if it is necessary they should maintain constant reliability. In this context, this paper has as theme the relation between the reliability of conveyors and the productivity within lignite quarries.

  7. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis. PMID:20537093

  8. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  9. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  10. Lignite degradation and mineralization in lignite-containing mine sediment as revealed by {sup 14}C activity measurements and molecular analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbi, A.; Rumpel, C.; Grootes, P.M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J.A.; Delaune, R.D.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.; Nixdorf, B.; Huttl, R.F. [BTU Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany). Dept. for Soil Protection & Recultivation

    2006-07-01

    The influence of sediment pH and redox conditions on the oxidation of lignite and sediment organic carbon was studied using a series of laboratory microcosms. The experiment was conducted over 450 d in reducing sediment suspensions maintained at four redox potentials (-170, 0, +350 and +500 mV) and two pH values (3.2 and 5.3). Carbon and lignite mineralization were determined over time using {sup 14}C analysis, DOC carbon production, solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). More than 50% of measured carbon mineralization occurred during the first 200 d. Maximum mineralization occurred under the more oxidizing conditions. The amount of CO{sub 2} produced was greater at pH 5.3 than at pH 3.2, indicating that low pH reduces organic matter mineralization regardless of sediment redox potential. The {sup 14}C analysis showed that lignite carbon was mineralized at each redox potential level. Under the lowest redox level (-170 mV) mineralization was minimal as compared to the other redox levels. Pyrolysis-GC/MS showed that the dissolved aromatic fraction accumulated in solution. Solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy analysis showed that lignite, although generally recalcitrant in nature, was structurally diverse, including containing easily decomposable components. The {sup 14}C measurements of plant material sampled in the field provided evidence that lignite carbon mineralization occurs under field conditions. From the data, it can be concluded that the lignite in mine sediments is susceptible to oxidation or degradation and therefore must be considered at least as a semi-reactive compartment in the sediment carbon cycle.

  11. Solvent refined lignite process development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, January--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, D.E.

    1978-07-12

    Six runs, each nominally at one week's duration, M-34 through M-39, were completed; this concludes the PDU experimental program for Project Lignite. The first three runs concluded the series to study the effects of different lignites on plant operability and product yields. Runs M-37 and M-38 were made using two Montana subbituminous coals. It was concluded that coals with the highest ash content, both lignite and subbituminous coals, gave greater overall conversion to gaseous and liquid organic products. The subbituminous coals gave lower gas yields and lower overall conversion while producing similar liquid yields when compared with lignite. Reactor solids build up rapidly during initial operations, then level off and remain constant at 29 pounds per cubic foot of reactor volume as a run proceeds. Reactor solids evidently are composed of clay minerals and large particles of pyridine insoluble organic material when processing either lignites or subbituminous coals; in addition calcium/magnesium carbonate crystals (calcite/dolomite) are present in the case of lignite. Long term, trouble-free operation of the deashing unit was not accomplished. Integration of the unit for several hours of combined operation of the process was achieved, and the product from the deashing unit contained as low as 0.6% ash and pyridine insoluble material. Solids buildup in the solids settling tower was a continuing problem.

  12. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  13. Between the death penalty and decriminalization : new directions for drug control in the Commonwealth Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Klein

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Traces the changes in public attitudes toward and political stances on drug control in the British Caribbean between 1980 and 2000. Author first discusses the origins of drug control, the role of US pressure, and the vulnerability of the Caribbean. He then looks at European involvement and the different plans and policies to control drugs in the region. Finally, he describes the consequences of these policy approaches on the justice system and legal reform, drug demand, and social structures in the region.

  14. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation. PMID:27394893

  15. Effects of solvent thermal treatment on the functional groups transformation and pyrolysis kinetics of Indonesian lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Functional groups transformation were analyzed using FTIR and 13C NMR. • Relative percentage of functional group was semi-quantitatively calculated. • Oxygen-containing functional group was replaced by hydrogen or carbon-substituent. • Oxygen-loss was attributed to the loss of carbonyl, dihydric phenol and methoxyl. • Lower reactivity of pyrolysis was observed for the lignite upgrading at 300 °C. - Abstract: Organic solvent upgrading Indonesian lignite was performed in a 1 L autoclave under moderate temperature. The chemical structure and functional groups transformation of lignite upgraded by two organic solvents (ethanol and n-hexane) were analyzed to explore the upgrading mechanism of solvent thermal treatment by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the characteristics of pyrolysis of treated samples were investigated using thermo gravimetric (TG) to clarify the variance of pyrolysis reactivity. Results showed that the carbon content and calorific value of upgraded lignite were significantly improved, and H/C and O/C ratios of treated samples were significantly reduced with the temperature increasing. The relative percentage of carbonyl and carboxyl carbon, oxygenated aliphatic carbon and methoxyl carbon of lignite upgraded at 300 °C decreased by 20–30%. However, the carbon-substituted and protonated aromatic carbon at 120–135 ppm and protonated aromatic carbon at 90–120 ppm were significantly increased after lignite was upgraded by the two solvents at above 200 °C. These transformations indicated that oxygen-containing functional group was substituted by hydrogen or carbon-substituent as temperature increased, and were intensified at above 200 °C. In addition, oxygen-loss in the treated samples was attributed to the loss of carbonyl group at 175 ppm, dihydric phenol at 147 ppm, and methoxyl group at 55 ppm. The activation energy of upgraded lignite at 300 °C were higher

  16. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  17. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja Bruña, J. L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Córdoba-Barba, D.; Catalán Morollón, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate’s interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8° to 30° reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin.

  18. Sponge-associated Haplosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) from the Caribbean Sea, with the description of four new species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattig, Patricia; Martin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    [EN]The present paper reports results from the study of a wide collection of specimens of the genus Haplosyllis (Polychaeta: SylLidae: Syllinae) obtained mainly from sponges of different Caribbean regions (Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Bermudas, Colombia and Venezuela). Four new species are herein described and illustrated. H. aplysillicola n. sp., the mosl common Caribbean species, found only in species of genus Aplysina; H. chaerafllsorata n. sp., found inside the sponge Verongula rig...

  19. Women’s right to health in the Anglo-Caribbean: intimate partner violence, abortion and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Minvielle, Fauhn; Goicolea, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Women’s sexual and reproductive health is a public health concern globally, yet in the Caribbean region academic publications exploring this topic from a rights approach are uncommon. A document review was conducted based on the application of the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument to the strategic health plans of three Anglo-Caribbean countries. Gender was the underlying theme used to conduct a comparative analysis focusing on intimate partner violence, access to legal abortion and...

  20. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Telecommunications and underdevelopment: a policy analysis of the historical role of Cable and Wireless in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The foundation structures for telecommunications in the English-speaking Caribbean were laid during the period of direct colonial control of the region by Britain. They formed part of the global communications network of a large empire requiring quick and efficient links with a remote imperial Centre. In this thesis, we argue, however, that the Caribbean component of this colonial telecommunications system was designed not just to improve imperial political administration of a distant and sca...

  2. Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14C activity measurements, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

  3. Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpel, Cornelia [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biogeochimie des Milieux Continentaux (France)], E-mail: rumpel@ccr.jussieu.fr; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde (Germany)

    2003-01-15

    Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of {sup 14}C activity measurements, {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils.

  4. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg−1, 9 ± 1 Bq kg−1 and 9 ± 3 Bq kg−1, respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. - Highlights: • NORMs in lignite combustion residues from CFPPs are studied. • Th/U indicates either low U uptake from host rocks and/or high leaching from peat. • The concentration factor of NORMs in fly and bottom ash samples are 3–5 times. • No 226Ra enrichment is observed in fly ash while a depletion in bottom ash. • The reuse of fly ash in cement industry poses no significant radiological issue

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of pre-drying methods for pre-dried lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite is considered to be a competitive energy raw material with very high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, the utilization of raw lignite faces many thorny issues, such as a low plant thermal efficiency, a high investment in construction of the lignite-fired power plant, etc. Lignite pre-drying seems to be an attractive way to tackle these issues. We have performed a thermodynamic analysis of two pre-drying methods (both boiler flue gas drying and steam drying). Results show that both pre-drying methods can improve the plant thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the boiler flue gas drying improves the plant thermal efficiency only in the case when the temperature of the dryer exhaust is low enough and the dryer thermal efficiency is high enough. The steam pre-drying has a higher potential in plant thermal efficiency improvement. The flow rate of steam extraction for the steam dryer is much lower than the flow rate of flue gas extraction for flue gas dryer, so we consider that the steam pre-drying is more appropriate for the revamp of the conventional lignite-fired power plant. In addition, we have calculated and analyzed main factors. -- Highlights: ► Lignite pre-drying methods were compared in terms of their contribution to the plant thermal efficiency. ► The theoretical model for thermodynamic analysis of pre-dried lignite-fired power plant was established. ► The steam pre-drying has higher potential in plant thermal efficiency improvement than flue gas pre-drying. ► Main factors influencing the plant thermal efficiency were calculated and analyzed.

  6. Origin of the Caribbean Plate Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith H. James; Maria Antonieta Lorente

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international research conference, entitled "Geology of the area between North and South America, with focus on the origin of the Caribbean Plate", took place in Siguenza, Spain, from May 29-June 2, 2006.

  7. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Computer simulations of discharges from a lignite power plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work carried out within the IAEA EMRAS program NORM working group to test the predictions of three computer models against measured radionuclide concentrations resulting from discharges from a lignite power plant complex. This complex consists of two power plants with a total of five discharge stacks, situated approximately 2-5 kilometres from a city of approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Monthly measurements of mean wind speed and direction, dust loading, and 238U activities in fallout samples, as well as mean annual values of 232Th activity in the nearest city sampling sites were available for the study. The models used in the study were PC-CREAM (a detailed impact assessment model), and COMPLY and CROM (screening models). In applying the models to this scenario it was noted that the meteorological data provided was not ideal for testing, and that a number of assumptions had to be made, particularly for the simpler models. However, taking the gaps and uncertainties in the data into account, the model predictions from PC-CREAM were generally in good agreement with the measured data, and the results from different models were also generally consistent with each other. However, the COMPLY predictions were generally lower than those from PC-CREAM. This is of concern, as the aim of a screening model (COMPLY) is to provide conservative estimates of contaminant concentrations. Further investigation of this problem is required. The general implications of the results for further model development are discussed. (author)

  9. The development of the Ptolemais lignite deposit, present situation and future perspective of the electrical energy market (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PPC is by far the major producer of solid fuels in Greece. Currently the known exploitable reserves of solid fuels, are 4,0 billions tones of lignite and 4 billion cubic meters of peat. Mining of Lignite in Greece started in 1951 at the Aliveri underground mine and was continued at the open cast mines at Ptolemais (1955) and Megalopolis (1919). For more than 45 years. PPC has successfully exploited the Greece Lignite deposit for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the demand in Greece. Today PPC produces 60 million tons of lignite and handles approximately 275 million cubic meters of masses (overburden, lignite and interculated) per year. Lignite is the main energy resource in Greece and its combustion provides 75-80% of the electrical energy consumed in Greece.The Lignite Center of Ptolemais - Amyndeon (LCP-A) operated by the Greece PPC is located in northern Greece, about 110 km west of the city of Thessaloniki. The lignite deposits under exploitation cover an area. of 120 km2 including 4000 Mt of proven geological reserves and 2700 Mt of exploitable lignite under current economic and technological criteria. Today LCP-A manages six active mines which in 1997 have a rate of handling 245 mil cubic meter of material and producing approx. 48 mil for of lignite. The continuous mining method which employs BWES, conveyors and strackers is the principal mining method used in all the lignite mines at the Ptolemais-Amyndeon Lignite Center. The implementation of selective mining procedures as well as discontinuous and /or combined mining methods differentiates the mining technology at the LCP-A from the respective technology applied in Germany lignite mines. The quality properties suggest that the lignite deposits in Greece are among the world's worst quality deposits exploited for energy production, where approximately 2 kg of lignite are consumed per I kWh of generated power. The main advantages of PPC'S coal orientated development program are the following

  10. Renewable energy sector development in the Caribbean: Current trends and lessons from history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Island regions and isolated communities represent an understudied area of not only clean energy development but also of innovation. Caribbean states have for some time shown interest in developing a regional sustainable energy policy and in implementing measures which could help to protect its member states from volatile oil markets while promoting reliance on local resources. Here we examine four case studies of renewable energy advancements being made by public utility companies and independent energy companies in the Caribbean. We attempt to locate renewable energy advances in a broader historical framework of energy sector development, indicating a few policy lessons. We find that different degrees of regulatory and legislative sophistication have evolved in different islands. Islands should have specialized policy focus, contrasting the ad-hoc nature of current regional energy policy discussion. We also conduct a cost benefit analysis which shows that these early, innovative alternative energy projects show themselves to be both profitable and significant sources of emissions reduction and job creation. This lends support to the potential benefits of regional energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine relationships between energy sector players in the Caribbean. ► We conduct a cost benefit analysis of four Caribbean renewable energy projects. ► Results show early, innovative alternative energy projects provide numerous benefits. ► Islands differ greatly in energy industry scale, utility ownership and government involvement. ► We provide subsequent considerations for an enabling regional energy policy framework

  11. Intervenciones para la prevención del VIH e ITS en América Latina y Caribe: una revisión de la experiencia regional Interventions for HIV/STD prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of the regional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Cáceres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La epidemia de VIH/SIDA ha cumplido dos décadas en América Latina y Caribe, siendo este último la segunda región más afectada en el mundo. En UNGASS (2001 los gobiernos renovaron su compromiso de enfrentar la epidemia con medidas de prevención y atención adecuadas. En esta revisión, partimos caracterizando la epidemia en la región como concentrada en grupos vulnerables (excepto algunas áreas de generalización. A continuación, reseñamos la experiencia en prevención en cada grupo objetivo, y contrastamos esta experiencia con el perfil epidemiológico para concluir que no se evidenció un abordaje oportuno y suficiente de la epidemia en grupos vulnerables, los cuales están vinculados a otros grupos. También señalamos condiciones que harían posible un mayor impacto de las acciones preventivas, y analizamos formas en que las actividades de prevención pueden integrarse mejor a las de reducción del impacto. Finalmente, analizamos la información disponible sobre gastos en prevención.The HIV/AIDS epidemic has completed its second decade in Latin America and the Caribbean, the latter being the second most heavily affected region in the world. In UNGASS (2001, governments renewed their commitment to confront the epidemic with adequate prevention and care. This review begins by characterizing the regional epidemic as concentrated on vulnerable groups (except for certain areas of generalization. Subsequently, we summarize the prevention work with each target group and contrast it with the epidemiological profile, concluding that the epidemic was not addressed in either timely or sufficient fashion in vulnerable groups, all of which are linked to other population groups. We also point out conditions that could foster greater impact by prevention strategies and analyze ways by which prevention activities could be better integrated with impact/reduction measures. Finally, we analyze the available information on expenditures in prevention.

