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Sample records for caribbean fruit fly

  1. Embryonic transcriptome analysis of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic transcriptome of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing in an effort to isolate embryonic promoters and genes involved in programmed cell death. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA pooled from various time points in embryogenesis usi...

  2. Methyl Farnesoate a naturally occurring juvenoid that accelerates reproductive development in Caribbean Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl farnesoate, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and the bisepoxide homolog of JH III was identified from hemolymph of adult males and females of the Caribbean fruit fly. Application of methyl farnesoate to newly eclosed flies resulted in precocious sexual dev...

  3. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author)

  4. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  5. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  7. Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

  8. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

    2000-03-28

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

  9. Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

  10. Gamma radiation effects on ovarian development of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and its relationship to sterile fly identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caribbean fruit fly pupae were subjected late in their development to gamma radiation (Cs-137) doses of 0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy. Twelve hours after the eclosion, adults were transferred into small cages and held under 14 hour photophase at 26@*C and 70% RH. Ovarian dissections were performed at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult eclosion. Irradiated females showed abnormally-developed ovaries and doses of 25 Gy and higher caused severe atrophy. Regeneration was not observed. All irradiated females possessed hypertrophied accessory glands, probably due to accumulation of secretions normally used to lubricate the oviduct

  11. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at ≥20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at ≥20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has ∼90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had ∼50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at ≥25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  13. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  14. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  15. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosion in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60). The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of Caribbean fly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses. (author)

  17. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  18. Development of a Fruit Fly Strain for Sterile Fly Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A white-striped oriental fruit fly strain, derived from hot-water treated eggs, was developed for sterile fly detection. It was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of fruit fly population control by releasing the radiation induced sterile flies. The objectives of this reported set of experiments were to study the effects of mass rearing on the quality of white-striped oriental fruit flies, the effectiveness of controlling the wild fly population and the accuracy of detection of the released white-striped flies. It was found that mass rearing decreased the pupal yield but increased the pupal quality of white-striped flies comparing with normal flies. Controlling the wild fruit fly population by releasing sterile white-striped flies integrated with other control methods at Tambon Trok Nong, Amphoe Khlung, Chanthaburi Province, could suppress the wild fruit fly population by 96.02 %. The use of white-striped oriental fruit flies yielded a higher detection accuracy upon releasing and reduced the operating time and costs when compared with the use of fluorescent dye marking approach

  19. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  20. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  1. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  2. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  3. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  4. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  5. Ecohormones for the management of fruit fly pests: Understanding plant-fruit-fly-predator interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong attractancy of fruit flies to certain lures can now be explained by demonstrating: (1) an anti-predation mechanism in several species of fruit fly through the endogenous production and secretion of allomone(s); and (2) chemical(s) responsible for male aggregation in a lek formation, after pharmacophagy. Compulsive feeding of methyl eugenol (ME) by male flies produced a feeding deterrent effect on the house lizard, Hemidactylus frenatus. Lizards did not attempt to feed on fruit flies after initial exposure to flies that had fed on ME. On the other hand, sequestration of raspberry ketone may not play an anti-predation role in the melon fly, but functions as a male aggregation pheromone. The anti-predation mechanism in the melon fly is the result of the endogenous synthesis of ethyl-hydroxybenzoate and 1,3-nonandiol in the male rectal gland at sexual maturity. Most mature male flies undergo reflex ejaculation of rectal gland content when they are under stress, e.g. when they are being anaesthetized with carbon dioxide or when they are being held by a feather forceps. 24 refs

  6. Area-wide fruit fly control in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mauritius, there exist several species of fruit flies namely the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann), which attack fleshy fruits such as mango, peach, guava, papaya among others, the Ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana, in addition attacks jujube only, and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), which is the most important pest of cucurbits. In the absence of control measures, fruit flies constitute a severe constraint to fruit and vegetable production and thus limit their commercialisation. As such, large quantities of fruits have to be imported. An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets mainly some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT and MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the baitinsecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. For the melon fly control, an integrated approach has been developed and recommended to cucurbit growers. This package includes use of insecticide cover sprays combined with bait application, male annihilation and cultural control with emphasis on field sanitation. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuation of using BAT/MAT is a never-ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, an International Atomic Energy Agency TC project MAR 5/015 entitled 'Feasibility studies for integrated

  7. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  8. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Commonwealth of Australia is comprised of six States and several Territories. Each State and Territory Government maintains quarantine activities for its borders under the guidance of the Commonwealth Government. These activities, with regard to fruit flies, include quarantine at airports and harbours, compliance with import and export regulations and monitoring for, and action against, incursions of exotic fruit fly pests. There are about eighty species of fruit fly that are native to Australia that infest mainly native fruit and vegetables but, of these, six are classed as pests of horticultural significance. The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is by far the most destructive of these native Australian fruit fly species. Another, non-native species, now endemic to parts of Western Australia, which arrived in Australia in the 1890's, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), is just as damaging and it, too, is a critical quarantine pest. The distribution of these flies in Australia is such that not all pest species inhabit the same region. Quarantine restrictions are placed by States and fruit fly free-areas within States due to pest fruit fly species that are not native there. For example the State of Tasmania, to the southeast of Australia, is classified as entirely free from pest fruit flies. Fruit fly host produce exported to Tasmania from the rest of Australia is either prohibited or allowed entry following various quarantine requirements such as an approved postharvest disinfestation treatment. The State of Western Australia is free from Queensland fruit fly, but the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland are not. while the eastern states are free from Mediterranean fruit fly and Western Australia is not. Quarantine restrictions are in place on trade between eastern and western Australia. Mediterranean fruit fly is now endemic to parts of Western Australia and nowhere else in Australia. It is a most destructive pest

  9. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  10. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  11. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  12. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... (74 FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0126), that led to establishment of the Peruvian Hass avocado... effective on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 1-13), we stated that more research would need to be done in accordance... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  13. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Pilot oriental fruit fly management program in Guimaras island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot project on the integrated fruit fly management program based on sterile insect technique (SIT) was conducted in Guimaras island. The first island-wide male annihilation treatment (MAT) was implemented from February to October 1997. A total of 6 applications consisting of 525,534 pieces of lured particle board squares (PBS) were distributed in Guimaras both by aerial and ground applications. There was a significant reduction in fruit fly population indicating fruit fly suppression through MAT. However, MAT only reduces the male fruit fly density so many fruits were still found infested with fruit flies. Hence, biweekly releases of sterile flies were conducted from November 1997 to April 1998. About 91.74 million sterile pupae were sent by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to Guimaras. A total of 34,490,888 sterile flies were released by aerial applications and 12,632,163 sterile flies were released by ground applications. An increase in the S/N ratio was observed from 0.37 in December 1997 to 4.19 in April 1998. However, since the eradication phase was discontinued due to budgetary constraints, the required S/N ratio of more than 10 for a successful application of SIT was not achieved. A second series of MAT application were again conducted from May to September 1998. A total of 4 applications consisting of 357,650 pcs. of lured PBS were distributed throughout the island. Interestingly, the results of fruit fly density estimation before (1995) and after application (1998) of MAT and SIT using Lincoln method showed that the number of fruit flies per hectare was significantly reduced in all areas in Guimaras. Continues biweekly releases of 25 million flies therefore have to be undertaken to eradicate the remaining population. (Author)

  15. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  16. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  17. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Francesca; Ludvik M Gomulski; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Anna R Malacrida

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unra...

  18. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  19. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  20. Synthetic attractants for Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of synthetic attractants in the capture of Anastrepha fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina) was tested in three commercial orchards of known fruit fly hosts: mango (Mangifera indica L.), mammy (Calocarpum mammosum L.) and Mexican plum (Spondias purpurea L.) in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the synthetic attractants tested, we found that Ammonium Acetate (AA) plus Putrescine (PT) in a liquid trap was often the best combination for attracting flies. Interestingly, the reduction of release rate of AA increases the capture of fruit flies. We also found that Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) plus PT in a wet trap was effective in a Mexican plum orchard in comparison with the other combinations of synthetic attractants. However, the synthetic attractants in dry traps were not effective and always presented the lowest Captures. (author)

  1. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  2. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  3. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  4. Sterile insect technique applied to Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) aims to suppress or eradicate pest populations by flooding wild populations with sterile males. To control fruit fly million of flies of both sexes are mass reared at the Gosford Post-Harvest laboratory near Sydney, mixed with sawdust and fluorescent dye at the pupal stage and transported to Ansto where they are exposed to low dose of 70-75Gy of gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. Following irradiation the pupae are transported to the release site in plastic sleeves then transferred to large plastic garbage bins for hatching. These bins are held at 30 deg. C. to synchronise hatching and files are released 48-72 hours after hatching begins. In most cases these bins are placed among fruit trees in the form of an 800 metre grid. This maximises survival of the emerging flies which are released on an almost daily basis. Progress of the SIT program is monitored by collecting flies from traps dotted all over the infested site. The ratio of sterile to wild flies can be detected because the sterile files are coated with the fluorescent dust which can be seen under ultra-violet light. If the SIT program is successful entomologists will trap a high proportion of sterile flies to wild flies and this should result in a clear reduction in maggot infestations. Surveillance, quarantine, and trapping activities continue for 8 or 9 months to check for any surviving pockets of infestation. If any are found the SIT program is reactivated. These programs demonstrated that SIT was an efficient and environmental friendly non-chemical control method for eradicating outbreaks or suppressing fruit fly populations in important fruit growing areas. ills

  5. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S

    1998-12-16

    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  6. Systems approach for control of olive fruit fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The systems approach incorporating various control techniques in the field was investigated as an economical procedure for reducing high olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), populations in olive, Olea europaea, orchards along the coastal areas of California and as a means of control for low populations of the pest in commercial orchards in the central interior valley. The basic biology of olive fruit fly was investigated in laboratory incubator tests. Adults survived for the following number of days after exposure to different temperatures and humidities with and without food: 5 deg. C, 85% RH, 30-40 d (food), 10-17 d (no food); 15 deg. C, 65% RH, 44-76 d (food), 4-5 d (no food); and 25 deg. C, 25% RH, 17-32 d (food), 2-4 d (no food); 35 deg. C, 25% RH, 2-4 d (food), 1 d (no food). At 21 deg. C, 60% RH, the duration of each life stage in olive fruit was as follows: Eggs 5-6 d, 1st instar 7-8 d, 2nd instar 9-11 d, and 3rd instar 12-15 d. A yellow panel trap was found to be a highly effective method to monitor olive fruit fly adults. The mean ± SEM total number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps (17.2 ± 11.9 in summer to 232.5 ± 44.8 in spring) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in ChamP traps (5.5 ± 2.1 in summer to 170.5 ± 25.5 in spring) for the sum of all collection dates (every 7-12 d from March through June, and every 14 d from July through August). Orchard sanitation was shown to be important in reducing overwintering populations. Non-harvested fruit that remained in trees in a coastal orchard since the previous year supported olive fruit fly from March through May (0.4-6.4 pupae per 10 g olive fruit). A parasitoid, Psytallia cf. concolor, imported from MOSCAMED, Guatemala and originally collected from Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on coffee in Kenya, caused 100% mortality of olive fruit fly, B. oleae (Gmelin), larvae in field cage tests and 10% parasitism of larvae in small field

  7. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  8. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  9. The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged in recent years as an excellent paradigm for studying the principles and mechanisms of information processing in neuronal circuits. We discuss here the organizational principles of the olfactory circuit that make it an attractive model for experimental manipulations, the lessons that have been learned, and future challenges.

  10. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  11. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  12. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  13. ACIAR’s 25 year investment in fruit-fly research

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Robert K.; McLeod, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fruit flies are recognised as one of the major pests of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. Potential benefits from fruit fly research include biosecurity benefits from better quarantine surveillance that reduces the costs of an incursion by a damaging exotic pest fruit fly; market access benefits by enabling new fruit exports; and field control benefits from better crop management. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)’s investment in fruitfly research goes b...

  14. Theta motion processing in fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Shoemaker

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The tiny brains of insects presumably impose significant computational limitations on algorithms controlling their behavior. Nevertheless, they perform fast and sophisticated visual maneuvers. This includes tracking features composed of second order motion, in which the feature is defined by higher-order image statistics, but not simple correlations in luminance. Flies can track the true direction of even theta motions, in which the first-order (luminance motion is directed opposite the second order moving feature. We exploited this paradoxical feature tracking response to dissect the particular image properties that flies use to track moving objects. We find that theta motion detection is not simply a result of steering towards any spatially restricted flicker. Rather, our results show that fly high-order feature tracking responses can be broken down into positional and velocity components---in other words, the responses can be modeled as a superposition of two independent steering efforts. We isolate these elements to show that each has differing influence on phase and amplitude of steering responses, and together they explain the time course of second order motion tracking responses during flight. These observations are relevant to natural scenes, where moving features can be much more complex.

  15. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  16. Biological Control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Guatemala by Means of Augmentative Releases of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project initiated four years ago (in 1993) due to interest manifested by local program managers for developing new strategies in the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied) 'medfly'. Two species of fruit fly parasitoids were studied, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmed) and Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron). Work plans for this project concentrated on: 1) rearing of parasitoids, 2) shipping of parasitized pupae, 3) packing and handling of parasitized pupae, 4) handling and feeding of adult parasitoids, 5) releasing of adult parasitoids, 6) monitoring of medfly population (trapping and fruit sampling, 7) training of personnel at all levels. All field work in this project was conducted in the coffee area of Guatemala, near the Mexican border. The first part of the project allowed to determine that Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron), was the more suitable candidate for fruit fly control under the local conditions. Second part of the project confirmed the efficacy of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron) as a control agent against the medfly in the coffee area in this part of the country. Current activities in this project include: 1) colony maintenance for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and Diachasmimorpha tryoni, 2) colony introduction/establishment of three new species of parasitoids, for each of the three vulnerable stages (ie. egg, larvae and pupae). Small scale rearing for these parasitoids has been carried out under quarantine conditions. (author)

  17. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  18. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  19. Interspecific Mating between Wild and Sterile Fruit Flies of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) with Guava Fruit Fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copulation and sperm transfer were observed between wild flies and sterile flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in cages. 8-day old pupae of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were irradiated with gamma rays at 90 and 80 gray respectively. Wild flies from infested fruits and sterile flies from artificial diet in the labolatory were used for testing. The experiments were conducted 3 treatments and 3 replications. The ratio of sterile male : wild male: wild female were 3:1:1 by using sterile male of B. dorsalis: wild male of B. correcta : wild female of B. correcta and sterile male of B. correcta: wild male of B. dorsalis: wild female of B. dorsalis as 60:20:20 flies respectively. The experiment found 69 pairs of copulation consisting of 3 mating pairs(4.3%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 22 mating pairs (31.9%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta, 42 mating pairs(60.9%) of sterile male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. The cages which ratio 1:1 consisted of wild B. dorsalis and wild B. correcta (male and female = 50:50 flies) were observed and found that 43 pairs of copulation such as 2 mating pairs (4.6%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 26 mating pairs (60.5%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B. dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta and 15 mating pairs(34.9%) of wild male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. Mated female flies were separated from male flies. Egg hatch and sperm were checked. The hatchability of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 81 and 90%. The average sperm level in spermathecae of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 2.2 and 2.3 respectively but had no sperm in their spemathecae of females of interspecific copulations Mating behavior of both species began in the evening before sunset at

  20. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Montoya; Lía Ruiz; Jorge Cancino

    2012-01-01

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by a...

  1. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the fol...

  2. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method

  3. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some c...

  4. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  5. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  6. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montoya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae confronts two fundamental requirements: (1 the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2 the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.

  7. Thematic Plan for Fruit Fly Control Using the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thematic plan for fruit flies is the summation of ideas and recommendations put forth by a group of experts composed of fruit fly program managers and workers, stakeholders from the affected industry, a commodity specialist from the FAO, and technical, planning and policy specialists from the IAEA and the FAO. This document provides strategic guidance and direction on how and where the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can most effectively be applied to control or eradicate fruit flies in the future.

  8. Eradication vs. Control in Biosecurity Policy-Making: Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, David C.; Fraser, Rob W.; Weinert, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The principal chemicals used by Western Australia’s horticultural industries for field control and post-harvest disinfestation procedures for Mediterranean fruit fly are soon to be withdrawn from use due to public health concerns. When this occurs, the necessary switch to alternative control methods such as bait sprays and intensive fruit fly trapping will involve additional producer costs. Given these costs, this paper evaluates the option of eradicating Mediterranean fruit fly from the Stat...

  9. Prospects for integrated control of olive fruit fly are promising in California

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Timothy R.; Van Steenwyk, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The recent invasion of California by the olive fruit fly has the potential to devastate commercial olive production throughout the state. Fortunately, much is known about this pest in Europe, and prospects for olive fruit fly control in Calif-ornia are good. Effective manage-ment is likely to result from careful monitoring and properly timed chemical control. Suppression of olive fruit fly populations on ornamental and residential olive trees using biological control may also contribute to ov...

  10. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  11. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  12. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  13. Population and Species of Fruit Fly (Bactrocera spp.) In Atractant Sticky Yellow Trap Formulation (ASYTA) From Natural Plant Product

    OpenAIRE

    Sjam, Sylvia; Zulfitriany; Sulaeha

    2011-01-01

    ASYTA is formulated as sticky attractant from natural plant product Andropogon nardus where use for attract fruit fly in the field The experiment was aimed to know the ability of ASYTA to attract fruit fly (Batrocera spp.) .The experiment was conducted in the laboratory and field at mango, matermelon and chili . The results indicated that ASYTA had potency to attract of fruit fly population not only attract male fruit fly but also female. ASYTA was able to attract 1.241 fruit ...

  14. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  15. Studies of the Life Cycle and Mating Competitiveness of the White-striped Oriental Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The strength and mating competitiveness of mass-reared flies are the key success factors of the control of fruit fly by the radiation-induced sterile insect technique. The objectives of this reported set of experiments were to compare the life cycle and the mating competitiveness of the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), with those of the normal fly. It was found that the egg and larval periods of the white-striped flies were longer than those of the normal flies. The pupation percentage and the sex ratio of the white-striped flies were also lower than the normal flies but their pupal weight and flight ability percentage were higher. Under non-competitive conditions, mating propensity of either strain was not different from the other. But under competitive conditions, the white-striped flies had significantly higher mating competitiveness than the normal flies due to a shorter pre-reproductive period

  16. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  17. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  18. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  19. Sterile insect technique for the management of the oriental fruit fly in Guimaras iasland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango is an important fruit crop in the country as shown by increasing demand for the fruit both in local and domestic markets. In particular, the island of Guimaras is now being developed as the mango province of the country since the soil and climate are highly suitable for its growth and development. Today, there are more than 250,000 trees grown in the island and the local government plans to plant more than 1 million trees by the year 2000. The production of quality fruits is however, hampered by the presence of fruit flies. A new strategy in fruit fly control is the sterile insect technique which will be implemented in the island of Guimaras. SIT involves mass rearing, sterilization and release of sterile fruit flies in target areas to stop native flies from reproducing. Preparatory phase of the project include campaigns launched to inform growers, government officials and private sectors on the objectives and mechanics of SIT through press releases, workshops and meetings. Basic ecological studies which involved determination of host fruits, degree of fruit infestation, population dynamics and fruit fly dispersal are presented. Estimates of fruit fly population showed that more insects were present in natural vegetation as compared to mix plantation and low population was recorded in pure orchards. Preliminary results of male annihilation technique using a bait consisting of methyl eugenol and malathion placed in fiber boards also revealed that male populations were reduced to low levels, provided that wide area approach is considered. Otherwise, reinfestation of limited areas by flies will occur. Continuous monitoring of flies in the whole island is now being undertaken. Sterile insect technique was demonstrated in the small islet of Naoay, south west of the main island of Guimaras. Results of several releases showed that no unmarked flies were captured from monitoring traps, indicating that sterile flies suppressed the population of wild flies in the area

  20. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  1. A comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Queensland fruit fly wing-buzzing sounds associated with mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies both produce wing-buzzing sounds during courtship but the functional role of the sounds is not clear for either species. In further consideration of the roles of these sounds, we report on a video and acoustic analysis of Queensland fruit fly courtship ...

  2. An Inquiry-Based Investigation of Modes of Inheritance Using "Flightless" Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Farland, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    The various strains of flightless fruit flies that were developed at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and an exercise that helps students in determining the inheritance pattern in the fruit fly mutant trait are described. The study and the resulting exercise helped the students in scientifically determining the two important aspects of…

  3. Simulated field applications of insecticide soil drenches for control of Tephritid fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key component in tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) area-wide IPM programs has been application of insecticidal soil drenches under the drip line of host trees where fruit flies have been detected and as a regulatory treatment in the certification process for movement of nursery stock outs...

  4. TRAPPING FOR MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) WITH TORULA YEAST AND PROPYLENE GLYCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In south Texas, propylene glycol is added to the liquid bait (an aqueous slurry of torula yeast) in surveillance traps for exotic fruit flies to better preserve captured specimens. In a series of tests in Texas and Mexico, overall captures of Mexican fruit flies were roughly the same in traps with ...

  5. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  6. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m2) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  7. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  8. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  9. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Joachim; Msogoya, Theodosy;

    2016-01-01

    patrolling ants disturb flies on the fruit before successful ovioposition. Volatile compounds that might be contained in deposits left on fruits by patrolling ants have also been proposed as a deterrent factor. This study investigates the effectiveness of weaver ant control in a community of smallholder....... However, direct observation shows a reduction in fruit fly landings on fruits in the presence of ants, confirming earlier observations, but analysis of volatile emissions from fruits using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy has not identified compounds that consistently reflect the presence of weaver...... ants. During ripening the fruits emit ethyl crotonate, an attractant and ovipositing stimulant for fruit flies. These data suggest that, for the specific cultivation conditions and uncontrolled ant populations, visual deterrence has a limited, benefit and there is no contributory, deterrent effect of...

  10. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  11. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, N.T., E-mail: nikopap@uth.g [University of Thessaly (Greece). Dept. of Crop Production and Rural Environment. Lab. of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I. [University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  12. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:27126185

  13. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  14. Pilot application of sterile insect technique for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Philippinensis, in Naoway islet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique for the Oriental fruit fly was pilot tested in Naoway, a 12-ha islet about 1.5 km. southeast of Guimaras island. The Oriental fruit fly population (male) in the islet was first estimated at 3,432 using the mark-release-recapture experiments. From August to October 1995, six releases of sterile fruit flies (male and female) at biweekly intervals were conducted in the islet. Except for the 7 wild fruit flies collected by a trap 10 days after the first release, not a single fly was collected from the pilot site thereafter. Furthermore, field collections of infested fruits yield only 6 pupae on the first and zero on the subsequent collections. The results suggested that SIT proved successful in Naoway islet. For Guimaras, an island-wide implementation of SIT could be undertaken after reducing the wild male fruit fly population by field sanitation and the male annihilation method in order to overflood the wild population with sterile fruit flies. (Author)

  15. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  16. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  17. Prefractionation methods for individual adult fruit fly hemolymph proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Avilov, Vitaly; Shippy, Scott A

    2016-03-15

    The analysis of blood provides in depth chemical information of physiological states of organisms. Hemolymph (blood) is the fluid in the open circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster that is the medium for molecules regulating a wide variety of physiological activities and signaling between tissues. Adult Drosophila is typically less than 3mm in length and, as a consequence, the available volume of hemolymph is usually less than 50nL from individual flies. Proteomic analysis of volume-limited hemolymph is a great challenge for both sample handling and subsequent mass spectrometry characterization of this chemically diverse biological fluid with a wide dynamic range of proteins in concentrations. Less abundant proteins, in particular, could be easily lost during sample preparation or missed by current mass spectrometry methods. This article describes simple and customized RPLC column and IEX columns to prefractionate volume-limited hemolymph without excessive dilution. Step-gradient elution methods were developed and optimized to enhance the identification of novel proteins from an individual fruit fly hemolymph sample. Fractions from each step gradient was analyzed by an Agilent nano-RPLC chip column and then characterized by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy orbitrap mass spectrometry. As a result, both RPLC (11 proteins) and IEX fractionation approaches (9 proteins) identified more proteins than an unfractionated control approach with higher protein scores, emPAI values and coverage. Furthermore, a significant number of novel proteins were revealed by both RPLC and IEX fractionation methods, which were missed by unfractionated controls. The demonstration of this method establishes a means to deepen proteomic analysis to this commonly used, important biological model system. PMID:26901848

  18. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  19. Two Virtual Labs to Study Genetic Inheritance in the Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Herlands Cresiski

    2013-01-01

    A comparative review of two virtual labs to study genetic inheritance in the fruit fly: Virtual Courseware for Inquiry-based Science Education - Drosophila and Virtual Genetics Laboratory II (UMass Boston).

  20. Two Virtual Labs to Study Genetic Inheritance in the Fruit Fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Herlands Cresiski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative review of two virtual labs to study genetic inheritance in the fruit fly: Virtual Courseware for Inquiry-based Science Education - Drosophila and Virtual Genetics Laboratory II (UMass Boston.

  1. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  2. Studies Shed Light on Cross-modal Memory Facilitation of Fruit Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a result of their threeyear studies in Drosophilae (fruit flies),CAS scientists reveal that the memory and learning in the insect could be enhanced by stimuli combining olfactory (or smell) and visual signals.

  3. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria BOROVINOVA; Vilina PETROVA

    2015-01-01

    The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazo...

  4. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Leftwich, P. T.; Koukidou, M.; Rempoulakis, P.; Gong, H.-F.; Zacharopoulou, A.; Fu, G.; Chapman, T; Economopoulos, A.; Vontas, J.; Alphey, L

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (r...

  5. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  6. Potential use of the sterile insect technique against the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American countries have a strong interest in increasing fruit production and quality to facilitate commercialization within and outside the region. Various fruit fly control programmes in South America and their objectives and benefits are described here. Specific priorities to improve fruit fly control and eradication technologies include strengthening of quarantine, development of pre- and post-phytosanitary measures, and harmonization of the most effective and advanced technical procedures/methodologies to control fruit flies. A subregional strategy to control fruit flies in South America would promote technical co-operation among the South American countries and strengthen the activities of less advanced fruit fly programmes. Effective use can be made of local/regional infrastructure, expertise, sterile fly production and human/technical resources. In Argentina, advanced technology related to the use of medfly genetic sexing strains for SIT programmes has been successfully introduced. Joint efforts between technicians and scientists would contribute to developing new technology to control important pests in South America. (author)

  7. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  8. A Systems Approach to Mitigate Oriental Fruit Fly Risk in ‘Sharwil’ Avocados Exported From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados, Persea americana Miller, grown in Hawaii cannot be exported to the United States mainland without quarantine treatment for melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. The most widely grown cultivar of avocado in Hawaii is ‘Sharwil’. ‘Sharwil’, like other avocado varieties, ...

  9. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  10. Quarantine strategies for olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): low-temperature storage, brine, and host relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T

    2004-08-01

    A dose-response relationship was not observed in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae exposed to acetic acid concentrations (0-2.5%) used in commercial brine solutions to cure olives. Immersion in a 1% acetic acid brine solution impeded emergence of the immature stages. A 1-wk exposure of olives infested with olive fruit fly larvae to low-temperature storage as a postharvest treatment at 0-1 degree C resulted in 8% survival of the population, and exposures of 2 through 5 wk further reduced pupal and adult emergence to temperatures in olives in the top, middle, and bottom of plastic bins stored at 2-3 degrees C decreased by 5-8 degrees C from the first to the second day. Lowest temperatures were observed in the top, and highest temperatures were observed in the middle layer of fruit, which attained a mean temperature of 3.8 degrees C on day 5. Laboratory choice tests showed that olive fruit fly oviposited at a higher rate in late season Mission olives that were green than in fruit that were in the red blush maturity stage in tests with 1- and 3-4-d exposure periods, and an increase in duration of exposure was related to an increase in the total number of ovipositional sites. Higher percentages of olive fruit fly third instars, pupae, and adults were reared from green fruit than from fruit in the red blush stage after a 1-d exposure to oviposition. Manzanillo olives were more attractive for oviposition by olive fruit fly than Mission olives, and significantly more third instars, pupae, and adults developed in Manzanillo fruit than in Mission fruit in the red blush stage. These differences were related to the better quality and higher flesh content of the Manzanillo versus Mission olives used in the tests. PMID:15384334

  11. Effects of ionizing energy on fruit flies and seed weevil in Australian mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was evaluated as a quarantine measure for the disinfestation of Australian mangoes against two species of fruit fly, Bactrocera (=Dacus) tryoni (Froggatt) and B, jarvisi (Tryon), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius). For the fruit flies, the third instar stage was determined as the most tolerant of irradiation, but disinfestation trials were also undertaken against mature eggs as the stage most likely to be present in any infested fruit at the time of treatment. A dose range of 74-101 Gy on the ''Kensington'' variety of mango prevented the emergence of adult flies, but large numbers of treated larvae and some eggs developed to the pupal stage. This places important emphasis on the field control of fruit flies if detection of still living larvae in fruit at inspection is to be avoided. Disinfestation trials on the mango seed weevil were complicated by the inability to culture this insect in the laboratory. This necessitated the use of naturally infested fruit of the ''common'' variety and precluded trial work on specific stages of known age. A dose range of 298-339 Gy (nominally a minimum of 300 Gy) prevented adult emergence and ensured 100% mortality by 8 months on the samples treated. The slow life cycle of the seed weevil requires that assessment of mortality be delayed by a minimum of 1 month, and for full mortality up to 6-8 months. The presence of live insects in irradiated fruit causes problems if detected at inspection unless export fruit is obtained from weevil free orchards. No significant fruit damage would be expected at a fruit fly treatment range of 100-200 Gy, but the maximum/minimum ratio for weevil treated fruit would need to be minimized as the treatment level is near the threshold for damage to the ''Kensington'' variety of mango. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  13. Population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alberti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was learn more about the population fluctuation of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in the municipality of Iraceminha, Santa Catarina. In order to carry out the survey, McPhail traps were set up with 10% inverted glucose from April 2006 to March 2007. Captured flies were identified at the Laboratório de Entomologia at UNOCHAPECÓ. The collected females belonged to twelve species and four genera. The adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were trapped during all seasons, with a population peak in October 2006 in the peach orchards. The population levels of Anastrepha grandis remained higher during the first five months in the passion fruit orchard. There were low infestation rates by flies of the genera Ceratitis, Blepharoneura and Tomoplagia when compared to flies of the genus Anastrepha. The results showed that the presence of flies in the orchards was associated with the availability of host fruit and not with climatic conditions.

