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Sample records for caribbean lead research

  1. Caribbean | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... we've supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean. ... Languages ... Home · What we do · Regions and countries · Latin America and the ... We have funded research with a focus on trade and the economy, which ... IDRC-supported research broke new ground with one of the first analyses of ...

  2. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  3. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  4. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange Grants Program ... and LAC researchers opportunities for joint research on development issues of ... academics (graduate students and professors) to support their professional ...

  5. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... ... in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development ... understand the causes and effects of the the virus, and ultimately prevent its ...

  6. The School Research Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The researchED movement has generated a new debate about the role of research in schools. Of course there have always been teachers interested in undertaking research and applying the research findings of others. However, involvement in research has tended to be the personal enthusiasm of the individual teacher rather than a coordinated whole…

  7. Library and Archival Resources for Social Science Research in the Spanish, French, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas G.

    The working paper describes how a social scientist might go about locating resources for any particular study. Researchers are directed to non-Caribbean based material in European Archives as well as collections in the United States. Caribbean resources are analyzed by county. The countries include Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico,…

  8. The First World War in the Caribbean: Research Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Calmettes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the eve of World War I, the countries of the Caribbean basin are absent from the international arena. In Cuba, the Platt amendment - inscribed in the constitutional statute of the Republic - deprives the island of all diplomatic independence. Dominican Republic and Haití construct their nationalistic discourses in relation to their historical oppositions for the dominion of the island. In Cuba, a large part of the members of the independence elite express sincere admiration for the “civilized” culture of their neighbor. They perceive the latter as a means of erasing the vestiges of a Spanish “barbarism” that should be definitively relegated to a distant past. The American intervention of 1906-1909, the invasion of Nicaragua and the Enrique Mazas case contributed to the birth of an anti-imperialist intellectual movement in the period immediately prior to the war whose first manifesto titled Contra el Yankee was published in 1913 by Cesar Gandarilla.

  9. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  10. Women researchers lead wage hikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Women employed in the research and development fields in universities, government, and industry made substantial increases and lead men in salary gains in 1981, according to a far-reaching survey of 5000 respondents (Industrial Research and Development, April 1982). At the upper end, 20% of women researchers received salary increases of 14% or more, compared to 13% of the men. The raises were high in 1981; more than half the women in research and development had salary gains of over 9%.The employment picture for women in the scientific and technical fields is somewhat complicated by the affirmative efforts of hiring. More women were hired in 1981, and most newly hired women and men begin at the lowest salaries. This factor contributed to the reality that more women than men at the lower salary ranges received zero raises. However, according to the survey, this is not a trend, since the current efforts to add women in research fields are providing more rewards for women per amount of experience than for men: “…women working in R&D have far less experience than their male counterparts.” (IR&D, op cit.). The median years of experience is down in 1981 from previous years. Some 40% of the women surveyed had less than 6 years experience, compared to about 14% of the men. These figures contrast with those of the survey trends of previous years, which indicated a direct relation between salary and experience. It is still true that because larger numbers of men have over 16 years of experience, the highest paid employees in research and development fields are men. It is noted, however, that in the beginning salary scales ($16-27 k/yr) women outnumber men.

  11. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Latin American and Caribbean countries: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Sarah; Stonbraker, Samantha; Larsen, Brandon; Santos, Islane; Faria, Renata; Góes, Fernanda S N; Binfa, Lorena; Larson, Elaine

    2018-04-01

    To identify and describe published, nursing-led and midwifery-led, clinical research that has been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. Peer-reviewed published research may correspond to and elucidate country's realities, priorities, and needs. A 6-stage scoping review methodology was used to search scientific databases using an applied search strategy. Five databases were searched for articles published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese conducted in a Latin American or Caribbean country between January 1, 2006 and June 14, 2016. Articles were independently considered for inclusion by 2 researchers, data extracted, and study characteristics described. Of 6922 articles identified, 404 were included. The majority were conducted in Brazil (90.6%) followed by Chile (2.5%). Most were nurse-led (95.8%) and were implemented in hospitals (48.6%). Studies frequently explored patient knowledge or characterized patient populations (61.3%) and commonly assessed chronic disease (19.3%) or maternity/child health outcomes (15.9%). Findings revealed a large number of publications but an uneven geographical distribution of nurse-led clinical research and an evident gap of midwifery-related research in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results may be used to build research agendas to promote nursing and midwifery research capacity and further establish evidence-based practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Status of mangrove research in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Schaeffer-Novelli

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available For those in the eastern hemisphere, the most striking characteristic of New World mangroves must be their low diversity. However, this apparent simplicity is deceptive, New World mangrove species are extraordinarily plastic in their adaptations to their environment. On a geographic basis mangroves attain their greatest development where rainfall and tidal subsidies are abundant. These conditions occur in the northwest part of South American continent and on the eastern seabord, south of the Gulf of Paría (Venezuela to São Luís, in Brazil. In the 1970's events related to the developing environmental movement in the United States led to a marked interest in these systems, their ecology and management, pointing out the ecological role of mangroves as sources of organic matter to estuarine food webs.The economic recession of the 80's and its impact on funding agencies, both national and international, and changing national priorities have dramaticaly curtailed scientific research. Research in the region is now almost totally supported by local institutions.The alarming rate at which mangroves are being destroyed in the region requires that prompt action be taken to develop a regional program such as the one recommended in the UNESCO Cali 1978 meeting, capable of fostering and supporting ecosystemic research, the development and compilation of management guidelines and the training of scientific personnel, resource managers, and providing for public environmental education. These guidelines and strategies for effective management of a complex resource can only be developed through research.Os manguesais do novo mundo estão bem mais menos ricos em espécies e vegetais que o novo e o velho Mundo> Entretanto, essa simplicidade é apenas aparente, pois as espécies de mangue são extraordináriamente máleaveis quanto as suas adaptaçõees ao meio ambiente. Geograficamente os manguezais atingem seu máximo desenvolvimento estrutural onde os subs

  13. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis.

  14. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  15. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan; Langlois, Etienne V; Reveiz, Ludovic; Varallyay, Ilona; Elias, Vanessa; Mancuso, Arielle; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-06-08

    In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the "insider" perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  16. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Tran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in 2014–2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the “insider” perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  17. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  18. Social media in public health: an analysis of national health authorities and leading causes of death in Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hernández-Pérez, Tony

    2017-02-03

    Information and communications technologies, like social media, have the potential to reduce some barriers in disease prevention and control in the Americas. National health authorities can use these technologies to provide access to reliable and quality health information. A study was conducted to analyze availability of information about the leading causes of death on social media channels of national health authorities in 18 Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries. We gathered data of national health authorities's institutional presence in social media. Exploratory-descriptive research was useful for analysis and interpretation of the data collected. An analysis was carried out for 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2015. Sixteen of the 18 countries studied have institutional presences on social media. National health authorities have a presence in an average of almost three platforms (2.8%). An average of 1% of the populations with Internet access across the 18 countries in this study follows national health authorities on social media (approximately, an average of 0.3% of the total population of the countries under study). On average, information on 3.2 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on the national health authorities' Facebook pages, and information on 2.9 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on their Twitter profiles. Additionally, regarding public health expenditures and the possibility of retrieving information on the leading causes of death, an apparent negative correlation exists in the case of Facebook, r(13) = -.54, P = .03 and a weak negative correlation in the case of Twitter, r(14) = -.26, P = .31, for the countries with presences in those networks. National health authorities can improve their role in participating in conversations on social media regarding the leading causes of death affecting their countries. Taking into account Internet accessibility levels in the countries under study

  19. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.

  20. IOC-UNEP regional workshop to review priorities for marine pollution monitoring, research, control and abatement in the wider Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The IOC-UNEP Regional Workshop to Review Priorities for Marine Pollution Monitoring, Research, Control and Abatement in the Wider Caribbean Region (San Jose, 24-30 August 1989) examined a possible general framework for a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP programme for marine pollution assessment and control in the Wider Caribbean region (CEPPOL). The overall objective of CEPPOL is to establish a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP Marine Pollution Assessment and Control Programme catering to the immediate and long-term requirements of the Cartagena Convention as well as the requirements of the member States of IOCARIBE. The specific objectives of the programmes are: (i) To organize and carry out a regionally co-ordinated marine pollution monitoring and research programme concentrating on contaminants and pollutants affecting the quality of the marine and coastal environment, as well as the human health in the Wider Caribbean and to interpret/assess the results of the programme as part of the scientific basis for the region; (ii) To generate information on the sources, levels, amounts, trends and effects of marine pollution within the Wider Caribbean region as an additional component of the scientific basis upon which the formulation of proposals for preventive and remedial actions can be based; (iii) To formulate proposals for technical, administrative and legal pollution control, abatement, and preventive measures and to assist the Governments in the region in implementing and evaluating their effectiveness; and (iv) To strengthen and , when necessary, to develop/establish the capabilities of national institutions to carry out marine pollution monitoring and research, as well as to formulate and apply pollution control and abatement measures

  1. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  2. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa; Terry, Robert F; Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  3. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. METHODS: This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG. RESULTS: Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. CONCLUSIONS: Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  4. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dangles

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most

  5. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  6. International Clinical Trials in Latin American and Caribbean Countries: Research and Development to Meet Local Health Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although international health research involves some benefits for the host countries, such as access to innovative treatments, the research itself may not be aligned with their communities' actual health needs.Objective: To map the global landscape of clinical trials run in Latin American and Caribbean countries and discuss the addressing of local health needs in the agenda of international clinical trials.Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional overview and used data referent to studies registered between 01/01/2014 and 12/31/2014 in the World Health Organization's (WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP.Results: Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and asthma—studies which were financed mainly by industries—were the conditions investigated most in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean. The neglected diseases, on the other hand, such as Chagas disease, and dengue, made up 1% of the total number of studies. Hospitals and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations prioritize resources for investigating new drugs for neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease and dengue.Conclusion: The international multicenter clinical trials for investigating new drugs are aligned with the health needs of the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, when one considers the burden resulting from the non-communicable diseases in this region. However, the transmissible diseases, such as tuberculosis and AIDS, and the neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease and dengue, which have an important impact on public health in this region, continue to arouse little interest among the institutions which finance the clinical trials.

  7. Factors leading African Americans and black Caribbeans to use social work services for treating mental and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Robinson, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and demographic characteristics. The sample was extracted from a national data set. Results of multinomial logistic regression showed that use of social work services was increased by dual diagnosis, substance use disorder alone, and mental disorder alone; by deteriorating mental health; by perceived stigma in treatment use; by welfare receipt and insurance coverage for mental health services; and by college graduation. Results also showed that use of services outside social work was promoted by dual diagnosis, substance use disorder alone, and mental disorder alone; by deteriorating mental health; by experience of racial discrimination; by insurance coverage for mental health services; by college education or graduation; and by female gender and increasing age. The findings' implications for social work intervention and education are discussed.

  8. Leading Edge Aeronautics Research for NASA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LEARN Project explores the creation of novel concepts and processes with the potential to create new capabilities in aeronautics research through awards to the...

  9. Research Update: Luminescence in lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and dynamics of radiative recombination of carriers are crucial figures of merit for optoelectronic materials. Following the recent success of lead halide perovskites in efficient photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, here we review some of the noted literature on the luminescence of this emerging class of materials. After outlining the theoretical formalism that is currently used to explain the carrier recombination dynamics, we review a few significant works which use photoluminescence as a tool to understand and optimize the operation of perovskite based optoelectronic devices.

  10. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  11. Leading Undergraduate Research Projects in Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we provide some useful perspectives and experiences in mentoring students in undergraduate research (UR) in mathematical modeling using differential equations. To engage students in this topic, we present a systematic approach to the creation of rich problems from real-world phenomena; present mathematical models that are derived…

  12. Leading the Way for Open Access Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    "Language Learning & Technology" ("LLT") was launched in the mid-1990s out of a collaboration between the University of Hawai'i National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) and the Michigan State University Center for Language Education Research (CLEAR). Like other online journals started in the 1990s, "LLT"…

  13. Low blood lead levels impair intellectual and hematological function in children from Cartagena, Caribbean coast of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ortega, Neda; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    Lead produces numerous biochemical and physiological changes in humans, including hematological disorders, toxic effects on the central nervous system and in the function of several organs. The aim of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLL) in children from Cartagena, Colombia, associating those with hematological and liver damage markers, the intelligence quotient (IQ), as well as with gene expression of the aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), gamma interferon (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tumor protein (p53). To achieve this purpose, 118 blood samples were collected from children 5-16 years old, with their respective informed consent from their parents. BLL was measured by atomic absorption; hematological parameters were obtained with automated systems; plasma was utilized to analyze hepatic toxicity markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was administered to measure the IQ; and gene expression was quantified from blood RNA. The mean BLL was 1.7±0.3μg/dL. A low proportion of the children (3.4%) had BLL above the CDC recommended limit (5μg/dL). BLL were correlated weakly, but negatively with child age, weight, height, body mass index, platelets wide distribution, mean platelet volume, γ-GT and IQ. There were not significant changes in the expression of evaluated genes. These results support the hypothesis that BLL below 5μg/dL may still be a detrimental factor on children's cognitive abilities, development and hematology, in line with recent concerns that there is no safe level of pediatric lead exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  15. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  16. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  17. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  18. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  19. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  20. A bibliometric analysis of leading universities in innovation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Cancino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of innovation studies with a management perspective has grown considerably over the last 25 years. This study identified the universities that are most productive and influential in innovation research. The leading innovation research journals were also studied individually to identify the most productive universities for each journal. Data from the Web of Science were analyzed. Studies that were published between 1989 and 2013 were filtered first by the keyword “innovation” and second by 18 management-related research areas. The results indicate that US universities are the most productive and influential because they account for the most publications with a high number of citations and high h-index. Following advances in the productivity of numerous European journals, however, universities from the UK and the Netherlands are the most involved in publishing in journals that specialize in innovation research.

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  2. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See https://ccr.cancer.gov for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  3. Nanotechnology research among some leading OIC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, R. S.; Yaldram, K.; Hussain, S. S.; Ahmed, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present an overview of the research activities in nanotechnology for the period 2001–2011 for six selected countries belonging to the Organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC). The selection has been made based on the research output of these countries. The countries are Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. The factors considered are the number of publications, citations per paper, p-index, and collaborative research output. Iran with 7,795 publications and an annual growth rate of 41 % leads the group, followed by Turkey with 3,169 publications and an annual growth rate of 29 %. Turkey however, has a much better citation per paper (8.96), and p-index (63.34) as compared to Iran (4.59 and 54.36, respectively). We can classify the six countries into two categories. Those, that have a well coordinated national program in nanotechnology, namely, Iran, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia and those that do not have any national program but are still showing a reasonable good activity in nanotechnology namely Turkey, Egypt, and Pakistan. A brief account of the initiatives taken by the six selected countries of OIC in the field of nanotechnology is also presented.

  4. Leading research on brainware; Nokino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Leading research on brainware is conducted to realize the engineering information processing based on the learning, memorization, association, intuition, value judgment, and motivation which are activities of human brains. For the highly integrated information society at the 21st century, it will be essential to establish human-like information processing technology which is considered to be difficult with the conventional computers. The R and D theme for this technology will focus on the development of novel devices and systems by eliciting the principles and key roles of information processing functions of the brain and in living organisms from both viewpoints of the science and engineering and the brain information science. It is considered that important research targets are in elucidating brain functions and the modeling and developing novel devices and systems, such as brain information architecture, neural devices, neural networks, and man-machine interface. Technical trend surveys in the USA, the UK, and Germany were also conducted. 347 refs., 58 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Anatomy of lead poisoning | Duru | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most heavy ...

  6. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  7. Skin Bleaching and Dermatologic Health of African and Afro-Caribbean Populations in the US: New Directions for Methodologically Rigorous, Multidisciplinary, and Culturally Sensitive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Emma K T; Alexis, Andrew; Mohamed, Nihal; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Liu, Bian

    2016-12-01

    Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. Exposure to chemicals in the bleaching products, notably, mercury (Hg), hydroquinone, and steroids, has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects, such as Hg poisoning and exogenous ochronosis. In New York City (NYC), skin care product use has been identified as an important route of Hg exposure, especially among Caribbean-born blacks and Dominicans. However, surprisingly sparse information is available on the epidemiology of the health impacts of skin-bleaching practices among these populations. We highlight the dearth of large-scale, comprehensive, community-based, clinical, and translational research in this area, especially the limited skin-bleaching-related research among non-White populations in the US. We offer five new research directions, including investigating the known and under-studied health consequences among populations for which the skin bleach practice is newly emerging at an alarming rate using innovative laboratory and statistical methods. We call for conducting methodologically rigorous, multidisciplinary, and culturally sensitive research in order to provide insights into the root and the epidemiological status of the practice and provide evidence of exposure-outcome associations, with an ultimate goal of developing potential intervention strategies to reduce the health burdens of skin-bleaching practice.

  8. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  9. Contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in organs of Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Sanchez, Yury A; Troncoso, Olivo Walberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in leaves, stalks, and root of Rhizophora mangle, samples from three parcels located in the river Sevilla mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, were taken in October 2003. Measures of metals concentrations were made through the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The results indicated that lead concentration in R. mangle organs was below method detection limit ≤38 g/g) except the absorbent root (16.3 g/g); and significant differences exist in the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead into R. mangle organs, following this concentration order: absorbent roots ≥ stalk ≥ young leaves ≥adult leaves ≥ aerial roots

  10. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  11. Regional P-wave Tomography in the Caribbean Region for Plate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Bedle, H.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complex plate-tectonic interactions around the Caribbean Sea have been studied and interpreted by many researchers, but questions still remain regarding the formation and subduction history of the region. Here we report current progress towards creating a new regional tomographic model, with better lateral and spatial coverage and higher resolution than has been presented previously. This new model will provide improved constraints on the plate-tectonic evolution around the Caribbean Plate. Our three-dimensional velocity model is created using taut spline parameterization. The inversion is computed by the code of VanDecar (1991), which is based on the ray theory method. The seismic data used in this inversion are absolute P wave arrival times from over 700 global earthquakes that were recorded by over 400 near Caribbean stations. There are over 25000 arrival times that were picked and quality checked within frequency band of 0.01 - 0.6 Hz by using a MATLAB GUI-based software named Crazyseismic. The picked seismic delay time data are analyzed and compared with other studies ahead of doing the inversion model, in order to examine the quality of our dataset. From our initial observations of the delay time data, the more equalized the ray azimuth coverage, the smaller the deviation of the observed travel times from the theoretical travel time. Networks around the NE and SE side of the Caribbean Sea generally have better ray coverage, and smaller delay times. Specifically, seismic rays reaching SE Caribbean networks, such as XT network, generally pass through slabs under South American, Central American, Lesser Antilles, Southwest Caribbean, and the North Caribbean transform boundary, which leads to slightly positive average delay times. In contrast, the Puerto Rico network records seismic rays passing through regions that may lack slabs in the upper mantle and show slightly negative or near zero average delay times. These results agree with previous tomographic

  12. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  13. Does formal research training lead to academic success in otolaryngology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobian, Michael R; Shah, Noor; Svider, Peter F; Hong, Robert S; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether formalized research training is associated with higher researcher productivity, academic rank, and acquisition of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants within academic otolaryngology departments. Each of the 100 civilian otolaryngology program's departmental websites were analyzed to obtain a comprehensive list of faculty members credentials and characteristics, including academic rank, completion of a clinical fellowship, completion of a formal research fellowship, and attainment of a doctorate in philosophy (PhD) degree. We also recorded measures of scholarly impact and successful acquisition of NIH funding. A total of 1,495 academic physicians were included in our study. Of these, 14.1% had formal research training. Bivariate associations showed that formal research training was associated with a greater h-index, increased probability of acquiring NIH funding, and higher academic rank. Using a linear regression model, we found that otolaryngologists possessing a PhD had an associated h-index of 1.8 points higher, and those who completed a formal research fellowship had an h-index of 1.6 points higher. A PhD degree or completion of a research fellowship was not associated with a higher academic rank; however, a higher h-index and previous acquisition of an NIH grant were associated with a higher academic rank. The attainment of NIH funding was three times more likely for those with a formal research fellowship and 8.6 times more likely for otolaryngologists with a PhD degree. Formalized research training is associated with academic success in otolaryngology. Such dedicated research training accompanies greater scholarly impact, acquisition of NIH funding, and a higher academic rank. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E15-E21, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. CERN celebrates 50 years of world-leading research

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the 29th September 1954 representatives of the 12 founding Mmebers States of CERN (including UK) ratified the Organisation's convention, paving the way for the establishment of one of the world's leading fundamental physics reserach institutions. (Special issue with differents articles: Bid for beta beams at CERN; CERN's golden jubilee; Climbing the energy scale; The next 20 years; Working at CERN; CERN and industry; What's in it for British business?) (13½ pages)

  15. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  16. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  17. Research on SOC Calibration of Large Capacity Lead Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W. Q.; Guo, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    Large capacity lead-acid battery is used in track electric locomotive, and State of Charge (SOC) is an important quantitative parameter of locomotive power output and operating mileage of power emergency recovery vehicle. But State of Charge estimation has been a difficult part in the battery management system. In order to reduce the SOC estimation error better, this paper uses the linear relationship of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and State of Charge to fit the SOC-OCV curve equation by MATLAB. The method proposed in this paper is small, easy to implement and can be used in the battery non-working state SOC estimation correction, improve the estimation accuracy of SOC.

  18. Computing at the leading edge: Research in the energy sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirin, A.A.; Van Dyke, P.T. [eds.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this publication is to highlight selected scientific challenges that have been undertaken by the DOE Energy Research community. The high quality of the research reflected in these contributions underscores the growing importance both to the Grand Challenge scientific efforts sponsored by DOE and of the related supporting technologies that the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) and other facilities are able to provide. The continued improvement of the computing resources available to DOE scientists is prerequisite to ensuring their future progress in solving the Grand Challenges. Titles of articles included in this publication include: the numerical tokamak project; static and animated molecular views of a tumorigenic chemical bound to DNA; toward a high-performance climate systems model; modeling molecular processes in the environment; lattice Boltzmann models for flow in porous media; parallel algorithms for modeling superconductors; parallel computing at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory; the advanced combustion modeling environment; adaptive methodologies for computational fluid dynamics; lattice simulations of quantum chromodynamics; simulating high-intensity charged-particle beams for the design of high-power accelerators; electronic structure and phase stability of random alloys.