  12. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  13. Effect of Solvent Swelling on the reactivity of demineralized Turkish Lignite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of demineralization and solvent swelling on pyrolysis kinetics was investigated. The experiments were carried out to investigate theeffects of solvent swelling with different solvents, such as THF, Pyridine and DMSO after demineralization with HCl, HNO3 and HF successively. To calculate the activation energies of lignite sample during pyrolysis, TGA analyses were performed with raw and swollen samples at 5, 10 and 20° C/min heating rates. Coast-Redfernmodel was used for the determination of kinetic parameters. According to the results, the macromolecular structure of lignite was affected from these hydrogen bonding solvents. So, the activation energies of swollen samples found to be less than the raw lignite sample for all heating rates. The reactivity of lignite samples can be ordered as follows; DMSO swollen sample > Pyridine swollen sample> THF swollen sample. Activation energy of DMSO swollen lignite sample is 10.62 kJ/mole whereas activation energies of pyridine swollen and THF swollen sample are 17.83, 25.76 kJ/mol, respectively at a heating rate of 10° C/min. The results indicated that, solvent swelling has catalytic effect on pyrolysis kinetics.

  14. Process Analysis of Lignite Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Coupled with Pyrolysis Topping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoqun; Dong, Li; Wang, Yin; Matsuzawa, Y.; Xu, Guangwen

    We developed a comprehensive process model in ASPEN Plus to simulate the energy and mass balances of a lignite-fueled atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler integrated with coal predrying and pyrolysis topping. In this model, it is assumed that the heat from exhausted flue gas was employed for coal predrying, and the sensible heat derived from circulated bed material was used for the pyrolysis topping (endothermic process). The simulation was conducted with respectto the Yunnan Kaiyuan CFB boiler, and two representative lignite coals from Xiao Long Tan (XLT) and Xin Shao (XS) were considered. The result shows that the predrying of coal with the sensible heat of above 363 K from flue gas, the amount of coal consumed in the boiler can be reduced by 3.5% and 5.3% for XLT lignite and XS lignite, respectively. It was also found that integration of pyrolysis topping with the boiler increased the coal consumption of the boiler, and the extent of consumption-increase varies with the yields of tar and gas in the pyrolysis topping process. For agas yield of 5.2% and a tar yield of 5-6%, the consumption of XS lignite increased by about 20% comparing to that in the case without topping.

  15. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANICIC Darko; MITROVIC Slobodan; PAVLOVIC Vladimir; KOVACEV Sava

    2009-01-01

    Energy sector represents a key industrial branch for national, environmental and economic success. With its exclusive access to domestic deposits, lignite industry represents a guarantor of reliable raw materials, offering long-term supply security based on verified reserves. Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m3 of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competi-tive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revi-talization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level.

  16. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ortiz-Royero

    2013-07-01

    passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of structures in this region of the Caribbean.

  17. Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.H.; Foreman, W.T.; Genualdi, S.; Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Majewski, M.S.; Mohammed, A.; Ramsubhag, A.; Shinn, E.A.; Simonich, S.L.; Smith, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa) is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde) and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago). Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable microorganisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable microorganisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions.

  18. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a diverse and extensive mangal (22.5 km²) with a high degree of representativeness with respect to mangrove community types. The classical mangrove zonation is evident, a fringing seaward almost mono-spe...

  19. Marine oil degrading bacteria related to oil inputs and surface currents in the western Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarraga-Partida, M.L.; Vicuna, F.B.I.; Chang, I.W. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada (Mexico))

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) and its ratios to viable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU) and direct counts (AODC) were examined in relation to the surface currents of the western Caribbean Sea. High ODB/CFU and ODB/AODC ratios were found, suggesting that chronic sources of hydrocarbons in the region may have a larger impact than those in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where previous studies have been performed. It was concluded that, in western Caribbean waters, the distribution of oil degrading bacteria, or its ratios to CFU or AODC, could be useful indicators of chronic oil inputs originating at the east of the Caribbean Sea, as well as their motions afterwards. (author).

  20. Non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea forms dense mats under eutrophic conditions in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, B. I.; van Katwijk, M. M.; Bouma, T. J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L. L.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.

    2016-09-01

    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native seagrass species. During a reconnaissance field survey of Caribbean seagrass meadows at the islands of Bonaire and Sint Maarten in 2013, we observed that this species was only extremely dense at 5 out of 10 studied meadows. Compared to areas with sparse growth of H. stipulacea, these dense meadows showed consistently higher nutrient concentrations, as indicated by higher leaf tissue N contents of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (dense when C:N 11.3). Thus, the potential invasiveness of this non-native seagrass most likely depends on the environmental conditions, especially the nutrient concentrations.

  1. First visual record of a living basking shark Cetorhinus maximus in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Janinhoff, N.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of basking sharks in the Caribbean Sea is only recently documented by satellite tagging studies, which show that some individuals migrate through the region en route from waters off the east coast of the USA to waters off northeastern South-America. The observation of a basking shark

  2. Airport Economics in Latin America and the Caribbean : Benchmarking, Regulation, and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Serebrisky, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a first-ever, comprehensive study of how Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region airports have evolved during a notable period of transition in airport ownership. It is an unbiased, positive analysis of what happened, rather than a normative analysis of what should be done to reform and to attract private sector participation to the airport sector. ...

  3. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean : Beyond Booms and Busts?

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Emily; Nash, John; de la Torre, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Throughout, the history of the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, natural resource wealth has been critical for its economies. Production of precious metals, sugar, rubber, grains, coffee, copper, and oil have at various periods of history made countries in Latin America-and their colonial powers-some of the most prosperous in the world. In some ways, these commodities may have chan...

  4. Strengthening Financial Reporting Regimes and the Accountancy Profession and Practices in Selected Caribbean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to: (a) provide a synthesized analysis of financial reporting and auditing standards and practices across the countries in which the Institute of Chartered Accountants of the Caribbean (ICAC) is active and (b) provide a basis for recommendations to ICAC and respective national institutes for a regional strategy to enhance the accounting profession an...

  5. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  6. Governance of Multi-sectoral Interventions to Promote Healthy Living in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacín, María E.

    2013-01-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has been experiencing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition which has important health and economic consequences. Not only is the population aging rapidly, but it is also experiencing major changes in lifestyle. This has altered the disease and mortality profile, reflected in the increasing weight of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)...

  7. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  8. In Search of the Means To a Better Life: Caribbean Migration to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Monica H.

    1982-01-01

    Caribbean migration to the United States has largely resulted from capital investment in the region. Such investment attracted labor to areas targeted for high economic development, and when employment opportunities in those areas dwindled, the migrants headed toward the United States, where industries welcomed these sources of cheap labor. While…

  9. 100 years of Zukunft/Inden opencast mine. Lignite mining west of the Inde river between Eschweiler and Juelich; 100 Jahre Zukunft - Tagebau Inden. Braunkohlengewinnung westlich der Inde zwischen Eschweiler und Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeggener, Oliver; Oster, Arthur [RWE Power AG, Eschweiler (Germany). Tagebau Inden

    2010-11-15

    With the extraction of the first coal at the Zukunft opencast mine, industrial lignite mining in the west of the Rhenish mining area commenced 100 years ago in September 1910. The setting up of ''BIAG Zukunft'' and the commissioning of the power station of the same name only a few years later triggered sustainable growth of this industry and of the entire region. In the course of the dynamic events in the years that followed, development of the Zukunft-West follow-up opencast mine was finally started, the Weisweiler briquette factory erected and extended, the Zukunft power plant's capacity built up to 230 MW and RWE's Weisweiler power station constructed. The merger of the four big Rhenish lignite-mining companies led to profound structural adjustments in the west of the mining area as well. Where the lignite had previously been extracted in different opencast mines, mining activities and power generation were now focused on own companies whose evolution was driven forward strategically. The Inden mine, which was in the development phase in parallel with the Zukunft mine, was temporarily discontinued in this course of events. In 1981, it was successively re-commissioned to provide an offset for the incipient exhaustion of the Zukunft-West mine. In the further course of opencast mining, several towns have had to be resettled by today, and the Inde river and the mine's belt junction relocated. The Inden mine, too, will be exhausted around the year 2030 and will be recultivated, as the first of the still-operational Rhenisch opencast mines, with a good sized residual lake. By resolution of the Lignite Commission dated 5 December 2008, the Inden II Lignite Plan was therefore amended with the aim of creating a substantial lake instead of backfilling the final void with masses from the Hambach mine. Creating the roughly 11-km{sup 2} lake will also be accompanied with economic structural change in the region. According to expert

  10. Extreme-wave deposits in the Caribbean - towards an improved tsunami hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Oetjen, Jan; May, S. Matthias; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide experience considerable population pressure and demand for a management of hazards such as tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment is the initial step of the management process and requires reliable information on frequency and magnitude. In areas with short historical documentation, these long-term frequency-magnitude patterns, which are best explained by inverse power-law functions, mainly rely on geological traces. According to the historical record covering the last 520 years, Caribbean tsunami hazard is demonstrated by more than 80 mostly regional or local seismically induced events. However, based on two numerical hydrodynamic models of tsunamis spawning at the Muertos Trough and the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCBD), two trigger scenarios only marginally considered so far, we show that pan-Caribbean tsunamis can be taken into account as well. We furthermore review more than 50 studies for possible geological evidence of tsunamis in the Caribbean including fine-grained subsurface deposits and subaerial coarse clasts, and re-evaluate their implications for tsunami hazard assessment against state-of-the-art models of tsunami deposition. Only a limited number of reliable palaeotsunami records with consistent and robust age control were identified, hampering inter-island or interregional correlation of deposits. Separating between storm and tsunami transport of solitary boulders is very difficult in most cases. Those arranged in ridges or incorporated into polymodal ridge complexes or ramparts, respectively, which line many windward coasts of the Caribbean, can mainly be attributed to long-term formation during strong storms implying the overprinting of potential tsunami signatures. The quantification of parameters of tsunami flooding based on tsunami deposits, such as flow depth, inundation distance or flow velocity, by applying inverse and forward numerical models of sediment transport is still underdeveloped in the Caribbean and needs to

  11. Bolivar: Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary at 70W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedez, M. C.; Zelt, C. A.; Magnani, B. M.; Levander, A.

    2006-12-01

    Caribbean Deformed Belt, the Falcon Basin and the Aruba Rise. High- velocity anomalies are spatially associated with the strike-slip Oca-Ancon fault in the region. Underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath the South America plate is inferred from the presence of low velocity sediments beneath the South Caribbean Deformed Belt over a distance of 75-100 km.

  12. Influence of blending methods on the co-gasification reactivity of petroleum coke and lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, X.L.; Jia, J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Wang, F.C. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of blending methods on the co-gasification of petroleum coke and lignite with CO{sub 2} using a thermogravimetric system at 0.1 MPa. The weight loss curves, XRD analysis, SEM images, BET specific surface area, were investigated. It was observed that petroleum coke shows a low reactivity because of the graphitic carbon structure, low catalyst content and small specific surface area. Blending with lignite can get a high reactivity. The co-gasification reactivity was significantly influenced by blending methods. Wet grinding is much effective than dry grinding. Long grinding time made lignite show greater BET specific area. And the sample in long grinding time has more association chances between petroleum coke and AAEM species. The co-gasification reactivity increases linearly with a rise of BET specific area.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOUTH MORAVIAN LIGNITE AND STANDARD IHSS HUMIC ACIDS´ OPTICAL AND COLLOIDAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kučerík

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical and colloidal properties of humic acids isolated from South Moravian lignite and IHSS standards were assessed by emission, excitation and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy and by means of zeta potential measurement. Obtained results indicated a high aromaticity of lignite humic acids which causes a strong inner filter effect in fluorescence measurement. As a result, lignite sample showed the lowest fluorescence intensity. The comparison of obtained records as well as humication indexes calculated from UV and fluorescence spectra did not show any correlation with the elemental composition or zeta potential values of humic acids under study. The results indicate that the optical and colloidal properties of humic acids of different origin can not be explained on the base of simple molecular composition. Therefore, also the nature of secondary structure must be taken into consideration.