  14. A new species of Anastrepha from Colombia related to Mexican fruit fly (Díptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALLEM L NORRBOM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha manizaliensis Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, is described from Colombia. lt breeds in fruit of Juglans neotropica Diels (Juglandaceae, commonly known in Colombia as "cedro negro". The new species was previously confused with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew, a major pest of citrus and mango, leading to quarantine problems, bul true A. ludens does not occur in Colombia.

  15. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  16. Studies of Sterile Irradiation Effects on the White-striped Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, sterile irradiation can affect vigor and mating competitiveness of the fruit flies. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sterile irradiation on the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), developed for sterile fly detection. A day before adult emergence, the pupae were irradiated at the dose of 90 Grays. No effects on adult emergence and flight ability were observed. However, it induced complete sterility in both sexes. Also, it decreased male mating competitiveness significantly, while increasing sexual competitiveness significantly

  17. Integrated control of oriental fruit fly based on the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental field control of the Oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis Hendel was done by alternating male annihilation and sterile fly releases in a mixed orchard at San Jose del Monte, Bulacan from 1981-1987. The orchard was saturated with 600 poisoned methyl eugenol traps and partially isolated from the neighboring farms by a 10-m buffer zone. About 35,000 sterile flies were released weekly during months when field population was low. For comparison, a series of 50 fly trap was maintained in a control area located at Dasmarinas, Cavite. Results of a continuous application of the integrated approach showed consistently lower fly population and lower fruit infestation in the experimental than in the control area. Also, collection of fallen fruits prevented possible source of infestation thereby maintaining a clean culture in the orchard. Thus, implementation of the integrated fruit fly control program should be conducted in a pilot-scale in mango or other fruit areas in the country. (Auth.). 6 refs.; 6 tabs

  18. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  19. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  20. Population Dynamic Observation And Mass Trapping Of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the control of B. carambolae, major pest of mango fruit in Indonesia using sterile insect technique, population monitoring with methyl eugenol attractant baited traps, absolute population measurement with release and recapture techniques, and mass trapping to reduce population of the pest in mango orchards were conducted. Based on the number of the male fly trapped it was know that the fly population was always low when no mature mango fruit found on the orchard, and it strated to increase in October, the middle time, of mango harvest until some time after the end of harvesting time. In August, when the population was low, about 4000 flies/hectare or 600 flies/hectare were found in the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively. Mass trapping with 4 trapps per hectare was able to kill about 620 and 240 male flies per hectare of the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively

  1. Dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterilized Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap-back experiments using McPhail traps were conducted to study dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterile Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The flies were released at 3 ecologically different sites in northern Mexico. Some flies were recaptured up to 9 km from the release point. However, standard distance was estimated using a regression model that indicated 240 m was the typical dispersal distance. The life expectancy of the released flies from the time of release varied from 5 to 10 d. Greatest longevity, up to 22 wk, occurred during the winter months

  2. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  3. An Example of How Chemical Regulation is Affecting Biosecurity Policy-Making: Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, David C.; Fraser, Rob W.; Weinert, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The principal chemicals used by Western Australia’s horticultural industries for field control and post-harvest disinfestation procedures for Mediterranean fruit fly are soon to be withdrawn from use due to public health concerns. When this occurs, the necessary switch to alternative control methods such as bait sprays and intensive fruit fly trapping will involve additional producer costs. Given these costs, this paper evaluates the option of eradicating Mediterranean fruit fly from the Stat...

  4. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  5. Suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Tunisia with released sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Tunisia, U. S. Agency for International Development, and U. S. Department of Agriculture cooperatively developed a program for suppression of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Tunisia. Mediterranean fruit flies were reared on an artificial diet, sterilized with 10 krad irradiation from a cobalt source, and the emerged adults were marked and then distributed by hand throughout the release area, 600 ha in the vicinity of Porto-Farina. Some aerial releases were made late in the season. Winter larval hosts were removed to lower the overwintering population, and sterile fly releases were begun early (Mar.1) to prevent fertile matings of flies that emerged during warm winter days. All fruit on the periphery of the release area was sprayed periodically (5 applications), as was the major fruit-growing areas within the region but outside the test zone, to minimize the possibility of fertile flies entering the release area. Daily from March to November, ca. 1,000,000 sterile flies were released. Trap catches indicated that the suppression obtained was about equal to that obtained using poison bait sprays. The early preferred host crops had no or negligible infestation (loquats, apricots, early peaches, and figs). The infestation of preferred summer fruits (peaches and figs) was reduced but not controlled. Less susceptible summer fruits were seldom infested. The estimated population was ca. 82.3 percent lower than in the previous year when no releases were made. Isolation and sterile fly distribution was inadequate to completely suppress the Mediterranean fruit fly population. (U.S.)

  6. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Males of tephritid fruit fly species show strong affinity to specific chemicals produced by plants. Amongst the economically important species in the Asian Pacific area, methyl eugenol acts as a potent attractant for males of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and several other species within the dorsalis species complex (e.g., B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, etc.), cuelure [4-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and the naturally occurring deacetyl derivative (raspberry ketone) act as specific attractants for flies such as the melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt) (Metcalf 1990). These attractants have been successfully used as baits in mass trapping for monitoring populations during eradication programmes for these pests (Chambers 1977, Koyama et al. 1984). Likewise, trimedlure has been developed as a synthetic attractant for males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), while α-copaene has been known to be a naturally occurring attractant for the species. For most tephritids, however, the biological function of male attraction to these natural or artificial compounds remains unclear. Recent studies (Nishida et al. 1988 1997, Nishida and Fukami 1990, Tan 1993, Tan and Nishida 1996) have shown that males of B. dorsalis and related species ingest these compounds from natural sources, selectively incorporate them into the rectal glands, and use them to synthesise the sex pheromone and allomone. It appears that similar chemical compounds, when ingested, may provide pheromonal precursors in the melon fly as well (Nishida et al. 1993, Shelly and Villalobos 1995). In contrast, Medfly males do not feed on the source of chemical attractant. According to our observations, α-copaene strongly affected the courtship behaviour of the Medfly, which suggests that these natural compounds may possibly be involved in the formation of leks and the mating

  7. Implementation of a medfly, fruit fly parasitoids and codling moth rearing facility in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The medfly is a major pest for fruit crops worldwide and its presence in the countries means a threat for production and for export. The methodology that has been used in many countries to eradicate/suppress medfly population is the SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) that uses irradiation as a source for sterilisation. Besides medfly, Anastrepha species of quarantine relevance are important pests affecting the fruit crops in Brazil. Parasitoids that are natural enemies of fruit flies also will be reared in the facility for release in the production area. Finally, taking advantage of the large building area, the facility eventually will also produce sterile codling moths, a pest recently introduced into the south of Brazil and that affects the ever increasing apple and pear crops. The production of sterile medflies, natural enemies to control fruit flies and sterile codling moths - all of them using irradiation as sterilisation method and their release in the field is the most effective measure to control (suppression and eradication) such pests. The consumption of fresh fruits has increased worldwide and the production in Brazil either for domestic or export has been intensified in the last decade. As food safety is a major concern for the consumers, the use of environment-friendly technologies is always required. The SIT plays a major role for control fruit flies and other fruit pests. The final client for the sterile flies and moths will be the fruit growers in the tropical fruit growing areas in northern Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco (Sao Francisco Valley), Ceara, north of Minas Gerais e north of Espirito Santo. Initially 200 million medflies and 10 million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata wasps will be released per week. The codling moths irradiated in the facility will be sent by air to the apple and stone fruit production areas in the south of Brazil, (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), where the species is present. (author)

  8. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  9. Bait matrix for novel toxicants for use in control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of geographical isolation as a protective barrier for a nation's agricultural assets is going fast by the wayside as agricultural trade expands globally. Barriers are breaking down in the interests of export or import of agricultural products and with expanded trade the probabilities of moving undesirable pests from one locality to another are increasing. The notion of invading pest species may be, in great part, the movement of people that facilitate the movement of exotic insects. The dilemma to a receiving state or country is what to do to do prevent the entry of, detect, or eliminate a new pest species. If the pest can not be eliminated, then, what is the risk and cost of living with it and manage its numbers. The first line of defence should be regulatory based on evidence provided by science. The second should be an active response that curtails the survival of the new pest. An insecticidal spray strategy has worked well time and time again against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) each time these fruit flies have invaded California in the past. The insecticide strategy is still being used against B. dorsalis but is being replaced against C. capita with continual releases of sterile flies. The action embodies the concept that the continued presence of sterile flies will nullify the reproductive capability of incoming feral flies due to shear competition for mates. The continual release of sterile flies appears to work very well in the Los Angeles basin area and targets only the species in question. However, such a technique is not available for a number of fruit fly species. Consequently, reliance on an insecticidal strategy will continue. But, if novel toxins with little or no contact toxicity are used, more attention must be given to the carriers of such toxins to ensure that they attract flies to spray deposits and entice them to consume the residues. (author)

  10. Peptidomics and processing of regulatory peptides in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Pauls

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade has passed since the release of the Drosophila melanogaster genome and the first predictions of fruit fly regulatory peptides (neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Since then, mass spectrometry-based methods have fuelled the chemical characterisation of regulatory peptides, from 7 Drosophila peptides in the pre-genomic area to more than 60 today. We review the development of fruit fly peptidomics, and present a comprehensive list of the regulatory peptides that have been chemically characterised until today. We also summarise the knowledge on peptide processing in Drosophila, which has strongly profited from a combination of MS-based techniques and the genetic tools available for the fruit fly. This combination has a very high potential to study the functional biology of peptide signalling on all levels, especially with the ongoing developments in quantitative MS in Drosophila.

  11. Dosimetry practice for irradiation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme the sterility of mass-reared insects, in our case Mediterranean fruit flies, is of primary importance. Mediterranean fruit fly pupae are irradiated in an AECL-CP-JS-7400 irradiator. Originally the capacity was 31,300 Ci, but because of the natural decay of cobalt, the actual source strength is 14,836 Ci. Thus, the dose with which the pupae are irradiated is 14.5 +- 1 krad (145 +- 10 Gy). A great risk in the daily release of sterile flies is that some batches of fertile flies may also be released. To ensure that this does not occur, continuous dosimetric check-ups have to routinely be carried out. Fricke dosimetry is ideal for this purpose because it has a range of response to doses of 4 to 40 krad (40 to 400 Gy) and because it is an economic and simple dosimetric system. (author)

  12. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ant Thomas; Koukidou Martha; Rempoulakis Polychronis; Gong Hong-Fei; Economopoulos Aris; Vontas John; Alphey Luke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disap...

  13. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  14. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  15. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  16. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  17. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  18. Efficacy of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni, eggs, and larvae with a dose of 75 Gy of radiation prevents the emergence of adult flies, although many insects develop to the pupal stage. This has been demonstrated with large numbers of insects present in oranges and avocados, two entirely different fruit types. The aim of such a commodity treatment should be to prevent the establishment of an insect pest in a new environment. This low-dose treatment should, therefore find acceptance with quarantine authorities, since the nonemergence of adult files effectively breaks the life cycle of the insect. This paper provides details of the experimental approach and the results of these efficacy studies

  19. Mediterranean fruit fly: interference of oviposition by radiation-sterilized females in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments between April and September 1984, the behaviour of nonirradiated and radiation-sterilized laboratory-adapted adults of the tephritid Ceratitis capitata was observed on apples hung on guava trees in outdoor cages in Hawaii. The numbers of nonirradiated females observed resting on fruit were reduced several times by the presence of irradiated females, either alone or with irradiated males, but not by irradiated males alone. Similarly, the number of nonirradiated females observed ovipositing and the duration of oviposition was reduced by the presence of irradiated females. In control cages (all nonirradiated flies), the duration of oviposition by females averaged 255.9±15.0 s on fruit, while most of nonirradiated and irradiated females in the mixed (treatment) cage averaged 157±19.8 s and 77.5±7.5 s on fruit, resp. Irradiated females behaved skittishly on fruit and frequently engaged in physical encounters with other flies

  20. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  1. Male Courtship Behavior of the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean Laboratory Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences betwe...

  2. Field applications of Beauveria bassiana to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments with foliar applications of Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 (product Naturalis-L) were conducted to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major pest of cherries in Europe. Naturalis-L was applied at concentrations of 250 ml per 100 l in 7-day intervals during the flight period of R. cerasi. Flight activity monitored by yellow sticky traps was only slightly affected by treatments. Infection and mycosis of adult cherry fruit fl...

  3. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  4. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  5. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  6. Neural mechanisms of context-dependent processing of CO2 avoidance behavior in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siju, K P; Bräcker, Lasse B; Grunwald Kadow, I C

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, innately avoids even low levels of CO2. CO2 is part of the so-called Drosophila stress odor produced by stressed flies, but also a byproduct of fermenting fruit, a main food source, making the strong avoidance behavior somewhat surprising. Therefore, we addressed whether feeding states might influence the fly's behavior and processing of CO2. In a recent report, we showed that this innate behavior is differentially processed and modified according to the feeding state of the fly. Interestingly, we found that hungry flies require the function of the mushroom body, a higher brain center required for olfactory learning and memory, but thought to be dispensable for innate olfactory behaviors. In addition, we anatomically and functionally characterized a novel bilateral projection neuron connecting the CO2 sensory input to the mushroom body. This neuron was essential for processing of CO2 in the starved fly but not in the fed fly. In this Extra View article, we provide evidence for the potential involvement of the neuromodulator dopamine in state-dependent CO2 avoidance behavior. Taken together, our work demonstrates that CO2 avoidance behavior is mediated by alternative neural pathways in a context-dependent manner. Furthermore, it shows that the mushroom body is not only involved in processing of learned olfactory behavior, as previously suggested, but also in context-dependent innate olfaction. PMID:25483251

  7. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. PMID:26385332

  8. A Programme for the Eradication of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly from Algeria, the Libyan and Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is the only fruit fly of economic importance affecting a large number of fruits and vegetables in the Maghreb (Algeria, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia). The medfly causes losses of fresh fruit and vegetables in this region of about US $90 million each year. Therefore, eradication of this pest at this time would be very beneficial. Technologies are available to eradicate the medfly which will have no significant negative environmental impacts, and they can be used to accomplish eradication at reasonable cost. This report outlines the procedures available to eradicate the medfly from the Magherb with primary reliance on the use of sterile flies. A large fruit fly rearing facility, of modular design, must be constructed in the Mediterranean Basin and outside the Maghreb to produce and sterilize flies.

  9. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 490C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  11. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  12. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  13. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  14. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  15. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author)

  16. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  17. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  18. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  19. Inquiry-Based Environmental Science Investigations with the Fantastic Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Ashlie M.; Krall, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of inquiry in life science can be particularly daunting because of the additional management and care living systems require. However, there are some low-maintenance organisms that work well in the classroom. One of these is the common fruit fly, "Drosophila melanogaster." Its small size, low cost, easy availability and maintenance, and…

  20. Proteomics/qPCR approach on estimating physical ages of wild male oriental fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male fruit flies reared in the laboratory in DKI-PBARC rearing facility in Hilo, Hawaii, were collected and whole insects were run through standard proteomic analysis. An odorant binding protein 99b (OBP) (Bdor0907381) located at molecular weight between 9226 dalton and PI 4.56 was identified throug...

  1. Effect of the olive fruit fly and the olive antrachnose on oil quality of some Portuguese cultivars.

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A.; J. A. Pereira; Casal, Susana; M.B.P.P. Oliveira; Bento, Albino

    2005-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), and the olive anthracnose, Colletotrichum sp., cause damage on fruits with repercussion on olive oil quality. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of olive fruit fly and olive anthracnose on oil quality of five Portuguese olive cultivars (Galega vulgar, Cordovil de Castelo Branco, Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana). ln Galega vulgar and Cordovil de Castelo Branco Uuee groups of olives were constituted, one wit...

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi as a new strategy to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of sweet cherries in Europe. Up to 100% of the fruit can be infested. Methods for controlling this pest are limited in organic agriculture as well as in integrated production, as the insecticide currently used (Dimethoate) is being challenged due to problems of ecotoxicity and residues. Alternative methods for cherry fruit fly management are therefore needed. The aim of this thesis was t...

  3. INFLUENCE OF AMYLOSE STARCH ON DEVELOPMENT AND LIFESPAN OF FRUIT FLY DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra Abrat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Last years, the concept of resistant starch (RS has evoked a new interest in researchers in the context of bioavailability of starch and its use as a source of dietary fiber. Based on clinical and animal research, RS has been proposed to be the most potentially beneficial starch fraction for human health. In this study, the effects of amylose starch as a fraction of RS on development and lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. In both Canton S and w1118 strains, the diet with 20% amylose RS delayed fly development, increased triacylglyceride level in the body of adult insects and reduced their lifespan compared to the diet with 4% amylose starch. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that amylose starch at high concentrations may negatively affect fruit fly.

  4. Experiences of integrated management of European Cherry Fruit Fly (Rhagoletis cerasi) and how to utilize this knowledge for Sea Buckthorn Fly.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rhagoletis Loew includes about 65 known species distributed throughout Europe, Asia and America. Most species are oligophagous, attacking only a few closely related host plants. The European cherry fruit fly R. cerasi is the economically most important pest species in Europe. R. batava and R. alternata can also cause economic damage in Europe. In addition to these species, the American cherry fruit fly species R. cingulata, R. indifferens and R. fausta, as well as the apple maggot R...

  5. Gamma radiation effect on production of four pheromonal components of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method enabling the collection and gas chromatographic analysis of delta-1-pyrroline that is released from calling males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was developed. Using this procedure along with previously reported methods for the analyses of geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, and E,E-alpha-farnesene, we compared pheromone production among fruit-reared, factory-reared fertile, and factory-reared sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies in Guatemala. There were no significant differences in pheromone production (ng per male per hour) from 0600 to 1400 hours. In collections made from 1400 to 1700 hours, however, factory-reared fertile males produced significantly more of the three major terpene components (geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, E,E-alpha-farnesene), whereas the factory-reared sterile males produced significantly more of the four-component blend (the three terpenes plus delta-1-pyrroline) than fruit-reared males. Sterile males produced a significantly higher percentage of ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, based on the four component pheromone blend, during the 1000- to 1400-hour collections. Thus, the primary difference in pheromone production among the tested flies was that the fruit-reared males produced pheromone over a shorter time during the day. Gamma radiation did not affect adversely the amount of total pheromone produced but did affect component ratios in the pheromone blend

  6. Effect of age on the mating propensity of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of age on the mating propensity of both wild and laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated under laboratory and field cage conditions. The optimal age for wild flies ranged from 7 to 13 days, whereas in laboratory-reared flies it was between 3 and 5 days old. Virgin flies were selective and more prone to mate than flies that were held with both sexes combined and therefore, had a chance to mate before the test. The difference among ages in laboratory-reared flies was significant only in virgin flies. Virgin females showed a tendency to increase their mating propensity as they got older, whereas virgin males showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks at 4 and 11 days old. When flies of both strains and different ages were combined, laboratory-reared females accounted for 72% of the all the matings and most matings were by 4-day-old females. Wild males accounted for 67% of all the matings and the maximum number of matings were by 10-day-old males. For quality control purpose, flies should be virgin and at their optimal age, this will produce more robust data for statistical analysis. For control purpose, it is recommended to release sterile flies at 1-2 days old, because flies in the field will be at their maximum mating propensity. Our results support the concept that releasing males only will make the Sterile Insect Technique more effective, since sterile males will be virgin and therefore, more prone to mate. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma radiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in guava fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insects pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Because reports have show that guavas are important host of the pest, quarentine treatments must be developed if it's to exported to countries which impose quarentine restrictions on Mediterranean fruit fly infestable commodities. Ionizing radiation is one alternative method of quarentine treatment. This work was carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation against eggs and larvae of Ceratitis capitata in guavas of 'Pedro Sato' cultivar. Guavas artificially infested with eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation at the following doses: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 Gy for eggs and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy for first and third instar larvae, at the dose rate of 352 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic pots in a room at 25 +/- 1 deg C and 70 +/- 5% RH. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults in both treatments (eggs and larvae)

  8. Nutritional and ecological research using nuclear techniques for the control of the olive fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the mineral composition of the olive fruit fly and of its food. The contents of the natural (olive fruit) and artificial food of larvae were determined for the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu. It was found that the natural food contained 26 times less Na, 20 times less Cu and double the amount of K compared with the artificial diet. In addition Mn, Cu, Al, Cr, Zn, Co and Rb contents in newly emerged and unfed olive fruit flies grown as larvae under natural and laboratory conditions were determined. It was found that the two types of insects differed in the quantities of the first five elements. The significance of these results and the limiting factors involved in studying the nutrition and ecology of this insect are discussed. (author). 22 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Improved attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae(Gmelin): Two years data evaluating the responses of wild fly populations in 3 Southern Italy locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted during 2003 and 2004 on wild Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capiata (Wiedemann) and on olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in three locations in southern Italy. The tests with medfly were carried out in a citrus orchard in Sicily during 2003, from the end of September until the end of November, and in a peach orchard in Basilicata during the summer of 2004; while tests on olive fruit fly have been carried out both years in the same location in Apulia, starting in late August and finishing at the end of November. Among the 5 different baits used for the control of medfly in Sicily, the first records on the captures started during the 3rd week (mid October). Treatments B and C (AA+PT+TMA and AA+TMA, respectively) showed the best scores compared to the others and to the control (NuLure). Evaluating the captures among the 6 different baits utilized for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, first records started during the 3rd week (begin of September), and the best scores were detected on the traps with NuLure, showing a sex ratio in the captures of 1:1. Interesting data were recorded both years with the pheromone treatment (side experiment), showing a performance extremely high compared even with NuLure. (author)

  10. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  11. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  12. Evaluation of food-based attractants for fruit fly trapping in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among tephritid fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata and B. cucurbitae are the most destructive pests of tree fruits and cucurbits, respectively, in Mauritius. A feasibility study is ongoing with technical and financial assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme, on integrated management of fruit flies using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Management of fruit flies by SIT or other techniques require population estimation methods which accurately reflect changes in population levels. While male specific sexual lures have been quite effective in monitoring population levels, depending on the fruit fly species, female attractants have been less effective. A trapping system geared towards female flies would be a good tool for improving the efficacy of integrated fruit fly management including SIT and monitoring its effectiveness. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was implemented by the FAO/IAEA from 2000 to 2005. The CRP had the objective of developing and comparing female trapping systems for use in combination with bait application technologies and SIT, and to provide a standardized surveillance system among fruit fly pest species and regions. Trials were conducted in different geographical and ecological regions. Mauritius was one of the 15 participating countries. While studies in Mauritius focused mainly on Bactrocera zonata and B. cucurbitae, other fruit fly species were also taken into consideration. Trials were conducted in four phases. Trapping trials targeting B. zonata were set out in backyards with a variety of fruit trees as hosts while trials with B. cucurbitae were carried out in growers' cucurbit plantations. The CRP compared the use of different food attractants such as NuLure, Torula Yeast, Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB), Ammonium Phosphate (AP), Ammonium Acetate (AA) and Ammonium Sulphate (AS) and the three component lure AA, PT and Trimethylamine (TMA) in different combinations. Food attractants, namely

  13. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  14. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  15. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  16. Forecasting of two main mango fruit fly pests in Mexico using time series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field samples in mango orchards growing in Actopan region of Veracruz, Mexico were taken weekly during a 79-week period to capture adults of two of the main fruit flies pests of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in tropical Mexico: Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and A. ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The data were analysed using Time Series models according to the Box and Jenkins methodology to attempt predicting the behaviour of the pest populations as basic knowledge for integrated pest management. Flies captures were estimated by FTD (flies trap day) method = (number of flies captured x number of traps used)/ number of days of traps deployment). We used McPhail glass traps for the two different species of fruit flies captures during 79 weeks, each one representing the two time series used in this work. After running all the four main steps (identification, parameters estimation, verification and forecasting) indicated in the Box and Jenkins methodology to find the adequate time series models, the ARMA (1,2,2,1) and ARMA (2,1,0,1) models, both with a seasonal behaviour, fully fitted the field observed behavioural pattern for A. obliqua and A. ludens, respectively, and gave good predictions of its future values up to four weeks in advance. This information could help to take the management strategies in an opportune and accurately way when the fruit flies populations surpassing its innocuous level numbers. On the comparative predictions with other different mathematical models, the sixth deg.ree polynomial model was able to made good forecastings in the two series studied

  17. First record of fruit fly, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Dacus (Callantra) longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was detected for the first time in Bangladesh. An adult male fly was collected on 27th July, 2008 from small kitchen garden of Ganakbari, Savar area, containing various cucurbit crops viz., Cucurbita maxima (D.), Trichosanthus cucumerina (L.), Luffa acutungula (L.) etc. using a Mcphail trap baited with cue-lure. The fruit fly specimen were distinguished by the presence of a red-brown scutum, anatergite fuscous, face with a pair of black spots, abdomen petiolate with elongated abdominal tergite-1, cells bc and c fuscous, costal band overlapping R4+5, and absence of fore femoral spines. (author)

  18. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  19. POTENTIAL OF TURMERIC EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS TO CONTROL PEACH FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Riaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Potential of turmeric extract and its chemical fractions were evaluated to control the infestation of Bactrocera zonata peach fruit fly in a mortality-based bioassay. The turmeric extract (TE was taken on Soxhelt's extraction apparatus and chemically fractioned by thin layer followed by column chromatography into 6 fractions (F1 ...F6. Fifty pairs of the flies were fed in cages with 250 and 500 ppm TE and its fractions separately for 20 days along with flies fed on untreated diet to serve as control. The toxicity of TE and each of its fractions was evaluated by calculating percent mortality of fly population after every 5th day in 4 consecutive intervals. Mortality of fly population was observed to be positively correlated with increasing concentrations of TE and its fractions in diet. The mortality of flies fed at 250 and 500 ppm TE was significantly higher at 44.17 and 66.33% compared to 28.88% in control. Percent mortality was much higher in case of flies fed with fractions F1, F3 and F6 i.e. 72.22, 50.00 and 48.76 respectively. Maximum rise of mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; in case of flies fed at 500 ppm TE, 52.45 percent mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; highest mortality was caused by fraction F1, 51.39% in case of flies fed at 250 ppm and 70.37% in case of those fed at 500 ppm.

  20. Functional Insight From Fruit Flies on Human ADHD Candidate Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann;

    2015-01-01

    of developing ADHD. We use Minos mutants, where target genes have been disrupted by the Minos transposable element, to test the effect on locomotor activity. By measuring the distance traveled, we find disparity in locomotor activity between control and Minos mutants. Impaired dopamine system...... underlies the majority of ADHD symptoms, and effective treatment is achieved with amphetamines. We fed flies with either 1.5 mg/ml dexamphetamine dissolved in 5% w/w sucrose or a 5% w/w sucrose solution. Treatment with dexamphetamine increased activity of controls and some Minos lines, and decreased...... activity levels for other mutants. Decreased activity level, when treated with dexamphetamine, is seen when using other ADHD animal models. Our findings suggest involvement of the proposed candidate genes Genes, Brain, and Behavior 2015 36 Talk Abstracts in hyperactivity in D. melanogaster, providing...