  19. Computing at the leading edge: Research in the energy sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirin, A.A.; Van Dyke, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to highlight selected scientific challenges that have been undertaken by the DOE Energy Research community. The high quality of the research reflected in these contributions underscores the growing importance both to the Grand Challenge scientific efforts sponsored by DOE and of the related supporting technologies that the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) and other facilities are able to provide. The continued improvement of the computing resources available to DOE scientists is prerequisite to ensuring their future progress in solving the Grand Challenges. Titles of articles included in this publication include: the numerical tokamak project; static and animated molecular views of a tumorigenic chemical bound to DNA; toward a high-performance climate systems model; modeling molecular processes in the environment; lattice Boltzmann models for flow in porous media; parallel algorithms for modeling superconductors; parallel computing at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory; the advanced combustion modeling environment; adaptive methodologies for computational fluid dynamics; lattice simulations of quantum chromodynamics; simulating high-intensity charged-particle beams for the design of high-power accelerators; electronic structure and phase stability of random alloys

  20. Why the Rural Poor Get Fewer Opportunities to Leading Research Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanhua

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers in China believe that the rural poor's earlier disadvantaged education experiences stopped them to get into the leading research universities. In my research, I find equal access to leading research universities relates with many issues, the gross enrollment rate disparity among provinces, the change of enrollment policies, the…

  1. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors. PMID:28070411

  2. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  3. Black Holes Lead Galaxy Growth, New Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers may have solved a cosmic chicken-and-egg problem -- the question of which formed first in the early Universe -- galaxies or the supermassive black holes seen at their cores. "It looks like the black holes came first. The evidence is piling up," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Carilli outlined the conclusions from recent research done by an international team studying conditions in the first billion years of the Universe's history in a lecture presented to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. Gas in Distant Galaxy VLA image (right) of gas in young galaxy seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, SDSS Full-size JPEG, 323 KB PDF file, 180 KB Galaxy image, no annotation, JPEG 21 KB Earlier studies of galaxies and their central black holes in the nearby Universe revealed an intriguing linkage between the masses of the black holes and of the central "bulges" of stars and gas in the galaxies. The ratio of the black hole and the bulge mass is nearly the same for a wide range of galactic sizes and ages. For central black holes from a few million to many billions of times the mass of our Sun, the black hole's mass is about one one-thousandth of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge. "This constant ratio indicates that the black hole and the bulge affect each others' growth in some sort of interactive relationship," said Dominik Riechers, of Caltech. "The big question has been whether one grows before the other or if they grow together, maintaining their mass ratio throughout the entire process." In the past few years, scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in France to peer far back in the 13.7 billion-year history of the Universe, to the dawn of the first galaxies. "We finally have been able to measure black-hole and bulge masses in several galaxies seen

  4. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  6. Trends and Innovations in Higher Education Reform: Worldwide, Latin America and in the Caribbean. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrera, Francisco Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Universities in Latin America and in the Caribbean (LAC), and throughout the world, are facing one of the most challenging eras in their history. Globalization presents many important opportunities for higher education, but also poses serious problems and raises questions about how best to serve the common good. The traditional values of…

  7. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD): A Cyberinfrastructure for Mesoscale Meteorology Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droegemeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    A new National Science Foundation Large Information Technology Research (ITR) grant - known as Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) - has been funded to facilitate the identification, access, preparation, assimilation, prediction, management, analysis, mining, and visualization of a broad array of meteorological data and model output, independent of format and physical location. A transforming element of LEAD is dynamic workflow orchestration and data management, which will allow use of analysis tools, forecast models, and data repositories as dynamically adaptive, on-demand systems that can a) change configuration rapidly and automatically in response to weather; b) continually be steered by new data; c) respond to decision-driven inputs from users; d) initiate other processes automatically; and e) steer remote observing technologies to optimize data collection for the problem at hand. Having been in operation for slightly more than a year, LEAD has created a technology roadmap and architecture for developing its capabilities and placing them within the academic and research environment. Further, much of the LEAD infrastructure being developed for the WRF model, particularly workflow orchestration, will play a significant role in the nascent WRF Developmental Test Bed Center located at NCAR. This paper updates the status of LEAD (e.g., the topics noted above), its ties with other community activities (e.g., CONDUIT, THREDDS, MADIS, NOMADS), and the manner in which LEAD technologies will be made available for general use. Each component LEAD application is being created as a standards-based Web service that can be run in stand-alone configuration or chained together to build an end-to-end environment for on-demand, real time NWP. We describe in this paper the concepts, implementation plans, and expected impacts of LEAD, the underpinning of which will be a series of interconnected, heterogeneous virtual IT "Grid environments" designed to provide a

  9. Fiscal 1999 leading research report. High strain-rate super-plasticity (Leading research); 1999 nendo kosoku chososei kenkyu hokokusho. Sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For solving the global warming problem and constructing the resource recycling society, a demand for highly recyclable light-weight Mg alloys is increasing for energy saving and recycling improvement, in particular, for automobiles and electrical appliances. However, use of Mg materials is limited because its poor workability. This research targets development of the material with a rich recyclability and a rich workability for forming complex shapes, and its working technology. Leading research was made on development of the continuous high-strain rate (more than 10{sup -2}/s) super- plasticity material forming process from raw materials to products of Mg alloys, and establishment of the production technology free from technological barriers. The research result showed that for the recognition of Mg alloy as low- environment load super light-weight industrial material, establishment of the composite resource-saving energy-saving production process including recycling and reusing is necessary at the same time as establishment of the high- strain rate super-plasticity material forming process. (NEDO)

  10. Development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Huang, Qunying; Zhao, Zhumin; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. • The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. • Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented. - Abstract: Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation since 2011, and China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) proposed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) is selected as the ADS reference reactor. In this paper, the development strategy and conceptual design of China Lead-based Research Reactor are proposed. The Chinese ADS development program consists of three stages, and during the first stage, a 10 MW th lead-based research reactor named CLEAR-I will be built with subcritical and critical dual-mode operation capability for validation of ADS transmutation system and lead cooled fast reactor technology. Major design principles of CLEAR-I are oriented at technology feasibility, safety reliability, experiment flexibility and technology continuity. Followed by the development strategy and design principles, CLEAR-I design options and conceptual design scenarios are presented.

  11. Contemporary Trends in Research and Development of Lead-Acid Batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2004), s. 932-933 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lead-acid batteries * electrical system * trends Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2004

  12. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  13. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  14. The Circular Economy and the Leading European Retailers: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy is gaining momentum in political and business thinking about the transition to a more sustainable future. EuroCommerce and the European Retail Round Table, for example, have argued that leading retailers are keen to play a leading role in shaping the circular economy within Europe. This exploratory research note outlines the characteristic features of the concept of the circular economy, provides some illustrations of how Europe’s leading retailers are publicly addressing circular economy approaches and offers some general reflections on the application of the concept within the retail sector of the economy. The findings reveal that almost 50% of the leading European retailers signalled a commitment to the circular economy and to the principles underpinning it and a number of them looked to evidence their commitment within their retail operations. That said the authors suggest that If Europe’s leading retailers’ public commitments to a more circular economy are to become a reality then they will not only need to effect a radical change in their current business models and that this will need to be accompanied by radical changes in consumers consumption behaviour. More contentiously, there must be concerns that the leading European retailers might effectively capture the concept of the circular economy to justify continuing economic growth.

  15. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  16. Research keeps lead and zinc viable in high-tech markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jerome F.

    1989-08-01

    Lead and zinc have long enjoyed widespread use in a variety of applications. To insure growing markets for the future, however, new applications for these durable metals must be developed. Currently, projects are underway to determine the capabilities of lead for such high-technology uses as earthquake damping and nuclear waste containment. Zinc's capabilities are being developed further, too, particularly in the areas of direct injection die casting, composites and the improvement of coating properties. Other ongoing research initiatives are attempting to better determine the health and environmental influences of these metals.

  17. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  18. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  19. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on both AI risk analysis and on AIV ecology.

  20. Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project. Caribbean countries are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (ICTs) in ... The Government of Jamaica is willing to donate the solution to other ... Related content ...

  1. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  2. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  3. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price; Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  4. A unified, long-term, Caribbean-wide initiative to identity the factors responsible for sustaining mangrove wetland, seagrass meadow, and coral reef productivity, February 1993 - October 1998 (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  5. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  6. Evolving Trends in Endodontic Research: An Assessment of Published Articles in 2 Leading Endodontic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Loizides, Alexios L; Kakavetsos, Vasileios D; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the evolving trends in endodontic research in 2 leading endodontic journals (ie, Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal) in articles published from January 2009 to December 2013. The differences in content between this period and a 10-year earlier period from January 1999 to December 2003 were also evaluated. Each journal's content was accessed through the web edition. For each article, the following parameters were recorded: number of authors, article type, number of affiliations, field of study, source of article, and geographic origin. The recorded data were analyzed using both descriptive and analytic statistics. During 2009-2013 (second period), the mean number of authors per article increased significantly compared with 1999-2003 (first period). The main volume of the literature in both periods and journals was original research articles. The number of published reviews increased significantly from the first to the second study period in contrast to case reports/clinical articles, which presented a significant decrease. "Endodontic materials" was the most prevalent thematic category in both study periods. The number of published articles related to "biology" and "chemical preparation and disinfection" increased significantly from the first to the second study period. On the contrary, the number of articles regarding "obturation and microleakage" presented a considerable decrease at the same time. The United States was the leading country in the number of publications in the first period followed by Brazil. In the second period, this rank was reversed with Brazil becoming the leading country followed by the United States. In the last 15 years, the progress of the specialty of endodontology was apparent as shown through the trends and shifts in research orientation in published articles in the 2 leading endodontic journals. The results of the present reviewing process encourage both journals

  7. Central American and Caribbean Citizen Security Platform | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Collaborative research platform This initiative will establish a real and virtual space known as the Central American and Caribbean Security Platform. It will bring together the region's scholars, practitioners, attorneys, journalists, and other stakeholders into regular, constructive dialogue with specialists dedicated to finding ...

  8. Network analysis in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Veenstra (Albert); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); R.A. Sels

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe Caribbean region is a cross road of international and regional container traffic. Most of the islands in the region have also adopted ambitious strategies to become prime locations for container transshipment. This paper introduces a tool that can be used to visualise and analyse the

  9. Caribbean land and development revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, James; Momsen, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The book is an interdisciplinary collection of fifteen essays, with an editorial introduction, on a range of territories in the Commonwealth, Francophone, and Hispanic Caribbean. The authors focus on land and development, providing fresh perspectives through a collection of international contributing authors.

  10. Thermophoresis research of nanoparticles in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Liu Liang; Fang Xiaolu; Lin Daping

    2015-01-01

    Thermophoresis theory of solid particles in liquid are selected to research thermophoresis phenomenon in liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Thermophoretic velocity of different particles in LBE and stainless steel particles in different fluid are calculated. The results showed that, thermophoretic velocity of particles in LBE increase with the increase of temperature gradient and the decrease of particle radius. And the thermophoretic velocity of stainless steel particles two orders of magnitude lower than the Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) particles, at the same time, it is similar to copper particles in LBE. What's more, the thermophoretic velocity of stainless steel particles in LBE would one order of magnitude lower than that in water and R134a. Of course, it is still faster than that in Engine Oil and Ethyl Glycol two orders of magnitude. (author)

  11. WVU cooperative agreement, decontamination systems information and research program, deployment support leading to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This program at West Virginia University is a Cooperative Agreement that focuses on R ampersand D associated with hazardous waste remediation problems existing at DOE, Corps of Engineers, and private sector sites. The Agreement builds on a unique combination of resources coupling university researchers with DOE sponsored small businesses, leading toward field tests and large scale technology demonstrations of environmental technologies. Most of the Agreement's projects are categorized in the Technology Maturity Levels under Gates 3-Advanced Development, Gate 4-Engineering Development, and Gate 5-Demonstration. The program includes a diversity of projects: subsurface contaminants; mixed wastes; mixed wastes/efficient separations; mixed wastes/characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and decontamination and decommissioning/efficient separations

  12. Student Engagement in the Caribbean Region: Exploring Its Role in the Motivation and Achievement of Jamaican Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamica G.; Martin, Andrew J.; Evans, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Using an expectancy-value framework, the present investigation is the first to explore the generality of this theorizing and research in the emerging regional context of the Caribbean. Given high underachievement in the Caribbean region, we addressed the need to better understand the role of engagement in students' academic motivation and…

  13. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  14. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  15. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botello, Alfonso V; Villanueva F, Susana [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    1996-07-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  16. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Villanueva F, Susana

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  17. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  18. Study on corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. Joint research report in JFY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of corrosion behaviors of core and structural materials in lead bismuth eutectic is one of the key issues for the utilization of lead bismuth eutectic as a coolant of the primary loops of lead bismuth cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and the intermediate heat transport media of new-type steam generators of the sodium cooled FBRs. The purpose of the present study is to establish corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. The techniques of steel corrosion test and oxygen control in flowing lead bismuth eutectic, and the technologies of a lead bismuth flow test at high temperature and high velocity were developed through corrosion test using a lead bismuth flow test loop of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in JFY2002. The major results are summarized as follows: (1) Techniques of fabrication, mount and rinse of corrosion specimens, measurement method of weight loss, and SEM/EDX analysis method have been established through lead bismuth corrosion test. (2) Weight losses were measured, corrosion and lead bismuth-adhered layers and eroded parts were observed in two 1000 hr-corrosion tests, and the results were compared with each other for twelve existing steels including ODS, F82H and SUH-3. (3) An oxygen sensor made of zirconia electrolyte structurally resistant to thermal stress and thermal shock was developed and tested in the lead bismuth flow loop. Good performance has been obtained. (4) An oxygen control method by injecting argon and hydrogen mixture gas containing steam into lead bismuth was applied to the lead bismuth flow loop, and technical issues for the development of the oxygen control method were extracted. (5) Technical measures for freezing and leakage of lead bismuth in the flow loop were accumulated. (6) Technical measures for flow rate decrease/blockage due to precipitation of oxide and corrosion products in a low temperature section of the lead bismuth flow loop were accumulated. (7) Electromagnetic flow meters with MI

  19. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulay, E A; Hoyte, O P-A

    2015-06-01

    Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated cost of 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this "non-communicable" disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation.

  20. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Children’s mobility is analysed in this article as an important foundation of the migration tradition that has been an integral aspect of most Caribbean societies. I show that, because of their position as dependents who are not yet fully socialised and who are subject to adult authority, children...... move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations....... This leads to the suggestion that young adults’ migration for domestic work*which often builds on informal inter-personal social relations and offers the only means of migration for the many women who do not have access to more attractive forms of wage-labour migration*can be viewed as an extension...

  1. Leading Contributors to the Research Consortium's Annual Program, 1992-2011: High-Visibility Institutions, Researchers, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Lee, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    Between 1992-2011, peer-reviewed research on the Research Consortium's annual program has been published in abstract form in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport". On the basis of frequency, high-visibility institutions, researchers, and sub-disciplinary categories were identified. Data were extracted from each abstract (N =…

  2. Pilot Testing HIV Prevention in an Afro Caribbean Faith-Based Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Cynthia M; Newman, David

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to test an HIV prevention intervention for Afro-Caribbean female teens. The purpose was to improve knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS, improve mother-daughter sexual communication, and to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Using a community-based approach, sixty mother and daughter pairs were randomly assigned. One condition was experimental using the Making Proud Choices Caribbean Style (MPCCS); another was a comparison of General Health Education. Independent t-tests were used for analysis between the pretest, posttest and 90 days posttests. MPCCS indicated clear usage with other Caribbean teens. This study helped to support the theory when Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens feel they need to become sexually active (subjective norm), and have referent support (parental support), they may blend values, knowledge, and skills (control beliefs), and are likely to make proud choices to reduce risky sexual behavior in minimizing HIV in their communities.

  3. Research and implementation of novel approaches for the control of nematode parasites in Latin America and the Caribbean: is there sufficient incentive for a greater extension effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Molento, M; Mendoza de Gives, P

    2012-05-04

    The widespread presence of anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in outdoor ruminant production systems has driven the need to identify and develop novel approaches for the control of helminths with the intention to reduce the dependence on commercial anthelmintic drugs. This paper identifies what has been done in Latin America (LA) in terms of estimating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminant production systems and the application of different novel approaches for the control of helminths in those systems, including research and extension activities. Firstly, the paucity of knowledge of AR is discussed in the context of different countries, as well as, the available economic resources for research, the technical infrastructure available and the practical difficulties of the production systems. It is then proposed that the search for novel approaches is not only driven by AR but also by the need for techniques that are feasible for application by resource-poor farmers in non-commercial subsistence farming systems. However, the commercial benefits of these approaches are often limited and so are funding inputs in most countries. The workers participating in the research into different novel approaches are identified as well as the different methods being studied in the different areas of LA according to their published results. In addition, the difficulties experienced during extension efforts to reach farmers and help them to adopt novel approaches for the control of parasitic nematodes in LA are discussed. The role of regulatory authorities in these countries is discussed as some methods of control might need an official confirmation of their efficacy as well as authorization prior to application as they may affect animal products (i.e. residues) and/or impose a hazard for animal welfare. The role of the pharmaceutical companies is also discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model for Lead Neurotoxicology and Toxicogenomics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mark Ruden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model animal for studying the neurotoxicology of lead. It has been known since ancient Roman times that long-term exposure to low levels of lead results in behavioral abnormalities, such as what is now known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Because lead alters mechanisms that underlie developmental neuronal plasticity, chronic exposure of children, even at blood lead levels below the current CDC community action level (10 µg/dl, can result in reduced cognitive ability, increased likelihood of delinquency, behaviors associated with ADHD, changes in activity level, altered sensory function, delayed onset of sexual maturity in girls, and changes in immune function. In order to better understand how lead affects neuronal plasticity, we will describe recent findings from a Drosophila behavioral genetics laboratory, a Drosophila neurophysiology laboratory, and a Drosophila quantitative genetics laboratory who have joined forces to study the effects of lead on the Drosophila nervous system. Studying the effects of lead on Drosophila nervous system development will give us a better understanding of the mechanisms of Pb neurotoxicity in the developing human nervous system.

  5. Building Human Resources Management Capacity for University Research: The Case at Four Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    At research-intensive universities, building human resources management (HRM) capacity has become a key approach to enhancing a university's research performance. However, despite aspiring to become a research-intensive university, many teaching-intensive universities in developing countries may not have created effective research-promoted HRM…

  6. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...

  7. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  8. Research of experience of leading foreign countries in the management by a build complex

    OpenAIRE

    Borovik, Yu

    2010-01-01

    In the article the experience of leading foreign countries is explored in the management by build industry and possibilities of his application in the management by the transport build complex of Ukraine.

  9. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  10. HOW DESIGN RESEARCHERS CAN LEAD HIGHER EDUCATION TO A GREATER IMPACT ON SOCIETY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; McMahon, C.A.; Giess, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    . However, with the aid of available government funding, researchers could benefit from undertaking such support work to fill gaps between fixed term research contracts; though administering short term irregular contracts proved a major unresolved barrier. It is recommended that engineering design...... researchers work as projects managers to provide technology and knowledge transfer, drawing further expertise from researchers within their universities. A trail case was completed showing identifying three key barriers to future progress....

  11. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  12. The lead-acid eloflux cell. Research tool and candidate for advanced batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullmeine, U.; Kappus, W.

    1982-12-01

    The discharge capacity of usual lead-acid cells is limited by several mechanisms among which acid depletion is the most incisive. It is shown that the use of the so-called eloflux principle which is characterized by the flow of electrolyte through the porous electrodes, allows a significant deepe discharge and that by avoiding acid depletion the study of the other limiting processes and their functional dependence on the discharge conditions is possible. From the results it is concluded that an eloflux lead-acid cell is a promising candidate for advanced batteries with high energy density and performance.

  13. Research Update: Physical and electrical characteristics of lead halide perovskites for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Bretschneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of thin-film photovoltaics has been recently enriched by the introduction of lead halide perovskites as absorber materials, which allow low-cost synthesis of solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16%. The exact impact of the perovskite crystal structure and composition on the optoelectronic properties of the material are not fully understood. Our progress report highlights the knowledge gained about lead halide perovskites with a focus on physical and optoelectronic properties. We discuss the crystal and band structure of perovskite materials currently implemented in solar cells and the impact of the crystal properties on ferroelectricity, ambipolarity, and the properties of excitons.

  14. Studying Practices of Leading--Qualitative Shadowing in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognestad, Karin; Bøe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article considers qualitative shadowing as a fruitful method to investigate leadership practices. We propose that an approach to practice that takes into account the activities of "sayings, doings and relatings" offers a fresh perspective on how to obtain rich data on practices of leading. The value of this idea is illustrated from…

  15. Intangible factors leading to success in research: strategy, innovation and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Birla, Ravi K

    2008-03-01

    At the heart of research is the scientific process, which includes identifying a knowledge gap, execution of experiments, and finally, presentation of scientific data. Identifying a systematic way to undertake research is important; however, equally important are intangible factors, including strategy, innovation and leadership, in determining the outcome of any research project. These intangible factors, although often unspoken, are the essence of success in research. Strategy determines the direction of research and the ability to respond to acute changes in the field to ensure a competitive advantage. Innovation involves generating novel ideas, and at the heart of innovation is the ability to create a positive work environment. Leadership is the ability to exercise influence so as to create change; empowerment and the ability to create leaders at every level are central to effective leadership. Collectively, defining and implementing aspects of these intangible factors will strengthen any research endeavor.

  16. Physician scientist research pathway leading to certification by the American Board of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sharon W; Johnson, Rebecca L

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the American Board of Pathology, in response to the pathology community, approved a physician scientist research pathway (PSRP). This brief report summarizes the history of and objectives for creating the physician scientist research pathway and the requirements of the American Board of Pathology for the certification of physician scientist research pathway trainees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A lead for transvaluation of global nuclear energy research and funded projects in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya; Fujita, Katsuhide; Iwata, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chernobyl accident had limited influence on basic research in nuclear energy. • Budget allocation to R and D and number of published papers have recently decreased. • Citation network analysis revealed reactor safety and fusion as current research trend. • Nuclear energy research policy will change after Fukushima disaster. - Abstract: The decision-making process that precedes the introduction of a new energy system should strive for a balance among human security, environmental safeguards, energy security, proliferation risk, economic risks, etc. For nuclear energy, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (Fukushima disaster) has brought forth a strong need for transvaluation of the present technology. Here, we analyzed bibliographic records of publications in nuclear science and technology to illustrate an overview and trends in nuclear energy technology and related fields by using citation network analysis. We also analyzed funding data and keywords assigned for each project by co-occurrence network analysis. This research integrates citation network analysis and bibliometric keyword analysis to compare the global trends in nuclear energy research and characteristics of research conducted at universities and institutes in Japan. We show that the Chernobyl accident had only a limited influence on basic research. The results of papers are dispersed in diverse areas of nuclear energy technology research, and the results of KAKEN projects in Japan are highly influenced by national energy policy with a focus on nuclear fuel cycle for energy security, although KAKEN allows much freedom in the selection of research projects to academic community

  18. Yeast Studies Lead to a New DNA-Based Model for Research on Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A paper from Amar J. S. Klar, Ph.D., with the RNA Biology Laboratory in NCI’s Center for Cancer Research, has identified a model for DNA research that explains the congenital disorder of mirror hand movements in humans. A mirror movement is when an intentional movement on one side of the body is mirrored by an involuntary movement on the other.

  19. Leading Schools to Promote Social Inclusion: Developing a Conceptual Framework for Analysing Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo; Gunter, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Although much research has focussed on how various educational policy initiatives have attempted to improve problems of social exclusion, little research has systematically examined, categorised and synthesised the types of leadership in schools that might assist improving social inclusion. Given the importance of school leadership in New Labour…

  20. Research on the behavior of polonium produced in lead-bismuth eutectic irradiated with neutrons. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-026. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Igashira, Masayuki; Yano, Toyohiko; Obara, Toru; Ohsaki, Toshiro

    2002-03-01

    Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is proposed by several research institutes as a coolant of liquid metal cooled fast reactors, instead of sodium, and a target of accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactor systems (ADS). LBE has some advantages that it is chemically inert compared to sodium and that its melting point is low like sodium. A problem might be that bismuth produces polonium, which is an alpha emitter, by irradiation of neutrons. The purpose of the study is to get information for quantitative estimations of the release of polonium on LBE cooled fast reactors and on ADSs by making it clear about production rate of polonium (information about cross section) by neutron irradiation of LBE, release rate of the produced polonium from LBE, and adsorption rate of the polonium on various materials. To get the information about production rate of polonium, neutron cross sections of bismuth were measured in keV energy region, which was important in fast reactors, by using the Pelletron accelerator in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology. The obtained neutron capture cross sections were from 1/2 to 1/3 of the evaluated values in JENDL and the obtained polonium production cross sections were almost 1/3 of it. At the same time, an experimental device was designed for heating and adsorption experiments and the performance was tested. The performance of alpha spectrometer was tested also. By those the method was established for the measurement of polonium released from melted LBE after neutron irradiation. (author)

  1. Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2012-12-01

    processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

  2. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  3. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Aghakhani, Kamran; Salimi, Ahmad; Kumar, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (those from the products and maintenance sections were classed as "high lead exposed group" and those from amongst the office, laboratory, security services and food services sections as "low lead exposed group"). Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. Mean (±Standard deviation) for quantitative variables, Frequency (Percent) for qualitative variables, and Odd's ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for estimating the effect of blood lead level on lipid profile[triglyceride (TG), cholesterol(CHOL), low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein -Cholesterol(HDL-C)], hypertension(HTN) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) level. Logistic regression modeling was used for multivariate analysis and adjusting the effect of different variables (age, body mass index(BMI), eating habits, cigarette smoking). The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL) was >40 μg/dl in 281 (56.6%) subjects, ≤40 μg in 216 (43.4%) subjects and the mean BLL was 43.3 μg/dl (n = 497). The mean job experience involving lead exposure was 13 years. There was no significant correlation between BLL and FBS (p = 0.68), between BLL and TG (P = 0.32), between BLL and HDL-C (p = 0.49), between BLL and LDL-C (p = 0.17), between BLL and CHOL(p = 0.96), between BLL and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.12). The adjusted Odd's ratio for the effect of BLL >40.0 μg/dl on diastolic blood pressure was1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05) with p

  4. A fence barrier method of leading edge cell capture for explorative biochemical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Lucas J; Murray, Rachael Z; Thompson, Erik W; Leavesley, David I

    2017-09-03

    The scratch or wound-healing assay is used ubiquitously for investigating re-epithelialisation and has already revealed the importance of cells comprising the leading edge of healing epithelial wounds. However it is currently limited to studying the effect of known biochemical agents on the tissue of choice. Here we present an adaptation that extends the utility of this model to encompass the collection of cells from the leading edge of migrating epithelial sheets making available explorative biochemical analyses. The method is scalable and does not require expensive apparatus, making it suitable for large and small laboratories alike. We detail the application of our method and exemplify proof of principle data derived from primary human keratinocyte cultures.