  14. Analysis of fly ash from lignite combustion at a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the composition of fly ash from the thermal power plant at Es Murterar (Alcudia, Mallorca) and of the lignites from the Alaro mines (Mallorca) used as mixed fuels at the plant. Radioactive elements were assayed by gamma and alpha spectrometry. Sulphur and carbon were determined by combustion and heavy metals were analysed by emission spectrography and X-ray fluorescence. The analysis of the two types of samples shows the presence of radioactive of the 4n+2 and 4n+2 series in much large amounts in the lignites than in fly ash (a factor 2.2 in the average gamma activity). Also the sulphur content of the lignites was 8 times higher than that of the ash. Then, even if part of their contents are released into the atmosphere, pollution hazards are diminished by using mixed fuels. (author)

  15. Briquetting of Afsin-Elbistan lignite of Turkey using different waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1997-03-01

    Lignite samples from the Afsin-Elbistan area were briquetted with and without binder materials. The effects of moisture content of lignite samples on the briquette strength were examined without binder materials at four different briquetting pressures of 400, 550, 700 and 800 MPa. Briquetting of lignite samples without binder material gave products with low water resistance. The optimum moisture content and briquetting pressure were found to be 15% and 550 MPa, respectively. At these optimum conditions, paper mill waste, sunflower shell, sawdust and brewery waste were then used as binder materials at different ratios. Among these sawdust and paper mill waste were found to give the best quality briquettes with high calorific value and high strength. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. PMID:27416511

  17. ADSORPTION OF PHENOL FROM ITS AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the adsorption and recovery of phenol from its aqueous solutions has been the main purpose. The lignite coals obtained from Yeniköy, İstanbul, have been chosen as the adsorbent matter. The sample taken has first been activated. The activation of lignite samples were carried out by either heating with sulphuric acid or through destillation in an inert atmosphere. Aqueous solutions of phenol of various concentrations have been used in the adsorption process. It was seen that the adsorption results were in perfect correlation with the Langmuir isotherm. As a result, it has been proved that these lignite coals which have been used for heating purposes till today, can also be used as a good adsorbent agent. Furthermore, it has been observed that phenol can be removed some waste waters and its recovery process can even be possible under certain conditions.

  18. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  19. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the

  20. Two and three dimensional analysis of a slope failure in a lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutluoglu, L.; Oge, I.F.; Karpuz, C. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    With about 9.3 billion tons of reserve, lignite is a major source for energy production in Turkey. The Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, containing 47% of the overall lignite reserve in Turkey, lies in the Afsin and Elbistan districts as a part of Kahramanmaras. The new Collolar opencast mine is in the Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, and this mine will be the second mining activity in the basin after the active Kislakoy opencast mine. The new mine will meet the coal consumption of the Elbistan B power plant. Input parameters for slope stability analysis are essential, and so they must be determined accurately and precisely. Field investigations, laboratory testing and back analyses are vital instruments for the input parameters. This study presents the results of slope stability analysis via finite difference code and a limit equilibrium software for the soil slopes of the Elbistan-Collolar lignite mine. The basic input parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were determined in the soil mechanics laboratory. By back analyses of a large scale slope failure, mobilized friction angles for a critical weak clay layer under the lignite seam were determined accurately by using the 2D limit equilibrium method and 3D finite difference models. Results of the friction angles were compared in order to check the effectiveness of commonly used 2D approaches in handling the slope problems. Differences in the results of the mobilized friction angles for the weak clay layer were more than 30%. The 3D models indicated that the mobilized friction angle during the major slope failure was substantially lower than the friction angle generated by the 2D limit equilibrium method.

  1. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  2. Alkyl aryl ethers in lignite solubilization 1. Study of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Cebolla, V.L.; Gavilan, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The chemistry of solubilization of a lignite has been investigated with anisole, 3-methyl anisole and 1,3dimethoxybenzene catalysed by SbCl/sub 3/, ZnCl/sub 2/, AlCl/sub 3/ and BF/sub 3/ as boron trifluoride etherate, at atmospheric pressure and temperatures <220/sup 0/C. 60% of lignite was solubilized in a toluene-ethanol azeotropic mixture. During the process, the solvent is incorporated as an alkylated substratum. The yield increased with activity of the aromatic ether ring and catalyst acidity.

  3. Alkyl aryl ethers in lignite solubilization. 1. Study of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Cebolla, V.L.; Gavilan, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The chemistry of solubilization of a lignite has been investigated with anisole, 3-methyl anisole and 13-dimethoxybenzene catalysed by SbCl/sub 3/, ZnCl/sub 2/, AlCl/sub 3/ and BF/sub 3/ as boron trifluoride etherate, at atmospheric pressure and temperatures <220 C. 60% of lignite was solubilized in a toluene-ethanol azeotropic mixture. During the process, the solvent is incorporated as an alkylated substratum. The yield increased with activity of the aromatic ether ring and catalyst acidity. 14 references.

  4. REMOVAL OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID FROM THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING NATURAL AND ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜLENSOY

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In these studies, a typical lignite coal found near Istanbul (Yeniköy and its activated products were used to adsorb TCA from aqueous solutions. Particle sizes of coal samples and the concentrations of TCA solutions were chosen as parameters against the fixed amount of adsorbent. The maximum efficiency has been obtained for the coal having (-120 + 150 mesh size fraction activated by heating. As a result, it was shown that these kinds of lignite coals could be used as a good adsorbent. In addition, it was also proved that both the removal and recovery of TCA from some waste waters would easily be possible.

  5. ADSORPTION OF PHENOL FROM ITS AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU; Hüseyin GÜLENSOY; İrfan KIZILCIKLI

    1998-01-01

    In this work the adsorption and recovery of phenol from its aqueous solutions has been the main purpose. The lignite coals obtained from Yeniköy, İstanbul, have been chosen as the adsorbent matter. The sample taken has first been activated. The activation of lignite samples were carried out by either heating with sulphuric acid or through destillation in an inert atmosphere. Aqueous solutions of phenol of various concentrations have been used in the adsorption process. It was seen that the ad...

  6. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  7. Chemical desulfurization of Turkish Cayirhan lignite with HI using microwave and thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Elsamak, Gülhan Güllü; Elsamak, Gulhan Gullu; Altuntaş Öztaş, Nurşen; Altuntas Oztas, Nursen; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of the concentration of HI and reaction time in the chemical desulfurization of Cayirhan lignite in a microwave energy set up and to compare the results with those obtained in a thermal heating system. As the concentration of the HI was increased, the extent of desulfurization was also increased in all the experiments done for all of the samples of lignite. The main difference between the thermal and microwave heating was the extre...

  8. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations. PMID:21114073

  9. Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean. Selection mainly based on open access publications describing open access initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prepared for UNESCO-Latin America and the Caribbean Section of the UNESCO-GOAP Global Open Access Portal.

  10. Germany's lignite industry in 2011; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Koeln (Germany); Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    From 2010 to 2011, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up 4.2% from 169.4 mill. t to 176.5 mill. t. This output is equivalent to a net calorific value of 54.4 mill. tce; of the total output, 157.4 mill. t, or some 90% was used in utility power plants for public supply. That was 3.6% more than in the previous year; 15.5 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 2.6 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 24.9% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2011. In 2011, lignite had an 11.7% share in primary-energy consumption, giving it slot four in Germany's energy-consumption balance after mineral oil (34.0%), natural gas (20.4%) and hard coal (12.6%). Renewable resources cover 10.9, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.8% and other energy sources for 1.6%. With output of 54.4 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38,5% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 141.3 mill. tce. The contributions made by the other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2011 were as follows: 12.3 mill. tce hard coal, 13.1 mill. tce gas, 3.9 mill tce mineral oil, 49.5 mill. tce renewables, and 8.1 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity that Germany produced in 2011, 24,9% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2011, followed by renewables with 19.9% hard coal with 18.6%, nuclear energy with 17.6% and gas with 13.7%. Other energy sources made a 5.3% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply was shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 3.7% from 168.7 mill. t in 2010 to 175 mill. t in 2011. In the entire period from 1990 to 2011, a

  11. Germany's lignite industry in 2012; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany). CEA-W Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    From 2011 to 2012, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up to 5.1% from 176.5 mill. t to 185.4 mill. t. This figure is equivalent to a net calorific value of 57.2 mill. tce. Of the total output, 166.3 mill. t, or some 90%, was used in utility power plants for the public supply, i.e. 5.7% more than in the previous year. In addition, 15.1 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 3.0 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 25.7% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2012. In 2012, lignite had a 12.1% share in primary-energy consumption balance after mineral oil (33.1%), natural gas (21.6%) and hard coal (12.2%). Renewable resources cover 11.6%, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.0% and other energy sources for 1.4%. With output of 57.2 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38.4% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 149 mill. tce in 2012. The contributions made by other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2012 were as follows: 11.1 mill. tce hard coal, 13.3 mill. tce gas, 3.8 mill. tce mineral oil, 54.0 mill. tce renewables, and 9.5 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity amount that Germany produced in 2012, 25.7% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2012, followed by renewables with 22.1%, hard coal with 19.1%, nuclear energy with 16.1% and gas with 11.3%. Other energy sources made a 5.7% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply are shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 5.1% from 173.9 mill. t in 2011 to 182.8 mill. t in 2012. In the total period from 1990 to 2012, a decline of 159.4 mill. t, or

  12. Lignite utilisation for binding of radionuclides and uranium determination by adsorptive stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work in its first part deals with non-energetic use of young brown coal - lignite. The goal of the work was to perform a complex physical and chemical characterisation of the Slovak lignite (deposit Cary) which could contribute to rts use in binding of radionuclides in the environment. The characteristics of Slovak lignite were compared to leonardite (Gascoyne, USA) and Czech lignite (the area of Mikulcice). In the samples the residual humidity was determined. as well. as the content of ashes. representation of selected inorganic (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as organo-elements (C, H, N, 0, S) and crystalline forms of inorganic phase in lignite. The specific surface (BET isotherm) of lignite was determined, representation of total and free humic acids and their cation exchange capacity. The samples underwent al.so gamma-spectrometric analysis (40K, 226Ra, 228Ac, 137Cs and 60Co). Using the radio-indicator method (85Sr and 137Cs) the kinetics of sorption of Cs+ and Sr+ ions in Slovak lignite was studied. The efficiency of sorption for both cations on lignite was evaluated on the basis of constructed sorption isotherms. The sorption of Cs+ ions on Slovak lignite is more suitable for the Freundlich type of isotherm, in case of Sr+ ions the sorption is better described by Langmuir isotherm. The results of sorption experiments on lignite in comparison with clinoptilolite and montmorillonite K-10 showed a more efficient sorption for Sr Ions. despite the more coarse-grained fraction of this matrix. This finding supports the possibility of lignite application for binding of a quite mobile radiostrontium, which may be applied for construction of radioactive waste repositories or for remediation of contaminated soils. The second part of the work deals with the development and validation of new fast and reliable electrochemical method of uranium determination in natural waters. It is based on physical adsorption of created complex of uranium -cupferron

  13. Entre conservation et développement : les évolutions récentes de la politique européenne des pêches dans les régions ultrapériphériques de la Caraïbe Between conservation and development: recent developments in European fisheries policy in the outermost regions of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Angelelli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Union Européenne opère actuellement la seconde révision de sa politique de la pêche depuis la création de celle-ci, en 1970. Instituée pour développer la pêche maritime et garantir un revenu aux pêcheurs, la politique commune de la pêche (PCP s’est orientée progressivement vers la protection des espèces et de l’environnement marin. Pour cela, elle a sacrifié une part importante du secteur productif, mais a échoué et, avec le déclin de la pêche en Europe, les régions ultrapériphériques de la Caraïbe (RUP-C ont gagné en importance relative dans ce domaine. Elles représentent aujourd’hui près de 30% de la flotte nationale et les fondements malthusiens de la PCP ne sont plus adaptés à leurs caractéristiques : ressources halieutiques, développement économique, emplois, sécurité des approvisionnements alimentaires, etc. La réforme actuellement en cours, qui devrait aboutir avant 2012, offre peut-être une alternative aux RUP-C permettant la mise en œuvre des mesures spécifiques en application de l’article 349 du Traité sur le Fonctionnement de l’Union Européenne.The European Union currently operates the second reform of its Common Fisheries Policy since its creation in 1970. Established to develop the fisheries and provide incomes for fishermen, the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP was directed gradually towards the protection of the species and the marine environment.To do this, it sacrificed a large part of the productive sector, but failed, and with the decline of fisheries in Europe, the outermost regions of the Caribbean gained relative importance in this field. They now account for nearly 30% of the national fleet and the Malthusians bases of the CFP are not suited any more to their characteristics: fisheries resources, economic development, jobs, security of food supply, etc. The ongoing reform, which should be in force before 2012, may offer an alternative to the outermost regions of the Caribbean

  14. Women’s leadership in local government in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzann Lee Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Women and men are traditionally cast in different roles, with males being leaders in the workplace, home and government. In contrast, communities promote women as caregivers who support male leaders and shape future generations as mothers, mentors and teachers. In recognition of this societal view of women that often led to inequality and inequity, the UNDP listed Gender Equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the United Nations in autumn 2015, also included gender equality and empowering women as Goal 5. In its work in the Caribbean, the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED examined gender as it relates to micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME development in six Caribbean countries.  The findings of this study showed gender gaps for both male and female entrepreneurs in different areas of development.  Traditionally gendered roles for MSME sectors, access to financing and lack of adequate guidance or community support were some areas that affected men and women differently in the region.  The study outlines ways in which male and female leaders can address traditional gender roles by identifying priority areas for development, creating an enabling environment for start-ups and expansion, and fostering a policy and legislative base that facilitates ease of doing business.  The recommendations further describe the public–private partnerships needed to successfully meet gender gaps, and the importance of both elected officials and technocrats in inter alia community engagement and advocacy towards local economic development. The importance of gender equality among elected officials and technocrats, and the influence gender has on determining priority areas of focus within local government strategic plans for communities are also set out within this paper.