  1. Hole diameters in pet bottles used for fruit fly capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurico Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the period from 31 January to 6 March 2012 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil to determine the efficiency of different hole diameters in PET trap bottles on pests in guava and persimmon orchards. In a randomised block design in a factorial scheme, we assessed the average number adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephitidae and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae infruits thatemerged in two situations (in the plant and on the soil; we also assessed the number of captured adults in trap bottlesunder two conditions, different hole diameters and different days after placement of the attractive solution. Smaller diameter sizescaptured more A. fraterculus, C. capitata and Z. indianusadults. The 1.0 cm diameter was the most efficient hole size in reducing the adult emergence of Tephritidae to Z. indianus, whereas the smallest diameter hole sizes, 0.6 and 0.8 cm, showed the highest efficiencies in controlling adult emergence in persimmon fruit and guava fruit.

  2. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  3. Molecular Techniques for the Detection and Differentiation of Host and Parasitoid Species and the Implications for Fruit Fly Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic. Molecular techniques also offer a considerable advantage over traditional morphological methods of fruit fly and parasitoid discrimination as well as within-host parasitoid identification, which currently relies on dissection of immature parasitoids from the host, or lengthy and labour-intensive rearing methods. Here we review recent research focusing on the use of molecular strategies for fruit fly and parasitoid detection and differentiation and discuss the implications of these studies on fruit fly management.

  4. Irradiation quarantine treatment research against arthropods other than fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was studied as a treatment to stop development or reproduction of several insects. Reproduction of 25,000 adult plum curculios was stopped with 92 Gy. Reproduction of over 30,000 adult sweet potato weevils was prevented with 165 Gy. Adult development of over 30 000 last instar oriental fruit moths was stopped with 200 Gy. Preliminary studies showed that at least 350 Gy was needed to prevent reproduction of late pupae of sugarcane borer, southwestern corn borer, and Mexican rice borer. Over 400 Gy was required to stop egg hatch and development past first instar from irradiated adult Indianmeal moth. No reproduction occurred from 220 adult female West Indian sugarcane root borers irradiated with 50 Gy. (author)

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Sleep Loss in the Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Meagan; Keene, Alex. C.

    2013-01-01

    Across phyla, aging is associated with reduced sleep duration and efficiency. Both aging and sleep involve complex genetic architecture and diverse cell types and are heavily influenced by diet and environment. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent changes in sleep will require integrative approaches that go beyond examining these two processes independently. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides a genetically amenable system for dissecting the molecula...

  6. ALPHA-KETOGLUTARATE PARTIALLY PROTECTS FRUIT FLY DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER FROM ETHANOL TOXICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna Shmihel

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in Krebs cycle and in metabolism of amino acids. Recently, it was proposed to apply as a dietary supplement to improve overall functional state of living organisms. In particular, AKG was supposed to use under exposure of animals and cell cultures to many toxic agents. In this context, this study aimed to elucidate the ability of dietary AKG to reduce toxic effects of ethanol on development of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a...

  7. NeuroArch: A Graph dB for Querying and Executing Fruit Fly Brain Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Givon, Lev E.; Lazar, Aurel A; Ukani, Nikul H

    2015-01-01

    NeuroArch is a database for codifying knowledge about fruit fly brain circuits. It is designed with two user communities in mind: (i) neurobiologists interested in querying the database to address questions regarding neu- roanatomy, neural circuits, neurons, synapses, neurotransmitters, and gene expression, and (ii) computational neuroscientists interested in the instantiation of models of neural circuits and architectures, their program execution, and validation of hypotheses regarding brain...

  8. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  9. Ultrasonic Wave Characteristics of Arumanis Mangoes and Damage Arumanis Mangoes by Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    Warji; Rokhani Hasbullah

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the ultrasonic wave characteristic at arumanis mangoesdamage caused by fruit fly. The ultrasonic characteristics that was used to sort the damaged mangoes fromthe normal mangoes were attenuation, velocity and moment zero power (Mo) number. Results showed thatmean attenuation coefficient of normal arumanis mangoes was 36.45 Np/m, mean velocity of ultrasonicwave was 518.19 m/s and Mo number was 4.58. The mean attenuation coefficient arumanis mangoeswh...

  10. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  11. Perspectives on fruit fly expansion: A lesson from a global invader, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fruit flies are present worldwide, although the major pests such as species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis, each have a limited natural distribution. Mankind has played an important part in altering the natural distribution of some of the more polyphagous species, as well as certain oligophagous species. However, a question arises why only a few species have become or are becoming major pests. The major problem in approaching this question is the insufficient knowledge of invasive potential of different species in relation to their biological traits. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, was the first fruit fly species that entered the scientific scene as a potential invader, given its extensive and relatively quick invasion potentials. Genetic analyses of its invasive processes, along with the knowledge of its life history and historical records, allowed us to interpret the biogeography of this species. In southeastern Africa, its home range, this species displays a vast reservoir of genetic variability, which provides a high potential for plasticity, increasing the likelihood of spreading, survival and genetic differentiation. Establishing a fine-scale map of the genetic variability in the species range, we highlighted a variety of evolutionary processes operating over different time scales: from the primary expansion in the Mediterranean area, to the more recent one in the Americas. In addition, secondary colonisation events as well as the origin of different outbreaks have been assessed. Knowledge and methods learnt from the medfly represent a model to approach and investigate the invasion processes of other fruit fly pests. Examples are different species within the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, which represent potential threats to different geographic areas worldwide. (author)

  12. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  13. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Meza Hernández, José Salvador; García-Martínez, Víctor; Ibañez-Palacios, Jorge; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results T...

  14. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann; Loeschcke, Volker; Demontis, Ditte; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...... behavioral activity in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....

  15. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  16. Ultrasonic Wave Characteristics of Arumanis Mangoes and Damage Arumanis Mangoes by Fruit Fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warji

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ultrasonic wave characteristic at arumanis mangoesdamage caused by fruit fly. The ultrasonic characteristics that was used to sort the damaged mangoes fromthe normal mangoes were attenuation, velocity and moment zero power (Mo number. Results showed thatmean attenuation coefficient of normal arumanis mangoes was 36.45 Np/m, mean velocity of ultrasonicwave was 518.19 m/s and Mo number was 4.58. The mean attenuation coefficient arumanis mangoeswhich damaged by fruit fly was 30.67 Np/m, mean velocity of ultrasonic wave was 731.72 m/s and Monumber was 6.40. Relation between the ultrasonic wave characteristic with arumanis mangoes damagecaused by fruit fly showed that attenuation coefficient of arumanis mangoes was increase but damagearumanis mangoes level was decrease, while Mo number was increase in parallel with increase of damagearumanis mangoes level. The ultrasonic wave velocities of arumanis mangoes didn’t show clear correlationwith damage arumanis mangoes level, as shown by from value of r2=0.01. Larva weight of inversely tovalue of attenuation coefficient, correlation of logarithm value r2=0.94. Correlation value of larva weight Mowith number was r2=0.38.

  17. Mass-rearing of Mediterranean fruit fly using low-cost yeast products produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moreira da Silva Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests of fruits for exportation, and Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been the most efficient and environmental friendly technique used to control fruit fly populations around the world. A key goal in achieving a successful SIT program is a mass rearing system producing high quality insects at low cost. Providing adults with an artificial diet containing hydrolysed protein has been the major obstacle for bio-production facilities in Brazil, because it is expensive and has to be imported. Two other commercial products, autolysed yeast (AY and yeast extract (YE, of domestic origin and low cost, were tested as substitutes of the imported hydrolyzed protein. To compare their efficiency we observed the female fecundity, adult survival and egg viability of flies raised on diets containing one of each of the different protein products. Flies reared on the domestic yeast products had equivalent or superior performance to the flies reared on imported protein. Both AY and YE can be a possible substitute for imported hydrolyzed protein for C. capitata mass-rearing, as they are cheaper and are readily available in the national market.

  18. Neurokernel: An Open Source Platform for Emulating the Fruit Fly Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev E Givon

    Full Text Available We have developed an open software platform called Neurokernel for collaborative development of comprehensive models of the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their execution and testing on multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. Neurokernel provides a programming model that capitalizes upon the structural organization of the fly brain into a fixed number of functional modules to distinguish between these modules' local information processing capabilities and the connectivity patterns that link them. By defining mandatory communication interfaces that specify how data is transmitted between models of each of these modules regardless of their internal design, Neurokernel explicitly enables multiple researchers to collaboratively model the fruit fly's entire brain by integration of their independently developed models of its constituent processing units. We demonstrate the power of Neurokernel's model integration by combining independently developed models of the retina and lamina neuropils in the fly's visual system and by demonstrating their neuroinformation processing capability. We also illustrate Neurokernel's ability to take advantage of direct GPU-to-GPU data transfers with benchmarks that demonstrate scaling of Neurokernel's communication performance both over the number of interface ports exposed by an emulation's constituent modules and the total number of modules comprised by an emulation.

  19. Neurokernel: An Open Source Platform for Emulating the Fruit Fly Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givon, Lev E; Lazar, Aurel A

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an open software platform called Neurokernel for collaborative development of comprehensive models of the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their execution and testing on multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Neurokernel provides a programming model that capitalizes upon the structural organization of the fly brain into a fixed number of functional modules to distinguish between these modules' local information processing capabilities and the connectivity patterns that link them. By defining mandatory communication interfaces that specify how data is transmitted between models of each of these modules regardless of their internal design, Neurokernel explicitly enables multiple researchers to collaboratively model the fruit fly's entire brain by integration of their independently developed models of its constituent processing units. We demonstrate the power of Neurokernel's model integration by combining independently developed models of the retina and lamina neuropils in the fly's visual system and by demonstrating their neuroinformation processing capability. We also illustrate Neurokernel's ability to take advantage of direct GPU-to-GPU data transfers with benchmarks that demonstrate scaling of Neurokernel's communication performance both over the number of interface ports exposed by an emulation's constituent modules and the total number of modules comprised by an emulation. PMID:26751378

  20. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  1. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  2. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  3. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Baker; Claudia Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of...

  4. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  5. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  6. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  7. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  8. Utilisation of the egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus, for augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Hawaii, entomologists concerned about tephritid fruit fly control recognise and accept the fact that the introduction of tephritid fruit flies consisting of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) required the introduction of many species of parasitoids into Hawaii (Clausen 1956) to reduce crop damage caused by tephritid fruit flies. The parasitoids established in the order of their succession were Diachasimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), and Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan). F. arisanus was first discovered in Hawaii in 1949 in a guava fruit collection (van den Bosch and Haramoto 1951). In 1950, the rate of parasitism caused F. arisanus to increase and this insect spread and became the dominant and most widely distributed parasitoid in Hawaii (Haramoto and Bess 1970). Entomologists investigating fruit fly ecology in Hawaii recognised that the four species of tephritid fruit flies differ in their distribution, abundance and host utilisation patterns in different habitats. The rapid spread and distribution of F. arisanus in Hawaii indicated the reality that among the parasitoids, F. arisanus has the highest adaptation capabilities in the Hawaiian ecosystem comparable to that of B. dorsalis and C. capitata, the most persistent fruit fly species in Hawaii. A strategy receiving high priority to improve biological control of tephritid fruit flies is foreign exploration to find new parasitoids for introduction into tephritid fruit fly invested areas including Guatemala and Hawaii. It is possible another species comparable to F. arisanus might be found. New introductions could increase the diversity of parasitoid species and result in the introduction of species more efficient for suppressing B. latifrons in Hawaii. The cost of parasitoid exploration is very expensive, US$100,000 or

  9. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  10. Host range and reproductive output of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies newly imported to Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four exotic tephritid fruit fly pests have colonised the Hawaiian islands over the past 100 years, where they have become major pests infesting hundreds of horticultural crops. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) are considered among the major obstacles to the development of a more robust agricultural economy in the state of Hawaii. Furthermore, the flies pose a continuous threat to agriculture in California and other areas in the southern United States, where it has been estimated that the establishment of the Medfly alone would result in losses of over one billion dollars annually (Andrew et al. 1978). Entomologists in Hawaii have conducted a number of classical biological control programmes against these tephritid pests over the years, resulting in the establishment of several parasitoid species and partial control of the flies in some crops (see reviews in Clausen et al. 1965, Wharton 1989). However, these programmes were conducted before the invasion of the state by the Solanaceous fruit fly; thus, there have been no biocontrol programmes targeted against this pest. Also, several entomologists have pointed out the potential of improved control over the other tephritid species in Hawaii by introducing new natural enemies (Gilstrap and Hart 1987, Messing 1995, Steck et al. 1986, Wharton 1989, Wong and Ramadan 1992). We have therefore renewed efforts to import parasitoids from tropical and sub-tropical areas around the world to attack tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. As part of this effort, we imported Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway from Queensland, Australia, where it is an endemic parasitoid of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and several other endemic Australian tephritids. This paper reports the results of initial host range tests and studies on the reproductive output of D. kraussii in quarantine

  11. A modified 'easy trap' could be a good 'bait station' against fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, a new 'easy trap' was launched onto the fruit fly market. The easy trap showed a good performance when it was tested against PMT and Tephri traps baited with Nulure or synthetic attractants. The use of 'bait stations' to control fruit flies is being introduced recently. An important parameter to consider will be the amount of flies that it can kill versus the number of beneficial insects killed. The 'Easy trap' can be transformed into a 'bait station' by discarding the clear half and replacing it with a yellow one. The effect is a yellow rectangular box with two holes and a hanger. The position and size of the holes in the trap have acted as a good mechanism for dispersion when baited with synthetic attractants (AA; TMA) or Nulure. This aspect can be useful when coating the whole surface of the trap with a sugar based syrup plus methomyl. The flies will be attracted by the synthetic attractants inside the trap. They land on the syrup - coated surface, they eat it and die. The first tests with this 'easy bait station' were run accordingly to the Standard Research Protocol of the FAO/IAEA CRP 'Development of Improved Attractants Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assesment' from 11 Sep to 26 Oct 2004 in a mango orchard located in Malaga in southern Spain. The results were more than acceptable: During 45 days the 'easy bait station' killed an amount (mean) of 283 medflies (6.3 F/T/D, 70% females) while PMT baited with Nulure and Borax (used as control) captured 265 flies (5.8 F/T/D, 59% females) and the 'easy trap' baited with AA+TMA using Deltametrin as killer agent, captured 238 flies (5.3 F/T/D, 68% females). No other insects, especially their natural enemies, have been caught in high numbers (some Chrysopids and black flies) in the 'easy bait station'. It will be necessary to study the performance of the bait stations in other fruit orchards and sites with diverse climates and entomofauna. (author)

  12. Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)

  13. Control of fruit flies pest on guava fruit by using organic insecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinan, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is a mainstay commodity in Bogor and Bogor district is a supplier of guava into surrounding towns. In Bogor, population of guava fruit is around 160,000 trees that reaches an area of about 800 ha and scattered in several places, including in the Village of Kencana, Sukadamai, Mekarwangi and Sukaresmi that reaches an area of about 80 ha with a population of about sixteen thousand trees. Production during the harvest reaches 15 tones per ha at each harvest, and th...

  14. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

  15. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  16. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  17. Adaptive Wavelet Threshold Denoising Method for Machinery Sound Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of a machine contains abundant information and is easy to measure, acoustic-based monitoring or diagnosis systems exhibit obvious superiority, especially in some extreme conditions. However, the sound directly collected from industrial field is always polluted. In order to eliminate noise components from machinery sound, a wavelet threshold denoising method optimized by an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (WTD-IFOA is proposed in this paper. The sound is firstly decomposed by wavelet transform (WT to obtain coefficients of each level. As the wavelet threshold functions proposed by Donoho were discontinuous, many modified functions with continuous first and second order derivative were presented to realize adaptively denoising. However, the function-based denoising process is time-consuming and it is difficult to find optimal thresholds. To overcome these problems, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA was introduced to the process. Moreover, to avoid falling into local extremes, an improved fly distance range obeying normal distribution was proposed on the basis of original FOA. Then, sound signal of a motor was recorded in a soundproof laboratory, and Gauss white noise was added into the signal. The simulation results illustrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach by a comprehensive comparison among five typical methods. Finally, an industrial application on a shearer in coal mining working face was performed to demonstrate the practical effect.

  18. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  19. THERMAL TREATMENT WITH HOT AIR IN THE CONTROL OF FRUIT FLY IN SAPOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vilian de Moraes Lima Marinus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main postharvest problems of the sapota (Achras sapota L. is caused by the fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, affecting its quality and commercialization. With this experiment, the objective was to evaluate the effect of hot air as thermal treatment in the control of immature phases of Ceratitis capitata and the fruit quality. The research was carried out at Entomology Laboratory – Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, Areia-PB. It was made the damaging of fruits with eggs inoculation of Ceratitis capitata and after three days the fruits were treated in hot air at temperatures of 46±1°C and 50±1°C, during 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Hot air was injected in the chamber using an equipment of the Skill mark. It was used a randomized design, in factorial scheme of 2x5+1 (two temperatures, five times of exhibition and one control, with four replications. The treatment with hot air was efficient to control the immature phases of C. capitata during 75 and 90 minutes of exposure and didn't affect the physical and chemical qualities of the sapota fruits.

  20. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Aspects of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-irradiation on certain biological aspects of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata following gamma irradiation of 5 days old pupae were studied. Treatment led to a decrease in percentage adult emergence which was 3.66, 9.22, 14.77.18.55 and 22.66, following irradiation with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy, respectively. Some emerged flies exhibited malformation being 3.3, 5, 6.7, 8.3 and 11.7% in flies irradiated as pupae with the respective mentioned doses. Sex ratio of emerged flies were shifted towards females. When male flies, emerging from irradiated pupae with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy were paired with untreated females the mean number of deposited eggs was reduced to 211.3, 197.3, 184, 173 and 161.3 eggs /female as compared to 220 eggs/ female in the control. Percentages of hatched eggs were 62.1, 40.2, 26.6, 7.9 and zero as compared to 81.8 in the control. The effect on reproductive potential was more evident when unirradiated males were paired with female flies emerging from irradiated 5 day old pupa. In females emerged of pupae irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy mated with unirradiated male; the mean number of eggs laid per female were 135.1 and 72.3 eggs comparing to 233.4 in control. The percentages of eggs hatch were 57.4 and 35.3% in at doses 10 and 30 Gy, respectively in comparing to 82.2% in control. No eggs laid by females emerged from pupae exposed to the higher considered doses of 50, 70 or 90 Gy

  1. Mercury in fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Pers. collected from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Lipka, K.

    2003-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in the fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: FL) Pers. and underlying soil substrate collected from several sites in Poland in 1993-2000 to evaluate mercury status as contaminant and bioindicating features of this species. The samples were collected from the spatially distant sites such as: Zaborski Landscape Park, Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Borecka Forest, Tucholskie Forest, Wieluńska Upland, the communities of Gubin, Manowo, Lubiana and Morag. Total mercury content of caps and stalks of Fly agaric varied widely depending on the sites examined. The range of the mean mercury concentrations for all 17 sites was between 96±10 and 1900±1400 ng/g dry wt for the caps and between 6l±32 and 920±760 ng/g dry wt for the stalks, while between 4.4±3.1 and 150±20 ng/g were noted for soil substrate samples from 9 sites examined. Fly agaric independently of the site examined showed relatively good capacity to accumulate total mercury and BCF values varied between 16±10 and 74±15 for the caps and between 11±8 and 42±10 for the stalks. Nevertheless, relatively high bioconcentration potential of mercury by Fly agaric seems to be specific for that species and under soil mercury concentrations noted no bioindication properties of this mushroom could be observed.

  2. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood. PMID:27500374

  3. Radiation biology of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, as adults and pupae induced sterility. A reduction in egg hatch of about 99% occurred when males were irradiated with a dose of 8 krad and mated to normal females. Longevity of male flies decreased significantly with increasing doses of radiation. Adult females were more sensitive to radiation than males; they became infecund at 5 krad. However, the longevity of females was only slightly reduced by radiation of up to 16 krad. In laboratory cages, sterile males were more competitive in ratios of 4 : 1 than 8 : 1, the total number of matings was about the same with the larger number of males. Sterile males irradiated as adults mated only slightly less frequently than normal males in the same cages. Males irradiated as pupae were less than half as competitive as males irradiated as adults. Data indicate that R. indifferens is a good candidate for sterile insect release technique. (orig.)

  4. Some chemical elements in gamma irradiated adults of the mediterranean fruit fly , Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of the elemental compositions of both males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), was conducted on adult flies irradiated in the full grown pupae with 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gray at different ages (newly emerged, 7 and 15 days old). The data revealed the presence of ten elements, three of which are major (Na, K and N), four are moderate (P, Ca, Fe and Mg) and three are minors (Zn, Mn and Cu). Their quantities, however, varied according to adult sex, age and radiation dose. In all cases, the major elements remained major, the moderate elements remained moderate and the minor elements remained minor although the elements of each group differed in their arrangement according to changes in their quantities

  5. A population analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), the Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly, is the most economically important horticultural pest in Australia, infesting almost every commercial vegetable and fruit crop (Drew 1989). It is well established as a serious pest all along the east coast of Australia, as far south as the east Gippsland area of Victoria (Drew 1989). B. tryoni has the potential to spread across Australia to South Australia, Victoria and the tropical regions of the Northern Territory (Meats 1989) and flies classified as B. tryoni have been identified in the Northern Territory (Osborne et al. 1997). Winter breeding of B. tryoni is believed to occur only in the northern half of the range, although winged adults are usually sufficiently hardy to survive the southern winter without reproducing (Meats 1989). The number of generations per year is also a function of temperature, ranging from about eight in northern Queensland to about three in the Sydney region (Fletcher 1989). In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of outbreaks in horticulturally important areas, inland in the southeast of the continent, where irrigation systems have been in use (Bateman 1991). Small-scale outbreaks occur in Adelaide (Maelzer 1990), and a more substantial outbreak was eradicated from Perth (Fisher 1996). These outbreaks mean the suspension of fruit fly free status with severe financial implications for the regions affected. To assist with the control of outbreaks within the fly-free zones and to facilitate area-wide management programmes in the endemic areas, it would be useful to have molecular genetic markers capable of identifying population structure. Population analysis requires markers which are capable of easy and repeatable scoring and which are as polymorphic as possible. Microsatellites are now widely regarded as the most useful molecular markers available for genetic typing of individuals for kinship or larger-scale population studies (Bruford and Wayne 1993

  6. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  7. Evaluation of different trapping systems for use in Mediterranean fruit fly sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Madeira Island of Portugal, where a SIT suppression programme against Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) is in operations, several trap types, fruit fly food based attractants and retention systems (killing agents) were tested with the aim of developing improved female biased trapping systems in support of area-wide SIT Programmes. In contrast with male specific trapping systems, which for many years have been used in medfly SIT programmes as monitoring and detection tools, and which catch too many of the released sterile males, female biased trapping systems have shown to be more sensitive for early detection and catch predominantly females, but still sufficient sterile males to keep track of the released sterile males. These experiments were conducted from 2001 to 2005 under different climatic conditions and hosts. The traps tested were: Jackson, Tephri, Multilure (MLT), Shabtiely and Easy. The attractants tested were: NuLure, Ammonium Acetate (AA), Putrescine (PT), Trimethylamine (TMA), and Trimedlure and the retention systems tested were: DDVP, water and Triton, water and Propylene Glycol, three different sizes of Deltamethrinee (DM) impregnated fabrics (UV PermaNet): 16, 64 and 256 cm2, mosquito net (UV PermaNet), blue panel (UV PermaNet), DM dog collars, and sticky inserts. In conclusion, the MLT trap baited with TMA+AA+PT and the retention system based on fabric UV PermaNet (256 cm2) was the best treatment. The dog collar and mosquito net (easy to find in the local market) were also good options as retention systems. The Shabtiely trap, because of the lack of a retention system, is less labour intensive does not use a toxic agent to retain fruit flies that have been trapped and thus could be a good choice in urban and suburban areas were children have easy access. (author)

  8. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: This study reports efforts to demonstrate to growers of fruiting crops a technique to sequester emerging adult flies while conserving their parasitoid natural enemies. Sequestering infested fruit to prevent progeny survival is often overlooked. Methods: Demonstration trials were cond...

  9. Evaluation of chemicals for the development of female attracting trapping systems for peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various chemicals for the development of female peach fruit fly targeted trapping systems. Results indicated that the percentage of female catches was comparatively higher in the traps baited with Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Puterscine (PT) and in NuLure (hydrolysate protein) + Diammonium Phosphate using a 3:7 ratio than the other food baits. None of the chemicals captured male flies up to the level of Methyl Eugenol, which was almost 10 times higher than the other baits. It was observed that 300 ml water and 2 drops of Triton proved very effective for retention and catching of the fruit flies. Based on these findings it is apparent that synthetic food attractants provide an effective system for capturing the peach fruit fly. Field management studies revealed that based on adult catches in traps and fruit infestation, male annihilation technique (MAT) in conjunction with bait sprays (BAT) and cultural practices proved significantly more effective for the control of peach fruit fly in guava and mango orchards as compared to MAT + BAT without cultural practices and BAT + cultural practices. (author)

  10. The Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster as a Model System to Study Cholesterol Metabolism and Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Niwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol has long been recognized for its versatile roles in influencing the biophysical properties of cell membranes and for serving as a precursor of steroid hormones. While many aspects of cholesterol biosynthesis are well understood, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis. Recently, genetic approaches in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have been successfully used for the analysis of molecular mechanisms that regulate cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis. This paper summarizes the recent studies on genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis, including neverland, Niemann Pick type C(NPC disease genes, and DHR96.

  11. Circadian Consequence of Socio-Sexual Interactions in Fruit Flies Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Rahman Lone; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    In fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, courtship is an elaborate ritual comprising chasing, dancing and singing by males to lure females for mating. Courtship interactions peak in the night and heterosexual couples display enhanced nighttime activity. What we do not know is if such socio-sexual interactions (SSI) leave long-lasting after-effects on circadian clock(s). Here we report the results of our study aimed at examining the after-effects of SSI (as a result of co-habitation of males an...

  12. Latent luciferase activity in the fruit fly revealed by a synthetic luciferin

    OpenAIRE

    Mofford, David M.; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Stephen C. Miller

    2014-01-01

    Few organisms are capable of glowing in the dark. Perhaps the best known example is the firefly, a beetle that can emit flashes of yellow-green light when the small molecule d-luciferin is oxidized by the enzyme firefly luciferase. Here we show that a homologous enzyme in fruit flies is also capable of bioluminescence, but only when treated with a rigid synthetic analog of d-luciferin. The discovery of hidden luciferase activity in a nonluminescent insect suggests that the inherent chemistry ...

  13. Dynamics of oil quality parameters changes related to olive fruit fly attack

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivnjak, Olivera; Dminić, Ivana; Kosić, Urška; Majetić, Valerija; Godena, Sara; Valenčič, Vasilij

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of intrinsic characteristics of olive cultivars on dynamics of oil quality parameters changes related to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) attack, two specific olive cultivars were compared, Istarska bjelica and Buža. I. bjelica is characterised by late ripening, a lower flesh/stone mass ratio and higher oleic/linoleic ratio, the total phenols content and oil mass fraction compared to Buža. Oil samples were obtained at two harvesting dates, from fru...

  14. Recent advances in methyl eugenol and cue-lure technologies for fruit fly detection, monitoring, and control in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Shelly, Todd E; Leblanc, Luc; Piñero, Jaime C

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, an important aspect of invasive insect pest management is more effective, safer detection and control systems. Phenyl propanoids are attractive to numerous species of Dacinae fruit flies. Methyl eugenol (ME) (4-allyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate), cue-lure (C-L) (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone), and raspberry ketone (RK) (4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) are powerful male-specific lures. Most evidence suggests a role of ME and C-L/RK in pheromone synthesis and mate attraction. ME and C-L/RK are used in current fruit fly programs for detection, monitoring, and control. During the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program in the interest of worker safety and convenience, liquid C-L/ME and insecticide (i.e., naled and malathion) mixtures were replaced with solid lures and insecticides. Similarly, Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) with a sprayable Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT), in combination with ME (against Bactrocera dorsalis, oriental fruit fly) or C-L/RK (against B. cucurbitae, melon fly), and the reduced-risk insecticide, spinosad, was developed for area-wide suppression of fruit flies. The nontarget effects of ME and C-L/RK to native invertebrates were examined. Although weak attractiveness was recorded to flower-visiting insects, including bees and syrphid flies, by ME, effects to native Drosophila and other Hawaiian endemics were found to be minimal. These results suggested that the majority of previously published records, including those of endemic Drosophilidae, were actually for attraction to dead flies inside fruit fly traps. Endemic insect attraction was not an issue with C-L/RK, because B. cucurbitae were rarely found in endemic environments. PMID:20831962

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meihua; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Caiyu; Zhou, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, is an important quarantine pest in many countries because of its mass destructiveness to a variety of vegetable and fruit plants. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. tau. Its complete mitogenome sequence is 15,687 bp in length, which contains a non-coding control region and all of the 37 genes of bilaterian animals (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A phylogenetic tree of the complete mitogenome of all available Tephritidae species was established to approve the accuracy. The base composition of mitogenome sequence and the gene arrangement including directions are rather conservative, compared to other published mitogenomes of Bactrocera species. This first complete mitogenome of B. tau will facilitate the development of new DNA markers for species diagnosis, therefore improving accurate detection of quarantine species. PMID:26024140

  16. An Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm Inspired from Cell Communication Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA invented recently is a new swarm intelligence method based on fruit fly’s foraging behaviors and has been shown to be competitive with existing evolutionary algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. However, there are still some disadvantages in the FOA, such as low convergence precision, easily trapped in a local optimum value at the later evolution stage. This paper presents an improved FOA based on the cell communication mechanism (CFOA, by considering the information of the global worst, mean, and best solutions into the search strategy to improve the exploitation. The results from a set of numerical benchmark functions show that the CFOA outperforms the FOA and the PSO in most of the experiments. Further, the CFOA is applied to optimize the controller for preoxidation furnaces in carbon fibers production. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the CFOA.