  5. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  6. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  7. Enterprise risk management today's leading research and best practices for tomorrow's executives

    CERN Document Server

    Simkins, Betty J

    2010-01-01

    Essential insights on the various aspects of enterprise risk management If you want to understand enterprise risk management from some of the leading academics and practitioners of this exciting new methodology, Enterprise Risk Management is the book for you. Through in–depth insights into what practitioners of this evolving business practice are actually doing as well as anticipating what needs to be taught on the topic, John Fraser and Betty Simkins have sought out the leading experts in this field to clearly explain what enterprise risk management is and how you can teach, learn, and implement these leading practices within the context of your business activities. In this book, the authors take a broad view of ERM, or what is called a holistic approach to ERM. Enterprise Risk Management introduces you to the wide range of concepts and techniques for managing risk in a holistic way that correctly identifies risks and prioritizes the appropriate responses. This invaluable guide offers a broad overview of...

  8. Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals in the Research Spotlight: Stability and Defect Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This Perspective outlines basic structural and optical properties of lead halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals, highlighting differences and similarities between them and conventional II–VI and III–V semiconductor quantum dots. A detailed insight into two important issues inherent to lead halide perovskite nanocrystals then follows, namely, the advantages of defect tolerance and the necessity to improve their stability in environmental conditions. The defect tolerance of lead halide perovskites offers an impetus to search for similar attributes in other related heavy metal-free compounds. We discuss the origins of the significantly blue-shifted emission from CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and the synthetic strategies toward fabrication of stable perovskite nanocrystal materials with emission in the red and infrared parts of the optical spectrum, which are related to fabrication of mixed cation compounds guided by Goldschmidt tolerance factor considerations. We conclude with the view on perspectives of use of the colloidal perovskite nanocrystals for applications in backlighting of liquid-crystal TV displays. PMID:28920080

  9. INSTRUMENTS OF SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY LEADING DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Ilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of the key aspects of the knowledge economy development is the growing significance of the results of research and development. The education and basic research play a key role in this process. Funding for education and fundamental science is carried out mainly at the expense of the state resources, including a system of foundations for scientific, engineering and innovation activities in Russia. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for improving the tools of domestic foundations in funding fundamental research and development, including education and training. The propositions are made with a comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign science foun dations’ activities. Materials and Methods: the authors used analysis, comparison, induction, deduction, graphical analysis, generalisation and other scientific methods during the study. Results: the lack of comparability between domestic and foreign scientific funds in the volume of funding allocated for basic research and development is revealed. This situation affects the scientific research. The foreign foundations have a wide range of instruments to support research projects at all stages of the life cycle of grants for education and training prior to release of an innovative product to market (the use of “innovation elevator” system. The Russian national scientific foundations have no such possibilities. The authors guess that the Russian organisations ignore some of the instruments for supporting research and development. Use of these tools could enhance the effectiveness of research projects. According to the study of domestic and foreign experience in supporting research and development, the authors proposed a matrix composed of instruments for support in the fields of basic scientific researches and education with such phases of the project life cycle as “research” and “development”. Discussion and Conclusions: the foreign science

  10. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  11. Leading US nano-scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists’ perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  12. Flight test operations using an F-106B research airplane modified with a wing leading-edge vortex flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Brown, Philip W.; Hallissy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests of an F-106B aircraft equipped with a leading-edge vortex flap, which represented the culmination of a research effort to examine the effectiveness of the flap, were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the flight tests was to establish a data base on the use of a wing leading-edge vortex flap as a means to validate the design and analysis methods associated with the development of such a vortical flow-control concept. The overall experiment included: refinements of the design codes for vortex flaps; numerous wind tunnel entries to aid in verifying design codes and determining basic aerodynamic characteristics; design and fabrication of the flaps, structural modifications to the wing tip and leading edges of the test aircraft; development and installation of an aircraft research instrumentation system, including wing and flap surface pressure measurements and selected structural loads measurements; ground-based simulation to assess flying qualities; and finally, flight testing. This paper reviews the operational aspects associated with the flight experiment, which includes a description of modifications to the research airplane, the overall flight test procedures, and problems encountered. Selected research results are also presented to illustrate the accomplishments of the research effort.

  13. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  14. Collaborative translational research leading to multicenter clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, Diana M; Henricson, Erik K; Pasquali, Livia; Gorni, Ksenija; Hoffman, Eric P

    2002-10-01

    Progress in the development of rationally based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been accelerated by encouraging multidisciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration between basic science and clinical investigators in the Cooperative International Research Group. We combined existing research efforts in pathophysiology by a gene expression profiling laboratory with the efforts of animal facilities capable of conducting high-throughput drug screening and toxicity testing to identify safe and effective drug compounds that target different parts of the pathophysiologic cascade in a genome-wide drug discovery approach. Simultaneously, we developed a clinical trial coordinating center and an international network of collaborating physicians and clinics where those drugs could be tested in large-scale clinical trials. We hope that by bringing together investigators at these facilities and providing the infrastructure to support their research, we can rapidly move new bench discoveries through animal model screening and into therapeutic testing in humans in a safe, timely and cost-effective setting.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Research on electric motor vehicles is reported in the areas of active material utilization and active material integrity; design and fabrication of components, advanced cells, and modules; cell testing; and battery thermal management and electrolyte circulation subsystems.

  16. The Plight of Migrant Birds Wintering in the Caribbean: Rainfall Effects in the Annual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2017-01-01

    Here, we summarize results of migrant bird research in the Caribbean as part of a 75th Anniversary Symposium on research of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF). The fate of migratory birds has been a concern stimulating research over the past 40 years in response to population declines...

  17. National consultation leads to agrivita research to practice plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Johanne; MacLeod, Martha L P; Dosman, James A

    2009-01-01

    A gap exists between research development and its implementation in agricultural health and safety. In order to fill this gap, the goal of this project was to consult agricultural stakeholders across Canada in order to identify the health and safety priorities in research and knowledge translation, and then to propose an approach to bridge the gap. Between April and August 2007, "A National Stakeholder Consultation on Health and Safety Research and its Effective Translation to the Agricultural Sector" was initiated by the Canadian Centre for Heath and Safety in Agriculture. The experiences and opinions of stakeholders across Canada were gathered through focus groups with over 150 participants in seven Canadian provinces and a survey of 289 individuals across Canada. Stakeholders identified a range of health and safety research priorities. Chemical exposure, stress, and farm safety issues were immediate concerns and issues surrounding labor and trained workers, whereas health problems and environmental issues were long-term concerns. Results identified research and knowledge translation priorities, which provided elements for a proposed program aiming at bridging the gap existing between research development and its translation into practice. A request for a knowledge translation/transfer mechanism, where all agricultural stakeholders from researchers to end users are involved in the process, was identified. Findings from the national consultation were used to develop a business plan entitled "Agrivita Research to Practice Program: A Partnership Plan for Health and Safety and its Effective Transfer to the Agricultural Sector in Canada." The plan provides for a coordinated and integrated approach in Canada, conceptually drawing on the American experience established by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  18. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  19. Event review: How Interesting Archaeology Is! - Captivating and Leading-Edge Student Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Uemine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyoto City Archaeological Museum situated in Kansai region, the central part of Honshu Island, Japan, has held special exhibitions in collaboration with external organizations every year since 2011. From 2011 to 2013, several universities and even a high school have participated projects, and in 2014, the Kansai Archaeological Association for Students (KAAS played an important role as partner, producing the exhibit “ここまでわかる!考古学―学生が魅せる最先端” (“How Interesting Archaeology Is! - Captivating and Leading-Edge Student Research”.

  20. Human-animal chimera: a neuro driven discussion? Comparison of three leading European research countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Trujillo, Laura Yenisa; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Research with human-animal chimera raises a number of ethical concerns, especially when neural stem cells are transplanted into the brains of non-human primates (NHPs). Besides animal welfare concerns and ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells, the research is also regarded as controversial from the standpoint of NHPs developing cognitive or behavioural capabilities that are regarded as "unique" to humans. However, scientists are urging to test new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases in primate models as they better mimic human physiology than all current animal models. As a response, various countries have issued reports on the topic. Our paper summarizes the ethical issues raised by research with human-animal brain chimeras and compares the relevant regulatory instruments and different recommendations issued in national reports from three important European research nations: Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We assess and discuss the focus and priorities set by the different reports, review various reasons for and perspectives on the importance of the brain in chimera research, and identify critical points in the reports that warrant further specification and debate.

  1. Leading multi-professional teams in the children’s workforce: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. Methods: A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? Results: When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. Conclusion: The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  2. Leading multi-professional teams in the children's workforce: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  3. Australia's bio-regulatory framework: leading the way for stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology in Australia has flourished over the past five years. During this time the number of companies has doubled to over 370, and over 40 companies are now publicly listed. The total market capitalization of the biotechnology companies listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2003 was US$1.5 billion. Total market capitalization of the health and biotech companies on the ASX was US$13 billion. The size of the total Australian pharmaceutical market in 2003 was US$9 billion. This article highlights the role of Australia in advancing stem cell research and its contribution to biotechnology research, development and commercialization.

  4. Operational research leading to rapid national policy change: tuberculosis-diabetes collaboration in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N C; Chadha, S S; Gupta, D; Nair, S; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    In 2011, bi-directional screening for tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), although how best to implement the activity was not clear. In India, with early engagement of national programme managers and all important stakeholders, a countrywide, multicentre operational research (OR) project was designed in October 2011 and completed in 2012. The results led to a rapid national policy decision to routinely screen all TB patients for DM in September 2012. The process, experience and enablers of implementing this unique and successful collaborative model of operational research are presented.

  5. Leading Integrated Health and Social Care Systems: Perspectives from Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jenna M; Daub, Stacey; Goldhar, Jodeme; Wojtak, Anne; Purbhoo, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    As the research evidence on integrated care has evolved over the past two decades, so too has the critical role leaders have for the implementation, effectiveness and sustainability of integrated care. This paper explores what it means to be an effective leader of integrated care initiatives by drawing from the experiences of a leadership team in implementing an award-winning integrated care program in Toronto, Canada. Lessons learned are described and assessed against existing theory and research to identify which skills and behaviours facilitate effective leadership of integrated care initiatives.

  6. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  7. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room (n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration (R(2) = 0.036, p asthma was positively correlated with rainfall (R(2) = 0.055, p asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure (R(2) = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity (R(2) = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  8. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M H; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin.

  9. Evaluating the "Healthy Diabetes" Caribbean Food Plate and Website Portal for Diabetes Prevention and Management: Results of an Online Study and Implications for Reducing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the challenge of cooking traditional Caribbean meals so they are consistent with the goals of diabetes prevention and management, the researcher created and evaluated a new website portal as e-health tailored to be culturally appropriate and teach the following: how to cook and prepare "Healthy Diabetes" Caribbean Plates. A social…

  10. Intimacy’s Politics: New Directions in Caribbean Sexuality Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agard-Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the

  11. Morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of the deep-sea Caribbean lobster Metanephrops binghami (Decapoda: Nephropidae in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of deep-sea Caribbean lobster. Data were obtained in the Colombian Caribbean in four trawling surveys in November and December 2009 between 200 and 550 m depth. 709 individuals with sizes between 53.65 and 191.00 mm (TL (mean 121.17 ± 27.13 mm were measured. M. binghami had a positive allometric growth. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae have a worldwide distribution and economic importance. High levels of biomass of Metanephrops binghami have been reported in the Colombian Caribbean and this species could become a potential new resource for the Western Atlantic fishery. However, prior to the development of a new fishery, more biological research is needed to understand the life cycle of this species. Aspects such as growth, spawning, recruitment, mortality, nursery areas and associated biodiversity should be carefully studied.

  12. Research experience in Maine leads to teacher and student success in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade-Redden, D.; Incze, L.; Census Of Marine Life-Maine

    2010-12-01

    As a High School science teacher it is my responsibility to present curriculum, to create enthusiasm for science, and to instill a passion and love for science in my students. Through a research experience as an ARMADA master teacher my passion and enthusiasm for the ocean was rekindled in the Gulf of Maine. Topics I had taught for years came alive in front of my eyes, and I was able to experience science to its fullest. I brought home many photographs, valuable information, and new enthusiasm to my students. I began a program called S.A.N.D. (Students As Nature Directors). In this program my students teach 3rd graders about the oceans and its many wonders. Also, I have incorporated hands-on research based projects. The research experience has enabled my students to become more scientifically literate and capable of sharing scientific knowledge with others. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships benefit students as well as teachers and how my students and district have benefited from my experience as an ARMADA master teacher. Author: Debra Slade-Redden Author #2: Lew Incze

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  14. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    dual-use deliveries to entice commercial interest at the earliest stages. NRO transition goals aim to create commercial “ pull ” to enable rapid... GOALI ), Partnerships for Innovation (PFI) , and Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers (IUCRC) • Partnership with small businesses and large

  15. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  16. Flipping the Graduate Qualitative Research Methods Classroom: Did It Lead to Flipped Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The flipped, or inverted, classroom has gained popularity in a variety of fields and at a variety of educational levels, from K-12 through higher education. This paper describes the author's positive experience flipping a graduate qualitative research methods classroom. After a review of the current literature on flipped classrooms in higher…

  17. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, July 1979-June 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.; Stehney, A.F.

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 19 of the 33 papers presented by the Center for Human Radiobiology for the Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report. The 14 items not included are abstracts only and deal with the mechanisms and dosimetry for induction of malignancies by radium. (KRM)

  18. Biology teachers' dissection practices and the influences that lead to their adoption: An exploratory research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Regina Nicole

    The lack of resolution in the on-going animal dissection debate inspired this mixed methods study to identify Connecticut secondary biology teachers' dissection practices and the influences that lead to their adoption. Qualitative findings indicate past experiences, managing objections to dissection, school culture, goals of biology teaching and ethics as major influences on dissection practices with 58.4% (n=7) of the sample dissecting and 41.6% not dissecting (n=5). Quantitative findings reveal gender, standards and curriculum, advantages of dissection and experiences as a student as major influences on dissection practices with 71.9% (n=92) of the sample dissecting and 28.1% (n=36) not dissecting. The study concludes that dissection policies are necessary and imminent in Connecticut school districts. Furthermore, it advises teacher-initiated, qualitative and quantitative assessments to expose disparities between student dissection perspectives and their own, prior to conducting dissection. Finally, it provides suggestions for addressing potential differences including administrative involvement.

  19. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: takechi@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-21

    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  20. Caribbean Knowledge Economy : Coordinating Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Diasporic Tourism and Investment (105228) and Networks for Development : the ... The project will include training in the use of Outcome Mapping for impact ... (UWI) to establish a virtual institute for the Caribbean knowledge economy.

  1. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  2. Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of them, however, face daunting development challenges, including pervasive ... And, what policies would allow Caribbean entrepreneurs to play this role? ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  3. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Explore Backyard Gardening Practices and Soil Lead Concentrations in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri; Cardona, Dalila; Davis, Jeremy; Gramling, Benjamin; Hamilton, Chelsea; Hoffmann, Ray; Ruis, Sabrina; Soldat, Doug; Ventura, Steve; Yan, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is a serious health threat for children. Soil is an important exposure pathway, primarily through ingestion and inhalation. Urban agriculture is increasing. Potential environmental health risks associated with residential gardening may not be well known to community residents. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was implemented to explore the relationship between urban residential vegetable gardening and lead exposure in children. The primary objectives were to characterize local backyard vegetable gardening practices, measure residential and commercial soil lead concentrations and spatial distributions, and identify priorities for individual and collective action. Participants were recruited in two stages. In phase 1, adult gardeners participated in structured interviews. In phase 2, a multistage representative sampling approach was implemented to recruit adult gardeners for interviews and soil testing. Twenty adults participated in gardening practice interviews. Adults perceive many benefits from backyard gardening and initially expressed few concerns about lead exposure risk. Results indicate that children are actively involved in backyard gardening. Total soil lead concentrations from 17 residential properties ranged from 7 to 3,234 mg kg-1(median, 187; mean, 432). Commercial soils had lead concentrations that ranged from 6 to 13 mg kg(-1) (median, 6.5; mean, 7.6). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney comparisons indicated a significant difference in lead concentration between commercial soil and residential soil (p<0.0001). Advocacy for resources needed to eliminate dangerous levels of lead from the environment, especially in communities where divestment has occurred, is enhanced through CBPR. Increasing access to soil testing is an important action step.

  4. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  5. Denial of student visas leads to brain drain from university research

    CERN Multimedia

    Wertheimer, L K

    2002-01-01

    America's move to shut the gate on student visas after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers, has created a brain drain for universities that rely on top foreign students to help with scientific research. Professors, graduate school deans and officials from national science societies say hundreds of foreign students recruited to work on projects in such areas as physics, math and petroleum engineering they couldn't get visas this fall. Some gave up and went to other countries instead (2 pages).

  6. Forum on Emerging Infectious Diseases Highlights Leading-Edge Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists and professionals from multiple governmental agencies recently gathered at NCI at Frederick for a forum on newly emerging infectious diseases, threats to public health, and ongoing efforts to study high-risk pathogens. During the one-day event, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research’s Scientific Interaction Subcommittee, nine speakers from four agencies shared their research and their agencies’ endeavors to address current and future biological threats.

  7. Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

  8. Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields, as distal interdisciplinary research might be too risky and more likely to fail. On the other hand, these results may be interpreted as suggesting that scientific audiences are reluctant to cite heterodox papers that mix highly disparate bodies of knowledge—thus giving less credit to publications that are too groundbreaking or challenging. PMID:26266805

  9. 94-1 Research and Development Project lead laboratory support: Fiscal year 1997. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    On May 26, 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which expressed the board's concern about nuclear materials left in the manufacturing pipeline after the US halted its nuclear weapons production activities. The DNFSB emphasized the need for remediation of these materials. As part of Recommendation 94-1, the DNFSB defined research objectives as follows: that a research program be established to fill any gaps in the information base needed for choosing among the alternate processes to be used in safe conversion of various types of fissile materials to optimal forms for safe interim storage and the longer-term disposition. To achieve this objective a research and technology development program with two elements is needed: a technology-specific program that is focused on treating and storing materials safety, with concomitant development of storage criteria and surveillance requirements, centered around 3- and 8-year targets; and a core technology program to augment the knowledge base about general chemical and physical processing and storage behavior and to assure safe interim material storage until disposition policies are formulated. The paper reports the progress on the following: materials identification and surveillance; stabilization process development; surveillance and monitoring; core technologies; and project management

  10. Leading multi-professional teams in the children’s workforce: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice.Methods: A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating?Results: When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research.Conclusion: The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  11. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Leading research on next generation metal production technology; Jisedai kinzoku shigen seisan gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The energy saving environment-friendly technology for low- grade difficult-to-process ores was researched focusing attention on the hydro-metallurgical process of non-ferrous metals. This research aims at development of both effective leaching system of metals, and separation/crystallization system recognizing the property difference between metal ions in solution. The leaching system allows the inexpensive molecular level control of electron transfer, mass transfer of metal ions and stabilization of leached metal ions in a solid/liquid interface. The system thus allows selective leaching of metals from various resources such as difficult- to-leach sulfide minerals to prepare concentrated solutions. The separation system can obtain high-purity solutions including each metal ion by advanced separation/concentration technology from the solutions. The crystallization technology (including electrolysis) is developed for preparing target metal materials by molecular level control of nucleation, particle growth, thin film formation and bulky metal formation processes. Overall energy consumption is reduced to 1/3 of that of the pyro-metallurgical method, aiming at zero emission. 15 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. 94-1 Research and Development Project Lead laboratory support. Status report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, M. [comp.

    1996-05-01

    This is a quarterly progress report of the 94-1 Research and Development Lead Laboratory Support Technical Program Plan for the first quarter of FY 1996. The report provides details concerning descriptions, DOE-complex-wide material stabilization technology needs, scientific background and approach, progress, benefits to the DOE complex, and collaborations for selected subprojects. An executive summary and report on end-of-quarter spending is included.

  14. 94-1 Research and Development Project Lead laboratory support. Status report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, M.

    1996-05-01

    This is a quarterly progress report of the 94-1 Research and Development Lead Laboratory Support Technical Program Plan for the first quarter of FY 1996. The report provides details concerning descriptions, DOE-complex-wide material stabilization technology needs, scientific background and approach, progress, benefits to the DOE complex, and collaborations for selected subprojects. An executive summary and report on end-of-quarter spending is included

  15. A Unit-Problem Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by AVT-161 SACCON Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

    2011-01-01

    A research effort has been initiated to examine in more detail some of the challenging flow fields discovered from analysis of the SACCON configuration aerodynamics. This particular effort is oriented toward a diamond wing investigation specifically designed to isolate blunt leading-edge separation phenomena relevant to the SACCON investigations of the present workshop. The approach taken to design this new effort is reviewed along with the current status of the program.

  16. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie; Ma, Yuwei [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077 (China); Gan, Fuxing [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Ho, Yuh-Shan, E-mail: ysho@asia.edu.tw [Water Research Centre, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index (SCI) published by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was carried out to identify the global research related to lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007 and to improve the understanding of research trends in the same period. The results from this analysis indicate that there have been an increasing number of annual publications mainly during two periods: from 1992 to 1997 and from 2004 to 2007. United States produced 37% of all pertinent articles followed by India with 8.0% and Canada with 4.8%. Science of the Total Environment published the most articles followed by Journal American Water Works Association and Toxicology. Summary of the most frequently used keywords are also provided. 'Cadmium' was the most popular author keyword in the 17 years. Furthermore based on bibliometric results four research aspects were summarized in this paper and the historical research review was also presented.

  17. Leading research on artificial techniques controlling cellular function; Saibo zoshoku seigyo gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Advanced research and its applicability were surveyed to apply the advanced functional cells to industry. The basic target was set to develop, produce, control and utilize the functional cells, such as intelligent materials and self-regulation bioreactors. The regulation factors regarding apotosis, which is a process of cell suicide programmed within the cell itself of multicellular organisms, cell cycle and aging/ageless were investigated. Furthermore, the function of regulatory factors was investigated at the protein level. Injection of factors regulating cellular function and tissue engineering required for the regulation of cell proliferation were investigated. Tissue engineering is considered to be the intracellular regulation by gene transduction and the extracellular regulation by culture methods, such as coculture. Analysis methods for cell proliferation and function of living cells were investigated using the probes recognizing molecular structure. Novel biomaterials, artificial organ systems, cellular therapy and useful materials were investigated for utilizing the regulation techniques of cell proliferation. 425 refs., 85 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. HIV/AIDS and tourism in the Caribbean: an ecological systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research.

  19. Research Progress in the Modification of Quercetin Leading to Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Massi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone is widely distributed in plants, foods, and beverages. This polyphenol compound exhibits varied biological actions such as antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, gastroprotective, immune-modulator, and finds also application in the treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Besides, quercetin can prevent neurological disorders and exerts protection against mitochondrial damages. Various in vitro studies have assessed the anticancer effects of quercetin, although there are no conclusive data regarding its mode of action. However, low bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility as well as rapid body clearance, fast metabolism and enzymatic degradation hamper the use of quercetin as therapeutic agent, so intense research efforts have been focused on the modification of the quercetin scaffold to obtain analogs with potentially improved properties for clinical applications. This review gives an overview of the developments in the synthesis and anticancer-related activities of quercetin derivatives reported from 2012 to 2016.

  20. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving adult immunization equity: Where do the published research literature and existing resources lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Wendy; Butcher, Emily; Hall, Laura Lee; Puckrein, Gary; Rosof, Bernard

    2017-05-25

    Evidence suggests that disparities in adult immunization (AI) rates are growing. Providers need adequate patient resources and information about successful interventions to help them engage in effective practices to reduce AI disparities. The primary purposes of this paper were to review and summarize the evidence base regarding interventions to reduce AI disparities and to scan for relevant resources that could support providers in their AI efforts to specifically target disparities. First, building on a literature review conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify articles that either discussed interventions to reduce AI disparities or provided reasons and associations for disparities. We scanned the articles and conducted an internet search to identify tools and resources to support efforts to improve AI rates. We limited both searches to resources that addressed influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis B, Tdap, and/or herpes zoster vaccinations. We found that most articles characterized AI disparities, but several discussed strategies for reducing AI disparities, including practice-based changes, communication and health literacy approaches, and partnering with community-based organizations. The resources we identified were largely fact sheets and handouts for patients and journal articles for providers. Most resources pertain to influenza vaccination and Spanish was the most prevalent language after English. More evaluation is needed to assess the health literacy levels of the materials. We conclude that additional research is needed to identify effective ways to reduce AI disparities and more resources are needed to support providers in their efforts. We recommend identifying best practices of high performers, further reviewing the appropriateness and usefulness of available resources, and prioritizing which gaps should be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. “It’s all about the Money”: Crime in the Caribbean and Its Impact on Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ross

    2014-07-01

    -laundering trends, and highlights policies that could be reinforced to better curb these trends. Crime is a societal problem for which solutions are found within communities. This applies equally to the Caribbean and to Canada. It is in Canada’s best interest to accelerate efforts to aid the region, especially in the area of citizen security and reforms of the criminal justice system. Multi-lateral programs aimed at building regional capacities in governance and criminal justice systems are the areas in which Canada can play an important role. The creation of a Canada-Caribbean institute would go a long way in conducting scholarly graduate-level research in fields of security-sector reform.

