WorldWideScience

Sample records for caribbean equal access

  1. Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean. Selection mainly based on open access publications describing open access initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prepared for UNESCO-Latin America and the Caribbean Section of the UNESCO-GOAP Global Open Access Portal.

  2. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that existing studies on cultural capital and educational success fail to distinguish the different channels through which cultural capital promotes educational success. Following Bourdieu, the article proposes that for cultural capital to promote educational success three...... conditions must hold: (1. parents must possess cultural capital, (2. they must transfer their cultural capital to children, and (3. children must absorb cultural capital and convert it into educational success. This research develops an empirical model that analyzes the significance of the three effects with...... respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  3. The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    the actual complaint pattern a review was conducted on a 1-year General Practice care complaint sample (2007). Data were extracted on patient gender, age, and affiliation with labor market (if available). Interpreter use or family name presence on the Family Government Agency’s list of foreign names was used......The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures – a Danish perspective Like the Danish Healthcare Act (Para 2) basically prescribes a right to easy, equal access to healthcare, a Complaint Act (Para 2) entitles patients to file a complaint (about health professional conduct, informed consent...... as the only available proxy for foreign extraction. Among the 428 patient complaints, patient gender distribution was 248 females and 180 males. Ages were 0-14 years: 42; 15-40 years 133; 41-64 years: 172; 65- years: 81. 171 patients were outside labor force; 127 were employed and self-employed; 130 were...

  4. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  5. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  6. Immigrants in the Netherlands: equal access for equal needs?

    OpenAIRE

    Stronks, K.; Ravelli, ACJ; Reijneveld, SA

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This paper examines whether equal utilisation of health care services for first generation immigrant groups has been achieved in the Netherlands.
DESIGN—Survey data were linked to an insurance register concerning people aged 16-64. Ethnic differences in the use of a broad range of health care services were examined in this group, with and without adjustment for health status and socioeconomic status, using logistic regression.
SETTING—Publicly insured population in Amsterdam, the Ne...

  7. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  8. Social Security Administration - Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year data...

  9. Planning toward equal accessibility to services: a quadratic programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang; Quan Tang

    2013-01-01

    In the literature various accessibility indices have been developed to assess the relative ease by which the locations of services (supply) can be reached from a residential (demand) location. In this paper we address the planning problem: how the resources can be redistributed to achieve the highest equality of accessibility to the service providers. In particular, a quadratic programming approach is used to minimize the variance of accessibility scores across demand locations by readjusting...

  10. Gender Equality and Inequality in Numeracy: The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1880-1949

    OpenAIRE

    Manzel, Kerstin; Baten, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of gender disparities in education for 28 Latin American and Caribbean countries for the period from 1880 to 1949, using age heaping techniques. We explore in particular the hypothesis of a Ushaped development of women’s education during economic development, i.e., a decrease in gender equality at lower levels of overall education, and increasing gender equality at higher levels. For the downward sloping part, we find some evidence, alth...

  11. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  12. Accessing International Climate Change Related Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Financing projects and programs to mitigate impacts of, and adapt to, the climate change is a matter of necessity not choice. This green expenditure policy note looks at factors facilitating the access to international financial instruments for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries that support mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. This policy note explores two question...

  13. Immigrants’ Access to Health Insurance: No Equality without Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dzúrová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.

  14. Openness, access to government information and Caribbean governance

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Fay

    2006-01-01

    As governments worldwide move towards openness and transparency, the development of legislation to facilitate access to information is an essential requirement for modernization of the public sector and for effective governance. Access to information legislation is one way to ensure integrity in public life. Over 68 countries have approved national legislation and many are actively involved in the implementation of these laws. Globally the move to openness is supported by statements a...

  15. Equal access for all? Access to medical information for European psychiatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama Marques, João; Pantovic Stefanovic, Maja; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Riese, Florian; Guloksuz, Sinan; Holmes, Kevin; Kilic, Ozge; Banjac, Visnja; Palumbo, Claudia; Nawka, Alexander; Jauhar, Sameer; Andlauer, Olivier; Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Pinto da Costa, Mariana

    2016-04-30

    Access to medical information is important as lifelong scientific learning is in close relation with a better career satisfaction in psychiatry. This survey aimed to investigate how medical information sources are being used among members of the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees. Eighty-three psychiatric trainees completed our questionnaire. A significant variation was found, and information availability levels were associated with training duration and average income. The most available sources were books and websites, but the most preferred ones were scientific journals. Our findings suggest that further steps should be taken to provide an equal access to medical information across Europe. PMID:27086225

  16. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in...

  17. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for the...

  18. Promoting Equal Access of Girls/Women to Technical and Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun; Khanna, Pinki; Shrivastava, Nalini

    Despite United Nations' efforts, inequality of access for girls and women to technical and vocational education (TVE) persists in India. Challenges of the 21st century with regard to ensuring equal access of girls and women to TVE include: increasing the participation of girls (especially rural girls) in TVE; overcoming gender bias and…

  19. Caribbean Equal Access Program: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Dancy, NLM, and Wilma Templin-Branner, ORISE

    2009-01-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine, of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  20. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for these variations in legal transposition and enforcement bodies, the paper finds two equifinal paths towards correct transposition of EU gender equality legislation and strong enforcement bodies: either the absence of high adjustment costs, or the combination of strong social democratic governments and NGOs with special expertise in EU gender equality legislation.

  1. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...

  2. Struggles for Modern Education: Egalitarian Liberalism and Its Quest for Equal Access to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Renee A.

    2010-01-01

    Egalitarian liberalism strives for equal access to opportunity and can achieve it. Every individual must be granted the chance to live his or her own life (Rawls, 1971). Our society must offer all citizens their own autonomy and live up to the egalitarian promises giving them respect. This paper disagrees with the notion that children raised in…

  3. Accessible Information for Equally-Distant Partially-Entangled Alphabet State Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO San-Ru; HOU Bo-Yu; XI Xiao-Qiang; YUE Rui-Hong

    2002-01-01

    We have proposed a quantum system with equally-distant partially-entangled alphabet states which hasthe minimal mutual overlap and the highly distinguishability, these quantum states are used as the "signal states" ofthe quantum communication. We have also constructed the positive operator-valued measure for these "signal states"and discussed their entanglement properties and measurement of cntanglement. We calculate the accessible informationfor these alphabet states and show that the accessible information is closely related to the entanglement of the "signalstates": the higher the entanglement of the "signal states", the better the accessible information of the quantum system.and the accessible information reaches its maximal value when the alphabet states have their maximal entanglemcnt.

  4. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation. Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn’t one just as well, it is argued, consider receipt of other goods such as income or education? In consequence, simple allocation by lottery or first-come-first-served without consideration of any past receipt is thought to best afford equal opportunity, conditional on equal medical need. There are three issues with this view that need to be addressed. First, public views and patient preferences are less ambiguous than formal theories of ethics. Empirical work shows strong preferences for fairness in health care that have not been taken into account: repeated access to resources has been perceived as unfair. Second, while difficult to consider receipt of many other prior resources including non-medical resources, this should not be used a motive for ignoring the receipt of any and all goods including the focal resource in question. Third, when all claimants to a scarce resource are equally deserving, then use of random allocation seems warranted. However, the converse is not true: mere use of a randomizer does not by itself make the merits of all claimants equal. Summary My conclusion is that not ignoring prior receipt of the same medical resource, and prioritizing those who have not previously had access to the medical resource in question, may be perceived as fairer and more equitable by society.

  5. Positive Psychology Program for equal Access for Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotova, Tatjana; Miloseva, Lence; Angelovska, Beti; Milenkovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical frame of this paper was grounded in positive psychology programs and social ecology theory. Our main aim was to raise awareness against discrimination toward disabled children and adolescents. In the frame of the project Equal Access through Service Learning for Persons with Disabilities, we conducted our Service Learning Project, on which we based our paper. It consists of two parts. The main aim of the first part of the study was to identify students’discrimination attitud...

  6. The Concepts of Accessibility and Equality in Design Education: The Universal Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    MUGAN AKINCI, Guliz

    2014-01-01

    Universal design approach aims to design products and environments that provide equal access for everyone to the variety of activities. Universal design applications and research and discussions related to these applications can be seen in different fields very often especially in the last years. Concerning the fact that its possibility of application is very new in Turkey, on the one hand, one of the aims of this study is to introduce and explain this new approach. On the other hand, the stu...

  7. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ) should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation). Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resour...

  8. Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? Technical Appendix. NCEE 2011-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Max, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This appendix describes the methods and provides further detail to support the evaluation brief, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers?" (Contains 8 figures, 6 tables and 5 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? NCEE Evaluation Brief.…

  9. Universal Design and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual, and Queer) Issues: Creating Equal Access and Opportunities for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jennifer R.; Geiger, Tracy J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for…

  10. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-08 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-22 to 2010-06-24 (NODC Accession 0104289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104289 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-08 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  11. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1110 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-09-03 to 2011-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0145826)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145826 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1110 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1111 in the Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 2011-10-10 to 2011-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0131906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0131906 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1111 in the Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean and others from...

  13. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  14. Limits on Discretion in Applying the Equal Access Act: Mergens v. Board of Education of Westside Community Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1989-01-01

    Conflicting opinions between two circuit court decisions set the stage for another consideration of school officials' discretion in deciding whether the Equal Access Act would apply to their schools based on the presence or absence of a limited open forum. (MLF)

  15. The Constitutionality of the Equal Access Act: "Board of Education of Westside Community School District v. Mergens."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lawrence F.; Rice, Mark G.

    1991-01-01

    In "Mergens," the Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Access Act (EAA) was constitutional and that students at a high school with a "limited open forum" could participate in a prayer club. Traces the history of the case, arguments by the justices, and practical implications of the case for school districts. (66 references) (MLF)

  16. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  17. Promoting equality of opportunity and improving access to social services. Notes for a course of action from the Peruvian state.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortázar V., Juan

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a strategy of government action to promote an equal access to basic social services and lo social insertion opportunities.   In the case of social services, it proposes the need to point out the responsibility of the government in relation to the financing and provision of such services. Although the poverty of the country implies that the government should finance directly the greater part of social services, this does not mean that the provision should be exclusively i...