  17. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests...

  18. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10 are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.

  19. Resistance of Mexican fruit fly to quarantine treatments of high-pressure processing combined with cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan F; Vargas-Ortiz, Manuel A; Montoya, Pablo; García, Hugo S; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Ramírez, José A; Vázquez, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting fruits. Although high pressure has been proposed as an alternative quarantine process for this pest, conditions applied to destroy eggs and larvae can also damage the fruits. The objective of this study was to assess the biological viability of A. ludens eggs treated by high-pressure processing at 0°C, establishing whether nondestroyed eggs and larvae preserved their ability to develop and reproduce. One-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old eggs were pressurized at 50, 70, or 90 MPa for 0, 3, 6, or 9 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs and their capacity to develop larvae, pupae, and reproductive adults were evaluated. The ability of pressurized larvae to pupate was also registered. The results showed that most of the eggs that resisted the treatments were able to produce adults with capability to reproduce a new generation of A. ludens flies. Larvae were less resistant than eggs. All larvae were killed at 90 MPa for 9 min. The pressure induced the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in second- and third-instar larvae. The HSP showed a baroprotective effect in A. ludens larvae. These results are relevant to the industry because they show that eggs of insects infesting fruits treated by high-pressure processing were able to pupate after treatments. This indicates that efforts must be addressed to destroy all eggs because most of the surviving organisms could reach an adult stage and reproduce. PMID:21492022

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed. PMID:19335826

  1. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are a major problem of fruit and vegetable crops throughout the world. Management programs for the control of these pests use a range of techniques, but sequestering fruit to prevent progeny survival is often overlooked. This study reports efforts to extend to growers of fruit...

  2. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  3. Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Zacharopoulou, Antigoni; Fu, Guoliang; Chapman, Tracey; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal) strains for medfly can overcome many of the problems of SIT associated with irradiation. Here, we present life-history characterizations for two medfly RIDL strains, OX3864A and OX3647Q. Our results show (i) full functionality of RIDL, (ii) equivalency of RIDL and wild-type strains for life-history characteristics, and (iii) a high level of sexual competitiveness against both wild-type and wild-derived males. We also present the first proof-of-principle experiment on the use of RIDL to eliminate medfly populations. Weekly releases of OX3864A males into stable populations of wild-type medfly caused a successive decline in numbers, leading to eradication. The results show that genetic control can provide an effective alternative to SIT for the control of pest insects. PMID:25122230

  4. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed. PMID:24020292

  5. Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Chun; Okuyama, Toshinori; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations. PMID:22299368

  6. [Introductory paper:] Fruit fly trapping and control - Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit fly trapping has a long, well documented history that has led to the development of numerous trap and lure combinations that are used throughout the world for pest tephritid fruit flies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through its Joint FAO and IAEA Programme, has supported development of female-targeted trapping systems for use with the sterile insect technique through funding of several Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have led to the current CRP. Results of research conducted under a CRP on 'Standardization of Medfly Trapping for Use in Sterile Insect Technique Programmes' determined that plastic McPhail traps, specifically International Pheromones McPhail traps (IPMT), baited with liquid protein solutions were the recommended female-targeted trapping system for medflies. At this time, R. Heath and N. Epsky were conducting research on effect of formulations of the liquid protein bait NuLure/borax on medfly and mexfly caPTure in Guatemala. Chemical analysis paired with laboratory bioassays and field tests resulted in the development of a two-component synthetic food-based lure comprised of ammonium acetate (FFA) and putrescine (FFP), and a closed-bottom dry trap that protected the lures from the environment. Depending on dosage of the attractants, caPTure in these traps tended to be equal to caPTure in liquid protein-baited McPhail traps although they captured fewer male medflies than Trimedlure (TML)-baited Jackson traps. (author)

  7. Development and evaluation of improved Mediterranean fruit fly attractants in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey on development and evaluation of synthetic food attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly trapping, had been carried out within various plantations in Israel, throughout the years, 2001-2004. All field tests followed a standard protocol developed by the participants of Coordinated Research Project (CRP), of the FAO and IAEA Joint Programme. The research work was aimed at developing an oPTimal mass trapping system for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) in support of area-wide IPM programmes. Trapping experiments included combinations of different lures, traps and various retention agents. Positive results were obtained in three consecutive years, showing a significant response of medflies to a three-component synthetic food lure (AA+ PT+TMA), in McPhail type traps (Multilure Traps (MLT) and an Israeli-MLT trap design)), using DDVP or water as the retention agents. Both sexes of C. capitata did not respond as well to MLT traps baited with NuLure and some combinations of the synthetic food lure throughout the four year project. Likewise, relatively low captures were documented in sticky Jackson traps with AA+ PT+TMA. Similar results regarding optimal trapping system for medflies had been obtained in other countries by participants of the CRP. These trapping systems may be tested for mass trapping for medfly suppression, which is required prior to the release of sterile insects, a technique in use in Israel and in some other countries. (author)

  8. A biochemical marker for detection or irradiated pupae of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biochemical method for detecting a radiation sensitive protein marker in pupae of gamma irradiated larvae of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is presented. Third instar larvae were irradiated at 100 Gy using a 60Co dry gamma cell. SDS-PAGE protein profile analysis of pupae of the irradiated larvae revealed the absence of a specific protein band (ascribed to a gene product, Gs, of a putative radiation sensitive marker gene) in comparison to the protein profile of unirradiated control larvae. Absence of the Gs protein band from the electrophoretic gel profile was observed only in two-day-old pupae (day 3 post-irradiation) and even at a dose as low as 40 Gy. Thus, irradiation of immature (two-day-old) larvae at 100 Gy resulted in the subsequent absence of the Gs protein only after day 8 post-irradiation (three-day-old pupae), by which stage the pupae of the unirradiated larvae had already started to synthesize the Gs protein, as seen by the SDS-PAGE gel profile. The absence of this Gs protein band in the SDS-PAGE profile of pupae of the irradiated larvae could be used as a biochemical marker for establishing the efficacy or irradiation of the Oriental fruit fly. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  9. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  10. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingxin; Liu, Yuxiang; Ruan, Minghua; Feng, Xu; Wang, Jiachun; Chu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process. PMID:26239097

  11. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-06-01

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces. PMID:25946079

  12. Antipredator behavior of the new mass-reared unisexual strain of the Mexican Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, G I; Rao, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Orozco-Dávila, D; Pérez-Staples, D

    2016-06-01

    Tephritid pests controlled through the sterile insect technique (SIT) are mass-reared and subsequently released in affected areas. Several quality parameters are currently used to test adults, but none take into account interactions with a predator. When sterile males are released in the field, they will need to avoid predators until they reach sexual maturity and survive long enough to mate with wild females. Spiders are one of the most common predators that flies may encounter in release sites. In this study, we evaluated the antipredator behavior of a mass-reared sterile unisexual strain ('Tapachula-7') of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) against their spider predators. We sampled spiders in citrus trees to determine which families could be more common. We established the baseline activity rates of sterile Tapachula-7 (Tap-7) flies in comparison with wild flies. We also tested the behavior of the fertile and sterile bisexual strain and wild flies against hunting spiders (Family Salticidae) and orb building spiders (Family Tetragnathidae). We recorded 18 spider families, with Salticidae being the most dominant. Tap-7 flies diminished their activity in comparison with wild males at 1800 h but showed similar activity levels earlier in the day. When exposed to orb-web spiders (Leucauge venusta), Tap-7, fertile and sterile males from the bisexual strain had similar rates of survival, but Tap-7 males showed lower survival than wild males. Against hunting spiders (Phidippus audax), wild males had higher probability of defensive wing displays, but there was no difference in spider attack rates. In general, sterile Tap -7 males performed as well as males from the bisexual strain, although they had lower survival than wild males. This could be due to either mass-rearing and/or irradiation effects. We recommend the use of the defensive wing display behavior as a quality parameter and propose a rapid and effective method to evaluate fly

  13. Field comparison of food-based synthetic attractants and traps for African tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four field trials were conducted on coffee orchards in Ruiru, Central Province, Kenya to compare captures of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Multilure Plastic McPhail type traps and Israeli Shabtiely traps baited with female selective food-based attractants. In trial 1, wet Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT), AA+TMA and TMA+PT captured significantly more female flies than the other treatments. In the second trial, both the wet and dry AA+TMA+PT and wet AA+TMA were superior to the other treatments in capturing females. Among the different synthetic food attractants, female C. capitata accounted for 67 to 72% of the total captures while 72 to 74% females were captured using NuLure as attractant in both trials. In trials 3 and 4, treatments containing half patch of AA were equally effective as those treatments containing full patch of AA and in trial 4, both treatments with half patch of AA captured significantly more female C. capitata than the NuLure treatment. In trial 3, all treatments in Multilure traps were selective for female C. capitata with percent female caught ranging from 62-67% across the different treatments while in trial 4, all treatments caught between 56 to 70% female flies. In all the trials, the different treatments generally captured lower number of males compared with female catches. Traps baited with the different three component treatments also captured Ceratitis fasciventris. Two other field trials were also conducted in mango orchards at Nguruman, Rift Valley Province and at Muhaka, Coast Province to compare catches of Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra in Multilure trap baited with female selective food-based attractants. At Nguruman, treatment AA+TMA+PT captured significantly more females and males of B. invadens compared with the other treatments while at Muhaka, the NuLure treatment caught more males and females of B. invadens although catches were not

  14. Behavioral resistance to the sterile insect technique by Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot test of the sterile insect technique (SIT) program against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in coffee plantations in Hawaii failed after several years of continuous releases apparently, at least in part, because native C. capitata females from the treated area on Kauai altered their mating preferences and began rejecting most laboratory-reared males during courtship. In outdoor field cage experiments, females from other non-SIT Hawaiian islands did not change their mating preferences over the same period and accepted laboratory males 5-10 times more often than did resistant Kauai females. Two indices were devised to quantify the degrees of mating compatibility between laboratory-reared, sterilized flies and wild flies. The relative isolation index compares the numbers of homotypic (laboratory to laboratory or wild to wild) matings with heterotypic (laboratory to wild) matings, thus measuring the extent of departure from random mating conditions. The relative sterility index measures the proportion of wild females mating with laboratory males, thus providing a field cage level estimate of induced sterility. The results and implications of a series of field cage mating tests are discussed in the context of tephritid SIT programs worldwide

  15. Mobile Mating Disruption of Light Brown Apple Moths Using Pheromone-Treated Sterile Mediterranean Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light-brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.), in California stopped its further use in the ca $ 74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. It is demonstrated that pheromone- treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata Wied., can disrupt communication in male moths. Results: Medflies topically dosed with moth pheromone (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate showed a no observed effect level (NOEL) of ∼ 10 μg fly-1, with increasing toxicity from 30 to 100 μg fly-1. Greater potency and longevity of attraction and lower mortality were achieved using microencapsulated pheromone. Releases of 1000 pheromone- treated medflies ha-1 prevented male moth catch to synthetic lures in treated 4 ha plots for 1 day in suburban Perth, Australia. Releases of ca 3000 pheromone-treated medflies ha-1 disrupted catch to single female moths in delta traps, and to synthetic pheromone lures. Percentage disruption on the first four nights was 95, 91, 82 and 85%. Conclusions: Disruption of moth catch using pheromonetreated medflies is a novel development that, with future improvement, might provide a socially acceptable approach for application of the insect mating disruption technique to control invasive insects in urban environments. Adequacy of payload and other issues require resolution. (author)

  16. Effects of post-teneral nutrition on reproductive success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize their reproductive potential, male Mediterranean fruit flies must run a gauntlet of behavioral challenges during which they may be edged out by rivals, or fail the acid test of female choice. Milestones on this perilous road include: 1. showing up at a lek site, 2. emitting pheromone, 3. performing courtship, 4. Copulation, 5. sperm transfer and storage, 6.fertilization of eggs, 7. preventing or delaying female re-mating. In a number of recent studies focused on each of these steps we tested the hypothesis that post-teneral male nutrition affects male sexual performance. Both field and laboratory data indicate that protein nutrition increases a male's probability of emitting pheromone in a lek. Field cage data show that protein fed males are also more likely to engage in critical elements of close-range courtship, and evidence from several studies indicate that protein fed males are more likely to copulate than sugar-fed or starved flies. As to sperm transfer and storage, we find that the context of the experiment and the source of flies used affect the outcome, suggesting that diet alone cannot explain the variability in the probability of sperm being transferred, and in the amount of sperm transferred. To date we have not studied effects of male diet on fertilization. Nevertheless, we have shown that male diet significantly affects female receptivity: females whose first mate was protein-deprived, re-mate sooner than females whose first mate was protein-fed. (author)

  17. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, YINGXIN; Liu, Yuxiang; RUAN, MINGHUA; FENG, XU; WANG, JIACHUN; CHU, ZHIYONG; ZHANG, ZESHENG

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...

  18. DNA barcoding to identify species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ricardo, Luis; Lastre-Meza, Natalia; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the species of phlebotomine sand flies present in each focus of leishmaniasis is necessary to incriminate vectors and implement vector control strategies. Although the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene has been proposed as a barcode for the identification of animal species, less than 20% of New World phlebotomines have been characterized to date. In this study DNA barcoding was used to identify phlebotomine species of the mixed leishmaniasis focus in the Colombian Caribbean by means of three evolutionary models: Kimura's two parameter (K2P) nucleotide substitution model, that of (Tamura and Nei, 1993) (TN93) and proportional sequence divergence (p-distances). A 681bp sequence of the COI gene was obtained from 66 individuals belonging to 19 species of the genus Lutzomyia (Lu. abonnenci, Lu. atroclavata, Lu. bicolor, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. gorbitzi, Lu. longipalpis, Lu. micropyga, Lu. migonei, Lu. panamensis, Lu. (Psathyromyia) sp., Lu. rangeliana, Lu. serrana, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trinidadensis and Lu. venezuelensis) and one of Brumptomyia (B. mesai). The genetic divergence values for TN93 among individuals of the same species fluctuated up to 3.2% (vs. 2.9% for K2P and 2.8% for p-distances), while the values between species ranged from 8.8-43.7% (vs. 6.8-19.6% for K2P and 6.6-17.4% for p-distances). A dendrogram constructed by means of the Neighbor-Joining method grouped phlebotomines into 20 clusters according to species, with bootstrap values of up to 100% in those with more than one individual. However, loss of the phylogenetic signal of the gene COI was observed at the supraspecific level as a consequence of substitutional saturation. In conclusion, irrespective of the evolutionary model selected, all phlebotomines were correctly assigned to species, showing 100% concordance with morphological identification. PMID:26992298

  19. Area-wide control of fruit flies using male annihilation technique in the NWF province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide monitoring and control studies of fruit fly were carried out at 160 locations, using male annihilation technique, in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (longitude 31-37 deg.. and latitude 69-74 deg.. Lure-baited traps of methyl-eugenol, cuelure and trimedlure were used separately in various fruit orchards and vegetable fields including guava, peach pear, plum apricot, lychee, citrus, mango, persimmon, melons and cucurbits seasonally. The contents of the traps consisted of methyl-eugenol, sugar and lure toxicant in the ratio of 85:10:5. The results showed that maximum number of 2,268 flies/trap/day were recorded in guava at Kohat followed by 360 flies in lychee at Mardan and 327 flies in pear at Peshawar in June. Species recorded were Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, B. zonata Saund and B. cucurbitae Coq. No medfly was recorded in this region. Mass trapping was done by distributing more than 15,000 traps in about 45,000 ha area. Annual population incidence studies were conducted at three different locations and fruit orchards. At Lala village, peak population of 750 flies/trap/month (B. dorsalis) was recorded in September in pear orchard, using methyl eugenol. At Jhagra village, using cuelure in persimmon orchards, maximum number of 50 flies (B. cucurbitae) was captured in August. At Tarnaba, maximum number of 92 flies (B. zonata) as recorded during July in peach orchards. Population suppression studies were conducted in pear and guava orchards at two different locations of Akbarpura and Kohat respectively. Methyl-eugenol baited traps were installed in treated (8 traps/acre) and untreated (1 trap/acre) orchards situated 15 km away. Using this technique, fly population was suppressed by 60 and 87% at these two locations respectively. Fly suppression was determined by using a formula

  20. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Utility of Aromatherapy in a Hawaiian Coffee Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating abilit...

  2. Application of the sterile-insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in Israel under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale field experiment, carried out in 1973 in Israel, employing the sterile-insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly and conducted over a 10 000 dunam area containing commercial citrus groves, is discussed. The release area was surrounded by a 500-m-wide low-volume (LV) bait spray barrier. Sterile flies were released from the ground and by air twice weekly. Results indicate successful control of the wild fly population for several months only and a clear suppression until July; thereafter, wild fertile females immigrated into the release area through the LV barrier. (author)

  3. DISC1 causes associative memory and neurodevelopmental defects in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukubo-Tokunaga, K; Kurita, K; Honjo, K; Pandey, H; Ando, T; Takayama, K; Arai, Y; Mochizuki, H; Ando, M; Kamiya, A; Sawa, A

    2016-09-01

    Originally found in a Scottish family with diverse mental disorders, the DISC1 protein has been characterized as an intracellular scaffold protein that associates with diverse binding partners in neural development. To explore its functions in a genetically tractable system, we expressed the human DISC1 in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). As in mammalian neurons, DISC1 is localized to diverse subcellular domains of developing fly neurons including the nuclei, axons and dendrites. Overexpression of DISC1 impairs associative memory. Experiments with deletion/mutation constructs have revealed the importance of amino-terminal domain (46-290) for memory suppression whereas carboxyl domain (598-854) and the amino-terminal residues (1-45) including the nuclear localization signal (NLS1) are dispensable. DISC1 overexpression also causes suppression of axonal and dendritic branching of mushroom body neurons, which mediate a variety of cognitive functions in the fly brain. Analyses with deletion/mutation constructs reveal that protein domains 598-854 and 349-402 are both required for the suppression of axonal branching, while amino-terminal domains including NLS1 are dispensable. In contrast, NLS1 was required for the suppression of dendritic branching, suggesting a mechanism involving gene expression. Moreover, domain 403-596 is also required for the suppression of dendritic branching. We also show that overexpression of DISC1 suppresses glutamatergic synaptogenesis in developing neuromuscular junctions. Deletion/mutation experiments have revealed the importance of protein domains 403-596 and 349-402 for synaptic suppression, while amino-terminal domains including NLS1 are dispensable. Finally, we show that DISC1 functionally interacts with the fly homolog of Dysbindin (DTNBP1) via direct protein-protein interaction in developing synapses. PMID:26976042

  4. Aromatized to find mates: α-pinene aroma boosts the mating success of adult olive fruit flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos D Gerofotis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY: Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. RESULTS: Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  6. Current initiatives in the mass production and field release of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the program operating expenses in the South Texas Mexican Fruit Fly Sterile Release Program, four cost reduction initiatives are in progress at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility. These initiatives include implementation of a less expensive larval diet formulation, automation of the larval diet dispensing process, processing and reutilization of spent larval diet medium, and a more efficient system for emerging and feeding sterile flies prior to field release. (author)

  7. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  8. Management of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), in the Gharb area in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Gharb is one of the most fertile regions of Morocco. The annual rainfall is 500 mm and the temperature varies from 11deg C in January to 24 deg.. C in July-August. Fruit production in the Gharb area covers 16,544 ha and generates an annual production of 466,680 Tonnes. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly); Ceratitis capitata is a major pest of cultivated and wild fruit trees. It causes 11,000 Tonnes/year of losses in citrus production and prevents export to main markets. Early varieties, such as clementine and navel are subject to higher infestation than late varieties like maroc late. The monitoring using Maghreb-Med trap has confirmed those results. Management of medfly is solely based on chemical treatments. Currently, and in order to determine the need for treatment, growers use Maghreb Med traps baited with trimedlure and a toxicant. At 2 to 3 flies/trap/day, a mixture of a proteinous bait attractant and a pyrethrenoid insecticide is sprayed in every fourth row. However, in the period of high activity, growers may treat every row using pesticide only. The number of applications can reach 10 per cycle of production, which leads to an average cost of USD 220/ha. This generates an increase of production costs, elimination of non-target organisms, toxic effects on consumers and the environment, and finally denial of export certificate because of high chemical residues. The DPVCTRF; the Moroccan official organisation for plant protection; in collaboration with GTZ; the German technical co-operation organisation, developed a management programme based on spot treatment. It consists of the application of a mixture of proteinous baits and pesticide on a weekly basis, using only 16ml/ha, as a spot treatment applied to the lower foliage of the tree. The spraying is applied from early fruit maturation until three weeks after harvest. This method allowed to decrease the cost of controlling medfly to an average of USD 30 /ha, instead of USD 220/ha, using

  9. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  10. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  11. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ..., including Medfly. On September 21, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 48013-48014, Docket No... the Federal Register (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) on January 26, 2010, and effective... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  12. Notes on the frugivorous fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae fauna of western Africa, with description of a new Dacus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim F.M. Goodger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species richness of the frugivorous fruit fly fauna of western African (in particular of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria is discussed. The diversity is compared at a national level and between the ecoregions within the national boundaries of the study area. A new species, Dacus goergeni sp. nov. is described and additional taxonomic notes are presented.

  13. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  14. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  15. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altogether 27 morphological mutations on the five autosomes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), have been isolated and studied in the author's laboratory during 22 years of research on the genetics of this species. Of the 27 loci, 18 were located on chromosomes 4 and 5. No mutant loci were identified on the sex chromosome in the laboratory. Linkage relations, map distances and linear arrangements on the respective chromosomes were established for most of the 27 mutant traits. The wp and dp traits were utilized in the construction of genetic sexing lines in laboratories involved in studies of the sterile insect technique. The occurrence and consequences of male recombination are discussed. (author)

  16. Selection for resistance in the Mediterranean fruit fly for genetic sexing in sterile insect technique programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of 'genetic sexing' strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is essential for economical and efficient mass rearing and proper execution of a sterile insect technique programme. The paper describes attempts to construct such strains via selection for resistance to three chemical agents: potassium-sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine. Dose mortality response studies, as well as the selection process, are described. With all three chemical agents, 'resistant' strains have been developed. The mode of inheritance of potassium-sorbate has been analysed, and it seems to depend on multiple and non-linked loci. The selection for resistance to Avermectin was discontinued owing to inconsistent results, although increased immunity was observed. Resistance to Cyromazine was also observed (five times) and it seems that it is regulated by a single recessive gene. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Impact of fruit fly control programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring the impact of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, is complex. These programmes affect practically the whole horticultural food chain. In this chapter, the impact of the programmes is assessed by focusing only on the benefits generated to producers and traders of horticultural products, the direct beneficiaries. This is done first by describing the types of benefits accrued from these programmes, second by explaining the factors that shape programme benefits, and finally by presenting several examples to illustrate how the SIT technology, when properly applied for eradication, containment, suppression, or prevention purposes, can generate substantial direct and indirect benefits to the horticulture industry. (author)

  18. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  19. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  20. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a detection method for irradiated oriental fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection method for irradiated fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, using SDS-PAGE is presented. ''Naked'' larvae at 5-6 days old were irradiated at 100 Gy using 60Co dry gamma cell facility of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Papayas infested with 5-6 day old larvae were likewise irradiated at 150 Gy in the 60Co Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility. SDS-PAGE profile of irradiated ''naked'' larvae at day 3 of post-irradiation showed the absence of a specific protein when compared with unirradiated control larvae. This specific protein band missing after 60Co irradiation at absorbed dose of 100 Gy is an integral part of the bands of proteins that appear only at the pupal and adult stages of development and may be necessary for emergence of pupae into adult capable of flight. (auth.). 8 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Diversity among Bacillus thuringiensis active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures were developed to screen rapidly isolates of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis against adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and simultaneously characterize its active agents on the basis of their water solubility and heat stability. Fermentation products in solution, in suspension or dried were bioassayed. Heat stable, soluble exotoxins were the most frequently found active agents; some strains produced exotoxins that precipitated and their activity was found in the sediment fraction of fermentation beers. Insoluble heat labile agents were found that upon subsequent preparation were identified as active spores. The activity of spores from different isolates was different. One isolate produced endotoxin that, although inactive when bioassayed alone, had synergistic activity when combined with spores. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Studies on mating competitiveness of sterile oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential prerequisite for insect control by the sterile insect technique releasing method is mass rearing and sterilizing that do not have adverse effects on longevity and mating behavior of the released males. But many laboratory studies have shown that males irradiated at the completely sterility dose often could not compete with untreated males in mating. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation at the sterile dose on mating, sexual and sperm competitiveness of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) under the laboratory condition. It is found that irradiation at the completely sterility dose (90 Gy) had reduced the mating and sperm competition ability of the males. Though the sexual competition was not

  3. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF THE FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis COMPLEX (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE IN MANGO ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soemargono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis complex in the mango orchard that was analyzed using various mathematical indices dispersion and regression models showed an aggregated distribution. Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model fitted well to all data sets. However, Iwao’s regression model fitted the data better, yielding higher values of R2 than Taylor’s power law. As the regression of the reciprocal of k of negative binomial (1/k on [k = ( 2 – s2/n / (s2 – ] was not significant, the calculation of a common k was justified to be 1.30. This implies that the grade of aggregation of the fruit flies population was relatively constant throughout the time despite the variation in sample means. Since the clump size (λ value was more than 2, the aggregated distribution might be due to the behavior and environmental factors working together.