  15. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns in early stages of primary succession on former lignite mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felinks, B.; Wiegand, T. [UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Helmholtz Center of Environmental Research

    2008-04-15

    Does random colonization predominate in early stages of primary succession? Do pioneer species facilitate the establishment of later arriving species? Does an initially random distribution change to an aggregated pattern with ongoing succession? To answer these question individual plants were mapped along a 2 m x 28 m transect in a lignite mining region of Lower Lusatia, eastern Germany during three successive years and classified into two groups (1) the pioneer Corynephorus canescens and (2) 'all other species'. In the first year Corynephorus and 'all other species' showed an aggregated pattern on a spatial scale {gt} 40 cm and in the second and third years a significant attraction for distances between 4 and 12 cm, with an increasing radius in the third year. The analyses of interspecific spatiotemporal dynamics revealed a change from independence to attraction between distances of 4 cm and 16 cm when using Corynephorus as focal species. However, applying 'all other species' as focal points results in a significant attraction at distances up to 60 cm in the first year and a diminishing attraction in the second and third years with distances {le} 6 cm. Thus facilitative species-species interactions are present in early stages of primary succession, resulting mainly from pioneer species acting as physical barriers and their ability to capture diaspores being drifted by secondary dispersal along the substrate surface. However, due to gradual establishment of perennial species and their ability of lateral extension by vegetative dispersal, facilitation may influence spatial pattern formation predominantly on short temporal and fine spatial scales.

  16. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  17. Evidence for an eastward flow along the Central and South American Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos Alberto; Barton, Eric Desmond; Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    2003-06-01

    Hydrographic transects suggest an eastward flow with a subsurface core along the entire southern boundary of the Caribbean Sea. The transport of the coastal limb of the Panama-Colombia Gyre (PCG), known as the Panama-Colombia Countercurrent, decreases toward the east (from ˜6 Sv off Panama), as water is lost into the recirculation of the PCG. Off Panama, the flow is strongest at the surface, but, off Colombia, it is strongest at around 100 m. A portion of the counterflow (˜1 Sv) continues eastward along the Colombian coast as far as the Guajira region (12°N, 72°W), where it submerges to become an undercurrent beneath the coastal upwelling center there. The eastward flow also occurs in the Venezuela Basin, beneath the coastal upwelling region off Cariaco Basin and exits the Caribbean through the Grenada Channel at around 200 m depth. Numerical simulations suggest that this flow, counter to the Caribbean Current, is a semi-continuous feature along the entire southern boundary of the Caribbean, and that it is associated with offshore cyclonic eddies. It probably constitutes part of the Sverdrup circulation of the Tropical North Atlantic cyclonic cell.

  18. The Changing Face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Bayer, Angela; Cárcamo, César P

    2014-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a region with similarities and important disparities. In recent years LAC has witnessed achievements, with HIV prevalence rates relatively stable for LA and decreasing for the Caribbean. However average values hide differences. General population HIV prevalence in LAC is 0.4% in average. In the Caribbean there are fewer new HIV infections but HIV prevalence among adults exceeds 1% in several countries. It is estimated that 31% of adults living with HIV in LA and 52% of adults in the Caribbean are women. Unprotected sex is the main route of HIV transmission in LAC. Men who have sex with men and transgender women are the populations with the highest prevalence (10.6% and 17.7% respectively); however other key populations such as female sex workers (4.9%), drug users (range 1%-49.7% for intravenous drug users). Prisoners and indigenous populations are also important. LAC has the highest anti-retroviral treatment coverage of any low- and middle-income region in the world, but women and children are less likely than men to receive treatment. There is an important pending agenda to address the gaps in information, prevention and care for HIV in LAC. PMID:24824881

  19. Krušné hory Piedmont basins. North Bohemian Lignite (Most) Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elznic, A.; Macůrek, V.; Dašková, Jiřina; Fejfar, O.; Kvaček, Z.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 31-89 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. A modern thermal power station operating on high-moisture lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler; D.V. Sosin [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The boilers developed by the power machinery construction company Alstom for two power-generating units, the Maritsa East-II and Maritsa East-II, operating on high-moisture lignite from the Maritsa East field in Bulgaria are described.

  1. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre mixture in a moving bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, Pavel [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech, Republic, v.v.i., V Holesovickach 41, 182 09 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bucko, Zdenek [Sokolov Coal Corporation, Stare namesti 69, 356 00 Sokolov (Czech Republic)

    2009-10-15

    The thermal treatment of waste-tyre by co-gasification with lignite was investigated on a commercial scale during the Lurgi gasification process. The experiments proved that this material can be treated in a mixture with lignite in the process of oxygen-steam pressure co-gasification in a moving bed, because a waste-tyre admixture improves the net calorific value of the raw gas obtained by 3% in comparison with that from the gasification of lignite alone. Further, it was found that the H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}SH contents in the raw gas are lower in the case of co-gasification than those from the gasification of lignite alone. Considering the very low reactivity of the char from waste-tyre and the resultant unburned carbon in the ash, the optimal content of the waste-tyre admixture in the gasified feed should not exceed 10 wt.%, whereas short-term increases of up to 20 wt.% will not cause any technological problems or significant economic losses. (author)

  2. Effects of coal drying on the pyrolysis and in-situ gasification characteristics of lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of coal drying on lignite pyrolysis was studied by TG-MS and a novel reactor. • Coal type, final temperature and heating method had key effects during pyrolysis. • We developed a new method to study morphological changes during char gasification. • It initially showed shrinking particle mode, and then changed to shrinking core mode. • Insignificant steam deactivation of char was verified by the active sites mechanism. - Abstract: Pyrolysis behaviors of two lignite coals with different drying conditions were determined by a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with mass spectrometer (TG-MS) and a high-frequency furnace. An in-situ heating stage microscope was adopted to observe the morphological changes during char-CO2 gasification process. It is concluded that the effects of moisture contents in coals on the gaseous release process during coal pyrolysis mainly depend on coal type, final pyrolysis temperature and heating method. The in-situ heating stage experiments indicate that the shrinking particle mode is suitable to illustrate the gasification reaction mechanism in the initial and midterm reaction stages of all the lignite char samples. Although drying conditions have significant effects on coal pyrolysis process under rapid heating, these dewatering conditions result in little noticeable reactivity loss of the char during the subsequent char-CO2 gasification reaction. The measuring results of catalytic active sites can well explain the similar reactivity of lignite coals with different drying conditions

  3. The Use of Lignite for the Thermal Treatment of Waste-Tyre on a Commercial Scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel

    Vol. 45. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2015 - (Daniels, J.), s. 159-172 ISBN 978-1-63483-278-6 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite * commercial scale Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling https ://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=23_29&products_id=55473

  4. Separation and identification of amino acids from lignite humic acids by thin layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, L.; Marutoiu, C.; Niac, G.

    1985-07-01

    Thin layer chromatography with and without temperature gradient was used to identify ten amino acids in the humic acid hydrolysate of Rovinari lignite, using cellulose and volcanic tuff as stationary phases. The acids found were L-leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, L-valine, tyrosine, proline, L-alanine, glutamic acid, threonine and L-lysine. 8 references.

  5. Application of Direct Ignition Technology with Minimum Gasified Oil in Lignite-Fired Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The firing is in the stsble condition and the rate of oil saving comes up to 64%,after Fularji Power Plant adoted the technology of minimun gasified oil igniting pulverized lignite directly and the technology of multistage coal combustion withenergy amplified stage by stage.

  6. Identification of reaction zones in a commercial Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom gasifier operating on North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Mangena; J.R. Bunt; F.B. Waanders; G. Baker [Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd., Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the reaction zones occurring in the Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom (S-L FBDB) gasifier operating on North Dakota lignite. A Turn-Out sampling method and subsequent chemical analyses of the gasifier fuel bed samples was used to determine the reaction zones occurring in the commercial MK IV, S-L FBDB gasifier operating on North Dakota lignite. The reaction zones were further compared with the same reactor operating on bituminous coal. Based on the results obtained from this study it was found that about two thirds of the gasifier volume was used for drying and de-volatilising the lignite thus leaving only about a third of the reactor volume for gasification and combustion. Nonetheless, due to the high reactivity of the lignite, the char was consumed within a third of the remaining gasifier volume. Clear overlaps between the reaction zones were observed in the gasifiers thus confirming the gradual transition from one reaction zone to another as reported in literature. Due to the high moisture content in the lignite, the pyrolysis zone in the gasifiers operating on North Dakota lignite occurred lower/deeper in the gasifier fuel bed as compared to the same gasifier operating on South African bituminous coal from the Highveld coalfield. All the other reaction zones in the gasifier operating on bituminous coal were also higher in the bed compared to the lignite operation. This can therefore explain the higher gas outlet temperatures for the S-L FBDB gasifiers operating on higher rank coals when compared to the gasifiers operating on lignite. The fact that the entire reactor volume was utilized for drying, de-volatilisation, gasification and combustion with carbon conversion of {gt} 98% makes the S-L FBDB gasifier very suitable for lignite gasification. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A novel lignite-fired power plant integrated with a vacuum dryer: System design and thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-drying of lignite before feeding to the boiler is a potential way to increase the net efficiency of lignite-fired power plants. Lignite pre-drying is, however, a high energy consumption process with a high risk of spontaneous ignition. If the lignite is dried at low temperature, the possibility of spontaneous ignition of lignite in the drying process could be lowed. Furthermore that low temperature energy could be used as the drying heating source may result in a high net efficiency of the power plant. Therefore, we designed a lignite-fired power plant integrated with a vacuum dryer. We also thermodynamically analyzed a reference case of a 1000 MW power plant by using theoretical models developed. The results show that the net efficiency of power plant can be increased by 2.39% or 1.88% absolutely, if a low-pressure steam or heat pump is used to provide the drying heat source, respectively. From analyzing main factors, we discovered that the net efficiency of the power plant increases with the drying degree and decreases with the operating pressure of the dryer, and the heat pump is a better choice to provide the heating source for drying purposes with its second-law efficiency higher than 0.76. - Highlights: • A novel lignite-fired power plant integrated with vacuum dryer was designed. • The vacuum dryer was proposed to pre-dry lignite at low temperature. • The net efficiency improvement of lignite-fired power plant was calculated with models developed. • The influence of main factors on net efficiency of power plant was analyzed

  8. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  9. The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for Public Health Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Anauati, María Victoria; Galiani, Sebastián; Weinschelbaum, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  10. The rise of noncommunicable diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for public health policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Victoria Anauati; Sebastian Galiani; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  11. Diaspora Investing : The Business and Investment Interests of the Caribbean Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanani, Qahir; Lee, Mina

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean region is unique for many reasons. Perhaps most striking among these is the demographic fact that for almost every resident in the region there is an individual living in the diaspora abroad. This near one-to-one ratio of nationals to diaspora members presents a tremendous opportunity for cross-border engagement among a people who share common cultures and histories. This rep...

  12. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: How Large is the Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Luis Tejerina

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, microfinance has greatly expanded the outreach of the financial system to millions of households in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The purpose of this report is to offer an updated snapshot of access to financial services in the region. The approach is two-fold. In the first part, the analysis hinges on information collected from microfinance institutions as of 2005. The second part presents information on access to financial services as found in national household ...

  13. Do minimum wages in Latin America and the Caribbean matter ? Evidence from 19 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study the authors analyze cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries to gain an understanding of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, the authors find regional trends. Minimum wages a...

  14. Sea-level variability in the Caribbean Sea over the last century

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Parra, R. Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mean sea level rise exposes coasts to increasing risks. For the Caribbean Sea, the regional and local sea-level behaviour is not well known. This study has investigated the sea level behavior in the region at different frequencies during the last century, to provide updated, accurate and useful information to implement coastal adaptation responses to sea-level hazards. Time series from 28 tide-gauges, 18 years of altimetry and various atmospheric and oceanographic climatologies have been used...