  18. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  19. What's in Your Refrigerator? Children's Views on Equality, Work, Money and Access to Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Libby-Lee; Hesterman, Sandra; Knaus, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates young children's theorising about families and their differential access to food from a perspective of wealth and poverty. Fifty-two children, aged 6-7 years, attending a Western Australian school were invited to share their perspectives on this global issue. The single case study method utilised three children's focus…

  20. Physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC469-02 in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-10-24 to 2010-10-28 (NODC Accession 0104338)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104338 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC469-02 in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-10-24 to 2010-10-28....

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-09-22 to 2003-11-13 (NODC Accession 0108060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108060 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-04-12 to 2003-04-25 (NODC Accession 0117494)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117494 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-01-03 to 2005-01-02 (NODC Accession 0081033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081033 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-27 to 2012-11-16 (NODC Accession 0108232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108232 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 and retrieved during cruise...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-02-08 to 2004-01-03 (NODC Accession 0081032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081032 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2009-04-17 to 2009-10-18 (NODC Accession 0109931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109931 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081041 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109915 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-07-10 to 2004-08-07 (NODC Accession 0116644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116644 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-11-02 to 1997-09-03 (NODC Accession 0115005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115005 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-01-02 to 2005-12-18 (NODC Accession 0109924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109924 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2006-01-15 to 2006-12-24 (NODC Accession 0109925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109925 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  17. Oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard NANCY FOSTER as part of project M-I907-NF-10 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-18 to 2010-04-05 (NCEI Accession 0130284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130284 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the NANCY FOSTER during project M-I907-NF-10 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Scientific Output from Latin America and the Caribbean – Identification of the Main Institutions for Regional Open Access Integration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is a region in which two thirds of the investment in research and development are funded by State resources. It can be foreseen that in the near future governments in the region will encourage and promote, or require by law or mandates, that scientific output from the region become visible and accessible in open access repositories and portals. This paper presents the results of a survey to identify the institutions of the region with the largest volume of scientific output and ...

  20. Promotion of the Equal Access of Girls and Women to Technical and Vocational Education. Studies on Technical and Vocational Education 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This monograph includes the final report of the International Expert Meeting on the Promotion of Equal Access of Girls and Women to Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, and country discussion papers. The final report is composed of an introduction that proposes that many Member States require special measures…

  1. Equal Access to Health Care: Patient Dumping. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (July 22, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of equal access to health care and the practice of patient dumping which may take the form of transferring a patient to another hospital, refusing to treat a patient, or subjecting a patient to long delays, and which may…

  2. WIND DIRECTION, pH and other data from FOX in the Caribbean Sea from 1974-08-30 to 1974-08-31 (NCEI Accession 7601844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected in the Caribbean Sea from August 30-31, 1974. HMS FOX of the British navy was used to collect the data. Mr. Paul Ruiz, Tauton, Somerset,...

  3. NCCOS Caribbean Fishery Acoustic Assessment: Fish Density Data Collection from Nancy Foster, from 2008-03-26 to 2014-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0156395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets show acoustically detected fish densities throughout the Caribbean ocean. NOAA/NCCOS collected these data sets to help characterize broad-scale fish...

  4. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  5. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  6. Expansion and equality of access to higher education in China%规模扩大与高等教育入学机会均等化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小浩

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the role of socio-economic status in determining access to higher education over time. Findings show that the overall equality of higher education opportunity has improved because of the inclusion of more marginal students into lower-tier higher education institutions (HEIs); however, students from higher socio-economic status have benefited disproportionably from the expansion in elite universities. A brief discussion of the potential implications is presented.

  7. Latin America and the Caribbean Social Science Virtual Libraries Network. (Open access to full-text social science publications from Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of CLACSO´s virtual libraries network)

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Emerging trends in academic e-publishing and e-libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean are more related to particular problems in the region -reduced number of copies printed, inter-library loans nearly nonexistent among cities and countries due to postal costs, discontinuity in library collections- than to the dynamics of the international academic editorial business. This presentation describes how CLACSO, an academic network gathering 168 social science research institutions from 2...

  8. Stakeholders’ perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. Methods Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). Results Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P <0.01) to 0.86 (Sustainable financing; r = 0.93, P <0.01). There was also high coherence between current and desired research on Rational selection and use of medicines (r = 0.71, P <0.05, R2 = 0.51), Pricing/affordability (r = 0.82, P <0.01, R2 = 0.67), and Sustainable financing (r = 0.76, P <0.01, R2 = 0.58). Coherence was less for Health system structure (r = 0.61, P <0.01, R2 = 0.38). Conclusions This

  9. Women’s leadership in local government in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzann Lee Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Women and men are traditionally cast in different roles, with males being leaders in the workplace, home and government. In contrast, communities promote women as caregivers who support male leaders and shape future generations as mothers, mentors and teachers. In recognition of this societal view of women that often led to inequality and inequity, the UNDP listed Gender Equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the United Nations in autumn 2015, also included gender equality and empowering women as Goal 5. In its work in the Caribbean, the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED examined gender as it relates to micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME development in six Caribbean countries.  The findings of this study showed gender gaps for both male and female entrepreneurs in different areas of development.  Traditionally gendered roles for MSME sectors, access to financing and lack of adequate guidance or community support were some areas that affected men and women differently in the region.  The study outlines ways in which male and female leaders can address traditional gender roles by identifying priority areas for development, creating an enabling environment for start-ups and expansion, and fostering a policy and legislative base that facilitates ease of doing business.  The recommendations further describe the public–private partnerships needed to successfully meet gender gaps, and the importance of both elected officials and technocrats in inter alia community engagement and advocacy towards local economic development. The importance of gender equality among elected officials and technocrats, and the influence gender has on determining priority areas of focus within local government strategic plans for communities are also set out within this paper.

  10. International Flows of Remittances: Cost, Competition and Financial Access in Latin America and the Caribbean¿toward an Industry Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    This report analyzes current trends in money transfers, paying attention to the gradual decline in costs and some of the factors influencing the decline. The report also highlights the fact that both banking and nonbanking financial institutions, such as microfinance institutions, are increasingly becoming major payers of money in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-02 to 2002-12-28 (NODC Accession 0108131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108131 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-13 to 2008-12-11 (NODC Accession 0109928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109928 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2013-02-28 to 2013-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0144355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144355 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2011-01-02 to 2011-11-20 (NODC Accession 0108231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108231 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2010-01-14 to 2011-01-02 (NODC Accession 0108230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108230 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2009-03-15 to 2009-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108229 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-07-22 to 2011-12-06 (NODC Accession 0108094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108094 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic...

  19. Incomplete equalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Reimer, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests whether the existence of vocationally oriented tracks within a traditionally academically oriented upper education system reduces socioeconomic inequalities in educational attainment. Based on a statistical model of educational transitions and data on two entire cohorts of Danish...... youth, we find that (1) the vocationally oriented tracks are less socially selective than the traditional academic track; (2) attending the vocationally oriented tracks has a negative effect on the likelihood of enrolling in higher education; and (3) in the aggregate the vocationally oriented tracks...... improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking, on the one hand, equalizes educational opportunities and, on the other, reduces the likelihood that students from low-SES families enter university. We also discuss whether...

  20. Caribbean ,More than Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Ou

    2008-01-01

    @@ Have you ever watched the movie of Pirates of the Caribbean?This Hollywood movie hit several headlines in its time and pushed a charming and mysterious Caribbean under limelight.The Latin America and the Caribbean area caught the world's eyesight,so from China.On February 27th,the fourth session of CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)International Forum focus on Latin America and the Caribbean affairs was heldin Beijing,China.

  1. A unified, long-term, Caribbean-wide initiative to identity the factors responsible for sustaining mangrove wetland, seagrass meadow, and coral reef productivity, February 1993 - October 1998 (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in...

  2. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets. (author)

  3. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets.

  4. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  5. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. Patients and methods New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. Results At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42–0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29–1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99

  6. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity. PMID:12294238

  7. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    accepted feature of all cultural perspectives. In this paper, we discuss the situation of equality-centric methods in a culturally mixed setting. We present a case study of the Girl Game Workshop, a game development event intended to empower young women through game design and to promote diversity in game...... creation. While conducting the workshop, the organisers encountered numerous issues, which presented challenges to their assumptions of the desirability of an emphasis on equality during game design and development. In this paper, we focus on seven key themes relating to equality that emerged from an...

  8. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  9. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck...... egalitarianism: asymmetrical and symmetrical luck egalitarianism. According to the former, while inequalities due to luck are unjust, equalities due to luck are not necessarily so. The latter view, by contrast, affirms the undesirability of equalities as well as inequalities insofar as they are due to luck. The...... symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  10. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical tourism industry that enhances regional access to specialized health care and facilitates the movement of patients and healthcare resources throughout the region to enhance health equity and health outcomes in the Caribbean.

  11. Pré-vestibulares alternativos: da igualdade à eqüidade Alternative courses for college entrance examination and higher education access: from equality to equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleny Mitrulis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as crescentes demandas por acesso ao ensino superior em período em que se assiste a um deslizamento do debate sobre igualdade de oportunidades do plano da educação obrigatória para o terreno da educação superior. Representando os interesses dos novos grupos de concluintes de educação básica, proliferaram, a partir do final dos anos 90, dentro de movimentos sociais voltados para segmentos desassistidos da população, cursos preparatórios ao ensino superior, gratuitos e sem fins lucrativos. No âmbito das universidades públicas do Estado de São Paulo, igualmente sensíveis às urgências sociais da inclusão, registram-se também ações favoráveis ao acesso e à permanência desses segmentos sociais nos cursos oferecidos. O artigo analisa as ambigüidades e as aberturas presentes em programas preparatórios ao ensino superior, tomando como referência o Programa Pró-Universitário, voltados aos alunos da série terminal da educação básica, pertencentes à rede estadual de ensino, desenvolvido pela Universidade de São Paulo em parceria com a Secretaria de Estado da Educação. Traz uma análise do perfil dos alunos participantes e uma reflexão sobre os efeitos desse tipo de iniciativa sobre a relação dos jovens com o saber e sobre a construção de suas identidades. Sugere que a ação afirmativa para a inclusão de jovens dos segmentos populares em instituições públicas de ensino superior requer uma proposta educativa na qual a socialização e a aprendizagem estejam intimamente ligadas. O domínio dos saberes preparatórios aos exames de acesso deixa de ser considerado apenas pelo valor instrumental e adquire outros significados como uma nova maneira de ver o mundo, relacionar-se consigo mesmo e com o outro.This work explores the growing demands for increasing access to higher education at a time when discussions on equality of opportunities at the level of compulsory education are shifting to higher

  12. Multidimensional equalities

    OpenAIRE

    Skjeie, Hege

    2008-01-01

    Book review: 1. Anne Phillips: Multiculturalism without culture. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton Univ. Press 2007, 202 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-12944-0. 2. Judith Squires: The new politics of gender equality. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2007, 206 pp. ISBN 978-0-230-00769-7.