  5. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. PMID:26763219

  6. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  7. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  8. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  9. Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica) by Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) through the use of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfect peaches, Prunus persica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27 0 C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  10. Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ismail Ragab; El-Aw, M A M; Hashem, A G; Draz, K A

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively. PMID:24506040

  11. Flight dynamics and control of evasive maneuvers: the fruit fly's takeoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Francisco A; Card, Gwyneth M; Fontaine, Ebraheem I; Dickinson, Michael H; Murray, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    We have approached the problem of reverse-engineering the flight control mechanism of the fruit fly by studying the dynamics of the responses to a visual stimulus during takeoff. Building upon a prior framework [G. Card and M. Dickinson, J. Exp. Biol., vol. 211, pp. 341-353, 2008], we seek to understand the strategies employed by the animal to stabilize attitude and orientation during these evasive, highly dynamical maneuvers. As a first step, we consider the dynamics from a gray-box perspective: examining lumped forces produced by the insect's legs and wings. The reconstruction of the flight initiation dynamics, based on the unconstrained motion formulation for a rigid body, allows us to assess the fly's responses to a variety of initial conditions induced by its jump. Such assessment permits refinement by using a visual tracking algorithm to extract the kinematic envelope of the wings [E. I. Fontaine, F. Zabala, M. Dickinson, and J. Burdick, "Wing and body motion during flight initiation in Drosophila revealed by automated visual tracking," submitted for publication] in order to estimate lift and drag forces [F. Zabala, M. Dickinson, and R. Murray, "Control and stability of insect flight during highly dynamical maneuvers," submitted for publication], and recording actual leg-joint kinematics and using them to estimate jump forces [F. Zabala, "A bio-inspired model for directionality control of flight initiation," to be published.]. In this paper, we present the details of our approach in a comprehensive manner, including the salient results. PMID:19643699

  12. High sexual signalling rates of young individuals predict extended life span in male Mediterranean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Carey, James R; Müller, Hans-Georg; Zhang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    In a laboratory study, we monitored the lifetime sexual signalling (advertisement) of wild male Mediterranean fruit flies, and we tested the hypothesis that high lifetime intensity of sexual signalling indicates high survival probabilities. Almost all males exhibited signalling and individual signalling rates were highly variable from the beginning of the adults' maturity and throughout their life span (average life span 62.3 days). Sexual signalling rates after day 10 (peak maturity) were consistently high until about 1 week before death. There was a positive relationship between daily signalling rates and life span, and an increase in signalling level by one unit over all times was associated with an approximately 50% decrease in mortality rate. Signalling rates early in adult life (day 6-20) were higher in the longest-lived than in the shortest-lived flies. These results support the hypothesis that intense sexual signalling indicates longer life span. We discuss the importance of age-specific behavioural studies for understanding the evolution of male life histories. PMID:14576929

  13. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  14. Evaluation of female fruit fly attractants in Honduras 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an international effort coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency, a study to evaluate general and relative (percentage of females) efficiency of fruit fly attractants was conducted in four locations in Honduras from 2001 to 2004. Combinations of the food based dry synthetic attractants Ammonium Acetate (AA), Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB), Putrescine (PT) and Trimethylamine (TMA) were compared against NuLure and Torula Yeast, the standard protein lures currently used in surveillance Programmes. In the last year, pulp of hog plum, Spondias mombin was included in the treatments. Attractants were deployed using plastic McPhail-type traps that were checked twice weekly. The combination of AA+PT+TMA was the most efficient for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, catching 0.74 flies/trap/day (FTP), whereas Torula Yeast caught 0.36 FTP. Both treatments captured over 90% females. For Anastrepha species, no combination of synthetic lures reached this efficiency. AA+PT and variations of it (smaller amounts of ammonia or putrescine released) gave the best results with Anastrepha, in some cases being statistically equal to the standard protein baits. In general, the best combination of AA+PT for each year caught an average of 0.29 FTP for A. obliqua and 0.23 for A. ludens, whereas the standard protein baits caught 0.39 and 0.42 FTP, respectively. Their relative efficiency was 77% females. Hog plum pulp gave good results in attracting Anastrepha flies, especially A. obliqua, performing equally or better than the standard protein baits. However, it only attracts around 60% females. (author)

  15. Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekesi, Sunday; De Meyer, Marc; Mohamed, Samira A; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures. Research on biology, host range and shifts, thermotolerance, and demography has provided useful information for developing predictive and ecological niche models to guide management methods. In recent years, the responses of various species to attractants have been documented. Several suppression methods, including the release of coevolved parasitoid species targeting invasives, have been promoted within the context of integrated pest management, leading to improvement in the quality and quantity of fruits and vegetables produced. However, there is still the need for wide-scale availability of these technologies to smallholder growers across Africa. PMID:26735644

  16. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was discovered in southern Mexico sometime in 1977 near Tapachula, Mexico. Farmers in Texas and other states of the United States became concerned that the Mediterranean fruit fly would spread northward through Mexico and into the US. In response to this threat to US agriculture, funds were appropriated by Congress to be used by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit flies from Mexico and establish a barrier zone in Guatemala to keep the Mediterranean fruit flies from spreading northward into Mexico. In Mexico and Guatemala, the organisation called MOSCAMED was created to support the programme. Aerially applied malathion bait sprays were used in the suppression programme beginning in Mexico in 1982 and beginning in Guatemala in 1985. Mexico has been free of the Mediterranean fruit fly since 1982, except for outbreaks in the southernmost state of Chiapas, adjacent to Guatemala. The spraying of malathion was banned by the government of Guatemala in early 1996 because of concern regarding possible adverse effects on honey bees. By this time, research had been started to evaluate the use of xanthene dyes as a potential alternative to malathion in protein bait sprays for the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Liquido et al. 1995). Light-activated toxicity of xanthene dyes has been documented for more than two dozen insect species overall (Heitz 1997). Field trials of xanthene dyes, as a safer alternative to malathion in bait sprays targeting the Mediterranean fruit fly, were begun in Hawaii in 1994 and in Guatemala in 1996 and proved to be promising. By the end of 1996, xanthene dyes were registered as a substitute for malathion to suppress/eradicate Mediterranean fruit flies in the barrier zone. In January, 1997, MOSCAMED-Guatemala began a spray programme with xanthene dyes as the toxicant in a protein bait

  17. Quarantine Treatment Of Fruit Fly Bactorcera Correcta Infested In NAMROI Grapefruits By Gamma Radiation At Hanoi Irradiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the gamma irradiation was investigated as an effective quarantine treatment of fruit fly infested on Namroi grapefruit. The grapefruit infected with the eggs and larva of Bactrocera correcta were irradiated with gamma radiation. Egg hatching mortality of pupa and larva, maturation of adults flies, as well as sensory and nutrient qualities of the irradiated grapefruits were investigated with radiation doses. Results revealed the radiation dose of 250 Gy is enough for quarantine treatment of these fruit flies. Though small amount of larva can become pupa, but no adult emergence could be observed. The dose of 250 Gy or at this dose, but it is enough (until 850 Gy) did not significantly affect the quality grapefruit. As a result, the dose of 250 Gy can be applied to radiation quarantine treatment of Bactrocera correcta infected on Namroi grapefruits. The results also suggested an effective quarantine radiation procedure for the grapefruits infecting with Bactrocera correcta fruit flies by gamma radiation at Hanoi Irradiation Center. (author)

  18. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Baker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephrididae appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards.

  19. Intraspecific variation in the wild male population, and its potential value in the mass rearing program, of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for improvement of quality of breeding stock used for mass-rearing of tephritid fruit flies for sterile release eradication programs is reported. According to this concept, high quality individuals are those that are numerically dominant in the wild population and hence, they would be selected for breeding purposes. To recognize dominant variants among the wild males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), intraspecific differences were determined. A total of nine intraspecific variants were recognized. Out of these one labelled GIIC. was dominant in the dry, wet, and fringe habitats of this fruit fly

  20. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  1. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Charles E; Yee, Wee L; Sim, Sheina B; Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-11-01

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western United States, where it may have been introduced via infested apples within the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two hawthorns in the West, one the native black hawthorn, C. douglasii, and the other the introduced English ornamental hawthorn, C. monogyna. Here, we test for behavioral evidence of host races in the western United States. through flight tunnel assays of western R. pomonella flies to host fruit volatile blends. We report that western apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn flies showed significantly increased levels of upwind-directed flight to their respective natal compared to nonnatal fruit volatile blends, consistent with host race status. We discuss the implications of the behavioral results for the origin(s) of western R. pomonella, including the possibility that western apple flies were not introduced, but may represent a recent shift from local hawthorn fly populations. PMID:23106724

  2. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  3. Dispersal and survival of sterile male (TSL strain) Mediterranean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weid.), is a major pest of fruit in the Portuguese Autonomous Region of Madeira (Vieira 1952). The Medfly attacks more than 40 species of fruit (Vieira 1952, Pereira et al. 1996). It was reported as a pest primarily below 400 m but occurred up to 700 m on the south coast. Madeira (32 deg. N, 17 deg. W) is located 980 km west-southeast of mainland Portugal. Its two principal islands (Porto Santo (50 km2) and Madeira (740 km2)) are populated by 255,000 people. Fruit and vegetable production is widespread on Madeira island but not on Porto Santo island because of poor soil and limited rainfall. The climate of Madeira is variable, depending upon altitude and location (northern/southern). On the whole, the climate is moderated by the effects of the surrounding sea. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a genetic method of insect control. Large numbers (frequently more than 50 million/week) of the target insect are reared in specially designed factories (Pereira et al., in press). These insects are sterilised with gamma radiation and released by aircraft into the target area. Mating between the factory reared sterile males and fertile wild females produces no progeny. Thus, if sufficient sterile males are introduced into the target area on a continuous basis there is a very high probability that fertile wild females will mate with sterile males (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Under these conditions, the birth rate of the target species is greatly reduced and will rapidly reach zero if no fertile insects are brought into the target area. Little work has been done with all male releases because it is only very recently that all male strains have been mass produced. It has been postulated that releasing only sterile male Medflies could result in better distribution and perhaps increased longevity of the released individuals. To evaluate this hypothesis, tests of longevity and dispersion of sterile males were conducted. Ground

  4. Status report on 'The integrated fruit fly management based on the Sterile Insect Technique in Guimaras Island, Philippines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Visayas has a large area planted with mangoes and is considered the major mango producing region of the country. As of 1992, about 10,000 hectares were devoted to the crop with a total production of 88,727 metric tons. The bulk of mango production comes from Guimaras Island with 54,944 bearing and 165,852 non-bearing trees. Major markets for Philippine mangoes are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The country accounts for more than 90% of Japan's fresh mango imports. Exports to Japan also show an average increase of 20% yearly while those to Hong Kong have increased by 23%. However, expansion in the market of mangoes and other fruits is greatly restricted by the presence of Bactrocera philippinensis, a sibling species of the Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in the country. The pests cause large economic losses to producers and are a major deterrent to the free movement of fresh fruits in the world market. The control of B. philippinensis pests using insecticides cannot be relied upon because of problems like development of insect resistance, undesirable environmental contamination and resurgence of secondary pests. On the other hand, disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits are either expensive or not accepted by importing countries. Japan, for instance, accepts only vapour heat treated fruits from the Philippines (Merino et al. 1986). To facilitate the growth of the fruit industry, an effective area-wide eradication of fruit flies as achieved by Japan in its southern island is therefore needed. This involves the use of the male annihilation technique (MAT) and the sterile insect technique (SIT). The probability of having similar success in the use of the male annihilation technique and the sterile insect technique in eradicating fruit flies from the island of Guimaras is not far from reality. Fulfilling requirement of an 'isolated area', the geographical location of Guimaras is therefore a unique feature that will satisfy the

  5. The Genetics of Eye Color Colour Mutants of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fruit fly Anastrepha ludens is one of the most important pests attacking commercial fruits such as citrus and mangoes, and having a great quarantine importance in Mexico. As a control method, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is currently in use because of its effectiveness and advantages. However, its performance would be greatly enhanced by the development of a genetic sexing system that allows release of males only. Recently, the National Campaign of Fruit Flies has initiated a project to develop a genetic sexing strain of A. ludens. In order to find the appropriate genetic markers, some adult mutants have been isolated from the mass-rearing colony. These mutants are being studied in order to interpret their segregation mechanisms and to better understand the genetics of this species. Three different mutants that exhibit violet, red and yellow eyes have been found. The yellow eyes mutant possesses also white bands in the thorax. In contrast, the wild type shows green eyes with an orange mark in the centre. Additionally, wild type eyes exhibit iridescence that range from yellow to green. Conversely, a bright red background characterises eyes of the red eye mutant. The violet eye phenotype is characterised by a violet tint in the eye centre and two different iridescences, green or blue. Among all mutants, only one of them (yellow eyes) was isolated from the mass-rearing population, and then crossed with the wild type to carry on the inbreeding and screening procedures. The fly colonies were reared until F6 generation before starting with the protocols of the crosses. The offspring of the violet eye x violet eye cross was violet eye and wild type in the proportion 2:1, but the fertility rate was greatly reduced. This suggests that the mutation would be lethal as homozygous. When reciprocal crosses with the wild type were made, the F1 offspring yielded two phenotypic classes: wild type and violet eye in the ratio 1:1. A similar phenotype ratio is

  6. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment against the invader fruit fly (Bactrocera Invadens, Drew) in mangoes (Mangifera Indica L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, in Ghana has led to limitations in the export of mango fruits from Ghana to other countries. The limitations ranging from increased control costs to outright rejection of exports has necessitated a study in the area of quarantine treatment. A study was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of gamma radiation for control of Bactrocera invadens in fruit destined for export. Pupae were obtained from the incubation of mango fruits collected from various locations. Adults were reared and infestation levels were determined after fruits were exposed to 5, 10, 20 females in different cages. Late instar larvae in fruits were irradiated at 15, 25, 35, 45, 50, 60 and 75 Gy to determine an effective dose for B. invadens. The mortality of the fly was determined at the various doses to obtain a probit 9 figure of 68.06 Gy (rounded to 70 Gy). The confirmatory test for 3050 larvae endorsed the effective dose as the probit 9 dose. Non-infested mature green export grade mango fruits were irradiated with 0, 70 and 150 Gy to determine its effect on ascorbic acid and total acidity content, sweetness, colour, juiciness, sourness, aroma and firmness of the mango fruits. Ascorbic acid and total acidity were not irradiation dependent. Varietal differences (p0.05) by irradiation. Varietal differences did not affect the acceptability of the sweetness, sourness and colour of the fruits (p>0.05). Storage days significantly affected (p<0.05) the acceptability of all the sensory attributes. (au)

  7. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  8. Body appendages fine-tune posture and moments in freely manoeuvring fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthé, Ruben; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The precise control of body posture by turning moments is key to elevated locomotor performance in flying animals. Although elevated moments for body stabilization are typically produced by wing aerodynamics, animals also steer using drag on body appendages, shifting their centre of body mass, and changing moments of inertia caused by active alterations in body shape. To estimate the instantaneous contribution of each of these components for posture control in an insect, we three-dimensionally reconstructed body posture and movements of body appendages in freely manoeuvring fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) by high-speed video and experimentally scored drag coefficients of legs and body trunk at low Reynolds number. The results show that the sum of leg- and abdomen-induced yaw moments dominates wing-induced moments during 17% of total flight time but is, on average, 7.2-times (roll, 3.4-times) smaller during manoeuvring. Our data reject a previous hypothesis on synergistic moment support, indicating that drag on body appendages and mass-shift inhibit rather than support turning moments produced by the wings. Numerical modelling further shows that hind leg extension alters the moments of inertia around the three main body axes of the animal by not more than 6% during manoeuvring, which is significantly less than previously reported for other insects. In sum, yaw, pitch and roll steering by body appendages probably fine-tune turning behaviour and body posture, without providing a significant advantage for posture stability and moment support. Motion control of appendages might thus be part of the insect's trimming reflexes, which reduce imbalances in moment generation caused by unilateral wing damage and abnormal asymmetries of the flight apparatus. PMID:26347566

  9. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  10. Control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Near East region using the sterile insect technique. Subregional proposals to eradicate the Medfly and establish fruit fly free areas in Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, The Syrian Arab Republic and the territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is the single most important pest species affecting fresh fruits and vegetables within the Mediterranean region, but especially the Near East. For a wide range of commercial crops, including most citrus varieties, mangoes, grapes, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, plums, figs, dates, persimmons, papayas, peppers and tomatoes, it is the only economically important fruit fly in the region. This document, prepared at the request of Member States in the Near East region and developed by a group on international experts in fruit fly control, outlines plans to eradicate the medfly from three subregions of the Near East. The objective is the eradication of the medfly and establishment of fruit fly free areas within participating countries in order to reduce pesticide applications and to enable fresh fruit exports without post-harvest treatments. 12 refs, 6 figs, 19 tabs

  11. Increased accuracy in discrimination between captured wild unmarked and released dye-marked adults in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile released programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making in large fruit fly sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, a process that involves massive releases of sterile flies, depends largely on a continuous feedback on the area-wide achievement of sterile to wild ratios. Uncertainties faced in these programs have often focused on the adequacy of the marking system and the availability of an accurate technique to discriminate between marked sterile and unmarked wild flies captured in monitoring traps. In the study described here, data were collected over several years by the Mexico/United States Mediterranean fruit fly eradication/containment program (Programa Moscamed) in southern Mexico and Guatemala, we compared the traditional system of detecting marked sterile flies with a UV lamp with a system based on fluorescent microscopy. Our results indicate that fluorescent microscopy is more accurate, faster, and less expensive than use of traditional UV light system. Numbers of sterile flies without discernible dye per million flies captured decreased by approximately 75%, representing a 4-fold reduction in dissection costs. Use of fluorescent microscopy also reduced uncertainty due to unidentifiable flies and therefore reduced the potential of declared outbreaks that require disruptive and costly emergency action. Success in large scale SIT eradication/containment programs is ultimately determined by the detection of pockets of few remaining wild flies among thousands of recaptured mass released sterile flies. Thus use of fluorescent microscopy will allow for a more rapid and accurate diagnosis and results in a more effective reaction to real fly outbreaks in eradication or fly free zones

  12. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  13. Translocation-based genetic sexing system for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on pupal color dimorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autosomal recessive white puparium (wp) mutant was used to construct the first genetic sex sorting system in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The translocation stocks have females with the white puparium phenotype and puparia of males are the wild-type color, brown. Viability measurements of the 49-wp translocation strain indicate that fitness relative to the wild-type and white puparium strains was not lower than expected. Hatch rate and larval viability were lower for the translocation strain, but there were no significant differences between strains for eclosion rates. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only automatic method currently available for separation of male and female oriental fruit flies in sterile insect release programs

  14. Effect of successive irradiated generations on the biological activities of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wled)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulated effects of irradiated materials in the mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), ceratitis capitata (Wied) offsprings resulted from successively irradiated generations of eggs, pupae or adults were evaluated . Results showed that successive irradiation affected only the biological parameters that concern with the genetic cells i.e. sterility and fecundity. On the other hand, parameters concern the somatic cells i.e. Survival, sex-ration and mating activity were not significantly affected

  15. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  16. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Todd E. Shelly; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound,...

  17. Fruit fly optimization algorithm based high efficiency and low NOx combustion modeling for a boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenxing∗; SUN Baomin; XIN Jing

    2014-01-01

    In order to control NOx emissions and enhance boiler efficiency in coal-fired boilers,the thermal operating data from an ultra-supercritical 1 000 MW unit boiler were analyzed.On the basis of the support vector regression machine (SVM),the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA)was applied to optimize the penalty parameter C,ker-nel parameter g and insensitive loss coefficient of the model.Then,the FOA-SVM model was established to predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency,and the performance of this model was compared with that of the GA-SVM model optimized by genetic algorithm (GA).The results show the FOA-SVM model has better prediction accuracy and generalization capability,of which the maximum average relative error of testing set lies in the NOx emissions model,which is only 3 .5 9%.The above models can predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency accurately,so they are very suitable for on-line modeling prediction,which provides a good model foundation for further optimiza-tion operation of large capacity boilers.

  18. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  19. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Szyniszewska

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  20. Detection method for irradiated oriental fruit fly (Dacus Dorsalis) for quarantine purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is one of the techniques used to effectively rid fresh produce of insect pests and efficacy of radiation dose on food is measured by a probit 9 (99.9968% mortality) quarantine security. Present of suitable biochemical markers for irreversible radiation injury in insect pests could be used as convincing proofs of the efficacy of radiation dose. A biochemical marker (designated Gs-protein) for radiation injury in Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, was detected in the SDS-PAGE profile of two-day old pupae and adult insect stage. Gs-protein is not observed in larvae and eggs. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated. A tyrosinase enzyme activity was observed in the soluble fraction of pupal total homogenate and SDS-PAGE-isolated Gs-protein; however, no tyrosinase activity was measured in irradiated sample. The optical absorbance of the soluble fraction from unirradiated pupal total homogenate measured at 360 nm was found to increase with time. From the results of the studies, the apparent loss of Gs-protein in irradiated larvae is likely the result of loss of melanization capability in irradiated larvae which is linked to the absence of tyrosinase enzyme. The data presented seems to establish the role of Gs-protein as a biomarker for gamma-irradiation induced deactivation of pupal development and as a convenient indicator of the effectiveness of gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment. (author). 3 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Size differences between normal and irradiated sperm heads in mated female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to distinguish between irradiated (sterile) and normal (wild or laboratory) sperm found in spermathecae of mated Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Darkfield microscopy (l,000 × magnification) can be used to separate readily the sperm head lengths of irradiated males (20.5-29.0 μm; mean, 25.7) from those of wild males (27.5-33.0 μm; mean, 30.1). The sperm heads of laboratory adapted, nonirradiated males are intermediate in length compared with sperm from sterile and wild individuals. Sperm heads from three different wild populations in Hawaii were all strikingly similar in length. Field-collected females can be dissected to assess the mating frequency of released males in a sterile insect technique program. The frequency of multiple matings involving both types of males can also be measured. Two Bactrocera species found in Hawaii were examined and were found to have very similar sperm-head lengths when compared with each other, yet each had ≍3 μm longer average sperm-head lengths compared with those of C. capitata. The technique may be further useful in distinguishing sperm among other interspecific or conspecific tephritid populations. The potential effects of varying laboratory rearing or irradiation conditions on sperm-head length in tephritids remain to be investigated

  2. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  3. Ectotherms in Variable Thermal Landscapes: A Physiological Evaluation of the Invasive Potential of Fruit Flies Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Francisca; Trefault, Nicole; Estay, Sergio A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and biological invasions pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance may also impact native and invasive organisms, although differentially. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on the expression of heat shock protein (hsp90) in adults of the invasive fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the native Drosophila gaucha in Mediterranean habitats of central Chile. We observed that, under these experimental conditions, hsp90 mRNA expression was higher in the invasive species but absent in the native one. Apparently, the biogeographic origin and niche conservatisms are playing a role in the heat shock response of these species under different putative scenarios of climate change. We suggest that in order to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impact of climate change and biological invasions, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of climatic variables, as well as the evolutionary original conditions of the native and invasive species. PMID:27486407

  4. Pressure Model of Control Valve Based on LS-SVM with the Fruit Fly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Aiqin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Control valve is a kind of essential terminal control component which is hard to model by traditional methodologies because of its complexity and nonlinearity. This paper proposes a new modeling method for the upstream pressure of control valve using the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM, which has been successfully used to identify nonlinear system. In order to improve the modeling performance, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA is used to optimize two critical parameters of LS-SVM. As an example, a set of actual production data from a controlling system of chlorine in a salt chemistry industry is applied. The validity of LS-SVM modeling method using FOA is verified by comparing the predicted results with the actual data with a value of MSE 2.474 × 10−3. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the initial position of FOA does not affect its optimal ability. By comparison, simulation experiments based on PSO algorithm and the grid search method are also carried out. The results show that LS-SVM based on FOA has equal performance in prediction accuracy. However, from the respect of calculation time, FOA has a significant advantage and is more suitable for the online prediction.

  5. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  6. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures. PMID:26352751

  7. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: Generalization of a feeding response reveals overlapping odour representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathees B C Chandra; Sandeep Singh

    2005-12-01

    Insects are capable of detecting, and discriminating between, a very large number of odours. The biological relevance of many of those odours, particularly those related to food, must first be learned. Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of odours that must be detectable, this ability implies that the olfactory system makes use of a combinatorial coding scheme whereby each sensory cell or AL projection neuron can participate in coding for several different odours. An important step in understanding this coding scheme is to behaviourally quantify the degree to which sets of odours are discriminable. Here we evaluate odour discriminability in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by first conditioning individual flies to not respond to any of several odourants using a nonassociative conditioning protocol (habituation). We show that flies habituate unconditioned leg movement responses to both mechanosensory and olfactory stimulation over 25 unreinforceed trials. Habituation is retained for at least 2 h and is subject to dishabituation. Finally, we test the degree to which the conditioned response generalizes to other odourants based on molecular features of the odourants (e.g. carbon chain length and the presence of a target functional group). These tests reveal predictable generalization gradients across these molecular features. These data substantiate the claim that these features are relevant coding dimensions in the fruit fly olfactory system, as has been shown for other insect and vertebrate species.

  8. Sterile insect release and the natural mating system of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a natural population on Maui, HI. Systematic censuses of the study site were conducted before and after the release of marked sterile flies (both sexes), and the abundance and distribution of fruit flies and leks, incidence of male calling and number, and location of matings were recorded during the two periods. In both replicates, the abundance, distribution, and calling activity of wild males were largely unaffected by the released flies. Most of the released males joined preexisting mating aggregations of wild males and within these leks displayed similar calling activity as the wild males. Approximately 200 matings were observed following the release in each replicate. Three separate analyses indicated that in both replicates release males accounted for fewer matings with wild females than expected by chance. Given that sterile males settled and called in natural lek sites, it appears that their relatively low mating success resulted from an inability to attract wild females to their territory or perform courtship acceptable to females, or both. The results are discussed in light of current sterile insect techniques

  9. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  10. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  11. Effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly by genetic sexing male only sterile insect technique releases during 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two successive years, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was effectively controlled by a combination of bait spraying onto boards suspended on host trees in May, followed by weekly releases of about one million gamma sterilized genetic sexing males till the end of the year. The treated area, Kibbutz Gvulot in southern Israel, included about 500 ha of citrus, mango and backyard fruit trees. In both years, the female/male ratio declined to extremely low levels in November-December, suggesting that the wild population had been driven to near extinction. This was apparent from fruit infestation as well, which was kept to levels below 0.1% in both years as compared with similar or even higher levels in the control area, which was treated by air bait spraying about weekly from September till the end of the year. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  13. A genomic perspective towards assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly eradication in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata, are extensively used in control programmes involving sterile insect technique. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release into the field to compete with w...

  14. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  15. Effect of symbiotic bacteria added to the middle of the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae on the performance of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program of the fight against the Mediterranean fly of fruits ''SIT'' becomes increasingly efficient when one control his various factors well mainly the performances of the sterile males within the unit. In this present work, we adopted a method of breeding which could improve quality of the sterile males intended for releasing. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria (Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Klebsiella) into the milieu of breeding according to different combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by carrying out various tests of quality control to determin the parameters of quality (Productivity, weight, Emergence, flying aptitude) and the parameters of reproduction (latency time, Duration of coupling and competitiveness). According to the results obtained, we could observe changes on the level of the parameters of quality. The addition of Pseudomonas alone in the milieu of breeding significantly decreased the quality of the produced flies while the addition of this same bacteria in partnership with Citrobacter and Klebsiella showed a beneficial effect on their host. This is observed through the remarkable improvement of the competitiveness of the fly. Thus we can conclude that the presence of the bacteria alone or in synergy enormously affects the fitness flies and consequently their sexual competitiveness. (Author)

  16. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author)

  17. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  18. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  19. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author)

  20. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  1. Estimation of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae) attractants for area-wide monitoring and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most serious pest of olives in the Mediterranean countries as well as in the whole Croatian olive growing regions. Economic losses due to this pest have been estimated to reach up to 15 % of the olive crop, in spite of the fact that insecticide treatments are applied every year to control the olive fly population. In the Croatian olive growing regions, the fruit infestation before picking time, can reach up to over 80% in the southern and middle Dalmacia region without any control measures. The damage caused by the olive fly and its control measures result in: reduction in yield and quality of fruit and hence of olive oil; use of expensive chemicals and machinery that increases production costs and the use of toxic chemicals creating many environmental problems. In terms of practical application of alternative or biotechnological area-wide methods in central Dalmacia, basic experiments on the development of trapping systems have been carried on during two years. These experiments include the testing of three types of attractants commonly used in other Mediterranean olive growing regions for olive fly control. The experiments include food attractants: hydrolized protein with the trade name Buminal in liquid form and ammonium phosphate in solid form and also the main female sex pheromone component 1,7-dioxaspiro (5,5) undecane formulated as polyethylene vials. The responses of olive fly to all three attractants were observed separately and compared with combinations of two and three attractants. The data on the total number of flies captured, total number of males and females and percentage of females, were collected during the period of olive fly attack. The results showed that during periods of high temperatures and low humidity, olive fly was strongly attracted to both food attractants buminal and ammonium phosphate. This period was generally defined during summer months until the

  2. Recurrent modification of a conserved cis-regulatory element underlies fruit fly pigmentation diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE, little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B and sex-determination (DSX transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages.

  3. Recurrent Modification of a Conserved Cis-Regulatory Element Underlies Fruit Fly Pigmentation Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William A.; Salomone, Joseph R.; Tacy, David J.; Camino, Eric M.; Davis, Kristen A.; Rebeiz, Mark; Williams, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE), little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B) and sex-determination (DSX) transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages. PMID:24009528

  4. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae; a feasibility test for molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Smit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences - almost 20% of the total - this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification.We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to blast against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification.

  5. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers. PMID:25026662

  6. Evaluation of traps models and killing agents in Mediterranean fruit fly captures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mass-trapping as an effection tool of fruit fly control needs to be improved. Simultaneously, this can be an enormous contribution for population suppression in SIT programmes. The combination of trap design, attractants and killing agents, their effectiveness for trapping males or females, trap cost, time that the traps can remain in the field and labour, are very important aspects for the growers and action programmes who are considering bait stations as population suppression. With this goal, a study was conducted in an Annona cherimolia orchard, under an SIT programme, comparing different trap designs (Tephri, Multilure, Shabtiely and Easy). All traps are baited with the same attractants (putrescine, ammonium acetate and trimethylamine) but different killing agents (DDVP, water and triton), three different sizes of netting (UV, permaNet) 16, 64 and 256 cm2. The efficiency of the different trap systems show that the Multilure trap is the most efficient, capturing more females than males. The Easy trap, which has the lowest cost and requires the least of hand labour, presented good results on total captures. However considering the large amount of males captured, it is probably not the best choice for a large-scale use in sterile males release programmes. The most interesting of the killing devices combined with traps is the fabrics material with 256 cm2 (16 x 16 cm) or netting material with 64 cm2 (8x8 cm) or 256 cm2 (16 x 16 cm). The use of DDVP has also shown good results, however it was replaced after 8 weeks. Fabric and netting material were maintained in the field without any replacement during all the 14 weeks study. The data obtained show that Easy and Multilure trap with the attractants putrescine, ammonium acetate and trimethylamine and fabrics material as killing agent shows potential to suppress populations in SIT programmes

  7. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly. PMID:26581101

  8. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Poyet

    Full Text Available The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly.