  4. What's the state of energy studies research?: A content analysis of three leading journals from 1999 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, Anthony Louis; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Trott, Kirsten; Ramos, Catherine Regalado; Saleem, Saleena; Ong, Yanchun

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a content analysis conducted on 2502 papers written by 5318 authors published between 1999 and 2008 in three leading energy studies journals: Energy Policy, The Energy Journal, and The Electricity Journal. Our study finds that authors were most likely to be male, based in North America, possess a background in science or engineering, and affiliated with a university or research institute. Articles were likely to be written by authors working within disciplinary boundaries and using research methods from an economics/engineering background. The US was the most written about country among papers that adopted a country focus and electricity was the most frequently discussed energy source. Energy markets and public policy instruments were the most popular focus areas. According to these findings, we identify five thematic areas whose further investigation could enhance the energy studies field and increase the policy-relevance of contemporary research.

  5. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  6. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... held at the Caribbean Fishery Management Council Headquarters, located at 270 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera...

  7. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  8. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  9. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  10. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  11. Determinants of human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Wittet, Scott; Bartolini, Rosario M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Lewis-Bell, Karen; Lewis, Merle J; Penny, Mary E

    2008-08-19

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide promise as a key component of future cervical cancer prevention programs in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The successful introduction and acceptance of these vaccines will depend on a range of factors including awareness of cervical cancer as a problem, affordability of the vaccine, political will, competition with other vaccines, feasibility of vaccine delivery and acceptability of the vaccine among the range of groups who will influence uptake. While existing data about acceptability from Latin America and the Caribbean is scarce, it is clear that health policymakers, providers and the general public lack knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Furthermore, they would value more local epidemiologic data related to cervical cancer. Price is currently a major barrier to vaccine acceptability and a priority for advocacy. More research is required in Latin America and the Caribbean to determine what messages and strategies will work in these communities.

  12. Tangled roots: Kalenda and other neo-African dances in the circum-Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Gerstin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigates descriptions of Afro-Caribbean dances in early chronicles and historical material. Author focuses on choreography, as well as on musical instruments and their use. He pays special attention to descriptions of the Martinican kalenda dance. He discusses descriptions from the 18th c. of black Caribbean dance in French and other colonies, by priests and others, of the kalenda as a couple dance within a ring, and descriptions of other widespread early dances in the Caribbean, such as chica. Author notes that in these early descriptions the authors focus obsessively on eroticism, thus simplifying and exaggerating the dances as sexual, and ignoring their variety. Further, he analyses early chronicles on other widespread dances in the circum-Caribbean, such as stick-fighting dances, bamboula, djouba, and belair, comparing with present-day Caribbean dances, and on "challenge dancing" involving a dance soloist "challenged" by a lead drummer, found, for instance, in kalenda and rumba. In addition, the author focuses on the dances' musical accompaniment by drums, and the drum types and methods, specifically transverse drumming and drumming with sticks on the side of the drum, found today in kalenda, and other Caribbean styles. He points at the inaccuracy of some chronicles, mixing up dance names, and recurring superficiality and stereotypes. He nonetheless concludes from them that slaves from the Congo/Angola region probably played a crucial role in forming these early dance styles, and that their spread was connected with French colonialism and slavery and migrations from (once French colonies. He describes probable Congolese/Angolan influences, such as pelvic isolation, challenge dances, couple dancing within a circle, and transverse drumming, but indicates that these are over time combined with other African and other influences.

  13. Vestiges of the proto-Caribbean seaway: Origin of the San Souci Volcanic Group, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Urbani, Franco; Hastie, Alan R.; Pindell, James L.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Millar, Ian L.

    2014-06-01

    Outcrops of volcanic-hypabyssal rocks in Trinidad document the opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway during Jurassic-Cretaceous break-up of the Americas. The San Souci Group on the northern coast of Trinidad comprises the San Souci Volcanic Formation (SSVF) and passive margin sediments of the ~ 130-125 Ma Toco Formation. The Group was trapped at the leading edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during the Cretaceous-Palaeogene, colliding with the para-autochthonous margin of Trinidad during the Oligocene-Miocene. In-situ U-Pb ion probe dating of micro-zircons from a mafic volcanic breccia reveal the SSVF crystallised at 135.0 ± 7.3 Ma. The age of the SSVF is within error of the age of the Toco Formation. Assuming a conformable contact, geodynamic models indicate a likely origin for the SSVF on the passive margin close to the northern tip of South America. Immobile element and Nd-Hf radiogenic isotope signatures of the mafic rocks indicate the SSVF was formed by ≪10% partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source with no subduction or continental lithospheric mantle component. Felsic breccias within the SSVF are more enriched in incompatible elements, with isotope signatures that are less radiogenic than the mafic rocks of the SSVF. The felsic rocks may be derived from re-melting of mafic crust. Although geochemical comparisons are drawn here with proto-Caribbean igneous outcrops in Venezuela and elsewhere in the Caribbean more work is needed to elucidate the development of the proto-Caribbean seaway and its rifted margins. In particular, ion probe dating of micro-zircons may yield valuable insights into magmatism and metamorphism in the Caribbean, and in altered basaltic terranes more generally.

  14. From the past to the globalized future for Caribbean birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Extinctions of Caribbean animals were well underway during the period of Amerindian occupation and have continued since the arrival of Columbus. Despite high extinction rates, the Caribbean still retains high levels of terrestrial biodiversity and, for some taxa, exceptionally high levels of endemism relative to other parts of the world. The fate of the Caribbean’s...

  15. ‘Reparational’ Genetics: Genomic Data and the Case for Reparations in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on my population genomic research among several Caribbean communities, I consider how ongoing Caribbean reparations movements index genomic information. Specifically, I examine the intersection between genetic ancestry and calls for reparatory justice to gain insight into the ways that scientific data are utilized in social articulations of both racial and indigenous identity. I argue that when contextualized within complex historical and cultural frameworks, the application of genomic data complicates notions about biological continuity and belonging, yet is compatible with broader conceptualizations of how people imagine themselves and histories in relation to geographic origins.

  16. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity.

  17. A research-based study of foreign students' use of grammatical codes in five leading British learners' dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical codes are one of several ways of including grammar in learners' dictionaries. In our research we focussed on the usability and user-friendliness of learners' dictionaries as regards grammatical information. The results presented and discussed in this article are based on answers obtained by a questionnaire that tested the understanding of codes found in five leading British monolingual learners' dictionaries and the success of the explanations of the same codes provided in the front matter of each dictionary. The results are presented by dictionaries and by codes. The most important finding of this research is that the understanding of the code and thus its usefulness depends on the code itself rather than on the dictionary.

  18. Supporting Innovation in Latin America and the Caribbean : Successful Examples of Technology Transfer Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Lasagabaster, Esperanza; Reddy, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Limited innovation in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries impairs the region's potential to grow and improve its living standards. Ever since the seminal research of Solow (1957), economists have known that technological change, and not only factor accumulation, is critical to growth. Yet, productivity growth in the region is lagging. The region does not invest sufficiently in inn...

  19. The impact of a Caribbean home-visiting child development program on cognitive skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, W.; Rosemberg, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short-term impact evaluation of a home-visiting Early Child Development (ECD) program in the Caribbean aimed at vulnerable children from birth to three years. The analysis is based on a quasi-experimental research design including approximately four hundred children in

  20. Exploring Individual Factors Affecting Business Students' Willingness to Study Abroad: A Case Study from the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Arleen; Fernández-Morales, Leticia M.; Vega-Vilca, José C.; Córdova-Claudio, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite a low rate of student participation in study abroad programs in the Caribbean, there is insufficient research about the individual factors that help determine business students' willingness to study or to participate in internship programs abroad. This study aims to explore business students' attitudes toward study abroad. The positive…

  1. Towards an Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Vanacore, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean region (CR) has a documented history of large damaging earthquakes and tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of Jamaica in 1692, Virgin Islands in 1867, Puerto Rico in 1918, the Dominican Republic in 1946 and Haiti in 2010. There is clear evidence that tsunamis have been triggered by large earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor around the Caribbean Plate boundary. The CR is monitored jointly by national/regional/local seismic, geodetic and sea level networks. All monitoring institutions are participating in the UNESCO ICG/Caribe EWS, the purpose of this initiative is to minimize loss of life and destruction of property, and to mitigate against catastrophic economic impacts via promoting local research, real time (RT) earthquake, geodetic and sea level data sharing and improving warning capabilities and enhancing education and outreach strategies. Currently more than, 100 broad-band seismic, 65 sea levels and 50 GPS high rate stations are available in real or near real-time. These real-time streams are used by Local/Regional or Worldwide detection and warning institutions to provide earthquake source parameters in a timely manner. Currently, any Caribbean event detected to have a magnitude greater than 4.5 is evaluated, and sea level is measured, by the TWC for tsumanigenic potential. The regional cooperation is motivated both by research interests as well as geodetic, seismic and tsunami hazard monitoring and warning. It will allow the imaging of the tectonic structure of the Caribbean region to a high resolution which will consequently permit further understanding of the seismic source properties for moderate and large events and the application of this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the virtual network has been designed following the highest technical standards: BB sensors, 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Here we will discuss the state of the PR

  2. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on chemical reaction simulator technology; 1999 nendo kagaku hanno simulator gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although various chemical reactions are made use of at scenes of chemical industry for the acquisition of desired chemicals, the control of reaction process governing factors, such as temperature, pressure, catalysts, solutions, etc., is found to be carried out only on the empirical basis. At the present time, rational or optimum reaction designs are not to be prepared in a short period of time in the presence of the widespread shortage of knowledge about chemical reactions and of the shortage of understanding of chemical reactions at the micro level. Leading survey and research are conducted for the development of a 'chemical reaction simulator' technology to enable the acquisition of optimum reaction designing guidelines in a short period of time. Using the simulator, a chemical of his choice is inputted by a researcher engaged in the study of an real chemical reaction and then various techniques of computer science are mobilized for the preparation of a huge number of feasible reaction routes, and high-precision simulations are conducted for the feasible reaction routes. The results achieved this fiscal year are reported. The purpose of this research and its ripple effect on new product industry creation are stated. Then the positioning, mission, and concept of such a chemical reaction simulator are described. Finally, the result of research and survey of knowledge databases and the result of research and survey of computational chemistry are stated. (NEDO)

  3. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on chemical reaction simulator technology; 1999 nendo kagaku hanno simulator gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although various chemical reactions are made use of at scenes of chemical industry for the acquisition of desired chemicals, the control of reaction process governing factors, such as temperature, pressure, catalysts, solutions, etc., is found to be carried out only on the empirical basis. At the present time, rational or optimum reaction designs are not to be prepared in a short period of time in the presence of the widespread shortage of knowledge about chemical reactions and of the shortage of understanding of chemical reactions at the micro level. Leading survey and research are conducted for the development of a 'chemical reaction simulator' technology to enable the acquisition of optimum reaction designing guidelines in a short period of time. Using the simulator, a chemical of his choice is inputted by a researcher engaged in the study of an real chemical reaction and then various techniques of computer science are mobilized for the preparation of a huge number of feasible reaction routes, and high-precision simulations are conducted for the feasible reaction routes. The results achieved this fiscal year are reported. The purpose of this research and its ripple effect on new product industry creation are stated. Then the positioning, mission, and concept of such a chemical reaction simulator are described. Finally, the result of research and survey of knowledge databases and the result of research and survey of computational chemistry are stated. (NEDO)

  4. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  5. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  6. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A Collaborative Effort Between Caribbean States for Tsunami Numerical Modeling: Case Study CaribeWave15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor

    2018-04-01

    Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring

  8. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  9. Ascidians from Caribbean shallow water localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodbody, Ivan

    1984-01-01

    Between 1930 and 1973 PIETER WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK of the Zoölogisch Laboratorium of the State University of Utrecht made nine collecting trips to the Caribbean. While most collecting was undertaken in the territories of the Netherlands Antilles, visits were also made to several other West Indian

  10. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... “This is what IDRC is all about: Not only do we invest in solutions, but we make sure ... Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empoweri.

  11. Migration and rural development in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, J D

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between migration and agricultural development in the Caribbean is examined. The data, collected by survey, concern the islands of Nevis, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia. The results show that migration is not associated with agricultural innovation or the use of specific technical inputs and that it frequently has a negative impact on agricultural productivity and attitudes toward farming.

  12. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  13. Potential for naturally derived therapeutics: the Caribbean as a model - insights from the conference on therapeutics and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Simone; Collins-Fairclough, Aneisha; Stewart, Cheryl; Smith, Keriayn

    2014-10-01

    The 2nd Annual Conference of the Society for Scientific Advancement (SoSA) was convened to integrate three research areas towards the development of therapies that will help to reduce disease burden in the Caribbean. Held in Kingston, the capital city of Jamaica, on November 22, 2013, the meeting assembled experts in the areas of genomics, stem cell research and natural medicine. The speakers represented the University of the West Indies, Mona and St. Augustine campuses, the University of Technology, and faculty from the USA and Africa. Sponsorship of this meeting supports SoSA's goal of stimulating translational research in the Caribbean.

  14. Substance Abuse and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Arreola, Iliana Alexandra; Bastos, Francisco I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    The Caribbean and Central America represent a formidable challenge for researchers and policy makers in the HIV field, due to their pronounced heterogeneity in terms of social, economic, and cultural contexts and the different courses the HIV epidemic has followed in the region. Such contrasting contexts and epidemics can be exemplified by 2 countries that share the island of Hispaniola, the French Creole-speaking Haiti, and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic. Haiti has experienced the worst epidemics outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Following a protracted economic and social crisis, recently aggravated by a devastating earthquake, the local HIV epidemic could experience resurgence. The region, strategically located on the way between coca-producing countries and the profitable North American markets, has been a transshipment area for years. Notwithstanding, the impact of such routes on local drug scenes has been very heterogeneous and dynamic, depending on a combination of local mores, drug enforcement activities, and the broad social and political context. Injecting drug use remains rare in the region, but local drug scenes are dynamic under the influence of increasing mobility of people and goods to and from North and South America, growing tourism and commerce, and prostitution. The multiple impacts of the recent economic and social crisis, as well as the influence of drug-trafficking routes across the Caribbean and other Latin American countries require a sustained effort to track changes in the HIV risk environment to inform sound drug policies and initiatives to minimize drug-related harms in the region.

  15. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region Reformulando a violência política e efeitos na saúde mental: esboçando uma agenda de pesquisa e ação para a América Latina e região do Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.Em décadas recentes, o número de pessoas expostas a eventos traumáticos tem aumentado significativamente, bem como formas de violência como guerras e revoluções políticas, que subjugam populações civis em todo o mundo. Apesar da dispersão dos conflitos armados, guerrilhas e violência política na América Latina e Caribe, atenção insuficiente tem sido dada para avaliar o impacto psicológico a médio e longo prazo e o peso das doenças, mortes, e invalidez provocadas pela violência e guerra contra populações civis. Algumas perguntas centrais são levantadas, a partir de revisão da literatura: qual o impacto na saúde da população, a curto, médio e longo prazo, ao

  16. Reformulando a violência política e efeitos na saúde mental: esboçando uma agenda de pesquisa e ação para a América Latina e região do Caribe Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    2006-01-01

    given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.

  17. Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Himes; Vicky Colbert de Arboleda; Emilio Garcia Mendez

    1994-01-01

    The high primary school enrolment rates in Latin America and the Caribbean mask poor performance in terms of the quality, relevance and cost-effectiveness of formal schooling in the region. What happens to the millions of children who repeat school years, underperform in their first years of schooling and eventually drop out? The vast majority are working children of one sort or another, but their work is likely to lead nowhere in terms of expanded opportunities or eventually to a decent stan...

  18. Saharan dust - a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H Garrison

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI, Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs, trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago. Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable micro-organisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable micro-organisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 9-21. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  19. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Finck, P.; Pitcher, E.; Khalil, H.; Todosow, M.; Hill, R.; Van Tuyle, G.; Laidler, J.; Crawford, D.; Thomas, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  20. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.

  1. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  2. Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the rainy season and relationship to the equatorial Pacific and tropical Atlantic SST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Kirtman, Ben P. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The present study investigates the Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the early and late rainy seasons and its association with sea surface temperature (SST) and air-sea interaction based on observational estimates, the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) and Global Forecast System (GFS) simulations, and the CFS retrospective forecasts. Analysis of the observational estimates indicates that air-sea interaction is important over the Caribbean Sea, whereas the atmospheric forcing of SST dominates over the Gulf of Mexico. The CFS simulation captures the basic elements of this observed air-sea relationship. The GFS simulation produces spurious SST forcing of the atmosphere over the Gulf of Mexico largely due to prescribing SST. The CFS forecasts capture the air-sea relationship in the late rainy season (August-October), but cannot reproduce the SST forcing of atmosphere over the Caribbean Sea in the early rainy season (May-July). An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis indicates that the leading modes of percent anomalies of the rainy season precipitation have the largest loading in the southern Caribbean Sea in observations. The model simulations and forecasts skillfully reproduce the spatial pattern, but not the temporal evolution. The Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the early rainy season is mainly due to the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST anomalies in observations, is contributed by both the TNA and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) SST anomalies in the CFS simulation, and has an overly large impact from the EEP SST anomalies in the GFS simulation and the CFS forecasts. The observed Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the late rainy season has a leading impact from the EEP SST anomalies, with a secondary contribution from the TNA SST anomalies. In comparison, the model simulations and forecasts overestimate the impacts of the EEP SST anomalies due to an earlier development and longer duration of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the CFS

  3. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  4. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Cathleen; Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011).

  5. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  6. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  7. Research on the path of synergetic development between logistics industry and the leading industry in Fujian province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Qiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics industry is closely related to other industry, the synergetic development between logistics industry and leading industry is benefit for leading industry to reduce costs, improve efficiency and promote industrial upgrading. This book analyzes the association of logistics industry and leading industry on the basis of the input-output tables of Fujian and proposes advises to promote their synergetic development based on the calculation.

  8. Unusual “Knob-Like Chimney” Growth Forms on Acropora Species in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rivera-Sosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript provides new insights on an unusual morphological plasticity growth form on Acropora spp. in the Caribbean. This abnormal knob-shaped growth is thought to be a progression from the damselfish “chimneys” that are commonly seen in coral-algal farms. However, the diameters of the observed knobs tend to be much larger on Acropora palmata, where they range from 1.37 to 5.44 cm in diameter, and they tend to be slightly smaller on A. prolifera, where they range from 1.1 to 2.72 cm in diameter. These knob-like chimney growths can affect entire colonies. The knobs are mostly covered with live tissue, while some knobs compete with turf algae. We hypothesize that these growths may be linked to stress from multiple predation and environmental conditions. Local stressors could synergistically influence the regeneration of scarred tissue and skeleton that result from predatory lesions, possibly leading to the formation of the knobs. Therefore, we provide preliminary data from a shallow reef site in coastal Honduras located within the Mesoamerican region where we found the knobs. To the best of our knowledge, the conditions that drive the occurrence of these unusual “knob-like chimneys” on Acropora spp. have not been previously assessed. Thus, we propose a series of guidelines to research the coral morphological plasticity that may be linked to this knob-like chimney phenomenon.

  9. Photurgen: The open source software for the analysis and design of hybrid solar wind energy systems in the Caribbean region: A brief introduction to its development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Watson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES use multiple renewable resources such as hydro, solar and wind collaboratively to produce energy that can meet a defined load demand continuously. Their combination can lead to the improvement in the systems efficiency and overall reliability. However, the level of penetration of HRES in the Caribbean region is less than its expected potential. The constraints generated by their complexity and the costly access to useful energy planning tools is a limitation to their implementation. Therefore, in collaboration with the Alternative Energy Research Group, UWI Mona, we develop a free Linear Optimization software, Photurgen, for the design and analysis of hybrid solar-wind systems within the Caribbean region. Solar-wind hybrid systems are simulated based on historic climatological resources and instantaneous load consumption data, providing the user with graphics and advice for their optimal configuration. This paper introduces the first version of Photurgen and its associated development policies. This tool is one simple solution to be applied to increase the rate of autonomous and grid-tied households within the region, with Jamaica being its experimental location.

  10. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  11. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  12. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  13. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    traditional distribution methods. Customary ... New ways of tracking malaria allow for quick action before an outbreak ... time when governments in the region needed good research to be able ... for university students to complete their studies.

  14. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J.L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  15. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  16. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  17. Lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon : seeking the hidden source,venturing into participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In 2006, a Peruvian environmental agency reported the presence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in indigenous communities of the Corrientes river basin. This is a territory in the Peruvian Amazon where oil activity has been associated with serious environmental effects, with impact on an ongoing social conflict. This PhD project aimed to determine the lead sources, risk factors and pathways in children of these communities and to suggest control and prevention strategies. Gi...

  18. Presence of Foraminifera of Superfamily Komokioidea (Order Astrorhizida) in Colombian deep Caribbean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera-Martínez, Laura; Marchant, Margarita

    2017-10-20

    Research regarding deep-sea benthic foraminifera in the Colombian Caribbean requires further development given the complete lack of information related to the different groups that constitute associations and the ecological functions they fulfill. For this purpose, a taxonomic description of Superfamily Komokioidea was composed from macrofauna samples from between 1,215 m and 3,179 m depth, obtained during the research cruise ANH-COL 4 and COL 5 carried out in 2014. Results showed foraminifera belonging to the three families: Komokiidae, Baculellidae, and Normaninidae, inclu-ding five genera (Lana, Komokia, Ipoa, Normaninam, and Catena) and five species (Lana neglecta, Komokia multiramosa, Normanina conferta, Ipoa fragila, and Catena piriformis). This study presents knowledge regarding deep-sea Colombian Caribbean benthic foraminifera, which to date have not been recorded from this region. Their depth distribution when compared with other studies from the Atlantic and Pacific, allows the expansion of taxonomic inventories and the characterization of biodiversity within poorly explored regions.

  19. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Huitron, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  20. Structure and financing of nature management costs in Caribbean Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Debrot, A.O.; Rockmann, C.; Jak, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Nature Policy Plan Caribbean Netherlands identifies the need to “Evaluate the financial instruments available for nature conservation in the Caribbean Netherlands and make recommendations aimed at guaranteeing a sustainable financial future” as one of its strategic actions. Three preceding

  1. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan...

  2. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Prima facie , more demonstrative of a policy is to retain primacy in the region while engaging the interests and cooperation of Caribbean states. In...and diplomatic cooperation with Caribbean nations. The prima facie implications are therefore, without evidence to the contrary, that these

  3. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...

  4. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Initiative. 25.405 Section 25.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  5. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  6. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de León, R.; Vane, K.; Bertuol, P.; Chamberland, V.C.; Simal, F.; Imms, E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  7. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning for independence, our countries won the right to chart... those enduring achievements. It is also a chance to recognize men and women who trace their roots to the Caribbean. Through every chapter of our Nation's history, Caribbean Americans have made our country stronger...

  8. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  9. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  10. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  11. 'Walk with your head high': African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, children's mental well-being and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wagstaff, Chris; Randall, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    The findings presented in this article were unanticipated and came to light during a study which investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' views about preventive primary care services. This article reports findings which indicate that African and African-Caribbean fathers strive to enable and protect children's mental well-being and create social, cultural and symbolic forms of capital. It also seeks to identify implications for health and social care policy and practice in England. There is limited literature examining African and African-Caribbean fathers' health experiences in England. Consequently an exploratory research approach was required. This involved nine, in-depth, semi-structured qualitative group interviews undertaken with 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers. The data were analysed thematically using abductive reasoning, informed by Bourdieu's theoretical work. Fathers were striving to enable and protect children's mental well-being through providing authoritative, loving, affectionate fatherhood involving reasoning, good communication and promoting self-esteem. These practices were seen to be necessary if children were to prosper in a harsh social world characterised by structural hazards including racism, negative stereotypes and limited opportunities. The fathers reported their efforts to develop what Bourdieu has termed symbolic, cultural and social capital as means of promoting the mental well-being of their children and the children of others. The implications for theory, future research, public health policy and practice, in relation to the needs of African and African-Caribbean fathers and families, are also discussed, with specific focus on how to realise the potential of African and African-Caribbean fathers' positive contributions to family and community health.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  13. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  14. Research and development regarding the retaining mechanism of lead ions in industrial wastewaters using natural matter with remarkable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Iepure, G.