  13. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar...

  14. Granting Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China granting equal representation in legislative bodies to rural and urban people was ratified by the National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.

  15. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  16. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MAHLON S. TISDALE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 06 January 1992 to 31 January 1992 (NODC Accession 9300042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MAHLON S. TISDALE in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 September 1979 - 01 December 1979 (NODC Accession 8100607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from September 27, 1979 to December 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 15 February 1979 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by...

  20. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07 April 1987 to 30 September 1987 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  1. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 16 July 1980 to 29 November 1987 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  2. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anadon-Irizarry; D.C. Wege; A. Upgren; Young, R.; Boom, B; Y.M. Leon; Y. Arias; Koenig, K.; Morales, A.L.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive nat...

  3. The effect of race on the discriminatory accuracy of models to predict biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital and Duke Prostate Center databases

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, DM; Presti, JC; Aronson, WJ; Terris, MK; Kane, CJ; Amling, CL; Sun, LL; Moul, JW; Freedland, SJ

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether race modifies the accuracy of nomograms to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy among subjects from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) and Duke Prostate Center (DPC) databases. Retrospective analysis of 1721 and 4511 subjects from the SEARCH and DPC cohorts, respectively. The discrimination accuracy for BCR of seven previously published predictive models was assessed using concordance index and compared between African-Ame...

  4. Equality, Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bottesch, R.; Gavinsky, Dmitry; Klauck, H.

    Berlin : Springer, 2015 - (Italiano, G.; Pighizzini, G.; Sannella, D.), s. 127-138 ISBN 978-3-662-48053-3. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science . vol. 9235). [International Symposium of Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015, MFCS 2015. Milan (IT), 28.08.2015-28.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : equality * complexity * algorithm analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48054-0_11

  5. Equality, Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bottesch, R.; Gavinsky, Dmitry; Klauck, H.

    Berlin: Springer, 2015 - (Italiano, G.; Pighizzini, G.; Sannella, D.), s. 127-138. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. vol. 9235). ISBN 978-3-662-48053-3. [International Symposium of Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015, MFCS 2015. Milan (IT), 28.08.2015-28.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : equality * complexity * algorithm analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48054-0_11

  6. Access to Gender-Sensitive Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe: Reflections on the CEPES Project "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Summarizing the incomplete results of the United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) program "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education," the author asks that any assessment of the progress made in the area of gender-sensitive education take regional specificities into account. The regional environment is…

  7. How to Avoid a Darkening Debt Storm in the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2015-01-01

    Using the euro area and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union as case studies, this chapter argues that a comprehensive policy framework should comprise not only a rule for fiscal policy but also, and equally important, a broader set of strategies designed to improve competitiveness and economic g...

  8. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, Joelle M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; van Dijk, Liset; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  9. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Dijk, L. van; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  10. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...

  11. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebert, J.M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Van Dijk, L; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to explore possible differences in international utilisation. Methods: Data from four European countries were included: Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway and Portugal. Annual utilisation rates of TNFa...

  12. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  13. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever described. Several genera and species have been synonymised. The monotypic family Ricordeidae Watzl, 1922, has been re-established to accommodate Ricordea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. In Ricordea flor...

  14. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Torrado, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  15. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  16. A Study on Legislation of Equal Access to Education by Indigenous people in Australia and Its Enlightenment%澳大利亚土著民族教育机会均等政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立鹏; 张靖慧

    2012-01-01

    With the development of multi-cultural policy in the 1970s and 1980s, Australian administration started to pay attention to legislation of equal access to education by indigenous people. In order to guarantee and preserve education equity of indigenous people, Australian government has made a series of education laws and policies about equal access to education for them. Based on the historical background of Australian multi-cultural policy,this paper analyses the main contents,characteristics and effect of indigenous education laws and policies in Australia, and provides some suggestions and enlightenment for enhancing legislation of education for ethnic minorities in China.%随着20世纪70和80年代多元文化政策的兴起,澳大利亚政府开始逐步关注土著民族教育机会均等问题,制定了一系列促进土著民族教育机会均等的法律政策,保障和维护了土著民族的教育公平。本文在深入考察澳大利亚多元文化社会历史背景的基础上,研究分析了澳大利亚土著民族教育法律政策的主要内容、特点、实施成效,指出了其对加强我国少数民族教育法规政策建设的借鉴和启示。

  17. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations. PMID:21114073

  18. Equal Measure: Shielding Students and Enabling Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    "If one life is saved, then it's worth it." That is the cliched argument frequently used to justify banning electronic communications, websites, and other forms of technology in schools. The common belief is that these prohibitions will prevent, among other things, the sexual assault of minors or suicides related to cyberbullying. But that…

  19. The Caribbean after-shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L; Levy, D

    1988-03-01

    The population of the Caribbean islands, is expected to double by the mid-21st century, placing new pressures on local labor markets and economic resources and increasing the need for social expenditures. Most of this growth will take place in urban areas. Emigration to the US is an increasingly important trend, especially in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, and local Caribbean economies are linked with labor markets in the US through a system of family remittances. Oil price hikes, escalating debt burdens, and falling export prices have created an economic crisis in the Caribbean since the late 1970s. There has been double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, and only sporadic growth in the gross national product. The Caribbean Basin Initiative, established by the Reagan Administration, provides the Caribbean nations with duty-free export entry to the US market for 12 years and targets manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, and foreign investment for growth. Overall, however, the results of this initiative have been an effective subsidy to US investors and little stimulus for growth in locally owned businesses. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the islands with the most poverty, while Trinidad and Tobago are the most prosperous. Puerto Rico plays an important role in the Caribbean region, serving as a link between North and South America and between cultural differences. PMID:12280949

  20. Linear equalizer in MIMO radio communications systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manelis, V. B.; Kaioukov, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    A linear equalizer for MIMO radio communications systems has been considered. The weight coefficients of the MIMO equalizer were obtained in accordance with the criterion of minimum mean squared error. Using the computer simulation technique and analyzing the case study of HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) channel it was shown that the application of equalizer made it possible to significantly improve the reception characteristics as compared with those of a conventional rake receiver.

  1. Women in Physics: A Caribbean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.

  2. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  3. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  4. Connectivity for Caribbean Countries : An Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.; Cubas, Diana; Millan-Placci, Maria Florencia

    2014-01-01

    Every discussion of the Caribbean states considers their characteristics as sea-locked countries, small economies, highly vulnerable to natural disasters, and a geographic platform that calls for regional cooperation and integration. The Caribbean Sea is the most important vehicle and the most challenging obstacle Caribbean countries have to connect with the world. This report measures and...

  5. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  6. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  7. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  8. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  9. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-03-19 to 2015-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0129817)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129817 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  10. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-10 to 2015-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0129840)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129840 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-04-12 to 2015-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0129874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129874 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea from 2016-04-07 to 2016-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0150874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0150874 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  13. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-02-24 to 2015-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0128116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0128116 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard the...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and others from 2015-05-08 to 2015-06-09 (NCEI Accession 0141434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0141434 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard the...

  15. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard the NOAA Ship Pisces in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-10-12 to 2015-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0138341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138341 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  16. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and productivity profile data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON Cruise 001, 19651014 to 19651207 in the Caribbean Sea and the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 7100507)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of University of Washington Department of Oceanography Technical Report No. 249, Physical, chemical, and productivity data from a...

  17. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  18. Women’s right to health in the Anglo-Caribbean: intimate partner violence, abortion and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Minvielle, Fauhn; Goicolea, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Women’s sexual and reproductive health is a public health concern globally, yet in the Caribbean region academic publications exploring this topic from a rights approach are uncommon. A document review was conducted based on the application of the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument to the strategic health plans of three Anglo-Caribbean countries. Gender was the underlying theme used to conduct a comparative analysis focusing on intimate partner violence, access to legal abortion and...

  19. Equality and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  20. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt;

    2016-01-01

    Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure. © 2016 UNU-WIDER. Journal of International Development published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright...

  1. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  2. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  3. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  4. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  5. Brian Meeks, Envisioning Caribbean Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this feature we highlight a recently launched book. We invite specialists in the field to comment on the book, and we invite the author to respond to their comments. In this issue we focus on Brian Meeks's, Envisioning Caribbean Futures. Those invited to comment on the book are Jay Mandle and Rivke Jaffe. [First paragraph] In Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives (2007, Brian Meeks writes “in sympathy with the new social movements that have evolved in the past decade which assert boldly that ‘another world is possible’” (p. 2. His effort is “to explore the horizons for different approaches to social living in Jamaica and the Caribbean in the twenty-first century” (p. 2. In this, he “seeks to move beyond a statement of general principles to propose specific alternatives” in order to “stimulate a conversation that looks beyond the horizon of policy confines, yet is not so far removed as to appear hopelessly utopian” (p. 3. My hope with this essay is to advance that conversation, in the first place by reviewing and assessing Meeks’s contribution and then by extending the discussion to the role that Jamaica’s diaspora (and by extension that of the region’s generally might play in moving the country, as Meeks puts it, from its current “state of crime and murder, and the broad undermining of the rule of law that pervades the society” (p. 71.