  9. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  10. Contact toxicity of the crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits to house fly larvae and their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntharee Sripongpun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Contact toxicity of the ethanol crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits, Illicium verum Hook. F. (Illiciaceae to house fly larvae, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and their development were determined by a dipping method. Younger larvae were more susceptible than older. The median lethal concentration (LC50 values of the crude extract to the 2nd instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 7.4x104, 4.1x104 and 3.2x104 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, treated extractsaffected house fly development in pupal and adult stages. The number of test larvae developed to pupae and adults was lessthan that of control group. The crude extract at concentration 8.5x104 mg/l completely inhibited development from larvae to pupae. In addition, small pupae were found at every concentration between 2.5x103 -105x103 mg/l. Small treated pupae were observed more at higher concentrations. Some of them could continually develop to adults but their developmental percentageswere less than those of normal sized pupae in treatments and in control group. The crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits can be applied as an optional point source control of house fly.

  11. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West. PMID:17845427

  12. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) FOR THE BIOAGENTS ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM OXALICUM AGAINST THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to chemical control or as a part of integrated pest management (IPM program), there is a resurgence of interest in using microbial agents for pest population suppression before the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann). The insect-fungus interaction between the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum, when applied as a spore suspension against the adults of Medfly in the laboratory showed visual fungal development after 7 days from inoculation. Examination of the infected parts of the dead fly with light microscopy showed a markedly damage as evidenced by the occurrence of the attached conidia and features of pathogen penetration. Using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the abundant sporulation of both fungal isolates was investigated over all parts of the dead fly and their associated sensillae. The recognized shape of the fungal conidial spores and their arrangement on the hyphae of both bio agents was investigated. This ultra structural study may be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of both fungal bio agents on the functions of all infected parts of the insect and their associated sensillae (the main communication system between insects, their internal and external environment) and their main role in the courtship, male mating ability, the selection of fruit host plants necessary for the adults food and also the selection of a suitable oviposition site

  13. Combined postharvest X-ray and cold quarantine treatments against the Mediterranean fruit fly in ‘Clemenules’ mandarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on artificially infested 'Clemenules' clementine mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) was assessed on fruit subjected to integrated quarantine treatments consisting of irradiation with X-rays at doses of 0 (control), 30, 54, and 164 Gy followed by exposure to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, or 12 days. Additionally, physico-chemical (rind color, firmness, and physiological disorders, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, maturity index, juice yield, and ethanol and acetaldehyde content) and sensory (sweetness, acidity, sensory maturity index, off-flavors, and mandarin-like flavor) fruit quality of 'Clemenules' clementines were assessed on X-irradiated fruit exposed to 1 deg C for 0 (control), 6, or 12 days. Complete insect mortality with no negative effects on fruit quality after 7 days at 20 deg C of shelf life was obtained on clementines firstly X-irradiated at 30 Gy and subsequently exposed to 1 deg C for 2 days. This combination of treatments considerably reduced quarantine time if compared to standard cold quarantine treatments (1.1-2.2 deg C for 14-18 days) and therefore showed promise as a potential commercial treatment for Spanish citrus exports

  14. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  15. A multi-institutional approach to implement fruit fly low prevalence and free areas in Central America: Outcomes and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the purpose of boosting the fruit and vegetable exports of the Central American countries through fruit fly suppression/eradication actions, new approaches are used: - A multilateral alliance instead of isolated efforts. Thus, four international organisations, two donors Government institutions and the region's seven countries joined their efforts, coordinated by the IAEA; - A strategy of incremental enlargement of isolated low prevalence or free areas, instead of the old approach of attempting to eradicate the pest from the entire region; and - The use of pilot experimental areas, on which all elements that play a key role in a pest-free production-exports system are applied, instead of focusing only on some technologies in the field. Outcomes include the implementation of medfly-free areas in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and Panama is also in the process of doing so. Guatemala is presently negotiating with the Mexican Government the export of peach from its fruit fly-free zone in the Department of Quetzaltenango. Major constraints encountered are: - Weak alliances among the international organisations, - Troublesome coordination between Governments and the producers-exporters, - Insufficient trained civil servants in the Government and, - Insufficient funding to transfer the actions to bigger areas. (author)

  16. The angular interval between the direction of progression and body orientation in normal, alcohol- and cocaine treated fruit flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gakamsky

    Full Text Available In this study we characterize the coordination between the direction a fruit-fly walks and the direction it faces, as well as offer a methodology for isolating and validating key variables with which we phenotype fly locomotor behavior. Our fundamental finding is that the angular interval between the direction a fly walks and the direction it faces is actively managed in intact animals and modulated in a patterned way with drugs. This interval is small in intact flies, larger with alcohol and much larger with cocaine. The dynamics of this interval generates six coordinative modes that flow smoothly into each other. Under alcohol and much more so under cocaine, straight path modes dwindle and modes involving rotation proliferate. To obtain these results we perform high content analysis of video-tracked open field locomotor behavior. Presently there is a gap between the quality of descriptions of insect behaviors that unfold in circumscribed situations, and descriptions that unfold in extended time and space. While the first describe the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, the second quantify cumulative measures and subjectively defined behavior patterns. Here we reduce this gap by phenotyping extended locomotor behavior in terms of the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, which we quantify, combining into a single field two disparate fields, that of high content phenotyping and that of locomotor coordination. This will allow the study of the genes/brain/locomotor coordination interface in genetically engineered and pharmacologically manipulated animal models of human diseases.

  17. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 1- Measured by using dehydrogenase Enzyme Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study searches for the improvement vitality of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Through the induction of a specific variance (mutation) in the genetic material. Several types of treatments that were thought to cause this mutation were used, as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, several types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. Generally, the activities of the energy enzymes alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme, when used as a direct measure for the fly vitality, increased due to treatments of the egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially by the usage of rice hulls in the larval rearing medium alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  18. Testosterone as a Bio marker for Rapid Detection of Male Sterility of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid biochemical method for the determination of the sterility in males of the fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) was established utilizing testosterone as a bio marker. Pupae (2 days before emergence) were irradiated at 90 Gy using a 60Co-gamma-cell, unit. Testosterone level, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in addition to sterility in irradiated male flies were compared to their corresponding values of the untreated control group. The data obtained revealed a highly significant decrease in the testosterone level associated with a highly significant decrease in sterility. The decrease in the hormone level was recognized during the different time intervals (24-120 hours after adult emergence). This bio marker (Testosterone) could be adopted as a rapid monitor for measurements of medfly male sterility before release in the field in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program

  19. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens. PMID:26314048

  20. A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-05-01

    Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ≤ 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles. PMID:22435643

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Performance of Cucurbit Fruit Fly Dacus ciliatus(Loew)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma rays on males and females cucurbit fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Loew) exposed as pupae at age of 5 days was investigated. The results revealed that the dose of 75 and 90 Gray caused complete sterility in females and males, respectively.Furthermore,the result of this study showed the exposing females and males as pupae to dose of 45 Gray or higher and mated either to gather or to unirradiated sex caused reduction in their production of the eggs and its percent of hatch. Finally results showed that all dosed of gamma rays had no effect on sex ratio of produced adults. (author)

  2. Gamma Radiation and Temperature effects on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) with different ages (2, 24, 48 h.old) were incubated at two different temperatures (15 degree for 24 h. and 50 degree for 10 minutes), then they were seeded on the larval media. The produced pupae were irradiated with gamma radiation (70 Gy as a sub sterilizing dose). Some biological aspects were studied concerning the effect of temperature on eggs and irradiation of the produced pupae. Results obtained showed that the percent pupation in the control group was significantly decreased with increasing the egg age in comparing 2 and 48 h.old eggs. However, in case of 24 h.old eggs, there was no effect at both temperatures applied. Incubation of 2 and 48 h.old eggs at either temperatures significantly affected the percent pupation when compared to the control group except with 48 h.old egg and 50 degree. At the two temperatures applied, the incubation periods significantly decreased the percent emergence for 2 h.old at both temperatures and 48 h.old eggs at 15 degree only. Incubated eggs at 50 degree and 48 h.old didn't affect neither percent pupation nor percent emerged sex. On the other hand, egg hatch ability was significantly reduced at 24 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 minutes also at 2 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 min. either by applying temperature alone or combined with irradiation, respectively. Egg incubation at 15 degree and 50 degree for 24 and 48 h.old eggs, respectively insignificantly reduced hatch ability of eggs of the produced adults. Combination of temperature (50 degree for 10 minutes applied to 2 h.old eggs) and gamma radiation gave the best reduction in egg hatch ability of the produced adults. Male competitiveness was better when 24 h.old eggs were incubated at 15 degree for 24 hours rather than incubated at 50 degree for 10 minutes. Neither the temperature nor the exposure time to which eggs of different eggs were subjected to heat affected adult survival

  3. Sterile insect technique: a field evaluation of the quality of mass-reared fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To optimize the use of the sterile insect technique it is essential to establish precise programmes for the evaluation of mass-reared flies in comparison with the natural population. This video presents a programme carried out at the island of Prosida which represents an extremely favourable habitat for the development of the flies; the flies are a new strain mass-reared in the IAEA's Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The technique employed is the Marked Release Recapture Technique, which consists of colouring a predetermined number of flies with fluorescent powder before they are released, and then recapturing them. This method provides valuable data about the flies' adaptability, orientation to the habitat, motility, sexual activity and reproduction

  4. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  5. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  6. Physiology of mating behavior in Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Chemoreception and male accessory gland fluids in female post-mating behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on behavior of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for an number of observed behaviors such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviors represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviors. In the Mediterranean fruit fly, virgin females are preferentially attracted to the volatile male pheromone over host fruit odors. This behavior switches as a result of mating. Factors from the male accessory gland have been shown to facilitate the switch suggesting a male role in modulation of female olfactory-driven behaviors. Other physiological factors are likely to further influence the degree to which female behaviors are influenced. (author)

  7. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  8. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.

  9. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  10. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO2 emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO2 emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO2 emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO2 emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO2 emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO2 emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO2 emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author)

  11. Development of resistance to spinosad in oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential for the development of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in a laboratory colony of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Resistance was selected by using topical applications of spinosad. After eight generations of selection, the LD50 of the selected line was 408 times greater compared with that of the untreated parental colony. This spinosad-resistant line did not exhibit cross-resistance to 10 other insecticides tested, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion. fenthion, formothion, and malathion) one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate). However, using lines previously selected for resistance to these same insecticides, two of the 10 lines tested (naled- and malathion-resistant) did show some cross-resistance to spinosad. Also, oriental fruit flies from different field collections where naled and malathion have been used for control purposes displayed some resistance to spinosad. In addition, the effects of direct ingestion of spinosad through dietary supplementation also were tested. Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed in this study provide new information that will be useful for managing the development of resistance when spinosad is used to control B. dorsalis in the field. PMID:16813333

  12. Improving efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi by gamma irradiation versus the Mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of wild and irradiated biocontrol fungi, Beauvaria Bassiana (Blsamo) and Trichoderma Harzianum (Rafai) on the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated. Applying wild B. bassiana and T. harzianum using spores suspension at different concentrations (108, 106 and 104 colony-forming units), on the pupation medium (sand) or in drinking water, resulted in a significant reduction in adult emergence of pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival of produced adults. Meanwhile, the introduction of some isolates irradiated at 150 and 300 Gy significantly reduced adult emergence from pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival was greatly increased by isolates irradiated at 150 Gy of B. bassiana and at Gy in case of T. harzianum. Applying irradiated isolates as culture filtrate with the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100% to the pupation medium or in drinking water, resulted in a reduction of adult emergence and survival. The results revealed that bioagents B. bassiana and T. harzianum can be applied in the field to suppress the population of the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata and considered as entomopathogenic for controlling this pest

  13. Species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B. Rodrigues Trindade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of fruit flies (Tephritidae were surveyed in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in the district of Clevelândia do Norte, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil. This study describes the diversity of fruit fly species sampled inside this transect (2.2 linear km. Eleven McPhail traps were serviced weekly from June 2002 to June 2003. A total of 55 samples were obtained, totaling 125 specimens of Tephritidae. Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 was the most abundant and diverse genus, with 18 species caught. Two new species, A. oiapoquensis Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011 and A. siculigera Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011, were discovered in this survey. Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, 1993 (n = 40 was the most abundant species. Six species, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. duckei Lima, 1934, A. flavipennis Greene, 1934, A. minensis Lima, 1937, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873, and A. submunda Lima, 1937, are recorded for the first time from Amapá. Three of them, A. minensis, A. pseudoparallela, and A. submunda, are reported for the first time from northern Brazil. This paper updates to 36 the number of frugivorous species of Tephritidae in Amapá.

  14. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  15. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  16. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  17. Quantification of tephritid fruit fly dispersal. Guidelines for a sterile release programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersal of sterile Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata was studied in a mango and coffee plantation in Chiapas, S. Mexico. Flies were released at the centre of a rectangular array of McPhail and Jackson traps. There were small though significant downwind movements in very light winds (below 1 m/s). Fly distributions were significantly correlated in the x-y plane on several days and these orientations were also related to wind direction. Released flies disappeared quickly, more than 90 % were caught within 5 days of release. Methodology for the presentation and analysis of data is discussed in relation to the needs of a practical sterile release programme. Recommendations are made for routine studies of fly dispersal

  18. FAO/IAEA Guidelines for Implementing Systems Approaches for Pest Risk Management of Fruit Flies. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International trade in commodities provides food, consumer goods, and a livelihood to millions of people, but can also spread pests that cause serious damage to commercial crops and to the environment. Many Tephritidae fruit fly species are important plant pests, due to tendencies towards high fecundity, wide host range and potential to cause serious damage. These fruit fly species often are categorized as quarantine pests in the first phase of a Pest Risk Analysis, which is a harmonised framework for decisions regarding trade in plant products, developed under the International Plant Protection Convention. The National Plant Protection Organisation of each country is responsible for addressing the possible risks from trade to domestic plant resources. After assessing the risk, the need for pest risk management is determined. These guidelines focus on the final phase of the PRA, when a management plan is developed. Some of the stand-alone options for managing fruit fly risk are non-host status, Pest Free Areas, and commodity treatments. Pest risk management measures may be combined in a Systems Approach, however, as described in the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures No. 14 (The use of integrated measures in a system approach for pest risk management). This concept, described in depth in section IV, has been applied successfully to various combinations of different species of pest/host/area for many years. Yet, NPPOs still encounter challenges to the application of Systems Approach. The examples and descriptions in these guidelines seek to support its use against fruit fly pests. Measures may be applied sequentially in the exporting country at the time of preharvest, harvest, post-harvest, export and transport, or at entry and distribution to the importing country. Area-wide integrated pest management programmes against fruit flies can play a significant role in suppressing pest populations to the low level required to reduce initial infestation in

  19. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  20. CONSTRUCTION AND REARING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA, GENETIC SEXING STRAINS, VIENNA-8 WITH MALES CARRYING THE MARKER SERGEANT-2 (VIENNA-8/Sr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial on the construction, maintenance and adaptation of the genetic sexing strain Vienna-8/Sr2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), has been done in the fruit fly laboratories of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) in the cooperation with the laboratories of International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. This trial was successful and this strain was maintained in the medfly laboratories of the EAEA for more than 10 generations up till now. Vienna-8/ Sr2 is very stable strain and carries the dominant mutation called sergeant-2 (Sr2) and could be used as a visible marker for the sterile male flies released in the field for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly. This visible marker simplifies the discrimination between released sterile males and wild males caught in field monitoring traps. Males of this strain have three white stripes on the abdomen while wild males have only two stripes. The use of this genetic marker, as a replacement of the external dye marker, clearly has an immediate positive impact on the efficiency of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs (by using gamma radiation)

  1. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author)

  2. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera philippinensis for SIT programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes different quality control tests necessary to monitor the behavior of oriental fruit fly, B. philippinensis from the mass rearing facility to the release site. Results of routine quality control tests revealed that pupal size, emergence, fliers, sex ration, stress tests, mating index and fertility tests were all above satisfactory levels in pre-and post-irradiation treatment. Tests at the release site showed similar findings except for mating index where poor performance of flies were observed. Fertility and fecundity tests indicate that complete sterility of OFF was achieved at dose ranging from 68-104 Gy. Standard specifications required for weekly and monthly quality control tests was not yet established because release of sterile flies in Guimaras started only last April, 2001. In determining eye color changes in relation to physiological development, eye appearance of the pupae is dark yellowish brown (HUE 10 YR 3/6) at 7 days old where irradiation is to be applied for sterilization. Cross correlation of results showed large pupae had great advantage over medium and small pupae in terms of flight dispersal. Poor emergence and fliers of small pupae were observed when irradiated and chilled for 24 hours. However, no significant difference was observed on mating preference, longevity and fertility among the three pupal size groups. (Author)

  3. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two of the main difficulties arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics the insect wing-hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here, we model the torques exerted by the wing-hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasi-static aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time-scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time-scales.

  4. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  5. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a major pest of fruit crops in the Mediterranean Basin countries. If no control measures are applied in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan against this pest, the annual fruit losses are estimated to be about U.S. $365 million, which is more than half the total revenue produced by fruits considered to be Mediterranean fruit fly hosts in these countries. Under the current control programs, the direct damage (yield loss and control costs) and indirect damage (environmental impact and market loss) amount to U.S. $192 million per year. This amount could increase each year if the current control programs are kept. The aim of this study was to evaluate, on a regional basis, the economic returns of 3 improved alternative Mediterranean fruit fly control methods using a 9-yr time frame. The control alternatives include population suppression using bait sprays, population suppression using massive release of sterile male flies, and population eradication also using massive releases of sterile male flies. For each option, an action plan was prepared which includes intensity, frequency and timing of sampling (trapping and fruit gathering), control (bait sprays and sterile male releases), and postcontrol (quarantine and emergency capacity) techniques. For the economic evaluation costs and benefits at net present value are computed for each control option to estimate the economic indices. Results indicate that the 3 area-wide control options are technically and economically feasible and all are better than the current control programs. For each option, the economic returns on a medium and long term are discussed, along with the environmental impact. Over the 9-yr time frame, the greatest economic return is from the sterile male suppression option. Over a much longer time frame, the greatest return is for the sterile male eradication option

  6. Preliminary experiments on the mass-trapping and releasing of the parasitoid (Psyttalia concolor Szepl.) to control the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmel.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This experiment was conducted in an olive orchard containing 2,500 olive trees in Goekceada, 2002. Eco-traps (Vioryl Firm, Athens, Greece) were utilised for mass-trapping olive fly. In addition, Psyttalia concolor Szepl, which is one of the most effective parasitoids of olive fruit fly, were mass-reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) larvae under laboratory conditions and were released throughout the natural population. Olive fruit fly populations in the experimental and control area were measured by means of McPhail and yellow sticky pheromone traps. A total of 2,000 Eco-traps were distributed in the experimental area before the first punctures were observed. Parasitoid releases were started by the time of the first punctures and continued in paralell to the increasing adult population. Fruit samples that were taken before each release and at harvest were counted. Wormy fruits were taken into culture to observe parasitoid emergence. As for the result of the study in the experimental area the efficiency of the combined technique was 79.32%, whereas the damage rate in control area was 87.60%. (author)

  7. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  8. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...

  9. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  10. Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Combined biological effects of gamma radiation and Dimethoate insecticide on the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mediterranean fruit fly, (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tehritidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests. It is considered (Hagen et al, 1981) to have originated from tropical Africa, from where it spread to north and south africa, invaded spain and subsequently spread into the european mediterranean countries and the middle east. It appeared in hawaii, costa rica, south america, spread north through central america and finally into southern mexico. There are (kourti et al, 1990), 235 fruit trees, nut trees and vegetables recorded as medfly hosts . Of the 253 hosts, 40 are considered heavily or generally infested. The importance of controlling this injurious pest needs no emphasis. Different methods of control had been applied against this pest, all of them are directed towards the protection of fruits from infestation. Although man used chemical compounds which played and are still playing an important role in this struggle against insects, the extensive and continued use of broad - toxicity spectrum and long lived pesticides created a number of problems, among which environmental pollution represents one of the grave concerns. Moreover, the appearance of resistance in several species of insects to the action of these chemical is another problem

  12. A novel lenticular arena to quantify locomotor competence in walking fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Mekdara, Nalong; Goto, Joy June; Choudhury, Songita; Jerry Mekdara, Prasong; Yingst, Nicholas; Cao, Yu; Berg, Otto; Katharina Müller, Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become an important invertebrate model organism in biological and medical research, for mutational and genetic analysis, and in toxicological screening. Many screening assays have been developed that assess the flies' mortality, reproduction, development, morphology, or behavioral competence. In this study, we describe a new assay for locomotor competence. It comprises a circular walking arena with a lenticular floor and a flat cover (the slope of the floor increases gradually from the center to the edge of the arena) plus automated fly tracking and statistical analysis. This simple modification of a flat arena presents a graduated physical challenge, with which we can assess fine gradations of motor ability, since a fly's time average radial distance from the arena center is a direct indicator of its climbing ability. The time averaged distribution of flies as a function of slope, activity levels, and walking speed, yields a fine grained picture of locomotory ability and motivation levels. We demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this assay (compared with a conventional tap-down test) by observing flies treated with a neurotoxin (BMAA) that acts as a glutamate agonist. The assay proves well suited to detect dose effects and progression effects with higher statistical power than the traditional tap-down, but it has a higher detection limit, making it less sensitive to treatment effects. PMID:22605539

  13. Tephritid fruit fly Populations in a Dragonfruit Orchard in Hawaii: Border Plant Use and Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonfruit, Hylocereus undatus, has been grown commercially in Southeast Asia, Australia, South America, Israel and the United States. In Hawaii, commercial fruit production has recently begun, based on newly introduced varieties. Dragonfruit originating from Vietnam, but intercepted in Japan, ha...

  14. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

  15. Population activity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders (Diptera: Tephiritidae at fruits orchards in Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil A. Draz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach Fruit Fly (PFF Bactrocera zonata (Saunders is one of most dominant and destructive key pest in fruit orchards in different agro-ecosystem in Egypt, so monitoring adults' population fluctuation in orchards, through capturing adults, has been considered as main way to forecasting or management the pest. So current study aimed to assay the efficiency of Jackson traps baited with methyl eugenol (M.E. on male capture, that were distributed in different fruit trees orchards, in different positions and hang levels in one of Egyptian agroecosystem (Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, from (May 2014 to April 2015. Moreover, adults capture in McPhail traps in navel orange orchards intercropping with Guava were exploded to detect abundant and rearing season of the pest studying impact of abiotic factors on population, and estimation number, time and duration of annual generation. Obtained results declared that the pest had 7-8 annually generation. Jackson traps that placed in center of orchard and hanged at 2 m height more efficient than others for male catches. Highest numbers of PFF male attack orchards of Navel orange intercropping with Guava, while the lowest were with Navel orange and Guava. Each of season and kind of orchard or intercropping system had combined and significant effect on mass trapping. In McPhail traps, highest mass trapping of adult was observed in autumn (20.353 adult/ trap/ week, while each of spring, summer and winter season were similar in mass trapping. Only Wind direction as climatic factors had negative significant effect on mass trapping of PFF adults in McPhail traps, while each of maximum and mean temperature of winter season had positive significant effect on mass trapping.

  16. Identification of host fruit volatiles from three mayhaw species (Crataegus series Aestivales) attractive to mayhaw-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic apple (Malus domestica) in the northern USA. Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays were used to identify the behaviorally active natal fruit volatile blends for three of the five major southern hawthorns: C. opaca (western mayhaw), C. aestivalis (eastern mayhaw), and C. rufula (a possible hybrid between C. opaca and C. aestivalis). A 6-component blend was developed for C. opaca (3-methylbutan-1-ol [44%], pentyl acetate [6%], butyl butanoate [6%], propyl hexanoate [6%], butyl hexanoate [26%], and hexyl butanoate [12%]); an 8-component blend for C. aestivalis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [2%], butyl acetate [47%], pentyl acetate [2%], butyl butanoate [12%], propyl hexanoate [1%], butyl hexanoate [25%], hexyl butanoate [9%], and pentyl hexanoate [2%]); and a 9-component blend for C. rufula (3-methylbutan-1-ol [1%], butyl acetate [57%], 3-methylbutyl acetate [3%], butyl butanoate [5%], propyl hexanoate [1%], hexyl propionate [1%], butyl hexanoate [23%], hexyl butanoate [6%], and pentyl hexanoate [3%]). Crataegus aestivalis and C. opaca-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind directed flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the non-natal blend and previously developed apple, northern downy hawthorn, and flowering dogwood blends. Eastern and western mayhaw flies also were tested to the C. rufula blend, with eastern flies displaying higher levels of upwind flight compared with the western flies, likely due to the presence of butyl acetate in the C. aestivalis and C. rufula

  17. Village-level suppressive fruit fly management in India: Issues determining the optimum scale of cooperative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The selection of spatial scale for the management of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) may be seen as on a continuum from the level of the individual field, through scales of farms, villages, and localities, to the case of a fully-isolated self-contained ecosystem such as an island, where total eradication may become an option. Moving up this scale as the treatable area enlarges are associated characteristics. One of these is the potential to use more sophisticated control technologies, such as SIT. Another is an emphasis on the eradication of the pest by comprehensive treatment including of non-crop areas. Associated with one or both of these is an increasing emphasis on social organisation, with the involvement of local or national Government to provide centrally-directed control and remove 'free riders' by the imposition of controls or by universal taxation to fund them. The work described aimed to clarify 'tipping points' along the spectrum of control scales, where one combination of scale and technology may give way to another as the overall economic optimum. Along the continuum of optimal technologies on spatial scales, unless other considerations intrude, the optimum will tend to the smallest possible unit: this minimises the risks of including tracts of non-crop hosts or different ecological conditions and, by involving the fewest possible people, of political problems from taxation to placating uncooperative malcontents. The minimum optimal scale for a technology is the smallest at which it can function; the maximum is where it becomes less efficient than an alternative, i.e. the minimum for that alternative. This study evaluated the returns to fruit fly management at the scales of the 'farm' and of the 'village' at eight locations around India. Six studies assessed the protection of cucurbit crops from melon flies, B. curcurbitae, by bait application technique (BAT), and six the protection of orchard fruit from orchard fruit flies such as B

  18. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  19. Intra-tree activity of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae): effects of posteclosion light, crowding, adult diet, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were held under varying conditions of fight, density, food, and irradiation prior to release of males on potted guava, Psidium guajava L., plants in outdoor cages. Male activity after release was measured in terms of number of leaves visited and duration of flights within the plant canopy

  20. Haltere-mediated equilibrium reflexes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, M H

    1999-05-29

    Flies display a sophisticated suite of aerial behaviours that require rapid sensory-motor processing. Like all insects, flight control in flies is mediated in part by motion-sensitive visual interneurons that project to steering motor circuitry within the thorax. Flies, however, possess a unique flight control equilibrium sense that is encoded by mechanoreceptors at the base of the halteres, small dumb-bell-shaped organs derived through evolutionary transformation of the hind wings. To study the input of the haltere system onto the flight control system, I constructed a mechanically oscillating flight arena consisting of a cylindrical array of light-emitting diodes that generated the moving image of a 30 degrees vertical stripe. The arena provided closed-loop visual feedback to elicit fixation behaviour, an orientation response in which flies maintain the position of the stripe in the front portion of their visual field by actively adjusting their wing kinematics. While flies orientate towards the stripe, the entire arena was swung back and forth while an optoelectronic device recorded the compensatory changes in wing stroke amplitude and frequency. In order to reduce the background changes in stroke kinematics resulting from the animal's closed-loop visual fixation behaviour, the responses to eight identical mechanical rotations were averaged in each trial. The results indicate that flies possess a robust equilibrium reflex in which angular rotations of the body elicit compensatory changes in both the amplitude and stroke frequency of the wings. The results of uni- and bilateral ablation experiments demonstrate that the halteres are required for these stability reflexes. The results also confirm that halteres encode angular velocity of the body by detecting the Coriolis forces that result from the linear motion of the haltere within the rotating frame of reference of the fly's thorax. By rotating the flight arena at different orientations, it was possible to

  1. Effects of two IGRs and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (24 h. old) were dipped in solutions of 5 or 160 ppm of dimilin for 24 hours, the produced pupae were irradiated with 70 or 90 Gy gamma radiation. This dipping led to a decrease in the fertility and an increase in mating competitiveness of the produced males. However, when the LC50 of either dimilin or IKI was mixed with the larval medium on which eggs were planted, and the produced pupae were irradiated (70 or 90 Gy) neither adult emergence adult survival was affected. However, egg hatch ability was affected by radiation and insignificantly affected by using either chemical applied separately, and significantly decreased when applying radiation and either chemical in combination together. Male mating competitiveness was not significantly when radiation and either chemical was applied together. 5 tabs

  2. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  3. Effect of the sex ratio on egg collection and hatch of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the female:male ratio in the adult cages of artificially reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was increased from 50:50 to 80:20 (the initial number of total adults was always the same) a 50% overall increase in the fertilized eggs collected per cage occurred during the first 2 weeks of adult life. Smaller increases occurred when the sex ratios were between 50:50 and 80:20, and there was a decrease (compared with the 80:20 sex ratio) when the sex ratio was 90:10 because the males needed several days to fertilize all, or nearly all of the females. At high female:male ratios, there was no increase in the eggs sticking on the oviposition net, in spite of the increased egg laying per surface unit of oviposition net. (author). 8 refs, 5 tabs

  4. Analysis of the distribution of the brain cells of the fruit fly by an automatic cell counting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takashi; Kato, Kentaro; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Ito, Kei

    2005-05-01

    The fruit fly is the smallest brain-having model animal. Its brain is said to consist only of about 250,000 neurons, whereas it shows “the rudiments of consciousness” in addition to its high abilities such as learning and memory. As the starting point of the exhaustive analysis of its brain-circuit information, we have developed a new algorithm of counting cells automatically from source 2D/3D figures. In our algorithm, counting cells is realized by embedding objects (typically, disks/balls), each of which has exclusive volume. Using this method, we have succeeded in counting thousands of cells accurately. This method provides us the information necessary for the analysis of brain circuits: the precise distribution of the whole brain cells.