    2017-05-01

    The paper shows the studying of the retaining mechanism of lead ions in industrial wastewaters through static and dynamic ion exchange mechanisms. In the experimental determinations of the lead metallic ion retention, metallurgical industry wastewaters have been used on samples of volcanic zeolite tuff (from Barsana, Maramures), samples that show a high concentration of lead ions and an acidic pH. The results showed that both the static and the dynamic ion exchanges ended with good results and they were consistent with other studies conducted on clinoptilolite zeolite tuff. Knowing that the industrial sector is an important source of environment pollution and degradation and being aware of what a serious threat the heavy metal pollution is, due to their high toxicity and stability, the experiment may find applicability in different aspects, both in the Maramures mining basing as well as in the worldwide controlling and directing of the polluting processes.

  15. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  16. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  17. Social determinants of depression and suicidal behaviour in the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Brown

    2017-06-01

    of bias and few numbers of studies within relationship groups restricted the synthesis of Caribbean evidence on social inequalities of depression. Along with more research focusing on regional social inequalities, attempts at standardizing reporting guidelines for observational studies of inequality and studies examining depression is necessitated. This review offers as a benchmark to prioritize future research into the social determinants of depression frequency and outcomes in the Caribbean.

  18. 76 FR 30110 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic..., Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of the South Atlantic Region. The applicant has requested.... HHSN261200900012C) between the National Cancer Institute ( http://www.cancer.gov/ ) and the Coral Reef Research...

  19. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  20. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  1. Masculinities fathering and health: the experiences of African-Caribbean and white working class fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences, but the links between masculinities and the health of fathers has been a neglected focus for research in the UK. This paper presents some of the findings drawn from a parent study which investigated African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' experiences of fathering, health and social connectedness. Data are drawn from interviews with 13 men (6 African-Caribbean and 7 White working class) living in a city in the West Midlands area of the UK. In this paper, I analyse and discuss African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' stories about the meaning of health, the influences upon their health, and their health practices. It was found that for the African-Caribbean fathers specifically, anticipated or perceived racist prejudice, abuse or discrimination influenced their health experiences. However, the meaning of health for both ethnic groups of fathers was as functional capacity, that is health was an asset that allowed fathers to meet the obligations of paid work and fathering. These obligations were also associated with a restricted sense of personal agency for the men interviewed, and the associated constraints were linked to transgressive consumption of alcohol, food and tobacco. In addition, fathers were also involved in solitary ways of dealing with their vulnerability, vulnerability that was associated with fathers' health concerns, and other difficult life experiences. Fathers' solitary experiences of vulnerability were also mediated by hegemonic forms of masculinity. Nevertheless, the experience of fathering within the lifecourse influenced men's health experiences: reflexivity and challenges to both transgressive consumption and solitary experiences were linked to fathers' perceived obligations to children. The significance of gender, ethnicity and social class for theory and future research with working class fathers and boys

  2. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  3. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    CERN Document Server

    Plunkett, Jack W

    2012-01-01

    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  4. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  5. By Dynamite, Sabotage, Revolution, and the Pen: Violence in Caribbean Anarchist Fiction, 1890s-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwin R. Shaffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From the 1890s to the 1920s, anarchist groups and movements emerged in Puerto Rico and Cuba. They promoted the traditional anarchist agenda against governments, militarism, capitalism, and organized religion. While research on anarchists has often focused on their activities in strikes, uprisings, educational experiments, and other counter-cultural activities, this article illustrates how Caribbean-based anarchists used their fiction to promote the anarchist agenda. A central theme in much of the fiction (plays, poetry, novels, and short stories revolved around violence leveled against society especially by governments. Just as interesting is how this fiction described—even praised—anarchist violence against authority. Thus, even while Caribbean anarchists only rarely resorted to physical violence, anarchist fiction often condemned authoritarian violence while celebrating the violence of revolution, the strike, bombings, and assassination to promote the anarchist cause of universal freedom.

  6. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  7. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  8. Insights on the Understanding of the Circum-Caribbean Region from Potential Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, A.; Dyment, J.; Thebault, E.

    2017-12-01

    During decades, the nature, geometry and evolution of the Caribbean geological provinces and their boundaries have been topic of discussion and controversy. Great strike-slip faulting in the northern boundaries of the plate, and folding and thrusting structures related with Cretaceous magmatism have been used as indicators of the emplacement of the Caribbean plate between the Northamerican and Southamerican plates at least from the Late Cretaceous, which is the most accepted hypothesis. The exotic origin of the Caribbean plate has also been supported by presence of radiolarites, fauna, ages from rocks sampled from drilling and oceanic paleo-currents analyses. The high thickness of the sediments in most of the basins, the absence of drilling wells reaching the acoustic basement and the absence of identifiable patterns of magnetic anomalies constitute the limitations for the interpretation from potential field data. Potential field data allows tracking contrasts in the physical properties between two geological bodies if they are laterally exhibited. Hence its use is suitable to characterise the seafloor fabric but also to better delineate the boundaries between the geological provinces. In this research we are providing an interpretation from vertical gradients of gravity and reprocessed magnetic anomalies over the Caribbean region with the purpose of making a contribution to the understanding of this area. We are also using magnetic anomalies to determine the paleolatitude over those areas where seafloor spreading related anomalies are observed. Our results led us to propose a conceptual model of the origin of the Caribbean plate. Our model relates the Venezuelan basin with the Cretaceous `not-so-quite' magnetic isochrons; it proposes that the Colombian, Venezuelan and Grenada basins have oceanic crustal affinity and it reinterprets the Beata and Aves ridges as reactivated fracture zones - respectively - in which a magmatic event occurred during or after its

  9. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  10. 94-1 Research and Development Project Lead Laboratory Support. Status report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, M. [comp.

    1996-10-01

    This document reports status and technical progress for Los Alamos 94-1 Research and Development projects concerned with the management of plutonium and plutonium contaminated materials during the third quarter of FY96.

  11. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, Michael; Yirmyia, Raz; Noraberg, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressa...

  12. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  13. Knowing and doing: research leading to action in the conservation of forest genetic diversity of Patagonian temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Leonardo A; Marchelli, Paula; Chauchard, Luis; Peñalba, Marcelo Gonzalez

    2009-08-01

    Researchers dealing with conservation subjects usually do not put the results of their work into practice, even when the primary purpose of their research is the preservation of biodiversity. In the South American temperate forests we identified an area with the highest genetic diversity in Argentina of Nothofagus nervosa, one of the most relevant southern beech species. Based on the information of our scientific study and our recommendations, the authorities of Lanin National Park changed the protection status of this area to avoid logging. The new forestry management plans include consideration of "high genetic diversity" in decisions on where logging will be allowed. Results of our initial genetic study induced the analysis of biodiversity at the species and ecosystems levels, which yielded results similar to our genetic studies. A strong connection among researchers and managers from the onset of our study and the awareness of the former about the importance of the implementation of the research work were key to bridging the gap between conservation research and conservation practice.

  14. Service user involvement in research may lead to contrary rather than collaborative accounts: findings from a qualitative palliative care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Hubbard, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what data emerge when former carergivers (co-researchers) are trained to interview current care-givers about their experiences. Despite a trend of involving service users in conducting research interviews, there have been few examinations of how and whether a common service user identity has an impact on the data generated. Four co-researchers were recruited, trained and supported to conduct qualitative interviews with 11 current carers of people receiving palliative services. Conversation analysis was used to examine the conversational characteristics of the research interviews. Data were collected in 2010-2011. Conversation analysis identified that interactional difficulties were evident across the data. When co-researchers talked about their own experiences as carers, interviewees frequently changed the topic of conversation, thereby closing-down opportunities for further disclosure or elaboration from the interviewee about the original topic. Conversation analysis identifies how caregiving identities are co-constructed and points where there is agreement and disagreement in the co-construction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. US Military interventions in the Caribbean from 1898 to 1998 Lessons for Caribbean Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    live in fear of the destructive power which can accompany the Atlantic hurricane season. With sizes ranging from 35 acres (Young Islands in the...Grenadines) to 42, 803 square miles (Cuba), any Caribbean island can be completely devastated by a single hurricane , necessitating outside aid. The...Since the completion of this work the Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez hosted a two-day, 33

  16. 94-1 Research and development project lead laboratory support. Status report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, N. [comp.

    1997-03-01

    This document reports status and technical progress for Los Alamos 94-1 Research and Development projects. Updated schedule charts are shown in the appendix. This is the fourth status report published for Los Alamos National Laboratory 94-1 Research and Development Project Support. The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) funds these projects in order to support the storage or disposal of legacy plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials resulting from weapons production throughout the DOE complex. This document also serves as an end-for-year review of projects and positions the program for FY97.

  17. Intoxicant use in the prehistoric Caribbean with particular reference to spouted ceramic inhaling bowls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetta Kaye

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The New World is unusually rich in hallucinogenic plants (Schultes and Hofmann 1980: 22. Ethnological research has well documented the ritual use of these substances by the inhabitants of the South American tropical rainforests (Wassen 1965. While archaeological research has tended to concentrate on the great ancient American civilisations of the Incas, Aztecs and Maya, which also reveal ritual usage of mind altering substances (Furst and Coe 1977; Coe 1988: 222-235; Bruhns 1994: 73-74, 215-216, 391, no comparable study or research has been undertaken for the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Caribbean islands.

  18. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  19. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  20. The Story of Lead: A Context for Learning about Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Zemler, Esty; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-01-01

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) stands at the center of several EU projects and represents a contemporary view of the connection between science and society. The goal of RRI is to create a shared understanding of the appropriate behaviors of governments, business and NGOs which are central to building trust and confidence of the public…

  1. Pomp and Circumstance: University Presidents and the Role of Human Capital in Determining Who Leads U.S. Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in determining who becomes one. We exploit unique attributes of the higher education industry to examine if training and academic ability affect the placement of university presidents within the research hierarchy of U.S. institutions.…

  2. 94-1 Research and development project lead laboratory support. Status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, M.

    1996-09-01

    This document reports status and technical progress for Los Alamos National Laboratories 94-1 Research and Development projects. An introduction to the project structure and an executive summary are included. Projects described include Electrolytic Decontamination, Combustibles, Detox, Sand, Slag, and Crucible, Surveillance, and Core Technology

  3. Leading research and study report for fiscal 1998. Report on leading research and study on intelligent fiber; 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Inteligent fiber sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches were conducted with a view to organizing projects for developing intelligent fibers, equipped with environmental friendliness and amenity without being deprived of their original properties as structural and clothing materials, the ultimate goal of the effort being the creation of harbingers of next-generation fibers which would contribute to the advance of industries related to environments, medicine and welfare, and information. What were learned from fiscal 1998 researches are mentioned below. The strength that the general-purpose fibers currently in use exhibit is so small as to be but several percent of what is theoretically predicted for them. Demand will increase a great deal if the actual strength is doubled, for which new technologies have to be developed including those involving super-fiber texture control. For providing the fiber with such functions as environment-friendliness, amenity, etc., it is necessary to develop phasal structure control technologies with regard to fiber morphology, surface texture, etc. For success in practical application in the future of such super-fiber materials, each specimen needs to be manufactured in the order of kilogram by way of trial. Moreover, fiber evaluation techniques have to be developed in the three domains of software, hardware, and interface. (NEDO)

  4. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Željko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

  5. Twelve Years of Fogarty-Funded Bioethics Training in Latin America and the Caribbean: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W.; Macklin, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  6. Family and Friendship Networks and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Joseph A; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Williams, Monnica T; Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Harry Owen; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-03-01

    Although there is a large literature on the influence of social support on mental health there is limited research on social support and OCD. This is especially the case for African Americans and Black Caribbeans. This study examines the relationship between family and friendship networks and the prevalence of OCD. The analysis is based on the National Survey of American Life a nationally representative sample of African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Variables included frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions (conflict, criticisms) with family members. The results indicated that only negative interaction with family members was significantly associated with OCD prevalence. African Americans and Black Caribbeans with more frequent negative interactions with family members had a higher likelihood of having OCD. Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with family and friends was not protective of OCD. Overall the findings are consistent with previous work which finds that social support is an inconsistent protective factor of psychiatric disorders, but negative interactions with support network members is more consistently associated with mental health problems.

  7. Church-Based Social Support Among Caribbean Blacks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities. PMID:27942078

  8. Caribbean Heat Threatens Health, Well-being and the Future of Humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2015-07-01

    Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the context-dependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen.

  9. Leading research on super metal. 2. Aluminium materials; Super metal no sendo kenkyu. 2. Ogata sozai (aluminium kei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Aluminum materials were surveyed to improve aluminum materials drastically so as to play an important role as prospective materials in response to the changing social environment. Aluminum materials have become the following metal materials to iron materials due to their light weight, durability, and profitability. Based on their merits and demerits, it was made clear how the aluminum materials contribute to the future resource saving, energy saving, and global environmental protection. Review was made on the two research and development themes which contribute to the creation of super metals. Hence, the themes proposed are focused on the creation of new aluminum mill products with ultra fine grain structure using very low temperature processing and on the creation of super-formability aluminum alloy sheets by advanced texture control using processing which can enhance the shearing stress. Results of the research and development are expected to provide wide applicability for other metals, ceramics, and polymers. 433 refs., 315 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. 94-1 Research and development project lead laboratory support. Status report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, N.A. [comp.

    1997-08-01

    This status report is published for Los Alamos National Laboratory 94-1 Research and Development Project Support. The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management funds these projects in order to support the storage or disposal of legacy plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials that resulted from weapons production throughout the DOE complex. This report summarizes status and technical progress for Los Alamos 94-1 projects during the second quarter of fiscal year 1997.

  11. 94-1 Research and development project lead laboratory support. Status report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, N.A.

    1997-08-01

    This status report is published for Los Alamos National Laboratory 94-1 Research and Development Project Support. The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management funds these projects in order to support the storage or disposal of legacy plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials that resulted from weapons production throughout the DOE complex. This report summarizes status and technical progress for Los Alamos 94-1 projects during the second quarter of fiscal year 1997

  12. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  13. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on supercompiler technology; 1999 nendo supercompiler technology no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Survey and research are conducted into the global computing technology and the next-generation parallel computer for their compiler technology and programming environment-related technology, which is for the preparation of basic key technologies for the embodiment of high-performance computing for the next generation, and efforts are exerted to extract and define technological problems and to deliberate a research system to achieve the goal. This fiscal year's achievements are mentioned below. Two territories were provided to be respectively covered by a Parallel Compiler Working Group and a Global Computing Working Group whose activities centered about overseas surveys and short-term reception of researchers from abroad. The Parallel Compiler Working Group was engaged in (1) the technological survey of the latest parallel compiler technology and, in its effort to execute researches under the project, in (2) the materialization of the contents of technology research and development and in (3) the materialization of a technology research and development system. The Global Computing Working Group was engaged in (1) the technological survey of the latest high-performance global computing and in (2) the survey of fields to accept global computing application. (NEDO)

  14. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on supercompiler technology; 1999 nendo supercompiler technology no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Survey and research are conducted into the global computing technology and the next-generation parallel computer for their compiler technology and programming environment-related technology, which is for the preparation of basic key technologies for the embodiment of high-performance computing for the next generation, and efforts are exerted to extract and define technological problems and to deliberate a research system to achieve the goal. This fiscal year's achievements are mentioned below. Two territories were provided to be respectively covered by a Parallel Compiler Working Group and a Global Computing Working Group whose activities centered about overseas surveys and short-term reception of researchers from abroad. The Parallel Compiler Working Group was engaged in (1) the technological survey of the latest parallel compiler technology and, in its effort to execute researches under the project, in (2) the materialization of the contents of technology research and development and in (3) the materialization of a technology research and development system. The Global Computing Working Group was engaged in (1) the technological survey of the latest high-performance global computing and in (2) the survey of fields to accept global computing application. (NEDO)

  15. Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean: Resilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Mobilisation and Education in Contaminated Coastal Ecosystems ...... The global environmental change and Caribbean food. .... The word oikoumene means the historical production of a distinctive synthesis, with outcomes that ...

  16. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  17. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  18. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  19. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  20. 75 FR 47274 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Drive, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management... contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, in accordance with the Magnuson- Stevens...

  1. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  2. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  3. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  4. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  5. New immunotherapy approach leads to remission in patients with the most common type of childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the most common type of childhood cancer. B-ALL is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts. In a trial led by Center for Cancer Research investigators, around 70 to 90 percent of patients whose B-ALL has relapsed or developed resistance to chemotherapy entered remission after CAR T-cell therapy targeting CD19. Read more…

  6. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  8. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowska, Barbara, E-mail: barbara@immchem.am.wroc.pl [Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Dudka, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.dudka@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.bugla-ploskonska@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna, E-mail: aszyman@mp.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: wlodzimierz.doroszkiewicz@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Gancarz, Roman, E-mail: roman.gancarz@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Andrzejak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta, E-mail: jola@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  9. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  10. Fiscal 1999 leading research report. Research on 3-D cell tissue module technology; 1999 nendo sanjigen saibo soshiki module kogaku chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For forming cell tissues alternative to bio-tissues, this research targets the technology for forming bio-tissue modules by cultivating 3-D cell tissues from various kinds of cells. In fiscal 1999, research was made on various issues of element technologies necessary for forming module structure of bio-tissues, and study was also made on the application of 3-D cell tissue module engineering to industrial fields. Survey was made on element technologies and solutions supporting such engineering, and in addition, on progressive conditions of cell cultivation techniques, and concrete techniques for expressing cell functions. Research was made on a cell behavior under physicochemical stimulus environment to study the optimum environment for cell multiplication and function expression. Further research was made on state analysis of cells, in particular, fast precise measurement techniques of activation or malignant of cells and secretion of toxic substances by physical/optical analytical evaluation techniques such as photo-CT and spectroscopic analysis, and biochemical analysis techniques using bio-sensors. Study was also made on successful development and application cases of practical bio-artificial organs in western countries. (NEDO)

  11. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Yirmyia, Raz; Noraberg, Jens; Brene, Stefan; Hibbeln, Joe; Perini, Giulia; Kubera, Marta; Bob, Petr; Lerer, Bernard; Maj, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressant drugs, which mainly target serotonin, less than two thirds of depressed patients achieve remission. There is now evidence that inflammatory and neurodegenerative (I&ND) processes play an important role in depression and that enhanced neurodegeneration in depression may-at least partly-be caused by inflammatory processes. Multiple inflammatory-cytokines, oxygen radical damage, tryptophan catabolites-and neurodegenerative biomarkers have been established in patients with depression and these findings are corroborated by animal models of depression. A number of vulnerability factors may predispose towards depression by enhancing inflammatory reactions, e.g. lower peptidase activities (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, DPP IV), lower omega-3 polyunsaturated levels and an increased gut permeability (leaky gut). The cytokine hypothesis considers that external, e.g. psychosocial stressors, and internal stressors, e.g. organic inflammatory disorders or conditions, such as the postpartum period, may trigger depression via inflammatory processes. Most if not all antidepressants have specific anti-inflammatory effects, while restoration of decreased neurogenesis, which may be induced by inflammatory processes, may be related to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Future research to disentangle the complex etiology of depression calls for a powerful paradigm shift, i.e. by means of a high throughput-high quality screening, including functional genetics and genotyping microarrays; established and novel animal and ex vivo-in vitro models for depression, such as new transgenic mouse models and endophenotype-based animal models, specific cell lines, in vivo and ex vivo

  12. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  13. Leading research on supermetals. Part 1. Bulky material (iron system); Supermetal no sendo kenkyu. 1. Ogata sozai (tetsukei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For further improvement of iron system materials, supermetals with ultimate characteristics were researched. Since their strength and toughness have been improved with grain refinement by thermomechanical treatment, improvement of single-phase steel is nearly completed, and the study on ultra-fine multi-phase steel is indispensable. Bulky materials are also restrained from grain refinement because of the capability of existing processing facilities. Making a breakthrough in such restraint requires a challenge to high-speed rolling, repeated shear deformation and ultra-high strain rate process beyond conventional technologies. Further improvement of microstructure and dynamic characteristics requires other energies such as magnetism as well as mechanical energy. {gamma}-{alpha} phase transition important for structure control of steel materials is dependent on magnetism. The study on structure control and characteristics improvement under ferromagnetic field is essential in the future. Material improvement such as reduction of impurities and circulating elements, environmental measures, and mechanical alloying remain as issues to be studied. 224 refs., 176 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Accelerator-driven sub-critical research facility with low-enriched fuel in lead matrix: Neutron flux calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The H5B is a concept of an accelerator-driven sub-critical research facility (ADSRF being developed over the last couple of years at the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. Using well-known computer codes, the MCNPX and MCNP, this paper deals with the results of a tar get study and neutron flux calculations in the sub-critical core. The neutron source is generated by an interaction of a proton or deuteron beam with the target placed inside the sub-critical core. The results of the total neutron flux density escaping the target and calculations of neutron yields for different target materials are also given here. Neutrons escaping the target volume with the group spectra (first step are used to specify a neutron source for further numerical simulations of the neutron flux density in the sub-critical core (second step. The results of the calculations of the neutron effective multiplication factor keff and neutron generation time L for the ADSRF model have also been presented. Neutron spectra calculations for an ADSRF with an uranium tar get (highest values of the neutron yield for the selected sub-critical core cells for both beams have also been presented in this paper.

  15. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  16. [Advances in research of complementary and integrative medicine: a review of recent publications in some of the leading medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for effectiveness, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies, as reflected in publications in high impact factor medical journals during the years 2012-2014. The search detected 13 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and 14 meta-analyses, which collectively assessed results of 191 RCTs involving the participation of several thousand patients. Pain was the major focus of acupuncture research in both clinical and fMRI studies, which demonstrated that the effect of acupuncture is beyond the placebo effect. In addition, RCTs supported the use of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in moderate to severe depression. A promising trend was reported for the ameliorating effect of acupuncture in gout. Spinal manipulations may be helpful in cervical pain and yoga may be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain and for pain-related disability. Beneficial effects of adding hypnosis and massage therapy to the treatment of fibromyalgia patients were also documented. Tai-chi may reduce balance impairment in mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease and improve symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis. Products containing cranberry are associated with protective effects in some subgroups of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Chinese herbs may assist in glycemic control of diabetes patients and improve survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some of the complementary therapies were found to be cost-effective. Physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects of these treatments and of possible drug-herb interactions. Further larger scale trials are justified.

  17. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  18. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  19. Crustal and upper mantle investigations of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    The evolution of the Caribbean --- South America plate boundary has been a matter of vigorous debate for decades and many questions remain unresolved. In this work, and in the framework of the BOLIVAR project, we shed light on some aspects of the present state and the tectonic history of the margin by using different types of geophysical data sets and techniques. An analysis of controlled-source traveltime data collected along a boundary-normal profile at ˜65°W was used to build a 2D P-wave velocity model. The model shows that the Caribbean Large Igenous Province is present offshore eastern Venezuela and confirms the uniformity of the velocity structure along the Leeward Antilles volcanic belt. In contrast with neighboring profiles, at this longitude we see no change in velocity structure or crustal thickness across the San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. A 2D gravity modeling methodology that uses seismically derived initial density models was developed as part of this research. The application of this new method to four of the BOLIVAR boundary-normal profiles suggests that the uppermost mantle is denser under the South American continental crust and the island arc terranes than under the Caribbean oceanic crust. Crustal rocks of the island arc and extended island arc terranes of the Leeward Antilles have a relatively low density, given their P-wave velocity. This may be caused by low iron content, relative to average magmatic arc rocks. Finally, an analysis of teleseismic traveltimes with frequency-dependent kernels produced a 3D P-wave velocity perturbation model. The model shows the structure of the mantle lithosphere under the study area and clearly images the subduction of the Atlantic slab and associated partial removal of the lower lithosphere under northern South America. We also image the subduction of a section of the Caribbean plate under South America with an east-southeast direction. Both the Atlantic and Caribbean subducting slabs penetrate the

  20. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  1. Distribution of tortoises and freshwater turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Correa, Andres Camilo; Saboya Acosta, Liliana Patricia; Paez, Vivian; Vega, Karen; Renjifo, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris, Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, Department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded in the Canas River, Department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in the village of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, Department of Magdalena. Three of the four species included in this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.