  15. Left Behind : Chronic Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vakis, Renos; Rigolini, Jamele; Lucchetti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    By most measures, the 2000s were one of the most impressive decades for economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). With the exception of 2009, the region s gross domestic product per capita grew consistently at an average rate of 2.5 percent between 2000 and 2012. During the same period, and despite being one of the most unequal regions in the world, inequalities reduced ...

  16. Societal Benefits from Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Vergara; Paul Isbell; Rios, Ana R.; José Ramon Gómez; Leandro Alves

    2014-01-01

    Population growth and advances in quality of life in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) will require the region to rapidly increase its energy supply, even if major improvements in energy efficiency are attained. The region is characterized by a low-carbon power matrix and a potential to produce over 78 PWh from non-traditional renewable energy technologies (NRETs). However, bias toward fossil fuels and the perceived cost disadvantages prevent further market entry of renewable energy. Addi...

  17. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  18. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  19. A PLACE FOR THE DISPLACED: A CONSIDERATION OF THE TYPES OF SERVICES CARIBBEAN LIBRARIES SHOULD PROVIDE TO REFUGEES

    OpenAIRE

    Brathwaite, Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries in the Caribbean may have considered amenities for short stay users… tourists, visitors and the odd researcher, but many may not have considered the plight of the stateless as a user group in Caribbean libraries. With the prevalence of disasters in the region – Hurricane Ivan as the most recent and devastating example – the impact of migratory workers that the CSME will bring and the impending issuance of national refugee laws in the region; it is but a matter of time before re...

  20. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  1. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  2. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Latin America and the Caribbean: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (San José, Costa Rica, August 27-28, 2013). Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  3. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were collected…

  4. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL. PMID:26371771

  5. the connected Caribbean: a socio-material network approach to patterns of homogeneity and diversity in the pre-colonial period

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, Angenitus Arie Andries

    2014-01-01

    The modern-day Caribbean is a stunningly diverse but also intricately interconnected geo-cultural region, resulting partly from the islands’ shared colonial histories and an increasingly globalizing economy. Perhaps more importantly, before the encounter between the New and Old World took place, the indigenous societies and cultures of the pre-colonial Caribbean were already united in diversity. This work seeks to study the patterns of this pre-colonial homogeneity and diversity and uncover s...

  6. Mortality and loss to follow-up among HIV-infected persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Carriquiry; Valeria Fink; John Robert Koethe; Mark Joseph Giganti; Karu Jayathilake; Meridith Blevins; Pedro Cahn; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Marcelo Wolff; Jean William Pape; Denis Padgett; Juan Sierra Madero; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Catherine Carey McGowan; Bryan Earl Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term survival of HIV patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been sufficiently described in Latin America and the Caribbean, as compared to other regions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and associated risk factors for patients enrolled in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet). Methods: We assessed time from ART initiation (baseline) to death or LTFU between...

  7. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  8. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  9. Potentials and limitations of spatial and demographic development in Kosovo-Metohija lignite basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial research carried out for the purpose of elaborating the Spatial Plan for Kosovo-Metohija Lignite Basin indicated the need to address numerous conflicts and opposing interests in the area concerned. This required the Plan to focus on harmonizing the economic, social and spatial aspects of developing a mining-energy-industrial system (hereinafter MEIS and its surroundings, devising the new ways for the protection of local population interests and use of novel approaches in dealing with the environmental consequences of lignite exploitation and processing. The area wherein Kosovo-Metohija lignite deposits are found is replete with diverse conflicting interests, including insufficient and uneven development, extremely large overall and especially agrarian population density (among the highest in Europe, unemployment and a sizable portion of the grey economy, low level and quality of services of public interest, ethnic conflicts and polarization, etc. The environmental effects of MEIS activities in a situation of this kind were revealed by the early stages of research in all segments of economic, social and spatial development, along with a high degree of environmental degradation. The main conflict in the Plan area is the one between mining and agriculture, i.e. open pit lignite mining and high-fertility soil covering lignite deposits. The conflict is additionally aggravated by the remarkable density of agricultural population on this territory and high selling prices of the land. Therefore, a substantial part of the Plan’s propositions was related to the conditions of settlement and infrastructure relocation, population resettlement and measures to relieve the tensions and prevent the outbreak of potential conflicts in implementing the Plan. The Spatial Plan is conceived as a complex and comprehensive document defining the framework, basic principles, starting points and measures tackling the numerous development conflicts, spatial

  10. Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

  11. A comparative study of nitrogen conversion during pyrolysis of coconut fiber, its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the conversion of fuel-N to HCN and NH3 was investigated during rapid pyrolysis of raw biomass (coconut fiber), its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite within a temperature range of 600-900°C. The results showed that the raw biomass and the biochar showed totally different nitrogen partitioning between NH3 and HCN. HCN was the dominant nitrogen pollutant from pyrolysis of raw biomass, while for the biochar pyrolysis the yield of NH3 was slightly higher than that of HCN. Synergistic interactions occurred within both raw biomass/lignite and biochar/lignite blends, especially for the biochar/lignite blend, and resulted in reduced yields of HCN and NH3, decreased the total nitrogen percentage retained in the char and promoted harmless N2 formation. These findings suggest that biochar/lignite co-firing for energy production may have the enhanced benefit of reduced emissions of nitrogen pollutants than raw biomass/lignite. PMID:24211487

  12. Abortion opinion research in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Eileen A; Dries-Daffner, Ingrid; García, Sandra G

    2006-12-01

    Abortion laws in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are highly restrictive and may not reflect public opinion on the issue. This article synthesizes the survey literature on attitudes toward abortion in the region. We searched standard computer indexing services and polled colleagues at regional meetings to identify every methodologically sound quantitative study of abortion opinion in LAC published between 1985 and 2005. Of the 26 studies that met inclusion criteria, none was conducted in the Caribbean, 11 were conducted in Brazil, 11 in Mexico, 3 in Argentina, and 1 in Colombia. The majority of populations surveyed support abortion under a greater number of circumstances than are permitted in their respective countries, particularly in cases of rape and threat to life or health. Future abortion opinion surveys should ask about support for the legality of abortion rather than about abstract acceptance of abortion, and questions should be worded carefully to capture the complexities of the public's views on this issue. PMID:17209281

  13. Kinetics of recovering germanium from lignite ash with chlorinating roasting methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guocai; WANG Jingyan; CHENG Zhuo; ZHAO Yuna

    2008-01-01

    A process of recovering Ge by chlorinating roasting was put forward. GeCl4 was separated and recovered from lignite ash because of its low boiling point. Kinetic analysis indicates that the chlorinating roasting process fits with the unreacted-core shrinking model and the reaction rate equation corresponds to 1-2a/3-(1-a)2/3 =kt. The apparent activation energy Ea is calculated to be 22.36 kJ·mol-1. The diffusion of product layer serves as the rate-controlling step in this process. When the roasting temperature is 250℃, the roasting time is 60 min, the concentration of hydrochloric acid is 10 mol/L, and the ratio of liquid to solid is 10 (mHCl/ash=10), and 90% Ge in lignite ash can be recovered.

  14. The Utilization of Peat, Lignite and Industrial Wastes in the Production of Mineral-Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of chemical analyses of the composition of peat, lignite, turkey droppings and the potato industry effluent are presented. The results indicate that the substances can be used in mineral-organic fertilizer recipes. Although lignite and peat do not contain assimilable nutrients, from the ecology and pedology point of view they are valuable components of mineral-organic fertilizers. In order to determine the optimum turkey droppings and potato industry effluent dose in fertilizer biological studies using the germination tests were carried out. The demand for nutrients differs between plants. The mineral-organic fertilizer recipes were developed for sugar beet which is a highly demanding plant taking up large quantities of nutrients.

  15. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  16. Effect of mineral oxides on slag formation tendency of Mae Moh lignites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuwat Luxsanayotin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Slagging is one of major ash deposition problems experienced in the boilers of coal–fired power plants especially theplants that use lignite, like Mae Moh lignites. The occurrence of slag is a complex phenomenon depending on several factorssuch as ash properties, furnace operating conditions, and coal properties. The main objective of this work is to study theeffect of mineral components in Mae Moh lignite on ash fusion temperatures (AFTs, which is commonly used as a keyindicator for slag formation tendency under pulverized combustion conditions. Two Mae Moh lignites from the coal seamsplanned to be used in the future were selected for the study to represent low CaO and high CaO lignite. The two lignites,namely K1 and K3, have 3.6 and 40.4 wt% CaO in ash, respectively. The AFT characterization shows that their initial deformationtemperatures (ITs were almost identical and considered as low for the typical flue gas temperature in the radiationsection of Mae Moh boilers, i.e. 1050-1100°C. These observed similar ITs were rather unexpected, especially for K1 consideringits sufficiently low base to acid (B/A ratios. The X-ray diffraction analyses evidently show the presence of illite, pyriteand anhydrite in K1, which explains the observed lower IT of the sample. Anhydrite, which is known to lower the ITs, is alsothe most abundant mineral in K3. Washing the lignite samples with HCl can significantly reduce CaO, MgO, and SO3 contentin the ash but not Fe2O3 as it is present in the form of pyrite. The addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 can help increase AFTs ofthe studied samples. The Al2O3 addition gives the strongest effect on increasing AFTs, especially for the sample with lowAl2O3 content. When the CaO is added to the low CaO samples, the fluxing effect will initially occur. However, when the CaOcontent is higher than a critical value (i.e. CaO > 38%, the effect of its high melting point will dominate hence the AFTsincreased. Ternary phase diagrams

  17. Preliminary analyses of natural radionuclides in selected Turkish power plant lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, N.; Ozdogan, Z.S. [Cekmece Nuclear Research & Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    This preliminary study presents the experimental results concerning the concentrations of selected radionuclides (K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Th-232) in Afsin-Elbistan, Can, Cayirhan, Erzurum, Goynuk, Kangal, Orhaneli, Saray, Seyitomer, Soma, Tuncbilek, Yatagan and Yenikoy lignites, which are primarily utilized as fuel for thermal power plants in Turkey. Gamma-spectrometry of 39 representative lignite samples gave results with the following concentration ranges: 8 to 296 Bq/kg for U-238, 3 to 79 Bq/kg for Th-232, 17 to 360 Bq/kg for K-40, and 5 to 130 Bq/kg for Ra-226. The U-238 results reported here are higher than other literature values for various world coals, earth's crust and world average.

  18. Supercritical Water as Nanomedium for Gasification of Lignite-Water Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Raisa; Bortyshevskyi, Valerii

    2016-12-01

    The gasification of an aqueous suspension of lignite from Alexandria coalfield (Ukraine) under the supercritical pressure was studied. The initial rates of the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. The mutually stimulating interaction of the components of "brown coal-water-mineral matter" system was shown due to the influence of nanoscaled water medium on the formation of dipole-inductive, dispersive and ionic associates. In the temperature range of 300-450 °C, the oxygen source for gaseous products of the lignite supercritical gasification is mainly ion-associative nanoclustered water. The source of hydrogen at the subcritical temperature is the organic part of brown coal. For the supercritical water, the source of H is the nanoscale medium with ion associates. The last ones were responsible for the further transformation of coal. PMID:27194442

  19. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  20. India, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ross

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period, the key to the relationship between India and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC was based in the political nature of this liaison: it was a "uni-multilateral" relationship, centered in India, where LAC countries operated as a group of autonomous entities (an "island chain" structure, and not as a unit of a supranational character with unified international conduct (an island structure. As we will see, faced with uniform and consistent Indian policies, LAC had national policies which make it impossible to discuss a regional policy towards India. The goal of this work is to form a general characterization of the bilateral policies during the period of the Cold War with the intent of identifying the key explanatory factors of the process. While this may be a limited objective, it addresses the non-existence of an academic debate surrounding the topic. We intend to contribute an analysis which in this phase is primarily descriptive.

  1. Island Demography: A Review of Selected Caribbean Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElroy, Jerome L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the demographic contributions of island studies scholarship in four sections. First, demographic transition theory is applied to the population history of the region. The second highlights the impact of this demographic scholarship on related social science fields in the Caribbean. The third and fourth contributions focus on the impact of migration on two related hypotheses: the demographic transition and the mobility transition. In the first case, migration patterns between St. Kitts-Nevis and the U.S. Virgin Islands in the 1960s suggest that the age-sex selectivity of migration tends to accelerate the transition in sending societies and retard its progress in receiving societies. In the second case, empirical support is provided for the so-called ‘migration transition’ whereby former chronic labour exporters become labour importers under sustained growth.

  2. Creole in the Caribbean: How Oral Discourse creates Cultural Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Sindoni, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fictional recreation of Creole in Caribbean English literature has been traditionally studied using Eurocentric criteria. When compared to British English, Creole was considered a debased deviation (DeCamp, 1971; Hall, 1966). Creole is associated with oral discourse, one reason for its growing use in literature. Caribbean writers have represented the Caribbean experience through the use of fictional Creole. The contemporary novel has thus been transformed by African-derived modes of narra...