  6. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  7. Resources for Teaching about the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of resources to aid educators in teaching about the Caribbean. Includes outreach centers for Latin American and Caribbean studies, publishers and distributors, curriculum resource guides and monographs for teachers, citations of children's literature, and a website providing links to embassies. (CMK)

  8. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  9. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: How Large is the Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Luis Tejerina

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, microfinance has greatly expanded the outreach of the financial system to millions of households in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The purpose of this report is to offer an updated snapshot of access to financial services in the region. The approach is two-fold. In the first part, the analysis hinges on information collected from microfinance institutions as of 2005. The second part presents information on access to financial services as found in national household ...

  10. Financial Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: Review and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Bebczuk, Ricardo Néstor

    2008-01-01

    Our study critically surveys financial inclusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries, gauging access to both credit and deposit accounts by poor households. Our review confirms some pieces of conventional wisdom in this area, but challenges some others. Regarding the latter, we claim that (a) Limited financial inclusion does not simply follows from unfair discrimination against the poor, but to a great deal from a low demand for financial services and scarce access for the population at...

  11. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  12. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed

  13. Financing for Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2015-01-01

    Remarks delivered by Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group. The Third International Conference on Financing for Development represents an important milestone in efforts to achieve universal and sustainable development as we move beyond 2015 and introduce a new set of Sustainable Development Goals. This event aims to mobilize high-level political support for financing gender equality and women’s...

  14. Equality : a continuing dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John; Walsh, Judy; Cantillon, Sara; Lynch, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    We reply to discussions of "Equality: From Theory to Action" by Harry Brighouse, Joanne Conaghan, Cillian McBride and Stuart White. We find many of their points helpful and treat them as a useful contribution to a continuing dialogue on egalitarianism.

  15. Teale Board of Equalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  16. Equality Kapped; Media Unleashed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Majury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Diana Majury looks at the Supreme Court of Canada’s recent s.15 decision, R. v. Kapp, in a preliminary exploration of the different understandings of equality she sees operating in three different sites (the Supreme Court, equality advocates, and the general public. She looks at the first two sites simultaneously by offering her equality advocate’s critique of the Kapp decision, outlining where the decision falls short of the substantive equality that equality advocates have been theorizing and promoting. She then looks at media responses to the decision, responses that almost unanimously present a formal equality understanding of equality. Recognizing that media coverage provides only a very limited and partial window on public perceptions, the media coverage of Kapp nonetheless raises the spectre that the general public understands equality only to mean formal equality. This conclusion highlights the importance of Rose Vyovodic’s work in combining equality and public education and the need for that work to be continued and expanded. Dans cet article, Diana Majury examine le récent jugement R. c. Kapp de la Cour Suprême du Canada en rapport avec l’article 15 pour faire une exploration préliminaire des compréhensions diverses de l’égalité qu’elle constate être en jeu dans trois lieux différents (la Cour Suprême, chez les défenseurs de l’égalité et chez le grand public. Elle examine les deux premiers lieux simultanément en présentant sa critique du jugement Kapp en tant que défenseure de l’égalité, exposant en quoi le jugement n’atteint pas l’égalité de fond au sujet de laquelle théorisent et que préconisent les défenseurs de l’égalité. Puis elle examine les réactions médiatiques au jugement, réactions qui présentent presque unanimement une compréhension d’égalité comme égalité formelle. Tout en reconnaissant que la couverture médiatique ne présente qu’une fenêtre tr

  17. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  18. Equal Love Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Mingyang

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the LGBT community(including Lesbians,Gays,Bisexuals,Transgenders)has won big.In terms of their marriage rights,on July 2015,the Supreme Court of the United States has passed judegment to recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of their rights,which means one’s marriage with same sex is not only legal from then on,but also equal to that of opposite sex.

  19. Bond dissociation & electronegativity equalization

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraelen, Toon; Ayers, Paul W.; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the Electrongativity Equalization Mtehod (EEM) fails to describe the charge distribution upon bond dissocation. In this presentation, the bond dissocation is studied with the Atom-Condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order (ACKS2). After reviewing the basic equations, a two-fragment system is studied in the dissociation limit. The limiting behavior of the Coulomb interaction (1/r) and the Kohn-Sham matrix elements (exponentially decaying) are plugged into the e...

  20. Internationalisation and Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Ackers

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation proces...

  1. Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee took note of the appointment of four new members of the Panel: Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano and Markus Nordberg. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz et Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  2. Summary of Caribbean managers meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Caribbean Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Managers held their 11th meeting in November 1994. The meeting attracted over 80 attendees from all of the member countries, including Puerto Rico (for the first time), representatives of nongovernmental organizations, and technical personnel. Among the achievements cited were the facts that no cases of indigenous measles have been reported in over 3 years in the Caribbean, no cases of paralytic poliomyelitis have been detected in nearly 12 years, progress has been made in the surveillance of fever and rash illnesses, and immunization coverage levels remain high. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the overall EPI program in the Caribbean in order to identify obstacles to achieving program targets and to evaluate continued efforts towards the elimination of measles by 1995. The discussions about measles focused on 1) the surveillance system for the detection of suspected cases, which has improved, but which could be strengthened and 2) the levels of immunization coverage and the continued increase in the number of children who remain susceptible to the disease (each country projected the number of children under age 5 years who would be susceptible by June 1995). Steps to maintain the polio-free status of the area, including maintaining immunization levels of at least 80%, were also reviewed. In addition, concerns about reducing the number of cases of congenital rubella syndrome were addressed with several recommendations including improving active hospital surveillance and developing an appropriate rubella vaccination strategy. Incidence rates for tuberculosis were reported, and the problems of coinfection with HIV and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the disease were discussed. Tuberculosis control programs in the region are generally inadequate, treatment standards have not been implemented, the availability of drugs is limited, and treatment monitoring is not routine. In order to meet

  3. Equality and social missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2008-01-01

    still a small minority among the competitors in international sport events such as the Olympic Games. In many Islamic countries, numerous girls and women do not have access to physical activities and/or physical education. However, we have to be aware that the situation of women and women’s sport is...

  4. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  5. Origin of the Caribbean Plate Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith H. James; Maria Antonieta Lorente

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international research conference, entitled "Geology of the area between North and South America, with focus on the origin of the Caribbean Plate", took place in Siguenza, Spain, from May 29-June 2, 2006.

  6. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    CECILIA IRINA RĂBONŢU; AMELIA GEORGIANA BONCEA; MARCEL ROMANESCU

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has every reason to be proud of its anti-discrimination legislation, one of the most extensive in the world. In 2000, the European Union adopted two very wide-ranging laws to prohibit discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation in the workplace and, as far as racial and ethnic origin is concerned, in other aspects of daily life. These texts build on the extensive provisions at EU level to promote equality b...

  7. Gender (sic) Equality (sic)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sewell

    2008-01-01

    This article is a response to both a Letter to the Editor by Dr Ambily Banerjee (Banerjee, 2007) and the recent UCL Gender Equality Event. Dr Banerjee claimed to be ‘astounded’ to find a ‘glass ceiling’ (sic) within her own discipline, Anatomy. She concludes her letter with, ‘I have never believed motherhood is a valid excuse for not realising one’s potential’. Both points are wrongheaded, and are the result of bogus feminist thinking. Firstly, men and women are different; and secondly, we ha...

  8. Water Security and Services in The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cashman

    2013-01-01

    The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addr...

  9. Genes and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, C

    2004-12-01

    The way people think about equality as a value will influence how they think genetic interventions should be regulated. In this paper the author uses the taxonomy of equality put forth by Derek Parfit and applies this to the issue of genetic interventions. It is argued that telic egalitarianism is untenable and that deontic egalitarianism collapses into prioritarianism. The priority view maintains that it is morally more important to benefit the people who are worse off. Once this precision has been given to the concerns egalitarians have, a number of diverse issues must be considered before determining what the just regulation of genetic interventions would be. Consideration must be given to the current situation of the least advantaged, the fiscal realities behind genetic interventions, the budget constraints on other social programmes egalitarians believe should receive scarce public funds, and the interconnected nature of genetic information. These considerations might lead egalitarians to abandon what they take to be the obvious policy recommendations for them to endorse regarding the regulation of gene therapies and enhancements. PMID:15574450

  10. Fiscal equalization under political pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Esteller-Moré; Umberto Galmarini; Leonzio Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the design of fiscal equalization transfers aimed at inter-regional redistribution in a setting in which special interest groups distort the fiscal policies of local governments. Equity always calls for tax-base equalization while efficiency calls for tax-base equalization of fiscal capacities backed by strong lobby groups and for tax-revenue equalization of those backed by weak lobby groups. Hence, it is optimal to rely only on tax-base equalization if the special interest groups ...

  11. Physical and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V HERMANO GINES from the continental shelf of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea in support of the project: Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean (CARIACO) from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007 (NODC Accession 0014920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the R/V HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007. Data...

  12. Webster and women's equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, D; Wilder, M J

    1989-01-01

    The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) and the Women's Legal Defense Fund (WLDF) co-authored an "amicus curiae" brief in "Webster." The brief was written for 77 organizations who believe in equality of women. The brief said that constitutional protection of a woman's right to choose is guaranteed by the right to privacy. The brief said that if abortions were illegal, women would not be able to take place in society equally with men. Liberty would be taken away from women. If the state interferes with abortion, the principle of bodily integrity is violated. In "Winston v. Lee," the Supreme Court found that the state could not compel a criminal to undergo an invasive surgical procedure to retrieve a bullet necessary for the state to prosecute with. 1 in 4 women have a cesarean section, which requires a larger incision in the abdomen, and has many risks. Bearing and raising children often puts a damper on women's employment opportunities. Therefore, if the Supreme Court denied women the right to bear children when and where they wanted, women would not have the right to plan their futures. If the Supreme Court were to agree that "interest in potential life outweighs" a woman's tight to procreate autonomously, states could declare all abortions illegal, investigate them to see if they were induced on purpose, and murder women who induced them. Contraceptive devices could be declared illegal. Laws could be used to force women to submit to cesarean sections and other fetal surgery. Pre-viability abortion restrictions should be rejected because they have old-fashioned notions of women's role in society. They reinforce stereotypes. Missouri's law stresses aiding "potential," rather than actual life. PMID:2603859

  13. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74. ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality. Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  15. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  16. The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for Public Health Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Anauati, María Victoria; Galiani, Sebastián; Weinschelbaum, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  17. The rise of noncommunicable diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for public health policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Victoria Anauati; Sebastian Galiani; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  18. Education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Vianna; Kourilovitch, Maria; Massardo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Patient education is highly recommended in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to support patient management. The challenge is to adhere to the recommendations for providing health education to RA patients in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries taking into account factors such as patient health illiteracy, lack of rheumatologists, and lack of resources including access to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). As existing educational material in regional languages is not readily a...