  2. High risk of tsunami in the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Nancy R.; Hearne, Meghan; Mann, Paul

    The magnitude Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 claimed the lives of an estimated 300,000 people living in coastal areas of seven different countries around the Indian Ocean. This event raised the question of whether similar far-traveled tsunamis generated by plate boundary faulting could affect the estimated 150 million people living in coastal areas of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.Aside from the Pacific plate margin of North America, the North America-Caribbean plate boundary is the closest (˜2000 km) active plate boundary to coastal areas in the Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic seaboard. Researchers also have proposed that other possible tsunami-generating sources that could affect coastal areas of the United States include slumping of the shelf margin along the Virginia-North Carolina margin [Driscoll et al., 2000] and slumping of volcanic edifices in the Canary Islands [Ward and Day, 2001].

  3. Leading research in fiscal 1996. Research study on advanced measurement/analysis technology; 1996 nendo sendo kenkyu. Kodo keisoku bunseki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For development of production technologies suitable for environment, safety and advanced information-oriented society by improving the flexibility of production lines, some new measurement technologies were researched. Problem solution was attempted by combining the in-situ multi-dimensional measurement technology capable of easily obtaining various 3-D information with the non-contact photon measurement technology superior in operability and sensitivity under any environment conditions. This solution requires a compact radiation source with higher brightness and wider spectral range, and a high-sensitive detector. The technology concentrating photon onto minute regions, high-efficiency transmission, and control technology of photon wave front are also necessary. Development and international standardization of a common interface is unavoidable. In addition, its network is essential for advanced use of multimedia,. In the future, the comfortable life surrounded by advanced products and multimedia, comfortable social environment, safety and resource saving will be achieved by this technology. 94 refs., 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Female gender is a social determinant of diabetes in the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Sobers-Grannum

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM is estimated to affect 10-15% of the adult population in the Caribbean. Preventive efforts require population wide measures to address its social determinants. We undertook a systematic review to determine current knowledge about the social distribution of diabetes, its risk factors and major complications in the Caribbean. This paper describes our findings on the distribution by gender.We searched Medline, Embase and five databases through the Virtual Health Library, for Caribbean studies published between 2007 and 2013 that described the distribution by gender for: known risk factors for Type 2 DM, prevalence of DM, and DM control or complications. PRISMA guidance on reporting systematic reviews on health equity was followed. Only quantitative studies (n>50 were included; each was assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed, where appropriate, on studies with a low or medium risk of bias, using random effects models.We found 50 articles from 27 studies, yielding 118 relationships between gender and the outcomes. Women were more likely to have DM, obesity, be less physically active but less likely to smoke. In meta-analyses of good quality population-based studies odds ratios for women vs. men for DM, obesity and smoking were: 1.65 (95% CI 1.43, 1.91, 3.10 (2.43, 3.94, and 0.24 (0.17, 0.34. Three studies found men more likely to have better glycaemic control but only one achieved statistical significance.Female gender is a determinant of DM prevalence in the Caribbean. In the vast majority of world regions women are at a similar or lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men, even when obesity is higher in women. Caribbean female excess of diabetes may be due to a much greater excess of risk factors in women, especially obesity. These findings have major implications for preventive policies and research.

  5. Leading research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on microparticle control process technology; 1999 nendo micro ryushi seigyo process gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the functional upgrading of electronic equipment which will support the computerized society in the 21st century, a substance itself is required to exhibit novel functions or to behave better on a reduced amount. Dependence on the synthesis of new materials alone has its own limit, but a method of reducing the substances conventionally known for their safety into particles of the nanometer scale will be one of the solutions. Micro-science and micro-technology are in progress in Japan and abroad, which mainly deal with particles 10nm-100nm in size. To make better use of the functions of substances, there should be single nanoparticles 1nm-10nm in size. Such particles are easy to coagulate, however, and it is difficult to keep them in their nanometer-scale single state free of coagulation. If Japan succeeds in the development of 1nm-10nm size nanoparticle structurizing technology and manufacturing technology utilizing this technology, Japan will have a clear advantage over other countries in the world in the domain of nanoparticle engineering. The survey and research described in this report aim to review the trends of technologies for nanoparticle composition and functionalization and to clarify the course that Japan is to follow in the development of technologies concerned. (NEDO)

  6. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on 3-dimensional ion beam processing technology; 1999 nendo sanjigen ion kokan gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Application of ion beam processing to 2-dimensional shapes in the past has been limited to flat shapes or small areas. There is a 3-dimensional plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) technology for which high-density plasma is generated using plural metal ion sources and gas ion sources for the application of pulse voltages. Using this technology, ions are implanted into intricate shapes, large areas, and surfaces of 3-dimensional shapes, and surface reforming is accomplished through thin film formation. It is low in cost and high in productivity, and finds a great demand for use in the fabrication of members of large and complicated engines for automobiles, spacecraft, and aircraft, members of precision machines, and members of electric power facilities and chemical plants where high resistance to abrasion, corrosion, and heat are mandatory. Research and development for its practical application, however, has just started and, before its commercialization, technologies have to be completed involving surface treatment using gas plasma for ion implantation, thin film formation using metal ion plasma, and their hybrid. Similarly important is the technology of generating homogenous plasma. This new technology is expected to enhance economic efficiency, provide means to deal with environmental matters, and improve on energy efficiency. An outline of the proposition for the project is compiled in this report. (NEDO)

  7. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  8. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  9. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  10. Energy review 2004 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In an environment of energy uncertain caused by the constant increases in the prices of the oil and its derivates, it is very important the selection of public policies that promote the diversification of the energetic matrix, the efficient use of the energy and, if possible, the maximum usage of local resources, which in turn generate the development of productive chains, to supports the social and economic development of our countries. We are in the constant search of mechanism that members assure the strengthening of our member countries, in this respect and to give support to the decisions making, the 2004 Energy Report of Latin America and the Caribbean for second consecutive year, makes an analysis of the energy situation, regional and by country in the different areas of specialization of our Organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, renewable energy and environment, possessing the support of the statistical area and of energy information. We hope that this document helps to your institutions for the best understanding of the big challenges in the energy sector of our region, which undoubtedly will rebound in the development of our countries. (The author)

  11. Tracking the Caribbean sound: three current hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Bilby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Zouk: World Music in the West lndies. JOCELYNE GuiLBAULT (with GAGE AVERILL, ÉDOUARD BENOIT & GREGORY RABESS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xxv + 279 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 27.75 Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad. DONALD R. HlLL. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. xvi + 344 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Calypso & Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. GORDON ROHLEHR. Port of Spain: Gordon Rohlehr, 1990. x + 613 pp. (Paper US$ 40.00 In 1983, from my Hstening post in Cayenne, the southernmost extension of the French Caribbean, I reported that "popular musicians in the Lesser Antilles are in the process of breathing life into new musical varieties blending soka, cadence, and reggae" (Bilby 1985:211. Little did I know that what I was describing was the sudden emergence, at that very moment, of an entirely new music in French Guiana's fellow Départements d'Outre-Mer to the north, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Down in Cayenne, which has always had close ties to the French Antilles, there was a feeling in the air that some fresh and invigorating cultural trend was about to burst forth. Even in the Maroon villages of the French Guianese interior, where I relocated in early 1984, the excitement was palpable.

  12. Dog Food Consumption in the Caribbean: A Baseline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare.

  13. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  14. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  15. African and Afro-Caribbean men's experiences of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie

    It is well documented that prostate cancer presents a significant health problem for middle-aged and elderly men in the UK, with further evidence suggesting that the disease is more prevalent in men of African and Afro-Caribbean (AAC) ethnicity. There is also evidence that these men are diagnosed much later and that the disease is more aggressive than in Caucasian men. To explore AAC men's experiences of prostate cancer and their understanding of its associated risks. The purpose was to gain an insight from these men's perspectives and ascertain whether a more focused health promotion strategy, and specific UK-based research, was needed in this area. A purposive sample of seven AAC men was recruited from a hospital trust's patient list after gaining approval from a research ethics committee. In-depth face-to-face interviews were carried out and the transcripts analysed thematically. The four main themes that emerged were: disease-prompted awareness, checking up as a necessary evil, defining and constructing factors influencing prostate cancer screening uptake, and appraising perceived myths about prostate cancer through personal beliefs. Among this group of AAC men, socioeconomic status, such as education and professional background, were factors that influenced their level of awareness of prostate cancer and prompted their decisions to seek help. However, it is evident from these men's perspectives that a more specific health education strategy that promotes early detection and management, targeting AAC men, would help in demystifying prostate cancer and encourage them to seek help earlier. Further research studies and health education in prominent social outlets are recommended in increasing AAC men's awareness of prostate cancer and its associated risks.

  16. THE RESEARCH OF THE LEADING POSITION OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE IN THE FIELD OF MARKET RELATIONS IN THE SPHERE OF IT SERVICES CONSIDERING THE FREELANCE RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Galahova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research. IT enterprise activities and methods of staff quantity optimization under the terms of freelance resources attracting with the aim of taking leadership positions in the market for IT services. Methodology: during the research, the following scientific methods are used – the methods of analysis, synthesis, and comparative analysis (studying demand and supply of freelance-resource of small IT enterprises, the economic-statistical method (statistical analysis of empirical data, analysis of variation series of demand and supply distribution of freelance applications for a small IT enterprise. The purpose of scientific research: the purpose of the article is to provide theoretical justification for using freelance-resource within a small IT enterprise under the terms of freelance services demand and supply studying, which allows taking leading positions in the field of market relations in the sphere of IT services. The conclusion of the research: the calculation of the full-time employees’ optimal quantity of small IT-company is made, which is the most important task of determining the reasonable need for staff to ensure the company’s leading position in the field of market relations of IT services. The purpose of the paper is to the research the competitive advantages and a leading position of a small company in the dimension of global market relations in the field of services, which is determined the use of online freelanceresource by small IT enterprises. This approach belongs to the strategic management of expenditures of a small enterprise, which is the basis of the effective resources using a small enterprise and there is a prerequisite for establishing its leading position. The scientific achievements, which consider freelance-resource in the context of the export-oriented sphere of services as a new vector of the economic growth of Ukraine, are systematized; the author’s approach to the definition of the

  17. Combating women's over-representation among the poor in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B

    1994-01-01

    Ending women's overrepresentation among the poor in the Caribbean is not only a human right, but also a political and economic imperative. Caribbean women are central to agriculture, food production, marketing, and processing; moreover, they are the main providers of health, education, and other services. However, in both the Caribbean household and most wings of the Pan-African movement, women are infantalized and regarded as subordinate. If Pan-Africanism is to benefit from the talents and energies of women, it must make female oppression a major concern. The movement must take the lead in speaking out against harmful, degrading social practices such as female circumcision. Hopeful are two approaches to self-organization spearheaded by the Garvey wing of Pan-Africanism. Sistren, san education and theater collective in Jamaica that was initiated by female street cleaners in 1977, has shown working class women an alternative to oppression. Its socialist-feminist street theater, based on the concept that "the personal is political," is organized around personal testimonies that illustrate the link between private experience and social structures. Red Thread, organized in Guyana in 1985, is affiliated with the Working People's Alliance. In addition to supporting self-determination for women, Red Thread sides with the poor and powerless, is committed to multiracial policies, defends indigenous Amerindians evicted from their land by colonialists, and rejects the corruption and one-man leadership style of traditional political organizations. Poor women have been recruited in a nonpartisan manner through use of embroidery groups and income-generating projects.

  18. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [Spanish version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  19. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [English version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  20. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  1. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  2. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba,

  3. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...: Participants will present summary data and will discuss data needs and treatments. Although non-emergency... the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 35 data webinar for Caribbean Red Hind. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Caribbean...

  4. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  5. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  6. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  7. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  8. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

  9. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  10. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  11. Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    vigorously communicate results in simple and straightforward terms to foster more effective conservation and management.This and subsequent reports will focus on separate biogeographic regions in a stepwise fashion and combine all of the results for a global synthesis in the coming years. We began in the wide Caribbean region because the historical data are so extensive and to refine methods of analysis before moving on to other regions. This report documents quantitative trends for Caribbean reef corals, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on data from 90 reef locations over the past 43 tears. This is the first report to combine all these disparate kinds of data in a single place to explore how the different major components of coral reef ecosystems interact on a broadly regional oceanic scale.We obtained data from more than 35,000 ecological surveys carried out by 78 principal investigators (PIs) and some 200 colleagues working in 34 countries, states, and territories throughout the wide Caribbean region. We conducted two workshops in Panama and Brisbane, Australia to bring together people who provided the data to assist in data quality control, analysis, and synthesis. The first workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in the Republic of Panama 29 April to 5 May, 2012 included scientists from 18 countries and territories to verify and expand the database and to conduct exploratory analyses of status and trends. Preliminary results based on the Panama workshop were presented to the DC Marine Community and Smithsonian Institution Senate of Scientists in May 2012 and at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and annual ICRI meeting in Cairns, Australia in July 2012. The second workshop in Brisbane, Australia in December 2012 brought together eight coral reef scientists for more detailed data analysis and organization of results for this report and subsequent publications. Subsequent presentations to solicit comments while the report was

  12. Management Competencies and Tourism Graduates: Future Leaders of Caribbean Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acolla Lewis-Cameron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean is challenged to remain competitive in a dynamic global tourism arena. Tourism education plays a critical role in preparing individuals to effectively manage this industry in order to gain that competitive edge. The focus of this study is the determination of the essential management competencies of tourism graduates. The findings reveal that the focus of the tourism programme should be on producing graduates that are flexible, ethical and knowledgeable. The onus is on tourism educators to establish close collaboration among key stakeholders to ensure that there is understanding as to what is of critical importance in preparing future Caribbean leaders.

  13. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  14. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  16. Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C Mark; Morgan, Jessica A; Heron, Scott F; Smith, Tyler B; Liu, Gang; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Baca, Bart; Bartels, Erich; Bastidas, Carolina; Bouchon, Claude; Brandt, Marilyn; Bruckner, Andrew W; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Cameron, Andrew; Causey, Billy D; Chiappone, Mark; Christensen, Tyler R L; Crabbe, M James C; Day, Owen; de la Guardia, Elena; Díaz-Pulido, Guillermo; DiResta, Daniel; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L; Gilliam, David S; Ginsburg, Robert N; Gore, Shannon; Guzmán, Héctor M; Hendee, James C; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A; Husain, Ellen; Jeffrey, Christopher F G; Jones, Ross J; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Kaufman, Les S; Kline, David I; Kramer, Philip A; Lang, Judith C; Lirman, Diego; Mallela, Jennie; Manfrino, Carrie; Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Marks, Ken; Mihaly, Jennifer; Miller, W Jeff; Mueller, Erich M; Muller, Erinn M; Orozco Toro, Carlos A; Oxenford, Hazel A; Ponce-Taylor, Daniel; Quinn, Norman; Ritchie, Kim B; Rodríguez, Sebastián; Ramírez, Alberto Rodríguez; Romano, Sandra; Samhouri, Jameal F; Sánchez, Juan A; Schmahl, George P; Shank, Burton V; Skirving, William J; Steiner, Sascha C C; Villamizar, Estrella; Walsh, Sheila M; Walter, Cory; Weil, Ernesto; Williams, Ernest H; Roberson, Kimberly Woody; Yusuf, Yusri

    2010-11-15

    The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

  17. Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mark Eakin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

  18. Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C. Mark; Morgan, Jessica A.; Heron, Scott F.; Smith, Tyler B.; Liu, Gang; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Baca, Bart; Bartels, Erich; Bastidas, Carolina; Bouchon, Claude; Brandt, Marilyn; Bruckner, Andrew W.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Cameron, Andrew; Causey, Billy D.; Chiappone, Mark; Christensen, Tyler R. L.; Crabbe, M. James C; Day, Owen; de la Guardia, Elena; Díaz-Pulido, Guillermo; DiResta, Daniel; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L.; Gilliam, David S.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gore, Shannon; Guzmán, Héctor M.; Hendee, James C.; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A.; Husain, Ellen; Jeffrey, Christopher F. G.; Jones, Ross J.; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Kaufman, Les S.; Kline, David I.; Kramer, Philip A.; Lang, Judith C.; Lirman, Diego; Mallela, Jennie; Manfrino, Carrie; Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Marks, Ken; Mihaly, Jennifer; Miller, W. Jeff; Mueller, Erich M.; Muller, Erinn M.; Orozco Toro, Carlos A.; Oxenford, Hazel A.; Ponce-Taylor, Daniel; Quinn, Norman; Ritchie, Kim B.; Rodríguez, Sebastián; Ramírez, Alberto Rodríguez; Romano, Sandra; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Sánchez, Juan A.; Schmahl, George P.; Shank, Burton V.; Skirving, William J.; Steiner, Sascha C. C.; Villamizar, Estrella; Walsh, Sheila M.; Walter, Cory; Weil, Ernesto; Williams, Ernest H.; Roberson, Kimberly Woody; Yusuf, Yusri

    2010-01-01

    Background The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate. PMID:21125021

  19. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world.Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my.Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life

  20. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  1. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M., E-mail: sobolevs@inr.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ilic, R. D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia)

    2013-04-15

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts-in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  2. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Ilić, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10 3 to 10 4 times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts—in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  3. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  4. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  5. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-09-21

    The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  6. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity of Malaysian publications in leading toxicology journals during a 10-year period (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sh; Al-Jabi, Sw; Sweileh, Wm; Awang, R

    2014-12-01

    developing countries can lead to research opportunities in the field of toxicology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A.; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30–150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth. PMID:27959907

  8. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  9. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  10. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  11. Strengthening and Fostering Science and Technology Programs in Latinamerica and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    An overview and discussion of the status of research and education in Latinamerica and the Caribbean is used for developing a proposal for a research foundation or agency in the region and establishing initiatives for capacity building and promoting and strengthening scientific programs and cooperation. Scientific research increasingly requires global multi- and inter-disciplinary approaches and infrastructure. Developing countries face challenges resulting from small academic communities, limited economic resources, and pressing social and political issues. Science and education are not major priorities as compared with more pressing issues related to poverty, diseases, conflicts, drugs and famine. However, solving major problems require improved educational and research programs. International research collaboration, north-south and south-south, has an immense potential, but basic infrastructure and internal organization at national and regional levels are required. For the analysis we concentrate on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and bilateral and multinational collaborations. Analysis also includes the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and the Yucatan Science and Technology System (SIIDETEY). FAPESP is a highly successful public foundation started more than 50 years ago, dedicated to foster scientific and technological development in the State of São Paulo and which has had a major impact in Brazil. SIIDETEY is a more recent effort of the Yucatan Government, also dedicated to support research and technology innovation within the state. We then move to discussion on perspectives for future development and capacity building in regional and international contexts, including international collaboration programs. We propose to establish a Science Foundation for the Latinamerica and Caribbean and develop an agenda for strengthening scientific programs in the region.

  12. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) in partnership with the Fisheries Leadership and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management of Data Poor Stocks.'' The intent of this workshop is to discuss tools that the region may find...

  13. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  14. Caribbean dry forest networking: an opportunity for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Banda-Rodriguez; J. Weintritt; R.T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is the most threatened tropical forest in the world. Though its overall plant species diversity is lower than in neighboring biomes such as rain forest, species endemism can be high, and its conservation has often been neglected. Caribbean dry forests face diverse threats including tourism, agriculture, and climate change. The Latin...

  15. Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean: Resilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... The Caribbean Sea is the second largest sea in the world, including more than 30 insular and continental countries with an approximate population of 35 million. In addition to its highly fractionalized territory, it is characterized by a great linguistic and cultural diversity, a phenomenon enhanced by ...

  16. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  17. Citizen science regarding invasive lionfish in Dutch Caribbean MPAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo-Cárdenas, Eira C.; Tobi, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers and barriers to participation in citizen science initiatives for conservation is important if long-term involvement from volunteers is expected. This study investigates the motivations of individuals from five marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Dutch Caribbean to (not)

  18. Disaster-induced displacement in the Caribbean and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Hamza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available People in Small Island Developing States are particularly vulnerable to displacement by disaster. Governments in the Caribbean and the Pacific need urgently to do more risk management and planning, rather than focusing almost exclusively on response and relocation.

  19. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  20. Contemporary Irish identity on the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Ryzewski, Krysta; Cherry, John F

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the island of Montserrat has been noticeably repositioning itself within the Caribbean as a place with a unique Irish heritage. Using the tag-line ‘the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean’, there has been an explicit attempt to evoke images of a verdant, green island with a long Irish...

  1. The social relations of bereavement in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ronald; Sutherland, Patsy

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the various types of behaviors associated with grief and bereavement, and to examine the relationships, consequences, and outcomes of bereavement practices among the various religious and ethnic groups in the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados. The rituals associated with death and grief differs across cultures and is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and traditions. How these rituals are played out depend on the culture of origin and level of acculturation of the various groups into mainstream society. In the Caribbean region, expressions of grief represent religious and cultural traditions that may have a significant impact on social relations, particularly in multi-ethnic and multicultural societies. In the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados, mourning follows the patterns of traditional religious practices which have remained consistent over time. While families and friends may offer social support before and after burial or cremation, the social aspects of bereavement may also have implications for inter-group relations. Insights into bereavement practices and what it holds for ethnic and religious groups in contemporary Caribbean are presented.

  2. The Turbellarian Hofstenia miamia in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrêa, Diva Diniz

    1963-01-01

    Some years ago I described Hofstenia miamia from Virginia Key, in the Miami area (CORREA 1960, p. 211 ff.). The species was based on a single specimen found among algae in the intertidal zone. When a grant from the Government of the Netherlands gave me the chance to work at the Caribbean Marine

  3. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants,

  4. 78 FR 43860 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ....m.--at the Holiday Inn Ponce & Tropical Casino, 3315 Ponce By Pass, Ponce, Puerto Rico. In the U.S. Virgin Islands: August 6, 2013--7 p.m.--10 p.m.--Windward Passage Hotel, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 270 Mu...

  5. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Among the attendees were the Honourable Julian Robinson, Jamaica's Minister of State for the Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining and Celia Champagnie, Trade Commissioner ... IDRC project: Harnessing Open Data to Achieve Development Results in Latin America and the Caribbean ...

  6. Origins and genetic legacies of the Caribbean Taino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Sikora, Martin; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    The Caribbean was one of the last parts of the Americas to be settled by humans, but how and when the islands were first occupied remains a matter of debate. Ancient DNA can help answering these questions, but the work has been hampered by poor DNA preservation. We report the genome sequence of a...

  7. Premiere of "Forward Home:" The economic power of Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... The documentary "Forward Home," produced as part of IDRC'sOpportunities in CARICOM Migration : Brain Circulation, Diasporic Tourism, and Investment project, reveals the economic power of the Caribbean's overseas communities. The 30-minute film showcases the experiences of peoples who ...

  8. Intertidal and shallow water Cirripedia of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southward, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some 22 taxa of barnacles, including 19 Balanomorpha, are recorded from a large number of Caribbean localities, ranging from S. Florida to Trinidad, and from the Panama Canal Zone to Barbados. Balanus reticulatus Utinomi is recorded for the first time from the region and its morphology compared with

  9. The Caribbean Netherlands, five years after the transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Rob Bijl .

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland On 10 October 2010 the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, under the flag of the Caribbean Netherlands, acquired the status of new Dutch public bodies, as part of the Netherlands. This transition marked the end of the Netherlands Antilles as

  10. 75 FR 32081 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... During National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we pay tribute to the diverse cultures and... community, many who continue to mourn the loss of loved ones as they help rebuild their homeland. These... fabric of our culture, and we are proud they are part of the American family. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  11. Productivity in services in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias Ortiz, E.; Crespi, G.A.; Rasteletti, A.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on the service sector. It shows that the low levels of productivity observed in the region are not only a consequence of low productivity at the firm level, but also of misallocation of workers across firms. These

  12. 77 FR 5775 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XA981 Caribbean... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The... --Bulletin/Newsletter --Social Network Pages --Streaming of Council Meetings --Other Business The meeting is...