  5. Development and application of genetic sexing systems for the Mediterranean fruit fly based on a temperature sensitive lethal mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status in genetic sexing for the Mediterranean fruit fly is discussed. This includes the selection of the appropriate sexing gene (which determines the feasibility and practical applicability of the sexing system) as well as the selection of the appropriate Y-autosome translocation (which determines the stability of the sexing system). A temperature sensitive lethal mutation is used to eliminate females during the egg stage. This mutation in combination with new Y-autosome translocations allowed the construction of a genetic sexing strain, named VIENNA-42, that is stable enough for large scale mass rearing. Also described are the analysis of this strain under field cage and field conditions and, in preparation for large scale tests in Guatemala, the outcrossing of VIENNA-42 with genetic material from the target area. (author)

  6. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally. PMID:26173905

  7. Ultrastructural findings in the brain of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mice exposed to high-energy particle radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, F.; Kraft, L.M.; D' Antoni-D' Amelio, E.; Benton, E.V.; Miquel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of high energy, heavy particle (HZE) radiation were studied in the brain of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exposed to argon (40Ar) or krypton (84Kr) ions. In the flies exposed to argon the fluence ranged from 6 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(7) particles/cm2. The insects were killed 35 days after exposure. Extensive tissue fragmentation was observed at the higher fluence employed. At fluences ranging from 5 X 10(6) (one hit/two cell bodies) to 9 X 10(4) (one hit/90 cell bodies) particles/cm2, swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm and focally fragmented membranes was observed. Marked increase of glial lamellae around nerve cell processes was seen at fluences ranging from one hit/six to one hit/135 cell bodies. In the flies irradiated with krypton, the fluences employed were 5.8 X 10(3) and 2.2 X 10(6) particles/cm2. Acute and late effects were evaluated. In the flies killed 36 hours after exposure (acute effects) to either fluence, glycogen particles were found in the neuroglial compartment. The granules were no longer present in flies killed 35 days later (late effects). From these studies it appears that the Drosophila brain is a useful model to investigate radiation damage to mature neurons, neuroglia, and therefore, to the glio-neuronal metabolic unit. In a separate study, the synaptic profiles of the neuropil in layers II-III of the frontal cerebral cortex of anesthesized adult LAFl mice were quantitatively appraised after exposure to argon (40Ar) particles. The absorbed dose ranged from 0.05 to 5 gray (Gy) plateau. It was determined that the sodium pentobarbital anesthesia per se results in a significant decrease in synaptic profile length one day after anesthetization, with return to normal values after 2-28 days. Irradiation with 0.05-5 Gy argon particles significantly inhibited the synaptic shortening effect of anesthesia at one day after exposure.

  8. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  9. Opiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Australian and South Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, A E; Wharton, R A; Clarke, A R

    2005-12-01

    Opiine wasps are parasitoids of dacine fruit flies, the primary horticultural pests of Australia and the South Pacific. A taxonomic synopsis and distribution and host records (44% of which are new) for each of the 15 species of dacine-parasitizing opiine braconids found in the South Pacific is presented. Species dealt with are Diachasmimorpha hageni (Fullaway), D. kraussii (Fullaway), D. longicaudata (Ashmead), D. tryoni (Cameron), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), F. deeralensis (Fullaway), F. ferrari Carmichael & Wharton sp. n., F. illusorius (Fischer) comb. n., F. schlingeri Wharton, Opius froggatti Fullaway, Psyttalia fijiensis (Fullaway), P. muesebecki (Fischer), P. novaguineensis (Szépligeti) and Utetes perkinsi (Fullaway). A potentially undescribed species, which may be a colour morph of F. vandenboschi (Fullaway), is diagnosed but not formally described. Fopius vandenboschi sensu stricto, Diachasmimorpha fullawayi Silvestri, Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti and P. incisi Silvestri have been liberated into the region but are not considered to have established: a brief diagnosis of each is included. Biosteres illusorius Fischer is formally transferred to the genus Fopius. A single opiine specimen reared from a species of Bactrocera (Bulladacus) appears to be Utetes albimanus (Szépligeti), but damage to this specimen and to the holotype (the only previously known specimen) means that this species remains unconfirmed as a fruit fly parasite: a diagnosis of U. cf. albimanus is provided. Psyttalia novaguineensis could not be adequately separated from P. fijiensis using previously published characterizations and further work to resolve this complex is recommended. A key is provided to all taxa. PMID:16336703

  10. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaokoYoshinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs, first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata, fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution can not be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a

  11. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  12. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  13. Byrsonima crassifolia (MALPIGHIACEAE): NEW ALTERNATE HOST TO CARAMBOLA FRUIT FLY IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus-Barros; Orimax Monteiro Cruz; Ricardo Adaime

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) are reported for the first time as hosts of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil.   Keywords: Bactrocera carambolae, quarantine pest, Amazon, murici.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v5n3p117-118

  14. Moscas-das-frutas em pomares de pessegueiro e maracujazeiro, no Município de Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alberti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de caracterizar a comunidade de moscas-das-frutas de ocorrência em pomares de pessegueiro e maracujazeiro, no Município de Iraceminha, Santa Catarina (SC, por meio da análise faunística. Os adultos de moscas-das-frutas foram capturados semanalmente, em armadilhas McPhail, contendo glicose invertida a 10%, no período de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. Na caracterização, foram calculados os índices de abundância, constância, dominância, frequência e diversidade. Foram coletados 697 adultos de moscas-das-frutas. Anastrepha grandis e Anastrepha fraterculus foram as espécies mais abundantes, frequentes, constantes e dominantes nos pomares estudados, predominando sobre as outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas. Ceratitis capitata foi caracterizada como dispersa e pouco frequente. O maior índice de diversidade encontrado foi de 1,99 no pomar de maracujazeiro.This research had the objective to characterize the community of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brazil, through faunistic analyses. The adults fruit flies were weekly captured in McPhail traps with 10% inverted glucose, from April 2006 to March 2007. In the characterization, the indices for abundance, constancy, dominance, frequency and diversity were calculated. A total of 697 adults fruit flies were collected. Anastrepha grandis and Anastrepha fraterculus species were the most abundant, frequent, constant and dominant in orchards studied, predominating upon other fruit flies species. Ceratitis capitata was dispersed and not very frequent. The biggest index of diversity of 1.99 was in passion fruit orchard.

  15. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies. PMID:22399441

  16. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed. PMID:26499817

  17. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis;

    2009-01-01

    taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila......-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the...

  18. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  19. Population dynamics and on-farm fruit fly integrated pest management in mango orchards in the natural area of Niayes in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend of the populations of fruit flies in the Niayes area of Senegal follows the dynamics of the rains. This tendency is more visible in Bactrocera invadens than in Ceratitis cosyra. Based on trap captures, B. invadens was largely the dominant pest species, and this was confirmed by the incubation of host fruits, showing that mango, loquat, guava and grapefruit were the favoured commercial host fruits of B. invadens. This recently introduced pest species seemed to displace the presence of the indogenous C. cosyra and other related fruit fly species. Interspecific competition could explain the fact that C. cosyra dominated emergence (up to 87%) in incubated fruits from alternate or wild host plants such as Cactus sp., Capparis spp., Cordyla pinata, and Momordica balsamina. An integrated pest management (IPM) package was tested cooperatively at the village level, which included: (1) male annihilation using wood blocks soaked in insecticide (malathion 500 EC) and lure (methyl eugenol for B. invadens and terpinyl acetate for C. cosyra); (2) two protein hydrolysate bait applications (Success Appat (spinosad) at 1 litre per ha); and (3) sanitation trough weeding and destruction of collected fallen fruits by the following practices: using black plastic bags, burying holes, burning on the ground surface, and incinerating with a barrel transformed into incinerator. The aim of this work was to develop an improved management system for fruit flies in mango orchards. Fruit fly infestations were up to 83% lower in the treated orchard compared to the 6 km distant untreated orchard. The C. cosyra population was higher in the treated orchard where B. invadens was suppressed. Results obtained might be improved if the IPM package is implemented on an area-wide basis. From all above sanitation methods implemented to destroy collected fruits, a reinforced black plastic bag would be recommended as the most effective and practical for popular use. When comparing methyl eugenol to

  20. Preliminary Studies of the Field Movement of the Olive Fruit Fly (Dacus Oleae Gmel,) by Labelling a Natural Population with Radioactive Phosphorus (P32)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary trials were conducted to obtain the first data on the field movement of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. These studies were carried out in the olive-growing area at Rovies, Evvia, Greece, during the autumn of 1961, when the maximum adult fly activity usually occurs. A mixture of radioactive P32 of H3P32O4 in HCl and hydrolysate protein, Staley No. 7, was prepared for labelling the naturally occurring adult fly population. Twigs of 30 olive trees which were selected in a semi-mountainous olive orchard at Rovies were treated with the P32 bait solution on 14 October 1961. Five hundred McPhail traps, containing 3% of diammonium phosphate as a lure, were used for the collection of flies. Traps were distributed in the olive groves of the entire area at Rovies and also in the adjacent areas (fewest or olive groves) up to a distance of 10 km from the treated trees. A total of 350 tagged flies of both sexes were collected in 48 traps during 15 counts of traps made between 15 October and 18 November. Labelled flies which were caught from 1 to 35 days after treatment represented 2.8% of the total number of flies collected in 48 traps, or 0.15% of the total number of flies caught in 298 traps in the entire area at Rovies. A proportion of 73% of the tagged flies were trapped within the first ten-day period following treatment. Labelled flies were found as far as 4300 m (maximum of dispersal) from the labelling station. Radioactivity of tagged flies ranged between 258 and 9549 counts/min per fly (background radiation 8-21 counts/min). These preliminary trials have confirmed a more or less continuous local movement (dispersal) o f flies from the semi-mountainous grove to the adjacent plains or to the coastal olive groves at Rovies from the north to south. Long-distance movement (migration) of Dacus flies to other areas has not been observed. Pine woods appear to act as a barrier to die movement of Dacus oleae adults. (author)

  1. Host specialization and species richness of fruit flies (Diptera : Tephritidae) in a New Guinea rain forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Vojtěch; Clarke, A. R.; Drew, R. A. I.; Balagawi, S.; Clifford, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2005), s. 67-77. ISSN 0266-4674 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007106; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0725; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 646 Grant ostatní: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research(AU) CS2/1996/225; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : beta-diversity * fruits * herbivore communities Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2005

  2. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

  3. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. PMID:26486729

  4. Autocidal fight against the Mediterranean fruit fly: Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study which aims at the control of the TIS consisted in following the stages of breeding of the fly and carrying out lachers sterile insects. We noticed during the massive breeding, a monitoring of the physicochemical parameters (pH, Porosite) and climatic conditions of the mediums and the rooms of breeding (temperature, Humidity) allows a significant productivity in quantity. However, a good productivity inevitably does not imply a good quality, this was illustrated by the tests of quality control of the most productive transfers (weight and number of pupes/2ml, aptitude for thr flight, recombination). The very start of the lachers what increases the effectiveness of the technique of the sterile insect (TIS). A good control of the breeding makes it possible to have a massive production to be able to make homogenous lachers.

  5. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS. PMID:26980113

  6. Design of a micro colorimetric enzyme assay for screening of radioprotectors using the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera Philippine's Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of function and expression of a 109kDa protein is observed in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis, upon exposure to a γ-radiation dose of 100 Gy. Found to possess tyrosinase activity, this marker enzyme is particularly important during quarantine treatment of export fruits. A semi-automated radioprotector screening assay for anti-cancer drug development at PNRI has been developed and optimized. Larvae of B.philippinensis are subjected to relatively high and low doses of standard radioprotectors (L-glutathione (GSH), tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), garlic bulb extracts), temperature treatments (37 degrees centegrade and 42 degrees centegrade) and relatively high and low radiation doses (10 and 40 Gy) following a 2-factorial design. Using mushroom tyrosinase as standard and 605 nm as reference wavelength, optimum precision, sensitivity and curve linearity are achieved at the 405 nm window within 60-minute reaction time with 2-methyl DOPA yielding dopachrome. Significant radioprotection and tyrosinase activity are observed. Results showed that GSH exhibited the best radioprotection with an emergence rate of 100% (GSHη 42 degrees10). Consequently, GSHη exhibited a high dopachrome level next to garlicη. Garlic approximates the performance of GSH and BHA, but the fact that dopachrome levels or garlich are exceeding high could be correlated with the relatively lower emergence rates observed. Dopachrome level of 0.45-005μg/ml exhibits the optimal radioprotection.Other radioprotectors will be screened in the future using this assay in search of potent and less toxic radioprotectors that could decrease radiation-induced morbidities and improve therapeutic gains in patients undergoing therapy. (Author)

  7. Proceedings of the 13. Brazilian Congress on Entomology; 1. International Symposium of Bicudo from Cotton-plant; 2. Meeting of Cochineal Insect from Fodder Palm; 3. Meeting of Fruit Flies - v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This congress describes works on entomology, including topics as chemical control; forest, medical and veterinary entomology; taxonomy; studies of fruit flies and others insects and the use of gamma and ultraviolet radiation for pest control and food preservation. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 13. Brazilian Congress on Entomology; 1. International Symposium of Bicudo from Cotton-plant; 2. Meeting of Cochineal Insect from Fodder Palm; 3. Meeting of Fruit Flies - v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This congress describes works on entomology, including topics as chemical control; forest, medical and veterinary entomology; taxonomy; studies of fruit flies and others insects and the use of gamma and ultraviolet radiation for pest control and food preservation. (author)

  9. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho; Carlos Caceres; Amirul Islam; Vivat Wornoayporn; Walter Enkerlin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very impor...

  10. Insect growth regulators as potential insecticides to control olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi): insect toxicity bioassays and molecular docking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Christiaens, Olivier; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Rougé, Pierre; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a key pest in olive orchards, causing serious economic damage. To date, the pest has already developed resistance to the insecticides commonly applied to control it. Thus, in searching for new products for an accurate resistance management programme, targeting the ecdysone receptor (EcR)might provide alternative compounds for use in such programmes. RESULTS: Residual contact and oral exposure in the laboratory of B. oleae adults to the dibenzoy...

  11. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  12. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), as a tool in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers a period of five years of studies on the genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and genetic sexing. Fourteen morphological mutants were isolated during that period, including gr, ru, ro Sr, Sp, ew, br, sb and six yet unstudied mutants. Additional data were accumulated on genetic recombination between the various marked loci in males and females, and genetic maps were constructed. Recombination in males were found to be rather common in the medfly and not associated with the presence of chromosomal aberrations or with a particular chromosome. It seemed, however, that the dominant mutants that have been studied had a higher frequency of recombination in males, which almost matched the recombination levels encountered in the females. Initial steps towards the construction of genetic sexing strains were conducted. Selection for resistance to certain chemicals (potassium sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine) was carried out with limited success. Lines with high immunity to the three chemicals were established, and the mode of inheritance to Cyromazine and potassium sorbate was studied. Indications were that Cyromazine resistance was recessive and governed by a single gene whereas potassium sorbate resistance seemed to be a quantitative trait. (author). 14 refs, 8 tabs

  13. Annual Electric Load Forecasting by a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with a Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of annual electric load forecasting plays an important role in the economic and social benefits of electric power systems. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM has been proven to offer strong potential in forecasting issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. As a novel meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithm, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA has the advantages of being easy to understand and fast convergence to the global optimal solution. Therefore, to improve the forecasting performance, this paper proposes a LSSVM-based annual electric load forecasting model that uses FOA to automatically determine the appropriate values of the two parameters for the LSSVM model. By taking the annual electricity consumption of China as an instance, the computational result shows that the LSSVM combined with FOA (LSSVM-FOA outperforms other alternative methods, namely single LSSVM, LSSVM combined with coupled simulated annealing algorithm (LSSVM-CSA, generalized regression neural network (GRNN and regression model.

  14. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.Se estudió poblaciones naturales de la mosca frutera Anastrepha striata Schiner, en dos lugares de Costa Rica. Los hongos Laboulbeniales se transmiten en éstas durante la cópula. Hembras y machos con hongos en las patas y/o parte ventral del tórax (machos, y en ambos lados del noto y/o base dorsal del abdomen (hembras, tenían alas significativamente más largas que los individuos no parasitados. Esto sugiere que los individuos más grandes logran más apareamientos.

  15. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26701614

  16. Rice hulls a new bulking component for larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice hulls as a new bulking component for the larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied. Was tested in the laboratory; and 4 formulas of rice hulls and wheat bran were evaluated biologically and financially. When rice hulls and wheat bran were mixed in the ratio of 3:1, all biological aspects and response to gamma radiation (90 Gy) of the produced adults were normal except for male fertility that decreased by about 13% of that of the bran medium (control); while male mating competitiveness was increased. When rice hulls were used without bran, only adult emergece and female fecundity were decreased by about 2% and 20%, respectively as compared to control medium (totally wheat bran); while larval duration increased by one day. The fourth formula consisting of wheat bran and rice hulls in the ratio of 1:1 showed the least favourite bulking component. Calculations showed that one million pupal production costed $26.6,22.2, 20.2 and 21.4 for the bulking ratios (hulls : bran) 0.1, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0,respectively

  17. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montoya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae, wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  18. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  19. Functional Ultrastructure of Antennae, Wings and their Associated Sensory Receptors of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders) as Influenced by the Sterilizing Dose of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on the peach fruit fly Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders), will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate during the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Using the scanning electron microscopy, the changes which occurred to the antennae, wings and their associated sensilla due to the sterilizing dose were investigated. The ultrastructure of antennae in this fly showed no sexual dimorphism, but they differed significantly (P0.05) differences in the morphometric traits: head length, head width, thorax length and wing length that may result in the male mating success of the peach fruit fly. However, the significant decreases (P<0.05) in the wing width and the significant changes in the apical, anal and humural angles of the wing may affect the circadian rythum and the role of the wings for location host plant fruit for feeding, courtship and mating behaviour

  20. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  1. The analysis of information on fruit flies from ASEAN intercepted at chinese ports%我国口岸截获东盟实蝇疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兴莉; 刘海军; 李志红; 胡学难; 陈克

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,due to the increase of the fruit and vegetable trade between China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN),a great number of fruit flies are intercepted at chinese ports from imported fruits and vegetables and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN.In this paper,we analyzed the information on ASEAN fruit flies intercepted at chinese ports from 2004 to 2010 according to the following characteristics: enter data,origin nation,Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau name,goods category,goods name,etc.The results show that the smallest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted at chinese ports is 128 in 2004,however,the largest number of batches of fruit flies were intercepted is 1789 in 2005,in other years,about 600 batches of fruit flies were intercepted;In the nine ASEAN’s countries,exclusive of Brunei,we intercepted 3411 batches of fruit flies from cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers coming from Thailand,it’s the maximum number,followed by 538 batches from Vietnamese,431 batches from Malaysia and 378 batches from Myanmar;Altogether 15 Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus had intercepted the fruit fly pests in cargos and goods carried by incoming travelers from ASEAN,in which,Guangdong,Shenzhen and Yunnan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureaus have intercepted the most batches of fruit flies,followed by Shanghai,Fujian,Xiamen,and Guangxi.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from cargos are Bactrocera correcta,B.dorsalis,and B.tau respectively.With higher numbers of batches of fruit flies intercepted from goods carried by incoming travelers are B.latifrons,B.dorsalis,B.correcta and B.tau respectively;fruit flies were intercepted from more than 60 kinds of goods.Therefore,it is imperative to enhance inspection and quarantine to protect the safety of our agricultural and forestry production.%近年来,随着我国和东盟果蔬贸易额逐年攀升,我国口岸从东盟进

  2. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  3. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    exist for both kinds of radiations in the usual range of doses applied to produce sterile flies. A new generation of X-rays irradiators can attend now pest control programs of UN member states. (author)

  4. Dispersion of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Mandarin Orchards on Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Widem. has been an established pest onthe Montenegrin seacoast for more than ten years, although with variable abundance indifferent years and localities.From an economic aspect, its most important host in Montenegro is the mandarinunshiu (Citrus unshiu Marc., particularly its cultivar Owari. Dispersion of C. capitata in citrusorchards (prevailingly mandarin was monitored on Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar localitiesduring 2003 and 2004.The results of this study showed that, during both years, peripheral-row trees (primarily thefirst row in citrus orchards were more exposed to attacks by C. capitata than middle and lastrows. In 2003, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from 11.4±0.59to 40.1±0.67, from 7.04±0.47 to 28.8±0.48 and from 2.9±0.07 to 17.3±0.54 on the localities ofBaošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On the same localities, it ranged from 7.4±0.34 to16.9±0.4, from 0.0 to 18.7±0.32 and from 0.0 to 9.93±0.56 in middle rows, and from 3.0±0.28 to16.8±0.77, from 0.0 to 20.9±0.38 and from 0.0 to 13.1±0.39 in last rows. Data collected at Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar in 2003 also suggest that the average number of larvae per mandarinfruit in first rows was 1.78-2.08 times higher than in middle rows, and 1.25-1.77 times higher thanin last rows. In 2004, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from7.3±0.27 to 8.3±0.45, from 7.2±0.23 to 17.6±0.59 and from 3.8±0.1 to 8.8±0.25 on the localitiesof Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On these localities, it ranged from 1.7 ±0.17 to3.3±0.19, from 1.1±0.12 to 3.5±0.8 and from 0.0 to 0.8±0.14 in middle rows, and from 1.7±0.17 to3.6±0.32, from 0.0 to 4.0±0.26 and from 0.0 to 0.2±0.06 in last rows. Data collected in 2004also showed that the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows on the samelocalities was 3

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) and Improvement of The Sterile-Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon: the release of male only, ability of sterilized males to compete with wild males in mating with wild females and discrimination of released male flies from the wild population. The effect of gamma irradiation doses on the male sterility was evaluated, to determine the level of induced sterility for achieving the balance between sterility and mating competitiveness. For optimal sterilizing dose, 8 different doses of gamma irradiation were tested. The results revealed that the doses 80, 90 and 100 Gy were the effective doses for SIT. In a field cage experiment, the mating ability, mating competitiveness and sexual compatibility were determined for the three effective sterilizing doses. The indices of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterile index (RSI) indicated that mating efficiency of the dose 80 Gy was better than the doses 90 and 100 Gy. Obtained results also revealed that the competitiveness of 80 Gy irradiated males was higher than either 90 or 100 Gy irradiated males. Mutant strains, i.e. white eye white pupae strain (WeWp strain), male linked translocated strain (T strain), temperature sensitive lethal strain (tsl strain) and sergeant 2 strain (Sr2 strain) were reared and maintained for the construction of genetic sexing strain Vienna 8- Sr2 strain (GSS V8-Sr2). The results of biological characters of GSSs revealed that, the 3 sexing strains (T, Sr2 and V8 strains) which have Y- auto some translocation were less productive than the bisexual strain (BSS). Also, the development of tsl and GSS V 8-Sr2 strains was delayed compared with the BSS strain. The stability of GSS V8-Sr2 strain in the filter rearing was higher than in the mass rearing throughout 12 successive generations. The use of recombinant DNA to develop the two genetically modified strains GMSs (V8-2) and (V8-4) using insect transformation offers

  6. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene

  7. The effects of folate intake on DNA and single-carbon pathway metabolism in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster compared to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatch, Sydella A; Stabler, Sally P; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms of vitamin function in non-mammals are poorly understood, despite being essential for development. Folate and cobalamin are B-vitamin cofactors with overlapping roles in transferring various single-carbon units. In mammals, one or both is needed for nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, amino acid conversions and other reactions. However, there has been little investigation of the response to folate or cobalamin in insects. Here, we manipulated folate intake and potentially cobalamin levels in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with chemically-defined diets, an antibiotic to reduce bacterially-derived vitamins, and the folate-interfering pharmaceutical methotrexate, to see if single-carbon metabolites and DNA synthesis rates would be affected. We found that similar to mammals with low folate intake, fruit fly larvae had significantly slower growth and DNA synthesis rates. But changes to single carbon-metabolites did not mirror that of mammals with abnormal folate or given MTX. Five of the nine metabolites measured were not significantly affected (methionine, serine, glycine, methylglycine, and dimethylglycine) and three (cystathionine, methylgycine, and methylmalonic acid) were only decreased in larvae consuming methotrexate. Metabolites expected to be elevated if flies used cobalamin from microbial symbionts were not affected by dietary sulfaquinoxaline. Our data support the role of folate in nucleotide synthesis in D. melanogaster and that microbial symbionts provide functioning folates. We could not confirm how folate intake affects single carbon pathway metabolites, nor whether Drososphila use microbially-derived cobalamin. Further work should explore which cofactors are used in fruit flies in these important and potentially novel pathways. PMID:26219578

  8. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  10. Biological and Biochemical Effects of Vitamin C on The Normal and Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Vitamin C on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was studied with two concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/ 1 kgm larval medium) and exposed the produced pupae with the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy) on some biological aspects (female fecundity male sterility, adult survival for 15 days and male computability. Also, some biochemical parameters for both sexes (total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content) were studied. The changes in the activity of the digestive enzymes (protease, lipase and amylase) for males and females, sexual hormones (testosterone and progesterone) and the superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were considered. The data obtained revealed that vitamin C had no effects on each of the biological and biochemical parameters, but when applying the sterilized dose (90 Gy) on the produced pupae, significant decreases in female fecundity, male sterility, total proteins and carbohydrates content were observed, while, significant increases were estimated in the total lipids for both sexes. The activity of the three tested digestive enzymes (Protease, Lipase and Amylase) were significantly decreased in both medfly sexes. Sexual Hormones (Testosterone and Progesterone) were slightly decreased when compared with the control group. SOD enzyme was significantly decreased in both sexes. The combined effect of vitamin C and the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) revealed improvements in the expected adverse effects of gamma radiation in all studied parameters. The competitiveness values of the irradiated males were increased by increasing the vitamin C concentration combined with gamma irradiation. Generally, the combined treatment of vitamin C and gamma irradiation could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of gamma irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the medfly