  19. Left ventricular thrombus in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Case report and Caribbean focused update

    OpenAIRE

    CR Potu; EE Tulloch-Reid; DS Baugh; EC Madu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well documented benefit of echocardiography in acute coronary syndromes, its wide-scale use in the Caribbean is limited by access, health literacy and affordability. Because of the limited use of echocardiography in the region, routine complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not fully appreciated and may go unrecognized, further contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is therefore necessary to bring focus to this common clinical conditio...

  20. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  1. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  2. Gender (sic Equality (sic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sewell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to both a Letter to the Editor by Dr Ambily Banerjee (Banerjee, 2007 and the recent UCL Gender Equality Event. Dr Banerjee claimed to be ‘astounded’ to find a ‘glass ceiling’ (sic within her own discipline, Anatomy. She concludes her letter with, ‘I have never believed motherhood is a valid excuse for not realising one’s potential’. Both points are wrongheaded, and are the result of bogus feminist thinking. Firstly, men and women are different; and secondly, we have evolved ‘as if’ reproduction is the sole goal for which human beings were ‘designed’ and everything else is a means to that end. Feminism not only harms men, but harms women like Dr Banerjee, too (Quest, 1994; Sommers, 1995. Indeed, women are less happy today than they were in the 1970s and ‘the changes brought about through the women’s movement may have decreased women’s happiness’ (Stevenson and Wolfers, 2007.

  3. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and...... accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  4. 我国城乡公共体育服务均等化发展策略研究——基于农村人口流动与迁移角度%Equal access to public service in urban and rural areas in China sports development strategy ——Based on the rural population flow and migration angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李详; 周武

    2012-01-01

    我国经济发展尚未到达“刘易斯转折点”,农村外出务工人员仍将继续向城市流动,而且呈增长趋势;我国城市化发展已由原来的“自上而下”政府管制模式转变为“自下而上”市场经济主导模式,市场经济继续推动我国农村人口城市化发展。农村人口的继续流动和迁移将对输入地、输出地和流动迁移人群自身的公共体育服务均等化发展造成不利的影响。鉴于对我国农村人口流动的现状和未来迁移趋势考虑,我国城乡公共体育服务均等化发展战略应将重点放在城市中农民工、农村留守人群、小城镇和社会主义新农村公共体育服务均等化建设上。%The economic development of China has not reached " Lewis turning point," rural migrant workers still continue to flow to the city with a growing trend; The urbanization development has the original " top - down" government control model into a " bottom - up" market economy the dominant model, the market economy continued to promoting China~ rural population urbanization development. Rural population migration will continue to flow and to input fields, output and migration of people own public sports service to cause adverse effects of the equal access to the development. Therefore, in view of China's rural population flow to the present and future trend of migration considerations, China's urban and rural public sports service development strategy should be equal access to focus on rural migrant workers in cities, rural rear crowd, small towns and socialist new countryside public sports on the building of the equal access to the service.

  5. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  6. Local autonomy and interregional equality : fiscal equalization with balanced budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander W; Tungodden, Bertil

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on fiscal equalization in three ways. First, it shows how two important types of transfer schemes, the foundation grant and the power equalization grant, can be seen as two different interpretations of equal opportunity ethics. Second, it characterizes versions of these transfers schemes that ensure a balanced budget for the central government. Third, it clarifies the nature of various fiscal spillover effects within the framework of ...

  7. The business case for equal opportunities : equality, equity and egalitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    The research project reported in this thesis concerned the business case for equal opportunity in the workplace. The project comprised three distinct but related studies: 1. Study I was a qualitative investigation into which variables employees perceived to be associated with equal opportunity in the workplace. The over-arching fmding was that participants had a low awareness of equal opportunity and perceived general fairness (organisational egalitarianism) to be more importan...

  8. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  9. Gandhigram: fostering equality through development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R K

    1991-12-01

    A noticeable trend towards 1-child families reveals the success of Gandhigram, an integrated rural development program in Tamil Nadu, India. Founded in 1947 by T.S. Soundram, Gandhigram has adhered to Gandhian principles of truth, nonviolence, castlessness, and equality between the sexes. The program has combined health and family planning with social welfare, education, and economic development. From the outset, Gandhigram has sought community participation, including the involvement of women. Girls have been encouraged to attend school up to at least the 10th level, and employment opportunities for women have been increased. Women's increased economic independence and level of education have influenced their decision to delay marriage by about 2 1/2 years, to choose their own partners, and to decide on the number of children they want. And increasingly, women are opting to limit family size to 2 -- and sometimes 1 -- child. Women are choosing to undergo tubectomies at a younger age, partly because of the availability of recanalization surgery, which has allowed mothers who have lost a child to conceive again. Unlike typical government family planning programs, which usually provide only contraception to meet the objective of a small family norm, Gandhigram also offers infertility services. Not all of Gandhigram's efforts have resulted in success. For example, a plan to develop a health insurance program did not succeed. However, Gandhigram's 44 years of experience have revealed the necessary elements for success. These elements include community participation, the participation of women through educational and employment programs, and easy access to services. PMID:12317116

  10. Equal Treatment of Equals in Classical Quasilinear Exchange Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mridu Prabal Goswami

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that there does not exist a social choice function that satisfies strategy-proofness, Pareto-efficiency and equal treatment of equals simultaneously, in classical exchange economies. This result establishes the incompatibility of fairness and efficiency in strategy-proof social choice functions as found in Cho and Thomson (2013), which reaches the same conclusion for exchange economies with linear preferences.

  11. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  12. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  13. Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labo...

  14. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were collected…

  15. Equal accessequal egress: Accounting for people with disabilities in emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    numerical evacuation models are applied for the prediction of the evacuation process in the fire safety design. In many cases these models are best fit to describe a normative description of the population comprehending young abled bodied adults. It has been shown, that some models poorly describe...... (Papaioannou, 2006). It is essential to use models, enabling the prediction of the egress of a total population in a building. In the current quantitative and qualitative study evacuation times and -characteristics from a train in a tunnel are measured for a full-scale evacuation exercise. The results are...... compared to times determined with a computer simulation of the exercises. The full-scale experiment involved 46 participants, where the composition of the test population corresponded to the demographic profile of Denmark, including children, able-bodied adults, elderly people and people with different...

  16. Lack of Equal Treatment and Access to Equal Opportunity for LGTBQ People in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Andrew; Halawi, Firass

    2014-01-01

    The lack of protections against employment discrimination and inattention to the causes and patterns of LGBT poverty constitute human rights violations.  Based on social science research and legal analysis, the United States is failing to comply with its international human rights commitments, particularly in the areas of employment, health, youth and violence against LGBT people. In its last review, the United States accepted recommendations to address discrimination against LGBT people in o...

  17. Equality and Education -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John

    1975-01-01

    Discusses equality in education within the framework of the ideas of John Rawls, asserting that even though in the real world it is not easy to implement his version of equality and justice without endangering his prior principle of liberty, he provides a philosophical foundation for the reconsideration of the meritocratic principle. (Author/JM)

  18. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  19. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  20. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental in

  1. Cataract surgery: ensuring equal access for boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Shirima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, many children are not brought for surgery in a timely fashion and follow up is often poor. Research at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC has shown that girls are more likely than boys to be negatively affected: * Only half as many girls as boys received cataract surgery. * Girls tended to be brought for surgery later than boys. * Girls who did receive surgery were less likely than boys to be brought for the appropriate two-week follow-up visit (36 per cent of girls vs 64 per cent of boys.

  2. Equal Access to Justice in a Rural Western State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Miller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three inmates from a rural state penitentiary with mental retardation participated in a study on the differential treatment of persons with mental retardation by the criminal justice system. After obtaining informed consent, the inmates were screened for appropriateness for the study using the PPVT-R, a proxy test for IQ. The inmates were interviewed to obtain a social history and given the CAST-MR, an instrument that measures the competency of a person with mental retardation to stand trial. Results suggest participants may not have been competent to stand trial, learned most of what they knew about the criminal justice system while incarcerated, and had difficulty with interpersonal conflict and conflict with authority. The combination of these factors suggests that clients in the study may have been vulnerable to being coerced into confessing to crimes they did not commit. The presence of an advocate during criminal justice system encounters may benefit persons with mental retardation.

  3. Equalization of data transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  4. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge

    Full Text Available Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats, wild/feral (protected habitats, and truly wild cotton (TWC populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida, as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively

  5. Sparsity Enhanced Decision Feedback Equalization

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    For single-carrier systems with frequency domain equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) performs better than linear equalization and has much lower computational complexity than sequence maximum likelihood detection. The main challenge in DFE is the feedback symbol selection rule. In this paper, we give a theoretical framework for a simple, sparsity based thresholding algorithm. We feed back multiple symbols in each iteration, so the algorithm converges fast and has a low computational cost. We show how the initial solution can be obtained via convex relaxation instead of linear equalization, and illustrate the impact that the choice of the initial solution has on the bit error rate performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is applicable in several existing wireless communication systems (SC-FDMA, MC-CDMA, MIMO-OFDM). Numerical results illustrate significant performance improvement in terms of bit error rate compared to the MMSE solution.