  13. Breastfeeding and food pattern in overweight children in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaux, K.; Schwiebbe, L.; Renders, C.M.; Doak, C.M.; Visser, R.; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As in most countries around the globe, overweight and obesity are a major threat to public health on the Caribbean island of Aruba. Increasing evidence confirms that breastfeeding protects against overweight and obesity. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the

  14. Regional variation in Caribbean dry forest tree species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Franklin; Julie Ripplinger; Ethan H. Freid; Humfredo Marcano-Vega; David W. Steadman

    2015-01-01

    How does tree species composition vary in relation to geographical and environmental gradients in a globally rare tropical/subtropical broadleaf dry forest community in the Caribbean? We analyzed data from 153 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), along with 42 plots that we sampled in the Bahamian Archipelago (...

  15. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  16. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  17. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  18. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  19. The effects of elevated seawater temperatures on Caribbean gorgonian corals and their algal symbionts, Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar L Goulet

    Full Text Available Global climate change not only leads to elevated seawater temperatures but also to episodic anomalously high or low temperatures lasting for several hours to days. Scleractinian corals are detrimentally affected by thermal fluctuations, which often lead to an uncoupling of their mutualism with Symbiodinium spp. (coral bleaching and potentially coral death. Consequently, on many Caribbean reefs scleractinian coral cover has plummeted. Conversely, gorgonian corals persist, with their abundance even increasing. How gorgonians react to thermal anomalies has been investigated utilizing limited parameters of either the gorgonian, Symbiodinium or the combined symbiosis (holobiont. We employed a holistic approach to examine the effect of an experimental five-day elevated temperature episode on parameters of the host, symbiont, and the holobiont in Eunicea tourneforti, E. flexuosa and Pseudoplexaura porosa. These gorgonian corals reacted and coped with 32°C seawater temperatures. Neither Symbiodinium genotypes nor densities differed between the ambient 29.5°C and 32°C. Chlorophyll a and c2 per Symbiodinium cell, however, were lower at 32°C leading to a reduction in chlorophyll content in the branches and an associated reduction in estimated absorbance and increase in the chlorophyll a specific absorption coefficient. The adjustments in the photochemical parameters led to changes in photochemical efficiencies, although these too showed that the gorgonians were coping. For example, the maximum excitation pressure, Qm, was significantly lower at 32°C than at 29.5°C. In addition, although per dry weight the amount of protein and lipids were lower at 32°C, the overall energy content in the tissues did not differ between the temperatures. Antioxidant activity either remained the same or increased following exposure to 32°C further reiterating a response that dealt with the stressor. Taken together, the capability of Caribbean gorgonian corals to modify

  20. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  1. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  2. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices. © 2013

  3. The politics of representing the African diaspora in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Roots of Jamaican Culture. MERVYN C. ALLEYNE. London: Pluto Press, 1988. xii + 186 pp. (Paper US$ 15.95 Guinea's Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture. MAUREEN WARNER-LEWIS. Foreword by Rex Nettleford. Dover MA: The Majority Press, 1991. xxii + 207 pp. (Paper US$ 9.95 A recent trend in anthropology is defined by the interest in the role of historical and political configurations in the constitution of local cultural practices. Unfortunately, with some notable individual exceptions, this is the same anthropology which has largely ignored the Caribbean and its "Islands of History."1 Of course, this says much, much more about the way in which anthropology constructs its subject than it says about the merits of the Caribbean case and the fundamental essence of these societies, born as they were in the unforgiving and defining moment of pervasive, persuasive, and pernicious European construction of "Otherness." As Trouillot (1992:22 writes, "Whereas anthropology prefers 'pre-contact' situations - or creates 'no-contact' situations - the Caribbean is nothing but contact." If the anthropological fiction of pristine societies, uninfluenced and uncontaminated by "outside" and more powerful structures and cultures cannot be supported for the Caribbean, then many anthropologists do one or both of the two anthropologically next best things: they take us on a journey that finds us exploding the "no-contact" myth over and over (I think it is called "strawpersonism", suddenly discovering political economy, history, and colonialism, and/or they end up constructing the "pristine" anyway by emphasizing those parts of a diaspora group's pre-Caribbean culture that are thought to remain as cultural "survivals."

  4. The Anatomy of a Successful Caribbean Substance Abuse Training Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SD Reid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the components of the Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems (CARIAD, a long-standing substance abuse training programme. It seeks to explain how certain strategies and pedagogic techniques may be contributing to its success. Methods: Authors deconstruct the core elements of CARIAD to demonstrate how the programme effectively meets the characteristics of a community of practice. The processes used to develop the learning community and the specific pedagogic strategies and techniques that foster collaborative knowledge construction and sharing are described. Results: Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems brings together a multi-disciplinary, multi-national group of individuals with interest in substance abuse. The programme provides a range of formal and informal learning activities which focus on sharing best practices and creating new sociocultural relevant knowledge to advance the domain of professional practice in substance abuse. The components of CARIAD promote interactivity, rapid bonding and a sense of identity. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems provides a unique platform for cultural sharing that gives participants an opportunity to reveal insights into local and regional expressions of substance abuse challenges. Participants, however, recognize the absence of structured continuity and the diminution of what could be accomplished by graduates over time. Conclusion: The success of CARIAD as a regional learning platform may be related to its success as a Caribbean community of practice for substance abuse. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems would do well to sustain the community of practice, generating and maintaining ongoing participation and collaboration among graduates. This can potentially serve to create new strategies for advancing the region in the area of substance abuse.

  5. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  6. Report on a collection of Hydroida from the Caribbean region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean Hydroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1968-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present report deals with a collection of Hydroids from the Zoological Museum, Munich, German Federal Republic (Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München), collected during various expeditions in the Caribbean region. I have thought it advisable to include in this report

  7. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  8. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  9. [Toward a model of communications in public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Chapula, César A

    2005-12-01

    So far, there have been no bibliometric or scientometric studies that make it possible to examine, with quantitative, retrospective, and comprehensive criteria, the scientific output on public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Further, the weakness of the existing information systems makes it impossible to examine the relevance, quality, and impact of this scientific output, with a view to evaluating it in terms of societal needs and existing patterns of scientific communication. This article presents the results of a bibliographic analysis of the scientific output in the area of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to build a model of scientific communication in this field, to help researchers, managers, and others working in the area of public health to make decisions and choose actions to take. We conducted a literature review in order to identify the distribution of publications on public health that were produced by LAC researchers and published in each of the LAC countries from 1980 through 2002. The review used the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde Pública (LILACS-SP) (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Public Health) bibliographic database. That database is operated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), which is in São Paulo, Brazil. We processed the LILACS-SP data using two software packages, Microsoft Excel and Bibexcel, to obtain indicators of the scientific output, the type of document, the language, the number of authors for each publication, the thematic content, and the participating institutions. For the 1980-2002 period, there were 97,605 publications registered, from a total of 37 LAC countries. For the analysis presented in this article, we limited the sample to the 8 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that had at least 3,000 documents each registered in the LILACS-SP database over the 1980-2002 study

  10. Review and research analysis of computational target methods using BioRuby and in silico screening of herbal lead compounds against pancreatic cancer using R programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadeepa, R M; Ray, Ankita; Naik, Dhaval; Sanyal, Debendra Nath; Shah, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Plants and their natural components sophisticated with the cornerstone of traditional conventional medicinal system throughout the globe for many years and extend to furnish mankind with latest remedies. Natural Products act as lead molecules for the synthesis of various potent drugs. In the current research a study is conducted on herbal small molecule and their potential binding chemical affinity to the effect or molecules of major diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate correlation between Cyclin- Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and malignant progression of Pancreatic Cancer. Using Bioruby Gem's we were able to analyze better characteristics of the target protein. VegaZZ and NAMD were used to minimize the energy of the target protein. Therefore identification of effective, well- tolerated targets was analyzed. Further the target protein was subjected to docking with the anti cancer inhibitors which represents a rational chemo preventive strategy using AutoDock Vina. Later using the dock score top ranked phytochemicals were analyzed for Toxicity Analysis. Using the BioRuby gem we were able to measure the distance between the amino acid. Various R scripting libraries were used to hunt the best leads, as in this case the phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as Wedelolactones and Catechin were analyzed computationally. This study has presented the various effects of naturally occurring anti pancreatic cancer compounds Catechin, Wedelolactones that inhibits Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4. The study results reveal that compounds use less binding energy to CDK4 and inhibit its activity. Future investigation of other various wet lab studies such as cell line studies will confirm results of these two herbal chemical formulations potential ones for treating Pancreatic Cancer.

  11. Development of a Faith-Based Mental Health Literacy Program to Improve Treatment Engagement Among Caribbean Latinos in the Northeastern United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Cordero, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) worldwide. Although depression can be successfully treated, 75% of Americans do not receive care. Treatment rates among Latinos immigrants are significantly lower than non-immigrant Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. Known factors for mental health-care disparities such as poverty, insurance coverage, language barriers, and access to specialty mental health services in Latino neighborhoods do not fully explain the differences in treatment rates. Significant, but poorly understood factors influencing depression treatment among Latinos in the United States are lack of culturally congruent care, low mental health literacy, and stigma. Even though churches are a major source of health information, social and spiritual support for Latinos, the conceptualization of culturally congruent care rarely addresses religious beliefs. Therefore, one strategy to reduce disparities in depression treatment is to partner with churches to address faith-based stigma. Community-based participatory research is recognized as a methodology particularly well suited for creating successful culturally targeted interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of creating a faith-based mental health literacy intervention in the Caribbean Latino community using the principles of community-based participatory research. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  13. A comparison of eight country plans for the Invasive Indo-Pacific Lionfish in the Wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne E. Graham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change and marine invasive species have posed a major threat to significant ecological, aesthetic, economic and amenity value to the countries and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region. Today, the Caribbean Sea is plagued with the invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles. As the range and abundance of the lionfish throughout the Caribbean has grown, recognition of the grave threat it poses to the native marine ecosystems has prompted the development of lionfish management plans across the region. The efforts of eight countries in the region to manage lionfish are evaluated using the US Environmental Protection Agency Aquatic Invasive Species framework and the inclusion of climate change and/or changing conditions. The countries and overseas territories evaluated were Anguilla, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Grenada, St. Eustatius, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the US Virgin Islands. Although specific strategies differed amongst the islands depending upon needs, culture, and individual circumstances, most of the plans included aspects of education and outreach, control and monitoring protocols, and research and information management. Areas that were found to be notably weak to nonexistent included leadership, prevention, early detection and rapid response and restoration; This comparative analysis provides opportunities for knowledge sharing and intra- and inter-country cooperation, facilitating the transfer and development of interventions that contribute to the conservation of significant island biodiversity.

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rafael Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified.

  15. Implementation strategy for advanced practice nursing in primary health care in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburger, David; De Bortoli Cassiani, Silvia Helena; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta Kristina; Baumann, Andrea; Pulcini, Joyce; Martin-Misener, Ruth

    2017-06-08

    SYNOPSIS Advanced practice nursing (APN) is a term used to describe a variety of possible nursing roles operating at an advanced level of practice. Historically, APN roles haves evolved informally, out of the need to improve access to health care services for at-risk and disadvantaged populations and for those living in underserved rural and remote communities. To address health needs, especially ones related to primary health care, nurses acquired additional skills through practice experience, and over time they developed an expanded scope of practice. More recently, APN roles have been developed more formally through the establishment of graduate education programs to meet agreed-upon competencies and standards for practice. The introduction of APN roles is expected to advance primary health care throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, where few such roles exist. The purpose of the paper is to outline an implementation strategy to guide and support the introduction of primary health care APN roles in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy includes the adaptation of an existing framework, utilization of recent research evidence, and application of knowledge from experts on APN and primary health care. The strategy consists of nine steps. Each step includes a national perspective that focuses on direct country involvement in health workforce planning and development and on implementation. In addition, each step incorporates an international perspective on encouraging countries that have established APN programs and positions to collaborate in health workforce development with nations without advanced practice nursing.

  16. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  17. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.

  18. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  19. Contemporary white-band disease in Caribbean corals driven by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, C. J.; van Woesik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, two of the dominant reef-building corals in the Caribbean, Acropora palmata and Acropora cervicornis, have experienced unprecedented declines. That loss has been largely attributed to a syndrome commonly referred to as white-band disease. Climate change-driven increases in sea surface temperature (SST) have been linked to several coral diseases, yet, despite decades of research, the attribution of white-band disease to climate change remains unknown. Here we hindcasted the potential relationship between recent ocean warming and outbreaks of white-band disease on acroporid corals. We quantified eight SST metrics, including rates of change in SST and contemporary thermal anomalies, and compared them with records of white-band disease on A. palmata and A. cervicornis from 473 sites across the Caribbean, surveyed from 1997 to 2004. The results of our models suggest that decades-long climate-driven changes in SST, increases in thermal minima, and the breach of thermal maxima have all played significant roles in the spread of white-band disease. We conclude that white-band disease has been strongly coupled with thermal stresses associated with climate change, which has contributed to the regional decline of these once-dominant reef-building corals.

  20. Saharan dust - a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H Garrison

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI, Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs, trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago. Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable micro-organisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable micro-organisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 9-21. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Un grupo internacional de agencias gubernamentales y universidades de los Estados Unidos, las Islas Vírgenes (EUA, Trinidad y Tobago, la República de Cabo Verde y la República de Mali (África Oeste, está trabajando en conjunto para elucidar el papel que el polvo del Sahara puede estar jugando en el deterioro de los ecosistemas caribeños. El

  1. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  2. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  3. Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research focus We believe that research and innovation hold the keys to progress. ... through the skillful interaction of ideas, people, and funding for development ... Located in Montevideo, Uruguay, IDRC's regional office for Latin America ...

  4. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    LACEEP) enhances the skills of researchers, teachers and policymakers in the area of environmental economics through short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. This grant will provide partial support to the core activities of ...

  5. Energy policy in the Caribbean green economy context and the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) framework as a proposed tool for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kalim U.; Niles, Keron

    2016-01-01

    Market integration efforts of Caribbean small island developing states have become transposed on the growing paradigm shift towards green economy pathways. Central to this is the challenge of implementing Caribbean energy policy in a manner that is aligned with green economy ideals and face the realities of regional indebtedness and environmental impacts. Here we analyze the current state of the Caribbean energy policy development arena and propose that the currently weak policy and institutional design regime might potentially benefit from the application of the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) model especially within the operational context of the green economy. It allows us to identify current policy dilemmas, bottlenecks and discrepancies and to disentangle some of them while offering up a way forward with others. We do not so much offer distinct recommendations but focus more on delineating how to clear the pathway for sound policy intervention and outcomes. By doing so we set forth a challenging agenda for future policy analysis research that will advance Caribbean energy policy in more robust ways. - Highlights: • Un-coordinated Caricom energy policy can benefit from an institutional analysis and design approach. • Policy reform hinges on the patterns of interaction among key actors in the regional context. • Regional policy remains weak across efficiency, equity, accountability and adaptability parameters.

  6. Construyendo puentes entre investigación y políticas para la extensión de la protección social en salud en América Latina y el Caribe: una estrategia de cooperación conjunta Building bridges between research and policy to extend social protection in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: a strategy for cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bazzani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo de Canadá (IDRC han promovido una iniciativa conjunta para el diseño, ejecución y evaluación de estrategias de extensión de la protección social en salud en América Latina y el Caribe. Esta propuesta se basó en una revisión previa de la investigación sobre reformas del sector salud y en las recomendaciones del Taller La Reforma del Sector Salud en las Américas: Fortaleciendo los Vínculos entre Investigación y Políticas (Montreal, Canadá, 2001. En su primera fase la iniciativa impulsó el desarrollo de propuestas sobre extensión de la protección social en salud que fueron elaboradas en forma conjunta por investigadores y tomadores de decisión. En la segunda fase se apoyó la implementación de cinco de estas propuestas con el propósito de promover el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de protección social en salud y fomentar nuevos modelos de interacción entre actores. En este número de la revista se analizan los procesos de vinculación entre investigadores y tomadores de decisión en los cinco proyectos apoyados por esta iniciativa.The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO and International Development Research Centre (IDRC have promoted a joint initiative to design, implement, and evaluate innovative strategies for the Extension of Social Protection in Health (SPH in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, involving active partnership between researchers and research users. This initiative was based on a previous review of research on health sector reforms and the recommendations of the workshop on "Health Sector Reforms in the Americas: Strengthening the Links between Research and Policy" (Montreal, Canada, 2001. In its first phase, the initiative supported the development of proposals aiming to extend SPH, elaborated jointly by researchers and decision-makers. In the second phase, the implementation of five of

  7. The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at Crossroads: Towards a New Approach of Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel Nogueira

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL) has inaugurated a Working Papers Series with the publication of a study by Uziel Nogueira, the Institute's Economist. Entitled "The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at the Crossroads: Towards a New Approach to Integration", the study opens with an overview of the movement towards integration among the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. It continues with an analysis of the integration process during thi...

  8. Tangled roots: Kalenda and other neo-African dances in the circum-Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Gerstin

    2004-01-01

    Investigates descriptions of Afro-Caribbean dances in early chronicles and historical material. Author focuses on choreography, as well as on musical instruments and their use. He pays special attention to descriptions of the Martinican kalenda dance. He discusses descriptions from the 18th c. of black Caribbean dance in French and other colonies, by priests and others, of the kalenda as a couple dance within a ring, and descriptions of other widespread early dances in the Caribbean, such as ...

  9. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  10. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  11. Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick Shamin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done on adolescents aged 10 – 19 years old and published during the period 1980 – 2005 were included. Results Ninety-five relevant papers were located. Five papers were published in the 1980s, 47 in the 1990s, and from 2000–2005, 43 papers. Health risk behaviours and outcomes were divided into seven themes. Prevalence data obtained for these, included lifetime prevalence of substance use: cigarettes-24% and marijuana-17%; high risk sexual behaviour: initiation of sexual activity ≤ 10 years old-19% and those having more than six partners-19%; teenage pregnancy: teens account for 15–20% of all pregnancies and one-fifth of these teens were in their second pregnancy; Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs: population prevalence of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia in 18–21 year-olds was 26%; mental health: severe depression in the adolescent age group was 9%, and attempted suicide-12%; violence and juvenile delinquency: carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days-10% and almost always wanting to kill or injure someone-5%; eating disorders and obesity: overweight-11%, and obesity-7%. Many of the risk behaviours in adolescents were shown to be related to the adolescent's family of origin, home environment and parent-child relationships. Also, the protective effects of family and school connectedness as well as increased religiosity noted in studies from the United States were also applicable in the Caribbean. Conclusion There is a substantial body of literature on Caribbean adolescents documenting prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviours. Future research

  12. Tourism, Sexuality and Power in the Spanish Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivke Jaffe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available – Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, by Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009. – The Devil behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the Dominican Republic, by Steven Gregory. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. – Caribbean Pleasure Industry: Tourism, Sexuality and AIDS in the Dominican Republic, by Mark Padilla. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

  13. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision mak...

  14. Potential production of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Decapoda, Palinura) fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Ortiz, Ernesto Aarón

    2009-01-01

    Spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) constitutes the most important fishery of the Caribbean; it accounts for nearly 42,000 tonnes. Evidence suggests that high fishing mortality (F) may have been overexploiting most stocks. An assessment was carried out providing the basis for a sustainable exploitation of the nine most important producing countries. Values were assessed and each fishery was simulated; age structure was reconstructed linking biological, economic, and social variabl...

  15. Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Gustavo; Winters, Paul C.; Corral, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations have proceeded in addressing the issues of food insecurity and vulnerability in response to the 1996 Rome Declaration on World Food Security. The data suggests that while the food insecurity situation has improved in LAC over the past few years, many nations are worse off in terms of food insecurity than they were at the beginning of the 1990s. Nations that reduced food insecurity tend to be those who have effectively reduced ...

  16. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  17. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  18. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  19. Cookbooks and Caribbean cultural identity : an English-language hors d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Higman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 119 English-language cookbooks (1890-1997 published in or having to do with the Caribbean. This study of the history of cookbooks indicates what it means to be Caribbean or to identify with some smaller territory or grouping and how this meaning has changed in response to social and political developments. Concludes that cookbook-writers have not been successful in creating a single account of the Caribbean past or a single, unitary definition of Caribbean cuisine or culture.

  20. Status report on the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) /Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and supporting research and development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Yang, W. S.; Wade, D. C.; Nikiforova, A.; Hanania, P.; Ryu, H. J.; Kulesza, K. P.; Kim, S. J.; Halsey, W. G.; Smith, C. F.; Brown, N. W.; Greenspan, E.; de Caro, M.; Li, N.; Hosemann, P.; Zhang, J.; Yu, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division; LLNL; LANL; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; Ecole des Mines de Paris; Oregon State Univ.; Univ.of California at Berkley

    2008-06-23

    This report provides an update on development of a pre-conceptual design for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) plant concept and supporting research and development activities. SSTAR is a small, 20 MWe (45 MWt), natural circulation, fast reactor plant for international deployment concept incorporating proliferation resistance for deployment in non-fuel cycle states and developing nations, fissile self-sufficiency for efficient utilization of uranium resources, autonomous load following making it suitable for small or immature grid applications, and a high degree of passive safety further supporting deployment in developing nations. In FY 2006, improvements have been made at ANL to the pre-conceptual design of both the reactor system and the energy converter which incorporates a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle providing higher plant efficiency (44 %) and improved economic competitiveness. The supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle technology is also applicable to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors providing the same benefits. One key accomplishment has been the development of a control strategy for automatic control of the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle in principle enabling autonomous load following over the full power range between nominal and essentially zero power. Under autonomous load following operation, the reactor core power adjusts itself to equal the heat removal from the reactor system to the power converter through the large reactivity feedback of the fast spectrum core without the need for motion of control rods, while the automatic control of the power converter matches the heat removal from the reactor to the grid load. The report includes early calculations for an international benchmarking problem for a LBE-cooled, nitride-fueled fast reactor core organized by the IAEA as part of a Coordinated Research Project on Small Reactors without Onsite Refueling; the calculations use the same neutronics

  1. Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Module: Phase I Annual Report, October 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R. C.; Meyers, P. V.

    2004-02-01

    Work under this subcontract contributes to the overall manufacturing operation. During Phase I, average module efficiency on the line was improved from 7.1% to 7.9%, due primarily to increased photocurrent resulting from a decrease in CdS thickness. At the same time, production volume for commercial sale increased from 1.5 to 2.5 MW/yr. First Solar is committed to commercializing CdTe-based thin-film photovoltaics. This commercialization effort includes a major addition of floor space and equipment, as well as process improvements to achieve higher efficiency and greater durability. This report presents the results of Phase I of the subcontract entitled''Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules.'' The subcontract supports several important aspects needed to begin high-volume manufacturing, including further development of the semiconductor deposition reactor, advancement of accelerated life testing methods and understanding, and improvements to th e environmental, health, and safety programs. Progress in the development of the semiconductor deposition reactor was made in several areas. First, a new style of vapor transport deposition distributor with simpler operational behavior and the potential for improved cross-web uniformity was demonstrated. Second, an improved CdS feed system that will improve down-web uniformity was developed. Third, the core of a numerical model of fluid and heat flow within the distributor was developed, including flow in a 3-component gas system at high temperature and low pressure and particle sublimation.

  2. Engaging Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) clinical staff to lead practice improvement: the PICU Participatory Action Research Project (PICU-PAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable efforts, engaging staff to lead quality improvement activities in practice settings is a persistent challenge. At British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH), the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) undertook a new phase of quality improvement actions based on the Community of Practice (CoP) model with Participatory Action Research (PAR). This approach aims to mobilize the PICU ‘community’ as a whole with a focus on practice; namely, to create a ‘community of practice’ to support reflection, learning, and innovation in everyday work. Methodology An iterative two-stage PAR process using mixed methods has been developed among the PICU CoP to describe the environment (stage 1) and implement specific interventions (stage 2). Stage 1 is ethnographic description of the unit’s care practice. Surveys, interviews, focus groups, and direct observations describe the clinical staff’s experiences and perspectives around bedside care and quality endeavors in the PICU. Contrasts and comparisons across participants, time and activities help understanding the PICU culture and experience. Stage 2 is a succession of PAR spirals, using results from phase 1 to set up specific interventions aimed at building the staff’s capability to conduct QI projects while acquiring appropriate technical skills and leadership capacity (primary outcome). Team communication, information, and interaction will be enhanced through a knowledge exchange (KE) and a wireless network of iPADs. Relevance Lack of leadership at the staff level in order to improve daily practice is a recognized challenge that faces many hospitals. We believe that the PAR approach within a highly motivated CoP is a sound method to create the social dynamic and cultural context within which clinical teams can grow, reflect, innovate and feel proud to better serve patients. PMID:24401288

  3. Engaging pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) clinical staff to lead practice improvement: the PICU participatory action research project (PICU-PAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Jean-Paul; Skippen, Peter W; Mosavianpour, Mir Kaber; Pitfield, Alexander; Chakraborty, Bubli; Hunte, Garth; Lindstrom, Ronald; Kissoon, Niranjan; McKellin, William H

    2014-01-08

    Despite considerable efforts, engaging staff to lead quality improvement activities in practice settings is a persistent challenge. At British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH), the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) undertook a new phase of quality improvement actions based on the Community of Practice (CoP) model with Participatory Action Research (PAR). This approach aims to mobilize the PICU 'community' as a whole with a focus on practice; namely, to create a 'community of practice' to support reflection, learning, and innovation in everyday work. An iterative two-stage PAR process using mixed methods has been developed among the PICU CoP to describe the environment (stage 1) and implement specific interventions (stage 2). Stage 1 is ethnographic description of the unit's care practice. Surveys, interviews, focus groups, and direct observations describe the clinical staff's experiences and perspectives around bedside care and quality endeavors in the PICU. Contrasts and comparisons across participants, time and activities help understanding the PICU culture and experience. Stage 2 is a succession of PAR spirals, using results from phase 1 to set up specific interventions aimed at building the staff's capability to conduct QI projects while acquiring appropriate technical skills and leadership capacity (primary outcome). Team communication, information, and interaction will be enhanced through a knowledge exchange (KE) and a wireless network of iPADs. Lack of leadership at the staff level in order to improve daily practice is a recognized challenge that faces many hospitals. We believe that the PAR approach within a highly motivated CoP is a sound method to create the social dynamic and cultural context within which clinical teams can grow, reflect, innovate and feel proud to better serve patients.