  3. Historical change in coral reef communities in Caribbean Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Katie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have witnessed a profound transformation in Caribbean coral reefs since the 1980s that includes a widespread mortality of corals and a shift in coral species composition. These changes have been widely attributed to modern disturbances such as coral disease and coral bleaching that have become prevalent in the most recent decades. However, the demise of corals in the Caribbean represents the most recent chapter in a long history of human alteration of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Cen...

  4. Application of Greek lignite as an additive for controlling rheological and filtration properties of water-bentonite suspensions at high temperatures: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelessidis, Vassilios C.; Foscolos, Antonios [Department Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Papanicolaou, Cassiani [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME) (Greece)

    2009-01-31

    This review paper presents the results of an extensive study investigating whether addition of 3% w/w Greek lignite to 6.42% w/w water-bentonite suspensions, after being exposed to high temperatures, can prevent gelation and control filtration characteristics. Two different bentonites and eight lignites from different Greek basins have been used while a commercial lignite product has been used as standard. The lignite-free bentonite suspensions heated to 177 C for 16 h (thermal aging) thicken considerably, increasing the yield stress and the yield point. Fluid consistency and flow behavior indices also change while no significant change is observed for plastic viscosity. Thermal aging of the suspensions results in unacceptably high fluid loss values. Addition of Greek lignite to water-bentonite suspensions, followed by thermal aging, provided the rheological stability of the suspensions by maintaining the low yield stress/point regardless of the type of bentonite. Some of the lignites performed as well as their commercial counterpart. No specific trends for rheological improvement have been identified with respect to various characteristics of lignites such as contents of humic, fulvic acids, humins and other parameters such as specific surface area and cation exchange capacity. Furthermore, addition of lignite in most cases provided very good filtration control of the water-bentonite suspensions after exposure to 177 C, with some Greek lignites being superior to the commercial product. The same lignite parameters examined for rheological control, were also examined to determine their effect on fluid loss of these suspensions for both bentonites. The content of humic and fulvic acids of two groups of lignites showed weak inverse correlations with the fluid loss volumes for both bentonites, while all other parameters did not seem to directly correlate with the effectiveness of the lignites. (author)

  5. Experiments and stochastic simulations of lignite coal during pyrolysis and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor. ► The objective is to understand mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis. ► Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis were conducted using Gillespie algorithm. ► First order, single step mechanism failed to fit cumulative yield of hydrogen. ► Evolution of hydrogen via pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbon following bridges scission. -- Abstract: Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor at reactor temperatures of 800–950 °C in 50 °C intervals. CO2 has been used as the gasifying agent for gasification experiments. The objective of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis and to unravel the effect of CO2 on pyrolysis mechanism. Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis have been conducted using Gillespie algorithm. Two reaction mechanisms have been used in the simulations; first order, single step mechanism and the FLASHCHAIN mechanism. The first order single step mechanism was successful in fitting cumulative yield of CO2, CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons (CnHm). The first order, single step failed to fit the cumulative yield of hydrogen, which suggests a more complex mechanism for hydrogen evolution. Evolution of CO2, CO, CH4, CnHm and H2 flow rates has been monitored. The only effect of CO2 on pyrolysis mechanism is promotion of reverse water gas shift reaction for the experiments described here. Methane evolution extended for slightly longer time than other hydrocarbons and hydrogen evolution extended for a slightly longer time than methane. This indicated the evolution of hydrogen via further pyrolysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is also suggested that this step occurs in series after aliphatic hydrocarbons evolution by bridges scission.

  6. Effects of petrographic composition and sulphur in liquefaction of Spanish lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Fernandez, I. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    The behaviour in hydroliquefaction (H{sub 2}), tetralin, 400{degree}C of four Spanish lignites with different petrographic composition and a similar ash content was studied and the nature of the derived oils was evaluated. Vitrinite and/or vitrinite plus exinite contents and percentages of total and organic sulphur correlate with conversion yields. Macerals composition does not appear to influence the nature of the derived oils. 22 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Physical property behaviour of North Dakota lignite in an oxygen/steam blown moving bed gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mangena, S.J.; Bunt, J.R.; Waanders, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study lignite originating from North Dakota (USA) was thermally treated in an oxygen/steam blown commercial-scale moving bed gasifier operating on lump coal at the Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) in order to identify the physical property changes that occur during heating. After reaction, the solid particulate remnants were extracted from the reactor and characterised using standard techniques. Thermal fragmentation was found to be severe with the coal tested, i.e. the l...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis and comparison of retrofitting pre-drying concepts at existing lignite power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite is considered as a domestic and abundant energy source for several countries. However, its high ash and moisture content have a negative effect on power plant efficiency, on cost of electricity (COE) and consequently on CO2 emissions. The aim of the present work is the investigation and optimization of existing lignite pre-drying concepts and their improvement in terms of overall plant efficiency and integration. The main process parameters examined are the heat source for drying and the respective drying medium. In the conventional lignite drying process, hot recirculating flue gas is used as a heating medium, while in the current state-of-the art pre-drying concepts, a fluidized bed drying system is considered. Different concepts are also examined including a) the utilization of preheated air as heating medium and b) the optimized integration of a heat pump as a heat source for the drying process. Based on the performed thermal cycle calculations, the plant efficiency increase is evaluated. The results of the study indicate that higher plant efficiency is expected, when focussing on the optimized pre-drying process scheme and its integration with the overall steam. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of state-of-the-art lignite pre-drying options. • Integration and optimization of the drying process for different drying methods. • Most efficient FB drying case: recirculated steam for heating/60 °C drying temp. • Most efficient air drying case: hot water from feed-water tank/110 °C drying temp

  9. Characterisation of grinding and combustion of lignite in TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In respect of importance of specific characteristics of lignite from Oslomej mine - Macedonia and its behavior during the pulverizing process in fan type pulverizers an extensive investigation has been performed. The goal of investigation was to allow definition of an action plan toward elimination of limitations and drawbacks of this system. Based on the performed investigation all necessary parameters have been defined reviling the real operating conditions and way of elimination of drawbacks and limitations of the pulverizing system. (Author)

  10. Macerals of Shengli Lignite in Inner Mongolia of China and Their Combustion Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Ying Yue; Liu, Yu Zhe; Liu, Quan Sheng; Li, Chang Qing

    2016-01-01

    The macerals, including fusinitic coal containing 72.20% inertinite and xyloid coal containing 91.43% huminite, were separated from Shengli lignite using an optical microscope, and their combustion reactivity was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Several combustion parameters, including ignition and burnout indices, were analyzed, and the combustion kinetics of the samples were calculated by regression. Fusinitic coal presented a porous structure, while xyloid coal presented a compact s...

  11. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jan; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Šárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified h...

  12. Application of the bucket wheel excavators to the Afsin-Elbistan lignites of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muftuoglu, Y.V.; Scoble, M.J.; Solmaz, O.M.

    1987-06-01

    The paper considers surface mining in the Afsin-Elbistan basin in Turkey. This basin contains nearly half of Turkey's lignite potential. The Kisalakoy mine has been the first one developed. Topics covered are: geology of the mining field; hydrology and dewatering systems at the Kislakloy mine; mining method and equipment selection in particular bucket wheel excavators; operational problems due to hard rock zones and sticky clays; and slope stability. 2 refs.

  13. Creolization redux : the plural society thesis and offshore financial services in the British Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that the connection between political fragmentation and offshore financial services illustrate an increasingly common vision of the political and economic future among leaders of the British Caribbean who seek to carve out a place for their countries and territories in the new global economy. Their success is based on standing outside regional federations and providing services to parties wishing to conduct business between or around economic blocs.

  14. Financial Regulation and its Significance for Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Jansson; Mark D. Wenner

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a regional overview of financial regulations in Latin America and the Caribbean which have the potential of constituting important obstacles to microfinance. The study attempts to identify the regulations and restrictions which may be inappropriate or inadequate for microfinance while, at the same time, be satisfactory and effective for the great majority of financial institutions. As defined, these regulations would thus impose an unjustified differe...

  15. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, WonGyu Lewis; AnneDucharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This ...

  16. Education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Vianna; Kourilovitch, Maria; Massardo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Patient education is highly recommended in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to support patient management. The challenge is to adhere to the recommendations for providing health education to RA patients in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries taking into account factors such as patient health illiteracy, lack of rheumatologists, and lack of resources including access to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). As existing educational material in regional languages is not readily a...

  17. Gender Earnings Gaps in the Caribbean: Evidence from Barbados and Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Bellony, Annelle; Hoyos, Alejandro; Nopo, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes gender earnings gaps in Barbados and Jamaica, using a matching comparisons approach. In both countries, as in most of the Caribbean region, females’ educational achievement is higher than that of males. Nonetheless, males’ earnings surpass those of their female peers. Depending on the set of control characteristics, males’ earnings surpass those of females by between 14 and 27 percent of average females’ wages in Barbados, and between 8 and 17 percent of average females’ w...

  18. Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cassidy

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the status of Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) in Latin American and the Caribbean. It includes a history of EMIS development efforts in the region; an outline of practical lessons learned from earlier EMIS development efforts; the identification of current and emerging challenges for developing EMIS; and the identification of promising examples of the use of better data and information to inform education policy and planning. The study was prepa...

  19. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong politica...

  20. The Political Economy of China's Incursion into the Caribbean and Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, Jerome L.; Wenwen Bai

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the recent incursion by China (meaning both Beijing and Taipei) into the Caribbean and Pacific. The general contours of Chinese trade and investment are discussed to provide a background context for a more specific exploration of Chinese aid, especially to small islands across the two regions. A review of recent literature primarily from Western sources reveals that the main strategic use of aid by Beijing (People’s Republic of China – PRC) has been to support the demands ...

  1. Left ventricular thrombus in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Case report and Caribbean focused update

    OpenAIRE

    CR Potu; EE Tulloch-Reid; DS Baugh; EC Madu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well documented benefit of echocardiography in acute coronary syndromes, its wide-scale use in the Caribbean is limited by access, health literacy and affordability. Because of the limited use of echocardiography in the region, routine complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not fully appreciated and may go unrecognized, further contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is therefore necessary to bring focus to this common clinical conditio...

  2. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established an...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  3. Innovation in Services: The Hard Case for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Tacsir

    2011-01-01

    Recent research conducted by the IDB shows that innovation positively affects productivity growth in the Latin American and Caribbean region, although the evidence comes almost exclusively from the manufacturing sector. The dearth of evidence regarding innovation in services is related, at least in part, to uncertainty with respect to how innovation in services actually works, how it can best be measured and whether or not old measurement tools (biased toward manufacturing and R&D) are really...

  4. Innovation and the New Service Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rubalcaba

    2013-01-01

    The service sector has become one of the most important economic activity in the world economy in both developed and developing economies. Services are crucial for further developing the Latin American and Caribbean countries, providing a strong economic dynamism and creating the source for job creation and welfare. Service innovation is incremental for ensuring strong and competitive growth of services in the region. Agriculture and manufacturing industries also need service innovation to be...

  5. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Valdivia; John F Bruno; Courtney E Cox; Serena Hackerott; Green, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic region...

  6. From "sociological anti latifundium" to historiographical revisionism. The cattle raising in the historiography of the Colombian Caribbean region Del "antilatifundismo sociológico" al revisionismo historiográfico. La ganadería en la historiografía sobre región Caribe colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paolo Solano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the various interpretations of the historical significance of livestock in the Colombian Caribbean region. To this end, we study the intellectual and political process that led to form a body of opinions called by Louis E. Nieto Arteta "antilatifundismo" sociological" as well as the challenges to this tradition by recent research on the subject. As part of this discussion is to suggest points of view about relationships and conflicts between expanding livestock staged and certain forms of corporate ownership of land, as were the lands of the reservations of indigenous and communal lands and lands community populations.El objetivo del presente artículo es pasar revista a las diversas interpretaciones sobre el significado histórico de la ganadería en la región Caribe colombiana (**. Para ello, se estudia el proceso intelectual y político que llevó a formar un cuerpo de opiniones llamado por Luís E. Nieto Arteta "antilatifundismo sociológico", como también los desafíos planteados a esta tradición por las recientes investigaciones sobre el tema. En el marco de esa discusión se proponen ciertos puntos de vistas en torno a las relaciones y los conflictos escenificados entre la expansión ganadera y ciertas formas de propiedad corporativa de la tierra, como eran los terrenos de los resguardos de los indígenas y los ejidos o tierras comunales de las poblaciones.