  6. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  7. Creole in the Caribbean: How Oral Discourse creates Cultural Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Sindoni, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fictional recreation of Creole in Caribbean English literature has been traditionally studied using Eurocentric criteria. When compared to British English, Creole was considered a debased deviation (DeCamp, 1971; Hall, 1966). Creole is associated with oral discourse, one reason for its growing use in literature. Caribbean writers have represented the Caribbean experience through the use of fictional Creole. The contemporary novel has thus been transformed by African-derived modes of narra...

  8. Historical change in coral reef communities in Caribbean Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Katie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have witnessed a profound transformation in Caribbean coral reefs since the 1980s that includes a widespread mortality of corals and a shift in coral species composition. These changes have been widely attributed to modern disturbances such as coral disease and coral bleaching that have become prevalent in the most recent decades. However, the demise of corals in the Caribbean represents the most recent chapter in a long history of human alteration of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Cen...

  9. Luck Egalitarianism and Democratic Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Klipfel, Kevin Michael

    2007-01-01

    Luck egalitarianism is the view that justice requires that we hold people accountable for the choices that they make but not the circumstances that they find themselves in. My aim in this thesis is to reject luck egalitarianism. My argument builds on the recent critique of luck egalitarianism by Elizabeth Anderson. Anderson rejects luck egalitarianism in favor of a view she calls â democratic equality.â The aim of democratic equality is to create a community in which citizens relate to one...

  10. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Gangelhoff, Christine; LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music), goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  11. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christien Klaufus; Rivke Jaffe

    2015-01-01

    The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a be...

  12. Corporate Income Tax Competition in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Koffie Ben Nassar

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the concern that corporate income tax (CIT) competition may have eroded the tax base, this paper calculates average effective tax rates to measure the impact of CIT competition, including the widespread use of tax holidays, on the tax base for 15 countries in the Caribbean. The results not only confirm erosion of the tax base, but also show that CIT holidays must be removed for recent tax policy initiatives (such as accelerated depreciation, loss carry forward provisions, and tax...

  13. The Dutch Caribbean municipalities in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, the smallest islands in this federation – Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba – became special municipalities of the Netherlands, and were hence politically and constitutionally integrated into the Dutch metropolis. The present article seeks to understand this development in the context of the broader academic literature on small, non-sovereign island jurisdictions in the Caribbean and elsewhere. After a description of the reforms and a discussion of the perceived benefits and drawbacks of the new political status, the newly created Dutch Caribbean municipalities are compared with other non-sovereign jurisdictions in the Caribbean. Whereas the choice for political integration in itself can be compared with the French postwar policy of départementalisation, in terms of the historical significance and the direction of the reforms, the new political situation on Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba could rather be better likened to that of the British Overseas Territories and their relationship with the United Kingdom.

  14. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  15. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anadon-Irizarry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive national-level stakeholder consultation. By applying the Vulnerability criterion, a total of 284 Key Biodiversity Areas were defined and mapped as holding 409 (54% of the region’s threatened species. Of these, 144 (or 51% overlapped partially or completely with protected areas. Cockpit Country, followed by Litchfield Mountain - Matheson’s Run, Blue Mountains (all Jamaica and Massif de la Hotte (Haiti were found to support exceptionally high numbers of globally threatened taxa, with more than 40 such species at each site. Key Biodiversity Areas, building from Important Bird Areas, provide a valuable framework against which to review the adequacy of existing national protected-area systems and also to prioritize which species and sites require the most urgent conservation attention.

  16. Feminist myths and magic medicine: the flawed thinking behind calls for further equality legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this report, Dr Hakim shows that: equal opportunity policies, in regards to women’s access to the labour market in the UK, have been successful; calls for further equality inititiatives (as in the recent Coalition document, The Equalities Strategy), are based on the outdated and wrong assumption that equality of outcomes is either desirable or feasible; the latest acdemic research proves that many men and women have different career aspirations, priorities and life goals. Policy make...

  17. Complex Liver Resections for Colorectal Metastases: Are They Safe in the Low-Volume, Resource-Poor Caribbean Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Dexter A. W. Thomas; Chunilal Ramjit; Roderick Bhagan; Vijay Naraynsingh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor envi...

  18. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  19. Different but Equal? Dilemmas in the Reform of Girls' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to achieve educational equality for girls are examined critically, and reform issues are discussed, including the public/private dichotomy within education and efforts to increase female access to and participation in male-dominated subject areas. These issues are then related to the Australian gender-inclusive curriculum design and to…

  20. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  1. Logistics as a Competitiveness Factor for Small and Medium Enterprises in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Kirby; Nicolau Brosa

    2011-01-01

    The logistics industry is one of utmost relevance and principally serves as a motor of private sec-tor development and growth of the economic sectors of a country or region. A logistics industry that is efficient and accessible to everyone is a key element for companies in a country or region in general, and its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular, to successfully compete in this new global context. Despite improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean in recent years, ...

  2. Accidents and incidents in the nuclear area occurred in Latin American and Caribbean. Bibliographical compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents bibliographic information about nuclear accidents/incidents related in Latin America and the Caribbean, from January 1962 to September 2000, most of in indexed in the major bibliographic information for this subject area. The information is arranged chronologically, beginning with the year when the first even occurred. Each accident/incident includes information on the date and place of the occurrence, a description of it and an alphabetical list of the publications that cover of refer to it, with a note on availability of access to the full text mostly in cases of non conventional literature. (author)

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  4. Preliminary list of the cetaceans of the southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Students working at the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute (CARMABI) on the island of Curaçao asked the present author to provide them with a list of Cetacea occurring in the Caribbean. Until recently, compiling such a list was of little use as our knowledge concerning the cetaceans in the area w

  5. Privatization and human resource issues in the Caribbean sugar industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Examines privatization of the sugar plantations and sugar processing industry in the Caribbean region. Provides a detailed account of the current state of the Caribbean sugar industry. Examines the modalities and activities of the privatization process in the six countries. Identifies the forces which led to the nationalization policies of the 1970s and their reversal in the 1990s.

  6. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 068-XA145 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) in partnership with the Fisheries Leadership and Sustainability Forum ] (FLSF) will conduct...

  7. Street Festivals in the Caribbean: Geography Lessons for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockledge, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes holiday celebrations in the Caribbean as important contemporary social events with historical, geographical, and cultural significance. Discusses the origins, development, and customs of the major Caribbean street festivals. Suggests that the holidays can combine all social science disciplines into focus and emphasize the geographic…

  8. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de León; K. Vane; P. Bertuol; V.C. Chamberland; F. Simal; E. Imms; M.J.A. Vermeij

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  9. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...

  10. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction

  11. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  12. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  13. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  14. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using PAR Sensor and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS, DISCOVERER and others in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 1994-01-28 to 2004-07-02 (NODC Accession 0109923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109923 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS, DISCOVERER, NATHANIEL B....

  15. Revising the Musical Equal Temperament

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2015-01-01

    Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of $2^{1/12}$. Although this temperament has been in use since the 19th century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this paper we confirm this conjecture quantitatively. Using entropy as a measure for harmonicity, we show numerically that the harmonic optimum is in fact obtained for frequency ratios larger than $2^{1/12}$. This suggests that the equal temperament should be replaced by a harmonized temperament as a new standard.

  16. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...... is considered as equitable by employees, on the other. Since equality in reward counts for more among employees, while equity in contribution counts more for employers, this is an inherent dilemma, constantly having to be negotiated and solved, but never reaching any ‘final solution’ in any company...

  17. FULL ALGEBRAS AND SPEKTRAL EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN AVCI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; conside ration is given to the kümesi de x elem anının A ce birindeki rezolventi, yine full algebras. Following this, we have shown that the equality aA ( a = aB (lt;D( a is satisfied when AJ B are semis imp le, regula r, commutative Banach algebra with identity, Banach alge bra with identity respectively.

  18. A model of equal opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Lüdtke, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Fairness assumptions have a lot of positive consequences. For example, is the perceived justice relevant to job satisfaction and attitudes towards distributions of social goods. But what is a fair distribution of social goods? In the distributive justice research three principles can be distinguished according to which justice judgments are made: Need, equality and equity. The first article of this dissertation examines how justice for these three principles is perceived. With the model of...

  19. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  20. Reminder - Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee also took note of the nomination of a fourth new member of the Panel: Wisla Carena. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is now as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz and Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  1. CAN INCOME EQUALITY INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS?

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, Arthur; Simhon, Avi

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between income distribution, prices, production efficiency and aggregate output in a decentralized search economy. We show that income distribution determines how competitive the market is, and thereby affects production efficiency and aggregate output. It is shown that it is generally possible to engineer a judicious transfer of income from high to low income individuals which simultaneously increases income equality, competitiveness, and aggregate output.

  2. Evaluating fiscal equalization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Bert; Kadjatmiko; Kaiser, Kai; Suharnoko Sjahrir, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate fiscal decentralization focusing on the potential mis-targeting of intergovernmental fiscal equalization transfers. The approach builds on an explicit comparison and the summary measurement of different (horizontal) allocation distributions across states or localities. Whereas formula-based fiscal transfers have the merit of being transparent and promoting revenue predictability in fiscal decentralization, in practice, two challenges emerge: (1) W...

  3. Factor Price Equalization in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkelä, Leena; Kangasharju, Aki; Pekkala, Sari

    2003-01-01

    The Heckscher-Ohlin trade model leads to clear conclusions on the absolute and relative factor prices in a two-commodity specification of the model where both commodities are produced and factors can move freely within the economy. Even though the tests on factor price equalization fail in international comparisons, regional approach offers a prospective way of characterizing how factors of production, e.g. skilled and unskilled labor are utilized in optimally behaving markets and which poten...

  4. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  5. Decadal climate variability in the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Gouirand, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the eastern Caribbean during the 20th century is analyzed using principal component analysis and singular value decomposition. In contrast to earlier studies that used seasonal data, here we employ continuous signal processing. The leading mode is a decadal oscillation related to third and fourth modes of sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperatures (SST) which together identify three zones of action in the Atlantic: 35°N-20°N, 20°N-5°N, and 5°N-20°S. The ability of the ECHAM4.5 model to simulate this signal is investigated. Its decadal variability is also represented through lower-order SLP and SST modes that comprise an Atlantic tripole pattern with lower pressure east of the Caribbean. Composite analysis of high and low phases of the decadal mode reflects a cool east Pacific and a more active Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone during boreal summer, conditions that favor the intensification of African easterly waves. The decadal signal has strengthened since 1970, yet the three centers of action in Atlantic SST are relatively unsynchronized.