  4. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  5. Exploring emotional intelligence in a Caribbean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-03-01

    To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, the University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI.

  6. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  7. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jaime Orlando

    1986-11-01

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  8. Regionally isolated populations of an imperiled Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Miller, Margaret W; Hellberg, Michael E

    2005-04-01

    The movements of larvae between marine populations are difficult to follow directly and have been the subject of much controversy, especially in the Caribbean. The debate centres on the degree to which populations are demographically open, such that depleted populations can be replenished by recruitment from distant healthy populations, or demographically closed and thus in need of local management. Given the depressed state of many tropical reef populations, the understanding of these movements now bears critically on the number, placement, and size of marine reserves. Most genetic analyses assume that dispersal patterns have been stable for thousands of generations, thus they commonly reflect past colonization histories more than ongoing dispersal. Recently developed multilocus genotyping approaches, however, have the demonstrated ability to detect both migration and population isolation over far shorter timescales. Previously, we developed five microsatellite markers and demonstrated them to be both Mendelian and coral-specific. Using these markers and Bayesian analyses, we show here that populations of the imperiled reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and the eastern Caribbean. Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. As a consequence of this regional isolation, populations in the western and eastern Caribbean should have the potential to adapt to local conditions and will require population-specific management strategies.

  9. Agro-climatology of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro Rizo, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    The agro-meteorology has for object the knowledge of the physical environment where the plants and the animals are developed, to make of him a better use, with the primordial purpose of optimizing the agricultural production. The climatology of the Caribbean Region, it is governed by the zonal processes of thermal and dynamic convection, together with the effect of the Inter-tropical Confluence Area (ITC) however, this extensive plain of the Colombian Caribbean, to be interrupted by the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta and framed by the Caribbean Sea and the Andean mountain ranges, it makes that big differences are presented in their climatic regime. In this study, climatic elements are analyzed in the region, such as the precipitation, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the radiation and the solar shine, the speed of the wind and the potential evapo-perspiration, besides the calculation of the hydraulic balances, those which as integrative of the agriculture-climatic aspects, they serve as base to make the climatic classifications, to know the growth periods and to calculate the potential water demands, fundamental parameters in the planning of the agricultural activities. With these results they stand out the diverse climates in the region, represented in climatic areas from arid until per-humid offer a wide range for the requirements of the different species that are used in the agricultural exploitations

  10. Interview series focuses on IDRC-funded research on climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Conversation is a series of interviews and videos of research partners working on climate change adaptation projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, funded through IDRC's Climate Change and Water program.

  11. Is product diversification the Ultimate Quid Pro Quo for Gender sensitive Poverty Alleviation? Adverse Social Externalities from Combined Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSEL-CAMBIER, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Documented deficiencies in traditional social transfer mechanisms have led to the emergence of alternative methods for reducing poverty. In many countries, microfinance institutions (MFIs have become popular instruments for redistributive propoor policies. However, they are also criticised for not being inclusive enough. This paper explores if product diversification has an effect on poverty outreach, in particular when combining micro- credit with savings and insurance. It applies cross-sectional analysis of 250 microfinance schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. By focusing on elements of the depth of poverty outreach, the research highlights a number of possible effects of combined microfinance (CMF. Product diversification can significantly contribute to increased social outreach («breadth» of poverty outreach. However, the findings suggest that, in the case of combining credit with savings, this is leading to a relatively lower participation of poor and female clients («depth» of poverty outreach. Exclusionary and discriminatory vulnerabilities and dynamics, linked to specific financial products, may apply double or even reinforce each other. Cumulative financial, cultural, geographical or communication barriers can make participation in multiple financial products more challenging. These findings have not been adequately tackled by academic literature, but are most relevant for MFI stakeholders and policy makers. If gender-sensitive or pro-poor income generation is at the heart of the mission of MFIs, corrective measures to these forms of adverse externalities should be considered.

  12. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  13. Herbivory versus corallivory: are parrotfish good or bad for Caribbean coral reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J.

    2009-09-01

    With coral cover in decline on many Caribbean reefs, any process of coral mortality is of potential concern. While sparisomid parrotfishes are major grazers of Caribbean reefs and help control algal blooms, the fact that they also undertake corallivory has prompted some to question the rationale for their conservation. Here the weight of evidence for beneficial effects of parrotfishes, in terms of reducing algal cover and facilitating demographic processes in corals, and the deleterious effects of parrotfishes in terms of causing coral mortality and chronic stress, are reviewed. While elevated parrotfish density will likely increase the predation rate upon juvenile corals, the net effect appears to be positive in enhancing coral recruitment through removal of macroalgal competitors. Parrotfish corallivory can cause modest partial colony mortality in the most intensively grazed species of Montastraea but the generation and healing of bite scars appear to be in near equilibrium, even when coral cover is low. Whole colony mortality in adult corals can lead to complete exclusion of some delicate, lagoonal species of Porites from forereef environments but is only reported for one reef species ( Porites astreoides), for one habitat (backreef), and with uncertain incidence (though likely zooxanthellae after bleaching events may be retarded. The balance of evidence to date finds strong support for the herbivory role of parrotfishes in facilitating coral recruitment, growth, and fecundity. In contrast, no net deleterious effects of corallivory have been reported for reef corals. Corallivory is unlikely to constrain overall coral cover but contraints upon dwindling populations of the Montastraea annularis species complex are feasible and the role of parrotfishes as a vector of coral disease requires evaluation. However, any assertion that conservation practices should guard against protecting corallivorous parrotfishes appears to be unwarranted at this stage.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in some oyster species of the Caribbean coast of Columbia. Zur Belastung einiger Muschelarten von der karibischen Kueste Kolumbiens mit Schwermetallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Pb) were measured in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and two species of tree oysters (Isognomon alatus and I. bicolor) at various points of the Caribbean coast of Columbia. Samples were taken at 4 different times of the year. Cd and Cu concentrations were highest in oysters; Pb concentrations did not differ between the species. The annual curve was similar for all heavy metals, with maximum concentrations in the dry season. In the area investigated, the WHO limiting values for daily Cd intake with oysters may be exceeded at times in most places, while the daily lead intake was found to be below the WHO limiting values. A comparison with other regions of the world shows that Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscs are high at the Caribbean coast.

  15. Learning motivation and giftedness in sociocultural diverse Latin America and the Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Blumen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review aims to integrate state-of-the-art learning motivation theoretical concepts within the context of gifted and talent development models for native children living in Latin America and the Caribbean sociocultural diverse societies. Motivation as a determinant factor and a promoter of gifted achievement is analyzed. Also the relation between motivation, outstanding performance and underachievement is discussed and tendencies found in social-emotional development of the gifted linked to motivation are explored. Final remarks are given on the significant role of motivation in the achievement of gifted and talented children living under diverse socio-cultural influences that bias their performance on standardized measures. Recommendations highlight the importance of further research, in order to reach a convergence of theoretical and practical elements needed to promote Latin American children's talent.

  16. teachers say reading and writing in a university degree in the colombian caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Cárdenas Cárdenas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literacy practices in higher education: what students andThis article is the result of a survey conducted in 10 degrees in a University Colombian Caribbean whose general purpose was to describe, interpret and understand the literacy practices that take place in these degrees. To achieve this article was taken into account one aspect that research in general was conceived as the first specific objective. This aspect refers to the conceptions which teachers and students of the degrees on the teaching and learning of reading and writing academic texts in college. The study usually takes as a theoretical concept of academic literacy. Data collected through classroom observations, also came from surveys and interviews with students and teachers of the degrees. The results of the investigation determined that the teaching and learning of reading and writing in the undergraduate classroom is very limited. The development of pedagogical and didactic classes lacks reading and writing practices. 

  17. Architecture, cobbled roads and chronology of the main sector of the site Las Mercedes-1, Central Caribbean of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Leiva, Ricardo; Chapdelaine, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Results from test-pit excavations, survey, and mapping at Las Mercedes-1, plus the center of a paramount chiefly polity in the Central Caribbean region of Costa Rica, are presented. Information on architecture, construction system, ceramic chronology, and funerary features, are reported. Radiocarbon dates have suggested that important construction works at the site's center were carried out circa A.D. 1000. Two cobble-paved, causeways, perpendicular to the river drainage system, were found to be linked to the main monumental compound as roads for formal access. Interest in the site has been revived and points the way to further researches at the site and its regional sphere. (author) [es

  18. A Case Study in Caribbean Climate Change: Impacts on Crop Suitability and Small Farmer Vulnerability in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, W. R.; Gamble, D. W.; Popke, J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines some of the implications of climate change for farming in the Caribbean, through an analysis of future crop suitability and a case study of climate variability and agricultural practices in St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica. To assess potential changes in Caribbean agriculture, we present results from a water budget model based on a 100-year regional climate projection of temperature and precipitation for the circum-Caribbean basin. We find that future water deficits in the region are climate type-dependent. Savanna climates experience the largest annual changes, while semi-arid environments are greatly impacted in the spring. When the impacts of temperature and precipitation are considered separately, we find that predicted future warming, and the associated increase in evapotranspiration, has a slightly larger climatological effect on crop water need than predicted decreases in precipitation. To illustrate how a changing climate regime may impact agricultural practices, we present results from recent fieldwork in St. Elizabeth Parish, one of the main farming regions on the island of Jamaica. Drawing on data from farmer interviews and a recently-installed weather mesonet, we highlight the ways in which local microclimates influence farmer livelihood strategies and community-level vulnerability. Initial results suggest that farmers are experiencing greater climate variability, and that communities with Savanna and semi-arid type climates may be more susceptible to drought than communities in wetter, higher-elevation microclimates. These changes have enhanced the importance of irrigation technology and water management strategies for successful farming. In this context, we argue, large, well-capitalized farmers may be better able to manage the uncertainties associated with climate change, leading to an uneven landscape of vulnerability across the region.

  19. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  20. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98; Memorias. 1er Congreso Iberolatinoamericano y del Caribe de Fisica Medica. Mexico 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E [ed.; Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Huitron, B G [ed.; Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  1. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98; Memorias. 1er Congreso Iberolatinoamericano y del Caribe de Fisica Medica. Mexico 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E. [ed.] [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Huitron, B.G. [ed.] [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  2. 3 CFR 8390 - Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., linguistic, ethnic, and social diversity. Generations of immigrants have preserved the traditions of their... enriched the diversity of our Nation. Millions of individuals in the United States have Caribbean roots... Caribbean nations. In a world of increasing communication and connectivity, this friendship has become even...

  3. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  4. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  5. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  6. Geolocator Data Reveal the Migration Route and Wintering Location of a Caribbean Martin (Progne dominicensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlut, N.G.; Klak, T.C.; Rakhimberdiev, E.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean Martins (Progne dominicensis)are common breeders on most Caribbean islands, where theyregularly roost and nest in urban areas from Februarythrough August. However, from September through January,the basic ecology of this species—its migration andwintering locations—are largely unknown. In

  7. Post Doctorate Award on Central America and the Caribbean at St ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... a 2-year post doctoral position on Central America and the Caribbean under the leadership of Canadian historian, Margaret MacMillan. ... Between 1965 and 2000, about 12% of the Caribbean labour force moved to ...

  8. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  9. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, pstudents' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.

  10. Sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marie Veisegaard

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women in the town of Christiansted, St. Croix, the Danish-Norwegian West Indies, were affected by discourses of race and gender during the period c. 1780–1820. To further the understanding of the conditions...... of the free Afro-Caribbean women in Christiansted, the article relates to the situation in other Caribbean colonies, especially the British West Indies, based on the assumption that it was the same discourses of race and gender that swept through all the Caribbean slave societies. In its approach, the article...... is inspired by concepts of race and gender in postcolonial studies. The investigation shows the prevalence in the Danish-Norwegian West Indies of discourses of Afro-Caribbean women as, on the one hand, unwomanly and physically strong and, on the other hand, promiscuous and of easy virtue. On this basis...

  11. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  12. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Leading a Classroom Discussion: Definition, Supportive Evidence, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Margaret; Sykes, Gary; Bell, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description and rationale for a performance assessment of a teaching practice--leading a classroom discussion (LCD)--included in the ETS® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. In this assessment, candidates interact with a small class of virtual students represented by avatars in a…

  14. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

  15. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  16. Women’s leadership in local government in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzann Lee Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Women and men are traditionally cast in different roles, with males being leaders in the workplace, home and government. In contrast, communities promote women as caregivers who support male leaders and shape future generations as mothers, mentors and teachers. In recognition of this societal view of women that often led to inequality and inequity, the UNDP listed Gender Equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the United Nations in autumn 2015, also included gender equality and empowering women as Goal 5. In its work in the Caribbean, the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED examined gender as it relates to micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME development in six Caribbean countries.  The findings of this study showed gender gaps for both male and female entrepreneurs in different areas of development.  Traditionally gendered roles for MSME sectors, access to financing and lack of adequate guidance or community support were some areas that affected men and women differently in the region.  The study outlines ways in which male and female leaders can address traditional gender roles by identifying priority areas for development, creating an enabling environment for start-ups and expansion, and fostering a policy and legislative base that facilitates ease of doing business.  The recommendations further describe the public–private partnerships needed to successfully meet gender gaps, and the importance of both elected officials and technocrats in inter alia community engagement and advocacy towards local economic development. The importance of gender equality among elected officials and technocrats, and the influence gender has on determining priority areas of focus within local government strategic plans for communities are also set out within this paper.

  17. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed...

  18. Tourism, globalization and the environment in the Mexican Caribbean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Córdoba y Ordóñez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The terms globalization and tourism tend to be regarded as synonyms in the Mexican Caribbean, an area which shifted from a virtually uninhabited borderline territory to a tourism center receiving over six million visitors peryear. Territorial occupation patterns derived from tourism -identified during field work through a physiognomic analysiswere used to investigate some of the implications of the complex relationship between tourism and development, the latter including not only economic but human factors, as well as with the natural and cultural environment characterized by both a great diversity and a great fragility.

  19. How to Avoid a Darkening Debt Storm in the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    Using the euro area and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union as case studies, this chapter argues that a comprehensive policy framework should comprise not only a rule for fiscal policy but also, and equally important, a broader set of strategies designed to improve competitiveness and economic...... of a fiscal and competitiveness compact. We use this framework to show how different policy institutions can retain different priorities in their own economies, and hence individual policies that are internally consistent, while also maintaining a degree of flexibility that allows them to deal with problems...

  20. Blackness and mestizaje: Afro-Caribbean music in Chetumal, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cunin, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Hierba Santa, Chan Santa Roots, Korto Circuito, Roots and Wisdom, Escuadrón 16, etc.: these are a few of the numerous reggae and ska groups from the state of Quintana Roo, in the south-eastern part of Mexico bordering Belize. While this region is traditionally associated with a dominant Maya culture or with the first mestizaje in Mexico, I will study Afro-Caribbean music in order to analyze, from a different perspective, socio-historical mechanisms of inclusion, transf...

  1. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion.

  2. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...... allowing ICs to become engines of integration lie for the most part outside the direct control of the judges, most notably, in other institutional, political, and societal actors, such as national judges, regional organs, legal and political elites, as well as academics. The article, hence, suggests...

  3. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  4. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Chris D.; Beddows, Patricia A.; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Li Hongxia; Van Lavieren, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. - Research highlights: → Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is contaminating groundwater resources that discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. → Passive sampling devices deployed in groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities in the Riviera Maya accumulated: pharmaceuticals and personal care products originating from domestic sewage. → PAHs originating from runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces; chlorophenoxy herbicides originating from pesticide applications to lawns and turf. → Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health in the region. - Contaminants accumulated in passive samplers deployed in flooded cave systems in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico indicate contamination by domestic sewage, runoff and applications of pesticides

  5. The association of academic tracking to depressive symptoms among adolescents in three Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students who are tracked into low performing schools or classrooms that limit their life chances may report increased depressive symptoms. Limited research has been conducted on academic tracking and its association with depressive symptoms among high school students in the Caribbean. This project examines levels of depressive symptoms among tenth grade students tracked within and between high schools in Jamaica, St. Vincent and St. Kitts and Nevis. Methods Students enrolled in grade ten of the 2006/2007 academic year in Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. In Jamaica and St. Vincent, academic tracking was operationalized using data provided by the local Ministries of Education. These Ministries ranked ordered schools according to students' performance on Caribbean school leaving examinations. In St. Kitts and Nevis tracking was operationalized by classroom assignments within schools whereby students were grouped into classrooms according to their levels of academic achievement. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between academic tracking and BDI-II depression scores. Results A wide cross-section of 4th form students in each nation was sampled (n = 1738; 278 from Jamaica, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52% females, 46.2% males and 1.8% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.4 yrs, sd = .9 yr. Roughly half (53% of the students reported some symptoms of depression with 19.2% reporting moderate and 10.7% reporting severe symptoms of depression. Students in Jamaica reported significantly higher depression scores than those in either St. Kitts and Nevis or St. Vincent (p Conclusions There appears to be an association between academic tracking and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  6. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  7. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.ca [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Beddows, Patricia A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Bouchot, Gerardo Gold [Departemento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Li Hongxia [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Van Lavieren, Hanneke [UN University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. - Research highlights: > Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is contaminating groundwater resources that discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. > Passive sampling devices deployed in groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities in the Riviera Maya accumulated: pharmaceuticals and personal care products originating from domestic sewage. > PAHs originating from runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces; chlorophenoxy herbicides originating from pesticide applications to lawns and turf. > Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health in the region. - Contaminants accumulated in passive samplers deployed in flooded cave systems in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico indicate contamination by domestic sewage, runoff and applications of

  8. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphisms, cognitive function and diabetes in Caribbean origin Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren E Smith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention.We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs m482 (rs2854117 and 3u386 (rs5128 were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n = 991, aged 45-74 living in the Boston metropolitan area.Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P = 0.009, Stroop color naming score (P = 0.014 and Stroop color-word score (P = 0.022 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P = 0.032 and total cholesterol (P = 0.028 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P = 0.004, total cholesterol (P = 0.003 and glucose (P = 0.016 compared to CC subjects.In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

  9. The Role and Image of Midwives in Caribbean Society from the Colonial Period to the Present: A Critical Analysis of the Discourse Relevant to Midwifery in Specific Hispanophone, Anglophone, and Francophone Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Valedon, Damarys T.

    2017-01-01

    The dominant discourse on midwifery has been characterized by myths that have been constructed and perpetuated through oral and written discourse. The purpose of this research is to engage in a critical analysis of that discourse, with special focus on Hispanophone, Anglophone, and Francophone contexts in the Caribbean from colonial times to the…

  10. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina A.; Chenery, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test...... this hypothesis, we measured lead concentrations in enamel samples from 26 individuals from the Newton Plantation cemetery in Barbados, which was in use from around 1660 to 1820, and compared the results with enamel 87Sr/86Sr measurements that had been previously obtained for the same population. Results show...... a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...

  11. Involving Lead Users in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Bilgram, Volker; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Research on the lead user method has been conducted for more than thirty years and has shown that the method is more likely to generate breakthrough innovation than traditional market research tools. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper shows a detailed view on the broad variety...... of research on lead user characteristics, lead user processes, lead user identification and application, and success factors. The main challenge of the lead user method as identified in literature is the resource issue regarding time, manpower, and costs. Also, internal acceptance and the processing...... of the method have been spotted in literature, as well as the intellectual property protection issue. From the starting point of the initial lead user method process introduced by Lüthje and Herstatt (2004), results are integrated into a revisited view on the lead user method process. In addition, concrete...

  12. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1981. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes research and development activities of the Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's Biomedical and Environmental Research program for the calendar year 1981. Individual reports describing the current status of projects have been entered individually into the data base.

  13. Publications | Page 76 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 751 - 760 of 6335 ... IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. Through books, articles, research ... Caribbean health : diversity in local food production to combat obesity (restricted access). Led by researchers from McGill ...

  14. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s 2012 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    waste heat recuperation/fuel efficiency, and electronic device/systems cooling. • The first discrete quaternary nanocrystal based on silver, lead...Fischer-Tropsch based conversion of natural gas to infrastructure-compatible liquid transportation fuels; (c) low-cost and high-performance nanostructured...on a new cathode with 100-nm cesium iodide coating that reduces HPM system size, weight, and power consumption; (2) nanocomposite space system

  15. Recapitulation of the Research Leading to the Treatise on "Physical Hydrodynamics with Applications to Dynamical Meteorology" as recorded by V. Bjerknes, 1933

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Wolfgang H

    2007-01-01

    Vilhelm Frimann Koren Bjerknes, Norwegian physicist (1862-1951), was a central figure in the pioneering stage of modern meteorology and oceanography. His meteorological theories (especially with regard to cyclogenesis along the polar front) helped establish the basis for weather forecasting in temperate and high latitudes. His mathematical treatment of water motions in the sea helped establish the foundations for dynamic oceanography. Bjerknes was the leading figure of the "Bergen Sc...

  16. A Pan American Health Organization strategy for cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, and disproportionately affects poorer women. Mortality rates in the region are seven times greater than in North America. In light of the significant public health burden, the Pan American Health Organization has drafted a Regional Strategy for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control. The Strategy calls for increased action to strengthen programmes through an integrated package of services: health information and education; screening and pre-cancer treatment; invasive cervical cancer treatment and palliative care; and evidence-based policy decisions on whether and how to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. It calls for a seven-point plan of action: conduct a situation analysis; intensify information, education and counselling; scale up screening and link to pre-cancer treatment; strengthen information systems and cancer registries; improve access to and quality of cancer treatment and palliative care; generate evidence to facilitate decision-making regarding HPV vaccine introduction; and advocate for equitable access and affordable HPV vaccines. This proposed strategy, approved by the PAHO Directing Council on 1 October 2008, has the possibility of stimulating and accelerating the introduction of new screening technology and HPV vaccines into programmes throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

  17. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  18. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  20. Does Formal Research Training Lead to Academic Success in Plastic Surgery? A Comprehensive Analysis of U.S. Academic Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph; Ameri, Afshin; Susarla, Srinivas M; Reddy, Sashank; Soni, Ashwin; Tong, J W; Amini, Neda; Ahmed, Rizwan; May, James W; Lee, W P Andrew; Dorafshar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether formal research training has an influence on academic advancement in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formal research training was associated with higher research productivity, academic rank, and procurement of extramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding in plastic surgery, comparing academic surgeons who completed said research training with those without. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The main predictor variable was formal research training, defined as completion of a postdoctoral research fellowship or attainment of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The primary outcome was scientific productivity measured by the Hirsh-index (h-index, the number of publications, h that have at least h citations each). The secondary outcomes were academic rank and NIH funding. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. A total of 607 academic surgeons were identified from 94 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited plastic surgery training programs. In all, 179 (29.5%) surgeons completed formal research training. The mean h-index was 11.7 ± 9.9. And, 58 (9.6%) surgeons successfully procured NIH funding. The distribution of academic rank was the following: endowed professor (5.4%), professor (23.9%), associate professor (23.4%), assistant professor (46.0%), and instructor (1.3%). In a multiple regression analysis, completion of formal research training was significantly predictive of a higher h-index and successful procurement of NIH funding. Current evidence demonstrates that formal research training is associated with higher scientific productivity and increased likelihood of future NIH funding. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.