  7. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations

  8. Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  9. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  10. The investigation of the flotability improvement of Yozgat Ayridam lignite using various collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebeci, Y. [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2002-02-01

    In this study, the flotability of Yozgat Ayridam lignite using kerosene, kerosene + emulsifier and kerosene + emulsifier + surfactant has been investigated. It was determined that the combination of both kerosene + emulsifier and kerosene + emulsifier + surfactant were stable (except anionic), easily dispersible in water and formed very small oil droplets compared to the kerosene. It was concluded that all of the collectors except kerosene investigated in this study increased the flotability of Yozgat Ayridam lignite. However when the combustible recovery and flotation efficiency index were considered, the best results were obtained from the combination of both kerosene + Acorga M5640 and kerosene + Acorga M5640 + Flotigol CS (non-ionic). It was based on the high binding and spreading tendency of both collectors over the coal surface. The concentrates having relatively low ash content were obtained with the kerosene + Acorga M5640 + Flotigol CS. Consequently, the flotability improvement of Yozgat Ayridam lignite was achieved by using the combination of both kerosene + emulsifier and kerosene + emulsifier + surfactant. 52 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Investigation of Lignite and Firewood Co-combustion in a Furnace for Tobacco Curing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of lignite and firewood was investigated for an application in tobacco curing industry in Northern Thailand. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small curing unit, in place of locally made furnace. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber in the required thermal output range for tobacco curing and to examine the influence of fuel feed rate, fuel mixture ratio and air staging on the combustion and emission characteristics of the furnace during steady state operation. Their effects are characterized in terms of the observed variations of temperature distributions, emissions of CO, SO2, CO2, O2 and combustion efficiency. Co-firing of firewood and lignite has been found to exhibit acceptable temperature distribution, high combustion efficiency and low emissions over a wide thermal output span. Stable operation at low (50 kW and high (150 kW thermal output was achieved with average CO and SO2 content in flue gas typically below 1400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Under the conditions considered, it was showed that the fuel feed rate had greater influence on combustion and emissions than firewood and lignite mixture ratio and air staging.

  12. Mineralogy of fixed-bed gasification ash derived from North Dakota lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of nine ash samples derived from North Dakota lignite and gasified in three different fixed-bed producers was determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gasifiers had maximum temperatures in the 1100-12500C range, but included several differences in ash residence time, oxidizing gas and pressure, and ash handling conditions. The lignite gasified came from the same geologic formation, but the mines were separated by 20 km. Despite these differences, all of the ash specimens has the same basic mineralogy: glass at the 15-30 wt.% level; a crystalline phase assemblage of ortho- and pyro-silicates (merwinite, di-calcium silicate (C/sub 2/S), C/sub 2/S- like phases, and melilite), network aluminosilicates (nepheline, carnegieite, and a sodalite-structure phase), oxides (ferrite spinel, hematite, and periclase), and calcite along with residual lignite minerals (quartz and felspar). SEM morphologies and XRD comparisons of the amounts of crystalline phases in size fractions both indicated that some of the phases (particularly merwinite and carnegieite) crystallized during cooling of portions of the ash that had melted during gasification

  13. The effects of pore structure on the behavior of water in lignite coal and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaka, Daniel; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-09-01

    The effects of physical structure (pore structure) on behavior of water in lignite coal and activated carbon (AC) samples were investigated by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and low-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. AC samples with different pore structures were prepared at 800°C in steam and the results were compared with that of parent lignite coal. The DSC results confirmed the presence of two types of freezable water that freeze at -8°C (free water) and -42°C (freezable bound water). A shift in peak position of free water (FW) towards lower temperature was observed in AC samples compared to the lignite coal with decreasing water loading. The amount of free water (FW) increased with increasing gasification conversion. The amounts of free and freezable bound water (FBW) in AC samples were calculated and correlated to pore volume and average pore size. The amount of FW in AC samples is well correlated to the pore volume and average pore size of the samples, while an opposite trend was observed for FBW. The low-temperature XRD analysis confirmed the existence of non-freezable water (NFW) in coal and AC with the boundary between the freezable and non-freezable water (NFW) determined. PMID:27254256

  14. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  15. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Gangelhoff, Christine; LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music), goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  17. Corporate Income Tax Competition in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Koffie Ben Nassar

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the concern that corporate income tax (CIT) competition may have eroded the tax base, this paper calculates average effective tax rates to measure the impact of CIT competition, including the widespread use of tax holidays, on the tax base for 15 countries in the Caribbean. The results not only confirm erosion of the tax base, but also show that CIT holidays must be removed for recent tax policy initiatives (such as accelerated depreciation, loss carry forward provisions, and tax...

  18. Governance in State-Owned Enterprises Revisited : The Cases of Water and Electricity in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Luis Alberto; Guasch, José Luis; López Azumendi, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the governance structure of state-owned enterprises in the water and electricity sectors of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through a unique dataset, the paper compares 44 leading state companies of the region based on an aggregate measure of corporate governance and six salient aspects of their design: board, chief executive officer, performance orientation, management...

  19. The microflora and physico-chemical properties of lignite from the Mirash mine, near Kastriot: Mikroflora in fizikalno-kemijske lastnosti lignita iz rudnika Mirash pri Kastriotu:

    OpenAIRE

    Beqiri, Luljeta P.; Millaku, Agron; Plakolli, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Coal, as an important source of energy, is very often the subject of study forscientists from the areas of chemistry, physics, technology, and biology, etc. In Kosovo, large deposits of coal, in the form of lignite, can be found. Lignite is mostly used to produce electrical energy; however, the interest of the country of Kosovo is to study many of the aspects of lignite. In this paper an analysis of the microflora of lignite from the mine in the locality of Mirash, near Kastriot, is presented...

  20. The Dutch Caribbean municipalities in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, the smallest islands in this federation – Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba – became special municipalities of the Netherlands, and were hence politically and constitutionally integrated into the Dutch metropolis. The present article seeks to understand this development in the context of the broader academic literature on small, non-sovereign island jurisdictions in the Caribbean and elsewhere. After a description of the reforms and a discussion of the perceived benefits and drawbacks of the new political status, the newly created Dutch Caribbean municipalities are compared with other non-sovereign jurisdictions in the Caribbean. Whereas the choice for political integration in itself can be compared with the French postwar policy of départementalisation, in terms of the historical significance and the direction of the reforms, the new political situation on Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba could rather be better likened to that of the British Overseas Territories and their relationship with the United Kingdom.

  1. Perspectives of the non-energetic use of lignite in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Sailer, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    RWE Power AG as integral part of RWE Generation SE has been active in the development and commercialization of coal gasification routes for many years. RWE Generation SE is one of Europe's leading electricity producers and combines the expertise of the power plant specialists Essent (NL), RWE npower (UK) and RWE Power (D). A globally increasing freight traffic and accompanying fuel demand is anticipated in the future. This higher demand will probably result in an increase in crude oil price in the course of the next years. There will also be a disproportionately high increase in fuel prices additionally to the increase in the crude oil price due to an increasing treatment effort within refineries. Therefore the substitution of crude oil becomes more and more attractive in view of economical perspectives and security of supply. Crude oil is not only to be substituted as feedstock for fuels but also for the chemical industry. Coal has been and will be the most important feedstock for this. Especially its gasification enables various routes. In Germany there is also an interesting perspective for Coal-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Gas or CtL/CtG as the non-energetic use of coal is abbreviated. Lignite is available regardless of any market impacts and currently faces a change in its use for power generation due to the increasing use of renewable energies. Hence lignite is an attractive feedstock for CtL/CtG in Germany. The construction of a commercial size CtL/CtG plant means a billion Euro investment. So a reliable economic evaluation is inevitable. Today all CtL/CtG routes miss commercial competitiveness to the conventional production by some ten percents. In case the current upward price trend of crude oil continues CtL/CtG might become viable in the near future. The production of synthetic fuels appears most attractive in view of a substantial market potential. The further commercialization of gasification routes in Germany requires R and D activities especially

  2. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  3. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in Pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, M.; Dulong, F. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound, Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Palaeozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and Cikatovo Ni mines. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Palaeocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist. 15 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of small hydropower plants in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latin America and the Caribbean Region has a long-standing tradition of small hydropower plant development. In the 1890s the first plants were installed in the Region, and in the first half of this century pioneering efforts were made to develop the technology. The major reason was the technical modernization of agriculture (coffee, cacao, sugar, etc.) and small-scale mining, which led to increased energy demand in isolated areas when the electrification process was just beginning in the region. However, interest in small hydropower plants (SHP) waned because of technological improvements, enhanced efficiency, lower purchase prices and installation costs of gasoline engines, and the expansion of interconnected power systems

  5. Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.

    2014-10-01

    Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an

  6. Preliminary list of the cetaceans of the southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Students working at the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute (CARMABI) on the island of Curaçao asked the present author to provide them with a list of Cetacea occurring in the Caribbean. Until recently, compiling such a list was of little use as our knowledge concerning the cetaceans in the area w

  7. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 068-XA145 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) in partnership with the Fisheries Leadership and Sustainability Forum ] (FLSF) will conduct...

  8. Street Festivals in the Caribbean: Geography Lessons for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockledge, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes holiday celebrations in the Caribbean as important contemporary social events with historical, geographical, and cultural significance. Discusses the origins, development, and customs of the major Caribbean street festivals. Suggests that the holidays can combine all social science disciplines into focus and emphasize the geographic…

  9. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de León; K. Vane; P. Bertuol; V.C. Chamberland; F. Simal; E. Imms; M.J.A. Vermeij

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  10. Abstracts of the Second energy conference of the Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC'95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), with support from the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Ecuador, held the Second Energy Conference of Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC 95) under the heading Energy Integration and Private-Sector Participation, essentially aimed at bringing together top public and private sector executives of latin america and the caribbean and entrepreneurs, investors, representatives of commercial banks and financial institutions to identify and concretize business opportunities and foster the energy integration of the region by identifying projects and investment opportunities in the sector. The present document is a reference work compiling the abstracts of the presentations that have been submitted and selected for ENERLAC 95. This publication provides a wide range of opinions and ideas about many energy sector topics

  11. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:22462739

  12. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Robert L.; Spillane, Michael; Brooks, Irving; Atwood, Donald; Duckett, Carol

    1981-07-01

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  13. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from lagrangian observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, R.L.; Spillane, M.; Brooks, I.; Atwood, D.; Duckett, C.

    1981-07-20

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  14. Occurrence of Apicomplexa-like structures in the digestive gland of Strombus gigas throughout the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Frenkiel, Liliane; Brulé, Thierry; Montero, Jorge; Cárdenas, Erick Baqueiro

    2011-02-01

    The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a marine resource of ecological and economical importance in the Caribbean region. Given its importance in this region, and the critical status of most populations, the reproductive biology of this species has been studied to support management decisions. It was from these studies that a generalized sporozoan infection was detected. This study describes the geographic distribution of a coccidian (Apicomplexa) parasite infecting the digestive gland of S. gigas throughout the Caribbean. The parasite was present in every location sampled. Based on histological analysis, the parasites from all locations are similar and appear to complete their life cycle within the digestive gland. The highest occurrence of the parasites was registered in samples from Puerto Rico (54 parasites per field) and Martinique (45 parasites per field). The lowest incidence was registered on the Mexican coast of Yucatan peninsula, at Alacranes and Chinchorro with 17 parasites per field. Data showed significant differences among sites (Kruskal Wallis H=106.957; p ≤ 0.05). The abundance of parasites found in the digestive ducts and in the faeces suggests the liberation of parasites to the environment. A gradual decrease in abundance was found from East to West of the Caribbean sea. PMID:20851703

  15. Financing of health care in four Caribbean territories: a comparison with reforms in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, F; Lapré, R; Antonius, R; Dokoui, S; Haqq, E; Roberts, R; Mills, A

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers health care finance in four Caribbean territories and plans for reform in comparison with developments in European countries, to which these territories are historically linked. European health care reforms are aimed at making resource allocation in health care more efficient and more responsive to consumers' demands and preferences. These reforms in Europe have been continuing without appearing to have influenced the developments in the Caribbean very much, except in Martinique. In Trinidad and Tobago current reform entails delegation of responsibility for providing services to four regional health authorities and no purchaser/provider split at the regional or facility level as in the UK has been implemented. In the Bahamas, managed care arrangements are likely to emerge given the proximity of the United States. Recent universal coverage reform in Martinique was aimed at harmonisation of finance by bringing social security and social aid functions together under one management structure and may provide more opportunities for contracting and other initiatives towards greater efficiency. The first priority in Suriname is to restore proper functioning of the current system. Reforms in the four Caribbean territories have a largely administrative character and affect the organisation of the third party role in health care rather than fundamentally changing the relationship between this third party and the various other parties in health care. PMID:12151137

  16. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mascayano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. Methods: A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Results: Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. Conclusion: We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  17. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  18. Diversification at the narrow sea-land interface in the Caribbean: phylogeography of endemic supralittoral Ligia isopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMateos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies have provided valuable insights into the evolutionary histories and biodiversity of different groups in the Caribbean, a region that harbors exceptional terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of the poorly dispersing supralittoral isopod Ligia sampled from 35 localities in the Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas, as well as from Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico, the type locality of L. baudiniana (the only currently recognized native Ligia species in the Caribbean. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of four mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA and COI and Parsimony analyses of one nuclear gene (NaK. We found a well-supported and highly divergent clade of Ligia that is distributed in the Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, southern Florida, Bermuda, and the Pacific coast of Central America and Colombia, but not in the Gulf of Mexico. A characteristic appendix masculina distinguishes this clade from other lineages of Ligia. Large divergences within this clade suggest that it constitutes a cryptic species complex. Genetically and morphologically, the specimens from the type locality of L. baudiniana were indistinguishable from the non-native species L. exotica. Some phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area may be consistent with the proto-Antillean or GAARlandia vicariant hypotheses, but uncertainty concerning divergence times and aspects of the geological history precludes stronger biogeographical inferences. Passive overwater dispersal appears to have played an important role in shaping phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Caribbean Sea. These patterns, however, do not correspond with predicted biogeographic patterns based on population connectivity of marine organisms with larval dispersal, and do not reflect the southeast to northwest colonization pattern that has been proposed for the colonization of the Caribbean from South America by some

  19. The Caribbean-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern Caribbean margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the Caribbean plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of Caribbean island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.