  6. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  7. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2005-09-01

    The chemical system can be analyzed in different resolutions. The assumed resolution imposes a given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently explored are global, reactant, atoms-in-molecule, orbital, and local resolutions. In this paper we have considered reactant resolution, i.e., the mutually polarized reactants before the charge-transfer among them. We have demonstrated that a certain type of generalized sensitivity, the system responses to the population variables, is equalized throughout the space up to the infinite order in the perturbation expansion.

  8. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  9. Teachers’ challenges education for equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Anguita Martínez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality among women and men has been, and still is a key issue regarding the development of formal education systems. In some way, it can be seen as the cornerstone of equity. Although the most visible gender issues are drawing back in our country, others specially related to the hidden curriculum are still present. Teacher´s initial and lifelong training constitute the best tool to minimize the aforementioned hidden-curriculum-related gender inequalities. However, there is not much done with this regard in our current teacher´s formal training system.

  10. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  11. Latin America and the Caribbean : A Time to Choose, Caribbean Development in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report seeks to discuss the critical constraints to sustainable, job-creating growth, and to present policy options for the region and country Governments to stimulate such growth. It analyzes growth performance in the Caribbean over the last four decades, and highlights key determinants of past and also future growth. Given the recent deterioration in government finances, the report then studies key areas of government expenditure. A discussion of the climate for private investment foll...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2006-12-31 to 2007-12-01 (NODC Accession 0081035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081035 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy,...

  13. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228Ra/226Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224Ra and 228Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law. PMID:12179426

  15. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  16. Gender Equality and Food Security—Women's Empowerment as a Tool against Hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between gender-based discrimination and the different channels through which households and individuals access food—through own-production, access to waged employment, or social protection. The report shows that while equality of treatment between women and men and food security are mutually supportive, gender equality remains an elusive goal in many parts of Asia and the Pacific. A transformation of traditional gender roles is urgently needed. Such a transforma...

  17. Faults of the Caribbean Region (flt6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes faults and structural features of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin...

  18. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  19. Surface Geology of the Caribbean Region (geo6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes polygons that describe the geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas,...

  20. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Resources in the Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    John Charlery

    2011-01-01

    Presentation on climate change adaptation in the Caribbean for a capacity building workshop. Topics discussed include the A1B Model, temperature and rainfall patterns, their implications for water resource management and climate change mitigation.

  1. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  2. 40 CFR 75.43 - Accessibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility criteria. 75.43 Section...) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.43 Accessibility criteria. To demonstrate accessibility equal to or better than the continuous emission monitoring system, the owner or operator...

  3. Gender and occupational wage gaps in Romania: From planned equality to market inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Andrén, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In Romania, the communist regime promoted an official policy of gender equality for more than 40 years, providing equal access to education and employment, and restricting pay differentiation based on gender. After its fall in December 1989, the promotion of equal opportunities and treatment for women and men did not constitute a priority for any of the governments of the 1990s. This paper analyzes both gender and occupational wage gaps before and during the first years of transition to a mar...

  4. A Scorecard on Gender Equality and Girls' Education in Asia, 1990-2000. Advocacy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Rajagopalan, Rajee; Challender, Chloe

    2005-01-01

    Background: Existing measures for access to and efficiency in the school system are very limited as measures of gender equality, even though there have been marked improvements in sex-disaggregated data. A methodology for developing a scorecard which measures gender equality in schooling and education partly based on Amartya Sen's capability…

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Equal Opportunities and Social Cleavages in Israeli Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Rachel; And Others

    A study was done of perceptions of equality of opportunities for access to social resources and of social cleavages in Israeli society among Israeli students in grades 8 and 9. The study population included 9,000 students in 273 classes in a national sample of 47 secular junior high schools. Subjects were asked to assess equality of opportunities…

  6. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  7. Caribbean area food irradiation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Agency for International Development funded the Caribbean Area Food Irradiation Feasibility Study (CAFI) through the US National Food Processors Association and with the collaboration of the US Department of Energy. This study focused on the economic, technical, financial, political and social feasibility of transferring food irradiation technology to the Caribbean area. The study focuses on three areas including the benefits to small farmers and nations interested in the export of crops, including non-traditional tropical commodities. The Feasibility Study Team conducted field work in Guatemala, Haiti, and Trinidad. The benefits of irradiation technology have been shown to have an impact particularly on the small farmer who is more capable of producing non-traditional crops intended for international export marketing. In Haiti, the anthropologists working on the CAFI study found that 74,000 individuals will be directly affected by the ban on the postharvest fumigant ethylene dibromide. Irradiation technology can not only provide the quarantine security needed to allow crops requiring quarantine treatment to move into international trade, but it can promote international co-operation in technology transfer. Training and safety issues related to the transfer, operation, and disposal of nuclear materials must be considered and point out the need for adequate regional co-operative programmes. Research and training programmes will be needed to augment the implementation of food irradiation processing by the private sector. Irradiation firms planning facilities in developing countries may need to provide crop production information, international marketing intelligence, and other assistance needed to integrate an irradiator into the overall postharvest food system. (author)

  8. Caribbean Civil Society: Development Role and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Caribbean countries have performed social service delivery and program implementation roles for many years. Using survey, interview, and document review techniques, this cross-national study explored the potential role of nonprofit, nongovernmental, and community-based organizations in regional integration and development. The study has found that Caribbean CSOs perform functions primarily in four areas – social services, community building, local economi...

  9. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    OpenAIRE

    Dewailly Eric; Morrison Karen; Forde Martin; Badrie Neela; Robertson Lyndon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Carib...

  10. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Carlos Alberto; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-01-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS‐1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the ...

  11. Microfinance Issues and Challenges in the Anglophone Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. Wenner; Geoffrey Chalmers

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is fourfold. First, it seeks to highlight the general characteristics of the microenterprise sector and the microfinance industry in the Anglophone Caribbean. Second, it will examine the main factors that help explain the differences in the development of sustainable microfinance in the Anglophone Caribbean compared to Latin America. Third, it will outline what the Inter-American Development Bank, a major donor organization, has done to support microfinance and micro...

  12. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K.; Snyder, J.; V Crooks; L Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical touri...

  13. Culture and Identity in African and Caribbean Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Okagbue, Osita

    2009-01-01

    What connects Africa and the Caribbean is trans-Atlantic slavery which transported numerous sons and daughters of Africa to the plantations of the New World in the service of Western European capitalism. Because of this shared experience of trans-Atlantic slavery and European colonialism, issues of culture and identity are major concerns for African and Caribbean playwrights. Slavery and colonialism had involved systematic acts of cultural denigration, de-humanisation and loss of freedom, whi...

  14. Quality Assurance in Emergency Medicine - A Caribbean Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sammy, I.A.; Paul, J.F.; Watson, H; Williams-Johnson, J; Bullard, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Emergency medicine is a new specialty in the Caribbean. With the development of specialist training over the past 20 years, the issues of quality assurance and governance have become more prominent. The purpose of this paper is to explore the successes and challenges of implementing systems of quality assurance in this unique environment, highlighting issues peculiar to the Caribbean setting. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is a review of current practice in the e...

  15. Gender Equality and Inclusive Growth in Developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Niimi, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress toward gender equality in developing Asia by examining a number of indicators proposed under the Millennium Development Goal 3 plus approach, focusing on gender inequalities in education and health outcomes (capability) and in labor market and political participation (access to resources and opportunities). Despite the improvement observed in education and, to a lesser extent, in health, the paper finds that women’s improved capabilities do not seem to h...

  16. Filter wheat equalization for DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design of a practical system for radiographic equalization in digital subtraction angiography (DSA), using multiple filter wheels mounted near the x-ray tube. Using an unequalized scout image, multiple filter wheels were independently rotated under computer control in order to vary the spatial distribution of the attenuator material on the filter wheel surfaces intersecting the x-ray beam. Computer simulations using clinical DSA images were used to analyze the optimal configuration of attenuator material on the filter wheels; the resulting improvement in signal-to-noise ratio in some typical DSA images was quantified. Neural networks were evaluated as a mathematic technique for rapidly determining the optimal filter wheel positioning from the scout image data

  17. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  18. [Equality between men and women is a right].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Equality between men and women is one of the basic human rights. Investments in health, education, and family planning are the fundamental measures for promoting sexual equality. Promoting equality in turn is an investment in improving the health of women and children and the quality of human resources. By reducing pressure for large families, sexual equality creates conditions for faster economic growth. Women control most of the nonmonetary economy including subsistence agriculture, care of children, and domestic work, and they also play an important role in the monetary economy, although much of their work is unrecognized. The unfavorable condition of women limits their access to productive goods and social services. A strong inverse relationship exists between fertility and female education. More educated women have a greater probability of receiving prenatal care and of providing adequate care for their children. In many countries of Latin America, more than 20% of births are to adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies are often problematic, resulting in interrupted education, perpetuation of poverty, health complications, abortion, or even suicide. The problems of adolescent maternity are closely related to the inferior position of women. Education and family planning services are essential in breaking the vicious cycle. Access to employment for women contributes to reducing fertility, improves the position of women in the family, directly aids children, and reduces the woman's need to have many children for old age security. To establish conditions of equality between men and women, political actions must be taken to assure women equal social conditions and economic opportunities. Men must become more involved in family planning and in child care. The society as a whole must understand the social function of maternity. PMID:12179420

  19. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality in...

  20. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality ...