  11. Evaluation of a white female pupa genetic sexing strain of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), under selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seven consecutive generations of mass rearing of a white female, brown male, genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), isolated at Seibersdorf (T:Y(wp+)30C, hereafter referred to as SWFP), only eggs produced during oviposition days 7-9 (adult age of 9-11 days, respectively) were seeded into the larval medium. Data on the quality of the various life stages were compared with similar data from the 'Sohag' normal colour strain collected throughout 1987. The Sohag strain was mass reared at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory from October 1983 until December 1987 when it was replaced by the SWFP strain. The mean amount of eggs collected daily per large colony cage of SWFP ranged between 40 mL and 62 mL in the successive generations, as compared to about 105 mL for for Sohag strain. Egg hatch in the SWFP successive generations varied between 71% and 76% as compared to about 85% for Sohag. Successful larval development in the artificial medium (percentage pupae from hatched eggs) fluctuated between 30% and 50%, while the average recovery in the Sohag strain was about 50%. Pupal size in the SWFP successive generations was always higher than in Sohag, i.e. 5.6 to 5.9 versus approx. 5.3 (size 5 on pupal day 4 corresponds to about 8.2 mg). Breakdown of the strain, as measured by the percentage of females emerging from brown pupae of the two highest larval collection days, was very low; increasing to only 1,2% by generation 7. Adult emergence and flight ability improved with the successive generations of SWFP from 64% to about 90% and from 50% to about 75%, respectively, while adult emergence and flight ability in the Sohag strain were around 93% and 90%, respectively. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  12. The largest fruit fly mass-rearing facility in the world: Lessons learned in management and R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Countries are facing the need to provide their inhabitants with appropriate health services and adequate food security in such a way that would satisfy the demands of a continuously growing human population. Some of the health and food security problems are related to noxious pests that require control measures to eliminate unnecessary losses in humans, animal and agricultural produce. Pesticides have been used, in some instances with limited success, to control noxious pests. Currently there is the need to reduce pesticide use due to environmental and human health concerns in addition to the risk of developing pesticide resistance. It is within this framework of requirements that the biological control approaches such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) have the opportunity to expand their use proving to be suitable to mitigate pest problems. In order to be considered as a possible solution to some pest problems, the SIT technology has to be able to provide a continuous supply of sterile insects of the best quality possible, produced at an affordable price. This paper reports on new implementation, research and development as well as process control that have allowed reaching production levels of several billion sterile males per week (economies of scale). These developments have resulted in significant cost reductions and more efficient use of resources for the production of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) genetic sexing strain (GSS) of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). These cost reductions/efficiencies make the implementation of SIT for this pest affordable for other countries in Central America and other regions. The types of evaluations and controls implemented could be used for other insect pests to secure their production and therefore to achieve the expected results of their own SIT efforts. Introduction of these concepts in new pest problem areas could result in the successful implementation of SIT for

  13. Dosimetry characterisation of the Tunisian Cobalt60 gamma irradiation pilot plant for the irradiation of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Co60 gamma irradiation pilot plant has been put into operation in 1999 at the National Centre of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Sidi-Thabet, Tunisia. An initial characterisation of this pilot plant was performed to determine the overall performance of the irradiator in delivering absorbed dose to a product prior to routine processing, in particular sterilisation of medical devices and food irradiation. A new irradiation holder was recently installed; it was designed especially for the irradiation of pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly. It consists of four turn plates, which makes it possible to rotate the canisters holding the pupae within the radiation field. The axis of rotation is vertical and parallel to the source pencils. Prior to routine irradiation using the new irradiation holder, validation procedures are necessary to establish conditions of the irradiation within the specifications. In the course of these procedures, detailed dose mapping on a vertical plane in the middle of the canister of insect pupae with bulk density of 0.446 g / cm3 was carried out for two irradiation configurations: fixed plates and turn plates. Gafchromic dosimeters calibrated against an Alanine /ESR dosimetry system were used for the dose measurements. The maximum and minimum dose locations were determined and the dose uniformity ratio calculated and discussed. Detailed analyses of the isodose curves and histogram of the frequency distribution of absorbed dose were also given. Transit dose and dose rate in the reference position inside the canister were measured using Fricke dosimeters. The results of measurements of absorbed dose and dose distribution in insect pupae do not show any significant difference in the dose uniformity ratio (U=Dmax/Dmin) between the two irradiation configurations. At the same time we observed with the turn plates configuration an improvement in the homogeneity of the absorbed dose distribution increasing by about 17% in pupae irradiated at the

  14. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  15. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  16. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  17. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Programme: Influence of a good education and partnerships in a successful programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In 1999, USDA-ARS launched the 'Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program' as a 5-yr programme to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The programme involved developing and integrating biologically-based pest technologies into a comprehensive management package that will be economically viable, environmentally sensitive and sustainable. Technologies included: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, and if needed, 4) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Many of these technologies were developed by ARS in Hawaii; however, they had never been packaged and transferred to Hawaiian farmers. Education: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes is an organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programme. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity-based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAWFLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a

  18. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author)

  19. Studies on mass rearing and effect of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on the adult emergence and male competitiveness on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mass rearing of mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) revealed that the size and weight of pupae influence the adult emergence, flight ability index and egg production. Egg laying spans over a period of 18 days. A great majority was laid during 3rd to 7th day. The ideal dose of gamma irradiation for sterilization of males was found to be 9 Krad applied to mature pupae. Sexual competitiveness of irradiated males was highest when the ratios of sterile male to untreated males and female was either 1:2:1 or 1:3:1. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  20. RAPD markers for the characterisation of the olive fruit fly parasitoid, Opius concolor (Spzel.), used in biological control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The koinobiont endoparasitoid Opius concolor (Spzel.) has been used as a biological control agent in area-wide biological control programmes of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), which consists of massive releases of parasitoids in fields where indigenous wild ones are present. Field differentiation between the released and the indigenous parasitoids, and the estimation of the proportion of released individuals in the field population are a prerequisite to estimate the efficiency of biological control programmes. Because wild and released parasitoids are morphologically indistinguishable, a DNA molecular technique, based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was used to differentiate between five different populations of this parasitoid: Two populations from Jordan, two populations from southern Italy and a laboratory reared strain. RAPD-PCR is a powerful and useful technique when there is no prior knowledge of the genome and the DNA sequence of the tested organism as in the case of the parasitoid O. concolor. In RAPD-PCR three different primers (NP4, D17, A10) were used to test polymorphism between individuals from the five populations by checking the presence/absence of amplified DNA bands from the PCR reactions. Where certain bands were found in some individuals and not found in others, those bands are called polymorphic bands and they could be used to distinguish between individuals within the same population or individuals of one population and individuals of another population. The genomic DNA amplification of 90 individuals of O. concolor, from five different populations (18 individuals from each), two from Jordan, two from southern Italy and the laboratory strain, using the three primers (A10, D17, NP4), resulted in a total of 39 interpretable bands ranging in size from 170 bp to 830 bp. Twenty-one of these bands were polymorphic (i.e. present in some individuals and absent in others). Two strain

  1. Caracterização dos frutos e germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos trifoliata Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle Characterization of fruits and seeds germination of rootstock trifoliata Flying Fragon and citrumelo Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização fitotécnica dos frutos e avaliar o efeito da remoção do tegumento da semente e do uso do GA3 e do bioestimulante (Stimulate® sobre a germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos de citros Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle. A caracterização fitotécnica compreendeu a massa do fruto, o diâmetro transversal e longitudinal e a espessura da "casca" e a contagem de sementes viáveis e inviáveis por fruto. Realizou-se um experimento para cada porta-enxerto, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, e as avaliações foram a cada 3 dias, após o início do processo germinativo, verificando-se porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. A utilização do GA3 e a retirada do tegumento em sementes do porta-enxerto Flying Dragon aumentam a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação, e para o porta-enxerto citrumelo Swingle, a retirada do tegumento das sementes aumenta a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação.The objective was phytotechnical characterization of fruits, assess the effect of removing the husk of the seed, the influence of GA3 and growth promoter (Stimulate® on the germination of seeds of rootstock Flying Dragon and citrumelo Swingle. The phytotechnical characterization included the weight of the fruit, transverse and longitudinal diameter and thickness of the "peel" and the counting of viable and unviable seeds per fruit. There was an experiment for each rootstock in green house under intermitent mist and the evaluations were every 3 days after the beginning of the germination process, there is percentage of germination and germination speed. The use of GA3 and removal of seed husk of the rootstock Flying Dragon increase the germination percentage and germination speed, and the rootstock citrumelo Swingle removal of the husk of seeds increase the germination percentage and the germination speed.

  2. Labelling of the mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with stable manganese and neutron activation, for behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view to label adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly for behaviour studies (etiology) experiments were carried out using larvae feeded with enriched stable manganese on concentrations of 0; 0.0001; 0.0005; 0.0010; 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet. Also a comparison was done between larvae reared on natural fruits (Coffea arabica, Eriobotaya japonica, Syzugium jambos, Eugenia uvalha, Prunus persica and Psidium guajava) and on artificial diet. The low concentration of manganese (0.0001 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet) acted only as a micronutrient. Concentrations of 0.0005 and 0.0010 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet didn't affect larvae or adults, increasing the longevity of the females. Concentrations of 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet completely inhibited the development of the insects. The flies activated by a flux of 2.67.10 sup(11) n/cm sup(2)/s during 60 second and counted by a germanium detector during 120 seconds showed that males and females remained well labeled until the 13 sup(th) day of adult life, if their larvae were feed on diet containing 0.0005 and 0.0010g of MnCl2 per gram of diet. However, after 25 days only the males emerged from larvae reared on diet containing 0.0005 g of MnCl2 per gram of diet remained labeled. The females excreted the most of manganese, probably through their laying eggs. The quantity of accumulated manganese detected on the adults after neutron activation and reared on different fruits was very similar, for any kind of fruit. (author)

  3. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    OpenAIRE

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 milli...

  4. Composition of Mediterranean fruit fly third instar larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and diet: Nutrient balance studies on amino acids, minerals and nutrient composition in fresh and spent mass rearing diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass production of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) larvae, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, requires a rearing diet (Tanaka et al. 1969 1970) of which the nutrient requirements and digestibility have not been established. Setbacks in rearing productivity from the expected 100% yield to as low as 3% yield may occasionally be directly attributed to insecticide contamination or a variety of possible cause(s) (Kobayashi, 1993). These causes include inadequate nutrition, poor diet formulation, overcrowding of either microorganisms or Drosophila, or to the inherent processes of oxidative or microbial deterioration of nutrients. The purpose of this study was to establish the nutritional status of the Mediterranean fruit fly diet through a material balance study for changes in proximate composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids, minerals between fresh and spent diets, and in the fruit fly larvae themselves

  5. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  6. Outcomes-based planning and implementation led to the success of the Hawaii fruit fly suppression programme: Implications to adoption of area-wide programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes are organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programmes. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, a part of a USDA AWPM programme in Hawaii, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of programme sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring programme elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilisation of the logic model to organise efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programmes such as the HAW-FLYPM programme has shown to be a successful method of programme advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  7. Comparative Study on Optimization Performance of Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm%果蝇优化算法优化性能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立群; 韩俊英; 代永强; 火久元

    2015-01-01

    针对群体智能优化算法自身的特点和优势,分析对比了果蝇优化算法、混合蛙跳算法、和声搜索算法和人工蜂群算法四种智能优化算法的优化性能。以最新提出的果蝇优化算法为基准,与其他三种智能优化算法进行优化性能的横向对比实验。实验结果表明,与其他三种算法相比,果蝇优化算法具有参数少、全局寻优能力强、收敛速度快等特点,在进化次数较低时,其收敛精度和速度最高,但是随着进化次数的增大,存在容易收敛到局部最优值,收敛速度慢,在求解部分单峰值和多峰值函数优化问题时优化效果不理想等缺陷。果蝇优化算法尚需加强其理论改进,以提高其搜索的质量和效率,为群体智能优化算法的融合和改进技术提供重要支持。%Aiming at the characteristic and advantage of swarm intelligence optimization algorithm,a comparative study on optimization performance of four swarm intelligence algorithms including fruit fly optimization algorithm, shuffled frog leaping algorithm, harmony search algorithm and artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed. Compared with the other three algorithms,the results indicate that fruit fly optimization algorithm has some characteristics such as few parameters, high ability of global optimization and rapid convergence speed. In the lower evolution times,the convergence precision and speed of fruit fly optimization algorithm is the best of four algorithms. But with the increasing times of evolution,the fruit fly optimization algorithm exists some limitations such as easy to local convergence, slower computing speed,and not satisfactory in solving the optimization problem of little function. It is necessary to strengthen its theory of fruit fly optimization algorithm to improve its quality and searching efficiency,which provides important support for the integration and improvement technology of swarm intelligence

  8. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syrian Arab Republic and Territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive fresh fruit and vegetable production industries are developing in many parts of the world in response to the large demand for high quality fresh fruits and vegetables. Tephritid fruit flies, however, cause devastating direct losses to many of the fresh fruits and vegetables that investors target for the market place thus requiring regular insecticide treatments to protect the crop. In addition, few insects have a greater impact on international marketing and world trade in agricultural produce than the tephritid fruit flies. With expanding international trade, fruit flies, as major quarantine pests of fruits and vegetables, have taken on added importance. This will trigger additional demands by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States to implement area-wide national or regional (transboundary) control programs against fruit fly pests. The fresh fruit and vegetable industry is facing the dual demand of rapidly rising population in developing countries which requires more production for food security and nutrition as well as a demand by developed country importers for products with pesticide residues below critical levels. As part of this process new areas are being brought into production, which require control of fruit fly pests. Developed importing countries are giving increased attention to food safety issues, partially driven by the BSE crisis, food adulteration in Western Europe and outbreaks of food borne infections in the US. Concerns over insecticide residues in fresh fruits and vegetables have become widespread particularly as it affects children who are believed to be more vulnerable. These concerns are leading to changes in regulations of permissible pesticide residues. Thus, fruit fly control methods that require minimum insecticide use are welcomed by wholesalers and consumers alike. As part of globalization, trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a

  9. Results of the FAO/IAEA program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO/IAEA Program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' has been implemented in 1992, and lasted up to the end of 1997. The Coordination Research Program put emphasis on the following aspects of research: (1) Determine criteria, e.g. inability to reproduce, for accepting irradiation as a quarantine treatment against quarantine pests; (2) Determine the effete of irradiation on the most resistant stage of these quarantine pests at the time of treatment; (3) Evaluate the quality of agricultural commodities irradiated at 2-3 times the dose(s) required to meet quarantine requirements; (4) Develop method(s) for identifying insects/other pests which were subjected to irradiation at a dose required for quarantine purposes. The followings are the most important achievements of the CRP: Generic dose for sterilization of both males and females of spider mites (Tetranychidae) was determined to be 320 Gy. With regard to insects other than fruit flies, it appears that a minimum dose of 300 Gy would cause either no adult emergence or sterility of most species of insects studied. Radiation doses required to cause complete mortality to various infective stages of plant parasitic nematodes is higher than 6 kGy. The minimum dose required to prevent gall development and reproduction of these nematodes is largely over 2 kGy, which is too high for most fresh plant materials. Thus, irradiation should be considered as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control nematodes in non-perishable materials. While many fresh fruits and vegetables could tolerate radiation doses required for quarantine purposes, the response of various types of cut-flowers to irradiation varied widely. Some cut-flowers and ornamentals such as ferns, phoenix leaf, narcissus, tulips, carnation or red ginger were tolerant to radiation up to 700 Gy and more, others such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, anthurium, dendrobium, gerbera did not tolerate

  10. Dipping of Eggs, Use of Low Temperature and Aeration to Improve Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Mass Rearing in Sterile Insect Technique Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme a large number of homogenous age of pupae should be produced to be sterilized and released into the field. A methodology to preserve eggs which at the same time delay the egg hatch is needed in the production of a large number of pupae with homogenous age. The study on method of preserving fruit fly eggs the effect of dipping, low temperature, on the viability of eggs, the quality of larvae hatched from the eggs, and the quality of pupae produced were observed. Viability of eggs were observed as percent of egg hatch, quality of larvae as number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml of eggs when reared on artificial diet, and quality of pupae as percent of the flies number emerged and flew from the pupae. In room temperature (26 oC) dipping did not preserve fruit fly eggs and aeration did not improve the preservation. Although after one day dipping the viability of eggs only decreased from 90 % (control) to 80.5 %, (without aeration) and 81.5 % (with aeration) it decreased the number of pupae been produced from 1447 pupae (control) to 382 pupae (without aeration) and 616 pupae (with aeration). Low temperature successfully preserved the egg up to 24 hours. After 24 hour dipping in low temperature (16 oC) the viability of eggs were decreased up to 84.75 % (without aeration) and able to produce 1104 pupae. Aeration during dipping in low temperature did not improve the preservation. (author)

  11. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance of genetic variability in the strain under mass-rearing conditions. Mating competitiveness of this strain was also tested in field cages. Two of the newly characterized Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite markers were used for strain identification in field monitoring traps. The strain was also validated in a pilot integrated pest management programme using male-only SIT in a fruit orchard. The programme resulted in the suppression of the fruit fly population

  12. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Roger I. Vargas; Piñero, Jaime C.; Luc Leblanc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of steri...

  13. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  14. Population Dynamics of Pre-Imaginal Stages of Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Region of Bar (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit fly is the most harmful pest of olive fruits and important for oil production.Damage involves yield reduction as a consequence of premature fruit drop, but also areduced quality of olive oil and olive products. There is little available data regarding thebiology of Bactrocera oleae in Montenegro. Knowledge of the pest life cycle and developmentwould improve optimization of insecticide application timing and protection offruits, and reduce adverse effects on the environment.Investigation was conducted on the Žutica variety in an olive grove located in Bar duringa three-year period. Population dynamics of the pre-imaginal stages and level of fruitinfestation were monitored from mid-July until the end of October.The results of this three-year investigation showed that the beginning of infestationwas always at the end of July. It was also found that, depending on environmental conditions,the level of infestation was low until the end of August. In September and October itmultiplied, and reached maximum by the end of October.Regarding infestation structure, eggs and first instar larvae were the dominant developmentalstages of the pest until the middle of September. From mid-September until mid-October all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae were equally present in infestedfruits. Pupae, cocoons and abandoned galleries prevailed until the harvest.

  15. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  16. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of attract-and-kill systems using methyl eugenol incorporated with neonicotinoid insecticides against the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-Yuan; Hou, Roger F

    2008-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays and field trials were conducted to evaluate an "attract-and-kill" system using methyl eugenol (ME) with neonicotinoid insecticides against male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In laboratory bioassays, mortality of male flies resulting from the conventional toxicant, naled was 98.3-100% at 24 through 72 h after treatment, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and acetamiprid caused only approximately 60-80% at 24 through 72 h after treatment. In the assays of residual effect, naled was persistent up to 96 wk, whereas imidacloprid or acetamiprid was persistent up to 150 wk, resulting in 38.9 or 61.2% male mortality, respectively. Imidacloprid, in particular, caused a delayed lethal effect on flies. In another experiment, male mortality within 28 wk from clothianidin, another neonicotinoid insecticide, was approximately 80% after exposure for 24 h, suggesting a delayed lethal effect similar to those treated with imidacloprid, and mortality was up to 91.8%, if observed, 72 h after treatment. In field trials, attractiveness was similar between ME alone and ME incorporated with naled or neonicotinoids, indicating that addition of these insecticides to ME in traps is not repellent to B. dorsalis males. Using an improved wick-typed trap with longer attractiveness for simulating field application, addition of imidacloprid or acetamiprid maintained 40.1 or 64.3% male mortality, respectively, when assayed once every 2 wk from traps placed in orchards for 42 wk without changing the poison, whereas incorporation with naled resulted in as high as 98.1% after 34 wk and approximately 80% at 42 wk, indicating that persistence is increased compared with sugarcane fiberboard blocks for carrying poison attractants. This study also suggests that neonicotinoid insecticides could be used as an alternative for broad-spectrum insecticides as toxicants in fly traps. PMID:18459398

  18. Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) of wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wield.), as influenced by the sterilizing dose of the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.), and their associated sensilla will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males or to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate. Moreover, the fly may fail to suck the plant juice. Using the scanning electron microscopy, this study was investigated. The changes which occurred to the wings and mouth parts of the med fly may be due to the sterilizing dose. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes differing non-significantly in their measurements. Three different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt tipped), chaetica (type 1, 2 and 3) and basiconica (type non-socket, socket and papillae). The distribution and measurements of these sensilla were described in the text. The study of the mouth parts of both sexes recorded that there was similar pattern except significant increase between the length of the proboscis of male and female. Four different types of located sensilla were found on the mouth parts of the med fly and their measurements were given in the text. Namely trichoid (type sharp), squameformia (type 1 and socket), chaetica (type 1) and basiconica (type non-socket) were observed. The distal region of the labium was very smooth and did not bear any kind of sensilla. Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose resulted in different malformations in both irradiated male and female adult wings and mouth parts and their associated sensilla. Some malformations were observed in the intraveins of the irradiated male wing and in the pseudo tracheae of irradiated female labella

  19. Temporal Dynamics and Resource Availability for Drosophilid Fruit Flies (Insect, Diptera) in a Gallery Forest in the Brazilian Savanna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonality can cause severe bottlenecks in natural populations, even leading to local extinction. Large variation in resource availability may explain the bottlenecks, but the role of these variations is still poorly understood. The goal of this study was to analyze if temporal variations in the guild of drosophilids breeding in fruits of Mauritia flexuosa (Arecaceae) can be explained by the shortage of this resource during the dry season. Fruits of M. flexuosa were collected over one year in a gallery forest located in the Central Brazilian Savanna. The drosophilid assemblage varied over time, with a lower density of species and of individuals in the dry season, when the percentage of colonized fruits was also smaller. These findings suggest that although the fruits were available during the dry season, they were under used. This way, the resource availability does not seem to regulate the community in the dry season.

  20. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  1. Field trials of spinosad as a replacement for naled, DDVP, and malathion in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Miller, Neil W; Stark, John D

    2003-12-01

    Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. dorsalis, naled was in the highest rated group for all evaluation periods (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk). Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 and 10 wk during both trials 1 and 2, and compared favorably with malathion during trial 2. During the first cue-lure trial with B. cucurbitae, naled and malathion were in the top rated group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk. Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 wk. During the second cue-lure trial, spinosad and naled were both in the top rated group at 10, 15, and 20 wk. Use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. Our results suggest that spinosad, although not as persistent as naled or malathion, is safer to handle and a more environmentally friendly substitute for organophosphate insecticides in methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for use in B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae areawide integrated pest management programs in Hawaii. PMID:14977115

  2. Microscopical studies on the effects of gamma radiation and/or pyriproxyfen (IGR) on the testis and ovary of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larval artificial diet of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.) was treated with the Lc50 of the juvenile hormone, pyriproxyfen. The produced full grown pupae were gamma irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy. The produced four days-old adults were dissected for removing the testis or the ovary for microscopical investigations. The study revealed that pyriproxyfen and/or irradiation affected insignificantly the volume of the male testis and significantly the ovary of the female, injured the process of spermatogenesis and caused gross damage to the female ovary. The damage was increased with increasing the gamma dose level. Deformations were observed including shrinkage of testis and ovary contents, vacuolations and disturbances in the process of sperm and oocyte maturation

  3. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  4. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and two plant extracts, Nicandra physaloide and Dodonaea viscosa, on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum ether extract of the plant Nicandra Physaloide L. and the alcoholic plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa L. were subjected to the biological evaluation to assess their toxic effects on the reproductive abilities and survival survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata Wied., exposed to the treated diet in the larval stage. The produced full grown pupae (1-2 day old) were gamma irradiated (90 Gy). Neither percent pupation, adult emergence nor survival were affected by treating larvae with any of the two plant extracts alone at the tested concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 3,5 and 7 ppm).Applying each of the two plant extracts recorded insignificant effect on egg hatch. however, irradiating pupae produced from larvae subjected to the extracts significantly affected the male fertility and mating competitiveness

  5. Mass-rearing and quality control of olive fruit fly: Replacement of cellulose in larval diet and mating time asynchrony between wild and laboratory flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text; Extensive efforts have been undertaken to replace or reduce the use of cellulose as olive fly larval medium bulk material by cheaper, readily accessible materials. Paper and synthetic 'vettex' gave promising results. Larval diet recycling and use of starter-finisher technology suggested practical re-use of larval diet, and possibility for young larval high-density use of the medium. It has been known that mating activity in laboratory strains spreads over a period of 4-5 h before the scotophase, contrary to wild strains, which exhibit mating activity almost exclusively within 1-0 h before the scotophase. In the field this could lead to mating activity strain separation, in case both sexes of laboratory strain are sterilised and released. In recent experiments it has been found that, although short photophases result in mating activity suppression towards the end of photophase in both strains, the above-described mating-time pattern in the 2 strains is always observed. Furthermore, no matter the L : D regime used with the laboratory strain, a shift to a longer or shorter photophase results in mating activity adaptation within 24h, i.e. the lab strain exhibits mating activity over a longer period before the scotophase as compared with the wild strain. An attempt to select for early-late mating pattern within the lab strain did not lead to success in spite of 6 generations of selection so far. (author)

  6. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  7. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author)

  8. Radiosensitivity and Induction of Sexual Sterility in Adult of Cucurbit Fruit Fly Dacus ciliatus (Loew) and its Mating Competitiveness and Flight Ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed a significant reduction in egg productivity of cucumber fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus (Loew ) females with the increase in radiation dose at all mating types studied and especially when female was irradiated. There was slight effect , hence significant , for gamma ray in average adult longevity of both male and female. The results indicated a significant reduction in egg hatching percentages in all mating types , with acute reduction when female was irradiated .The results also depicted the possibility of induction of complete sexual sterility in males and females , when exposed them to a dose of 120 or 80 Gray respectively. Adult males emerged from 7 days old pupae that were irradiated with 100 Gray, showed good competitiveness value when released with unirradiated males and females in ratios of 3 : 1: 1 and 5 :1 :1 (irradiated males : unirradiated males : unirradiated females) and high competitiveness value at ratios of 7 :1 :1 and 9 :1 :1.While males emerged from 120 Gray irradiated pupae showed good competitiveness value at ratios of 7 :1 :1 and 9 :1 :1. The results of measuring the flight ability index of flies emerged from 7 days old irradiated pupae showed that irradiation with 80 , 100 and 120 Gray by different doses of Gamma rays was significantly decreased at 200 Gray. (author)

  9. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

  10. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  11. Some Chemical Elements in Gamma Irradiated Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) Fed on Different Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of four yeast diets differ in protein composition and mixed with sugar as a carbohydrate source were compared with a standard yeast diet used for the mass rearing of med fly C. capitata. The cost availability and the effects on the quality of reared flies were the main measures for these comparisons. Moreover, the elemental composition of reared flies on the tested diets either irradiated to gamma radiation or normal beside full grown pupae (F1) were detected and compared with those reared on standard diet . Data obtained revealed that ten elements (K, N, Na, P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cu) were detected and classified according to their quantities .However those quantities varied according to the type of used yeast ,insect stage , insect sex and irradiated dose. The major group (K, N, Na and P), moderate group (Ca, Fe and Mg) and minor group (Zn, Mn and Cu) remained unchanged although their quantities were changed inside each group. In addition, a significant increase in K, N, Na, P and Ca when diet No.4 (D4) was used to feed flies. These findings may enhance the opportunity of sterile insect technique (SIT). However Fe and Zn ions were decreased with changing the standard yeast and this is may contradict SIT. Also when normal females fed on all tested yeasts, the concentrations of the ten elements increased as compared to those fed on standard diet. These results may increase the efficiency of sterilized reared insects to compete with the native insects in the field

  12. Radiation tolerance in the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster - effects of laboratory culturing and stages in life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced damages are due to direct effect of radiation energy or through free radical generation. Recent studies suggest Drosophila to be a good animal model to study radiation tolerance. The present study on female Drosophila melanogaster was conducted to observe 1. Variations in larval and adult radiation tolerance 2. Variations in laboratory culture and field populations of Drosophila. Third instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation of 6, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy in gamma chamber GC 5000 (BRT, India). Larvae of flies collected from the field were reared for two generations in the lab before irradiation. The laboratory cultured files were from stocks that were maintained for more than 1000 generations. The larvae of field populations had higher survival rate at 51% as compared to 43% in case of cultured flies and thus more resistant. The III instar larval stage (lab culture) had a LD50 of 26 Gy as compared to LD 50 of 928 Gy in case of adult flies have ∼ 160 times higher tolerance compared to humans. Prolonged rearing comparable to 'domestication' might have induced reduction in tolerance. Larval stages have a lower tolerance than adults possibly due to higher metabolic rate. Adults are post-mitotic in nature with very low rate of cell division. This may contribute to higher tolerance. This however is in contradiction to studies of midge (Chironomous) where larvae also have higher tolerance. (author)

  13. Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

    2011-12-01

    Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

  14. Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo da Silva Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

  15. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of

  16. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF, which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome. The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes. Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in

  17. Evaluation of Soaked Wooden Killer Blocks for Male Annihilation (MA on Fruit Fly Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of plastic traps with wooden blocks soaked in lure mixed with insecticide was assessed. Blocks are cheaper, simple and less likely to be blown down or stolen compared with plastic traps. Square and oblong are more effective against round and hexagonal. Plywood is best for block construction. About 92 % flies caught were Bactrocera zonata Saunders and the remaining was B. dorsalis Hendel. Incase of mixture composition, 6:4:1 is more important than other ratios. Spacing of 20 m between blocks appeared to be optimal, so it could be recommended 10-blocks / acre.

  18. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  19. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementat...

  20. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different