  20. COCONet and TLALOCNet: Multi-hazard GNSS/Met Observatories, Enhancing Geodetic Infrastructure and the Scientific Community in Mexico and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Adams, D. K.; Braun, J.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Dausz, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Fend, M.; Galetzka, J.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Sandru, J.; Serra, Y. L.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO manages the construction of two large NSF-funded networks of geophysical instruments in Central America and the Caribbean. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network), which consists of 83 new and refurbished cGNSS/Met stations, spans the entire Caribbean region. TLALOCNet (Trans-boundary Land and Atmospheric Long-term Observational and Collaborative Network) is a similar 24-station in Mexico. Data are being used to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics, plate boundary deformation, and the earthquake cycle; in addition, by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor to better forecast the dynamics associated with the annual Caribbean hurricane cycle and the North American monsoon, they also address atmospheric science objectives. COCONet and TLALOCNet rely on the concept of building partnerships with a range of stakeholders that support a common goal of providing free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products. As part of COCONet, UNAVCO completed installation of sea level monitoring instruments at two locations in the Caribbean Basin. Additionally, two existing sea level stations were upgraded with co-located GNSS hardware. The locations (Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, and the Dominican Republic) enhance the coverage of tide gauge instrumentation in the Caribbean region. Each station consists of tide gauge instruments (radar and pressure gauge) on a marine pier co-located with a cGNSS/Met system. A second cGNSS system is installed nearby (IOC sea level archive (ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org). We present the siting plan, construction status, and other highlights of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects, including the establishment of regional GNSS/Met data centers in Mexico and the Caribbean.

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  2. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network): Network Status and Project Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Dausz, K.; Friesen, B. T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Seider, E.; Wang, G.

    2012-12-01

    The beauty and diversity of the Caribbean region result from geological and atmospheric processes that also pose serious threats to the large population within reach of seismic faults, hurricanes tracks, or sea-level change. The capacity to understand, prepare for, adapt to, and in some cases predict these natural hazards requires Earth observations on both large and small scales. The COCONet project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. COCONet will consist of 50 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 15 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from up to 61 existing operational GPS stations. Additional funding has recently been allocated to install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and also add GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. COCONet will provide free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products for researchers, educators, students, and the private sector. Data will be used by US and international scientists to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics and dynamics as well as plate boundary interactions and deformation, with an emphasis on the earthquake cycle. COCNet will also serve atmospheric science objectives by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor and enabling better forecast of the dynamics of airborne moisture associated with the yearly Caribbean hurricane cycle. COCONet is being installed and will be maintained by UNAVCO on behalf of the science and other user communities in the United States and abroad, thus leveraging UNAVCO's proven record of

  3. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Ether functionalities form an important cross-linking structure within the macromolecular organic matrix of lignites and coals. To obtain a deeper insight into the complex internal structure of such macromolecules and the maturation related changes of the ether compounds within the network...... structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur...... important cross-linking substructures within the macromolecular matrix of lignites and coals being sterically protected within the macromolecular network during the maturation process. Additional cross-linking substructures were (poly)ether aromatics, esters and ketones...

  4. Preparation of effective lignite chars for SO{sub 2} adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, T.; Finqueneisel, G.; Weber, J.V. [Metz Univ. (France). Lab. de Chimi Industrielle; Izquierdo, M.T. [Departemento Energia y Medio Ambiente, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of activated chars produced from two different lignites to remove sulfur dioxide from industrial flue gas. The lignites used differ mainly in their ashes and water contents. The chars were produced at semi-pilot scale (0.5 t) in rotary kiln, and in our optimized conditions of temperature, the specific surface reaches 372 m{sup 2}/g (pyrolysis temperature 800 C) for the best char. In order to investigate the effect of surface oxigenated groups, a simple and mild post-oxidation treatment (40 min at 320 C in air) was performed. The dynamic adsorption of SO{sub 2} was realized at 100 C in controlled atmosphere containing O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a balance. In these conditions 70 mg SO{sub 2}/g can be adsorbed by the best sample. After six adsorption/desorption cycles for the best char, the decrease of adsorption capacity is close to 20%. The oxidation of the char surface leads to a sensible decrease of its adsorption capacity. This could be explained by a simultaneous increase of the basic surface groups which should enhanced SO{sub 2} adsorption and acidic groups which seem to be involved in the deactivation process. The influence of lignite pre-drying (before pyrolysis) on adsorption behavior of char is limited. Finally, once more, the lack of relation between surface area and SO{sub 2} adsorption capacity is observed. That means that considering polar and acidic molecules, both porosity and surface chemistry play important role. (orig.)

  5. Managerial Strategies Used to Overcome Technological Hurdles: A Review of E-Commerce Efforts Used by Innovative Caribbean Managers

    OpenAIRE

    William Wresch; Simon Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Studies summarized by the United Nations Commission on Trade and Development continue to show that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries face particular problems with managerial skills, connectivity, branding, logistics, security, and foreign competition. Yet the same studies note that barriers and e-commerce efforts vary considerably from one region of the world to another. To determine if these barriers are significant in the Caribbean region during July and August 200...

  6. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  7. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Susanne; Wernecke, K D; F. Makeschin

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO2 from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant (sites Ia, II, and III, respectively), representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site (site Ib) at a distance of 3 km from...

  8. NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE ENERGY INDUSTRY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE STATE ECONOMY FOR 2007 AND PROJECTED FOR 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2008-01-01

    A survey of firms involved in lignite mining and/or conversion resulted in estimates of their expenditures to in-state entities. An input-output model was applied to estimate secondary and total impacts of the direct expenditures. Direct expenditures totaled $806.8 million for 2007 and were estimated at $995.4 million for 2008. The total (direct plus secondary) contribution to the North Dakota economy was estimated to be $2.4 billion for 2007 and $2.8 billion for 2008. State tax revenues resu...

  9. Mine water management in the former Gardanne lignite mine: towards sustainable uses of the mine aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Dheilly, Anne; Brigati, Bernard; Nedellec, Jean-Louis; Nicolas, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The Gardanne mine, extending 17 km E‐W and 10 km N‐S to the south of Aix‐en‐Provence in France, operated seams of lignite interlayered with Fuvelian karstic limestone (Upper Cretaceous) from the seventeenth century up to 2003. The mine is in two main parts: one part lies in autochthonous terrain and the other part lies in a thrust sheet, the Lambeau Charrié. To work in the dry, the water was pumped out and discharged into the Mediterranean (at Marseille) through a 14 km tunnel, the Galerie de...

  10. Desulphurization of a Turkish lignite by pyrolysis: comparison of slow and flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahan, H. (Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    To observe the effect of the heating rate on the desulphurization, Bolu-Mengen lignite was desulphurized in the temperature range of 450-750[degree]C using flash and slow pyrolysis methods. A reduction of 57.6% and 34.2% in the total sulphur was obtained for the slow and flash pyrolysis at a pyrolysis temperature of 750[degree]C, respectively. It was observed that the flash pyrolysis is shifted toward higher temperatures with respect to the slow pyrolysis. The flash pyrolysis having high thermal efficiency has a potential as a desulphurization process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Photochemical free radical production rates in the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dister, Brian; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    1993-02-01

    Potential photochemical production rates of total (NO-scavengeable) free radicals were surveyed underway (> 900 points) in the eastern Caribbean and Orinoco delta in spring and fall 1988. These data document seasonal trends and large-scale (˜ 10-1000 km) variability in the pools of sunlight-generated reactive transients, which probably mediate a major portion of marine photoredox transformations. Radical production potential was detectable in all waters and was reasonably quantifiable at rates above 0.25 nmol L-1 min-1 sun-1. Radical production rates varied from ˜ 0.1-0.5 nmol L-1 min-1 of full-sun illumination in "blue water" to > 60 nmol L-1 min-1 in some estuarine waters in the high-flow season. Qualitatively, spatiotemporal potential rate distributions strikingly resembled that of "chlorophyll" (a riverine-influence tracer of uncertain specificity) in 1979-1981 CZCS images of the region [Müller-Karger et al., 1988] at all scales. Basin-scale occurrence of greatly enhanced rates in fall compared to spring is attributed to terrestrial chromophore inputs, primarily from the Orinoco River, any contributions from Amazon water and nutrient-stimulus effects could not be resolved. A major part of the functionally photoreactive colored organic matter (COM) involved in radical formation clearly mixes without massive loss out into high-salinity waters, although humic acids may flocculate in estuaries. A similar conclusion applies over smaller scales for COM as measured optically [Blough et al., this issue]. Furthermore, optical absorption and radical production rates were positively correlated in the estuarine region in fall. These cruises demonstrated that photochemical techniques are now adequate to treat terrestrial photochemical chromophore inputs as an estuarine mixing problem on a large scale, though the ancillary data base does not currently support such an analysis in this region. Eastern Caribbean waters are not markedly more reactive at comparable salinities

  12. Potential for Energy Storage in Combination with Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Balza; Christiaan Gischler; Nils Janson; Sebastián J. Miller; Gianmarco Servetti

    2014-01-01

    Can energy storage (ES) increase the share of renewable energy (RE) in total generation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? The rationale for using ES in combination with RE in the LAC region is that it can enable a larger scale deployment of cost-saving intermittent RE, with which the region is highly endowed, without threatening grid stability or the ability to meet electricity demand. To test this rationale, the paper considers three case studies that represent the key market types i...

  13. Logistics as a Competitiveness Factor for Small and Medium Enterprises in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Kirby; Nicolau Brosa

    2011-01-01

    The logistics industry is one of utmost relevance and principally serves as a motor of private sec-tor development and growth of the economic sectors of a country or region. A logistics industry that is efficient and accessible to everyone is a key element for companies in a country or region in general, and its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular, to successfully compete in this new global context. Despite improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean in recent years, ...

  14. An assessment of global warming stress on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, D.K.; Hendec, J.C.; Mendez, A. (NOAA, Miami, FL (USA). Atlantic Oceanography and Meteorology Laboratory)

    1992-07-01

    There is evidence that stress on coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean region is increasing. Recently numerous authors have stated that the major stress results from 'abnormally high' seasonal sea surface temperatures (SST) and have implicated global warming as a cause, stating that recent episodes of coral bleaching result therefrom. However, an analysis of available SST data sets shows no discernible warming trend that could cause an increase in coral bleaching. Given the lack of long-term records synoptic with observations of coral ecosystem health, there is insufficient evidence available to label temperatures observed in coincidence with recent regional bleaching events as 'abnormally' high.

  15. Decadal climate variability in the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Gouirand, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the eastern Caribbean during the 20th century is analyzed using principal component analysis and singular value decomposition. In contrast to earlier studies that used seasonal data, here we employ continuous signal processing. The leading mode is a decadal oscillation related to third and fourth modes of sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperatures (SST) which together identify three zones of action in the Atlantic: 35°N-20°N, 20°N-5°N, and 5°N-20°S. The ability of the ECHAM4.5 model to simulate this signal is investigated. Its decadal variability is also represented through lower-order SLP and SST modes that comprise an Atlantic tripole pattern with lower pressure east of the Caribbean. Composite analysis of high and low phases of the decadal mode reflects a cool east Pacific and a more active Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone during boreal summer, conditions that favor the intensification of African easterly waves. The decadal signal has strengthened since 1970, yet the three centers of action in Atlantic SST are relatively unsynchronized.

  16. Geologic Provinces of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (prv6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a modified subset of polygon features that describe U.S. Geological Survey's defined geologic provinces of the World. Each province has a set...

  17. Trade logistic and regional integration in Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Pablo; Lucenti, Krista; Galarza S., Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    During the past few decades, the landscape of the world economy has changed. New trade patterns reflect the globalization of the supply chain and intra-industry trade, and increasing flows between neighboring countries and trading blocs with similar factor endowments. Similarly, the approach to production, trade, and transportation has evolved incorporating freight logistics as an important valueadded service in the global production. This integrated approach have become essential, and as suc...

  18. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  19. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anadon-Irizarry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive national-level stakeholder consultation. By applying the Vulnerability criterion, a total of 284 Key Biodiversity Areas were defined and mapped as holding 409 (54% of the region’s threatened species. Of these, 144 (or 51% overlapped partially or completely with protected areas. Cockpit Country, followed by Litchfield Mountain - Matheson’s Run, Blue Mountains (all Jamaica and Massif de la Hotte (Haiti were found to support exceptionally high numbers of globally threatened taxa, with more than 40 such species at each site. Key Biodiversity Areas, building from Important Bird Areas, provide a valuable framework against which to review the adequacy of existing national protected-area systems and also to prioritize which species and sites require the most urgent conservation attention.

  20. Native predators do not influence invasion success of pacific lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackerott, Serena; Valdivia, Abel; Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M; Cox, Courtney E; Akins, Lad; Layman, Craig A; Precht, William F; Bruno, John F

    2013-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass) of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition) on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs. PMID:23874565