  1. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wee Ser; Peng Wang; Ming Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  2. Glaucoma screening in the Haitian Afro-Caribbean population of South Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Bokman

    Full Text Available To evaluate the presence of clinical signs consistent with suspected glaucoma in Haitian Afro-Caribbean individuals residing in South Florida who do not receive regular eye examinations.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Community health center in the Little Haiti district of Miami, Florida.We reviewed medical records and screening forms from five health screenings between October 2011 to October 2013 of 939 Afro-Caribbean individuals older than 18 years, who were never diagnosed with glaucoma or had an eye examination within the last ten years.Measurements of distance visual acuity (VA, intraocular eye pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, frequency doubling technology (FDT perimeter visual field (VF.Proportion of glaucoma suspects, based on IOP greater than or equal to 24 mm Hg or CDR greater than or equal to 0.7 in either eye, and determinants of CDR and IOP.One hundred ninety-one (25.5% of 750 patients were identified as glaucoma suspects. Glaucoma suspects were common in both the youngest and oldest age groups (70 years, 25.0%; 95% CI, 21.8-28.2 and higher in men than women less than 70 years; the reverse was true after 70 years. Among all patients, mean IOP was 19.2±4.5 mmHg, mean CDR was 0.37±0.17, and mean CCT was 532±37.1 µm. In multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, determinates of increased CDR included increasing age (P = 0.004, lack of insurance (P = 0.019, and higher IOP (P<0.001, while increasing CDR (P<0.001 and thicker CCT (P<0.001 were associated with higher IOP.This first glaucoma survey in a U.S. Haitian Afro-Caribbean population indicates glaucoma suspect status is high across all age groups, and suggests glaucoma monitoring in people less than 40 years of age is indicated in this population.

  3. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  4. 76 FR 31451 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... / Wednesday, June 1, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 Equal Credit.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing amendments to Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity Act) to update the...) 263-4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), 15 U.S.C....

  5. 76 FR 59237 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... 7100 AD 78 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is publishing a final rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  6. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  8. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  9. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  10. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  11. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  12. Tracking the Caribbean sound: three current hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Bilby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Zouk: World Music in the West lndies. JOCELYNE GuiLBAULT (with GAGE AVERILL, ÉDOUARD BENOIT & GREGORY RABESS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xxv + 279 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 27.75 Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad. DONALD R. HlLL. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. xvi + 344 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Calypso & Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. GORDON ROHLEHR. Port of Spain: Gordon Rohlehr, 1990. x + 613 pp. (Paper US$ 40.00 In 1983, from my Hstening post in Cayenne, the southernmost extension of the French Caribbean, I reported that "popular musicians in the Lesser Antilles are in the process of breathing life into new musical varieties blending soka, cadence, and reggae" (Bilby 1985:211. Little did I know that what I was describing was the sudden emergence, at that very moment, of an entirely new music in French Guiana's fellow Départements d'Outre-Mer to the north, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Down in Cayenne, which has always had close ties to the French Antilles, there was a feeling in the air that some fresh and invigorating cultural trend was about to burst forth. Even in the Maroon villages of the French Guianese interior, where I relocated in early 1984, the excitement was palpable.

  13. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos A.; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-11-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS-1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the eddies ranged from a few tens of kilometers to 700 km. Advection speeds were typically 20-30 cm s-1 and the eddies were energetic (kinetic energy > 0.6 m2 s-2). Their lifetime of 3-4 months was determined, in general, by their interaction with topography. Most eddy activity was eroded and disappeared at the Central American Rise area, although a few eddies crossed into the Cayman Sea through the Chibcha Channel. Some eddies also entered the Cayman Sea from outside the Caribbean through the Windward Passage. The Panama-Colombia Gyre was evident only during the tropical rainy season. A large cyclonic eddy was formed there during the period of maximum precipitation, when strong meridional salinity and wind speed gradients occurred. Eddy production in the central Caribbean appears to be associated with the interaction of the meandering Caribbean Current and the strong wind curl.

  14. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  15. Architecture, cobbled roads and chronology of the main sector of the site Las Mercedes-1, Central Caribbean of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from test-pit excavations, survey, and mapping at Las Mercedes-1, plus the center of a paramount chiefly polity in the Central Caribbean region of Costa Rica, are presented. Information on architecture, construction system, ceramic chronology, and funerary features, are reported. Radiocarbon dates have suggested that important construction works at the site's center were carried out circa A.D. 1000. Two cobble-paved, causeways, perpendicular to the river drainage system, were found to be linked to the main monumental compound as roads for formal access. Interest in the site has been revived and points the way to further researches at the site and its regional sphere. (author)

  16. Complex Liver Resections for Colorectal Metastases: Are They Safe in the Low-Volume, Resource-Poor Caribbean Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir O. Cawich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor environment. Conclusion. We suggest that good outcomes can still be attained in the resource-poor, low-volume centres once dedicated and appropriately trained teams are available.

  17. Complex liver resections for colorectal metastases: are they safe in the low-volume, resource-poor Caribbean setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Thomas, Dexter A W; Ramjit, Chunilal; Bhagan, Roderick; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor environment. Conclusion. We suggest that good outcomes can still be attained in the resource-poor, low-volume centres once dedicated and appropriately trained teams are available. PMID:25713743

  18. 3 CFR 8390 - Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009 8390 Proclamation 8390 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009 Proc. 8390 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009By the President... Caribbean-American Heritage Month. I urge all Americans to commemorate this month by learning more about...

  19. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba, Cura

  20. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  1. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  2. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  3. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  4. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  5. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, B K

    2012-01-01

    In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough) equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]). These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13]), who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough) equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based ...

  6. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2008-01-01

    does not have stringent power constraints. In this paper, a turbo equalization technique to improve Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) performance is proposed. A new adaptive coefficients solution for frequency domain equalization is considered. The work is in the context of...... the turbo equalizer can improve the BLER performance around 1 dB with only a few iterations, and improve the SC-FDMA performance over OFDM, especially at high coding rate.......Turbo equalization is known as an advanced iterative equalization and decoding technique that allows to enhance the performance of the data transmission over a frequency selective fading channel. The turbo equalizer will result in extra receiver complexity, but isolated to the base-station, which...

  7. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance and...

  8. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  9. Tracking Hurricane Wilma Across the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Information on cloud top heights at different stages in the life cycle of the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Wilma may prove useful for evaluating the ability of numerical weather models to predict the intensity changes of hurricanes. NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired this sequence of images and cloud-top height observations for Hurricane Wilma as it progressed across the Caribbean in October 2005. Each pair in the sequence has a photo-like view of the storm on the left and a matching color-coded image of cloud-top height on the right. Cloud-top heights range from 0 (purple) to 18 (red) kilometers altitude. Areas where cloud heights could not be determined are shown in dark gray. The pair on the left show Wilma on Tuesday, October 18, when Hurricane watches were posted for Cuba and Mexico. The central pair shows the eye of Hurricane Wilma just hours before the storm began to cross the Yucatan Peninsula on Friday, October 21. At that time, Wilma was a powerful Category 4 Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and had a minimum recorded central pressure of 930 millibars. Hurricane Wilma surged from tropical storm to Category 5 hurricane status in record time, but the storm slowed and weakened considerably after battering Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbean. The right-hand image pair displays the eastern edges of a weakened Wilma, when Wilma had been reduced to Category 2 status and was just starting to reach southern Florida on the morning of Sunday, October 23. Wilma gathered speed and strengthened on Sunday night, crossing Florida as a Category 3 storm on Monday, October 24. On the 18th, Wilma looked a bit ragged. Its eye is located at the center of the left edge, and its outer bands of clouds appear to be dominated by a rather loose collection of thunderstorms. In the photo-like images, these look like areas of 'boiling clouds,' and in the cloud-height image, these appear as orange blobs, sometimes topped with pinkish-red. On

  10. Fully Parallel Turbo Equalization for Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Hoang Anh; Robert G. Maunder; Hanzo, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Iterative turbo equalization is capable of achieving impressive performance gains over the conventional non-iterative equalization having the same complexity, when communicating over channels that suffer from intersymbol interference (ISI). The state-of-the-art turbo equalizers employ the logarithmic Bahl–Cocke–Jelinek–Raviv (Log-BCJR) algorithm. However, due to the specific nature of serial data processing, the Log-BCJR algorithm introduces significant processing delays at the receiver. Ther...

  11. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies....... Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality into a...

  12. Ongoing Diaspora: The Case of the French Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Perina, Mickaella

    2009-01-01

    The unusual status of the French overseas departments in today «post-colonial world» provides an interesting domain of investigation from which analyzing the concept of diaspora. If diaspora refers to dispersal to several locations, to a collective mythology of a homeland and to an idealization of the return clearly the French Caribbean was initially an African diaspora. But did it stop being a diaspora once the Caribbean territory became the homeland? If diaspora can be regarded as a state o...

  13. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-01-01

    Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917) was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received litt...

  14. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality is primary to and the reason why recognition of fundamental rights cannot be left to the chance of social development.

  15. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people. PMID:24151148

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  17. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas. PMID:12290525

  18. Equal access, (Un)equal uptake: a longitudinal study of cataract surgery uptake in older people in England

    OpenAIRE

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Uptake of cataract removal is a function of the effectiveness of the healthcare delivery services: services that are inaccessible, inappropriate, or unaffordable will not be utilised by (sub)populations, who consequently live with untreated cataracts. The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between individual wealth inequalities and uptake of cataract surgery in England, having controlled for the effects of potentially confounding variables. Methods The final sample c...

  19. Open access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil Fabricius; Demaio, Alessandro; Hersch, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This week, we celebrate open access week – an event aimed at bringing attention to this rapidly emerging form of scientific publication and its ethical imperatives. Traditionally, knowledge breakthroughs and scientific discoveries are shared through publication in academic journals. Peer...... ideas, break down barriers to science and make knowledge accessible to the masses – but this is not actually the case....

  20. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  1. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... August 29, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8848--Women's Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0;...

  2. Does Russia need gender equality officers?

    OpenAIRE

    Krasilnikova, Oxana; Красильникова, Оксана

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies the reasons for the lack of the gender equality officer in the Russian Federation against the background of the Nordic countries and Germany experience and conditions for the establishment of the gender equality in Europe. Using gender approach the political and cultural situation of the Russian society is analyzed and the ways to solve the problem are suggested.

  3. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  4. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and Gǎvruta etc.

  6. Decomposing equality of opportunity by income sources

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pignataro

    2009-01-01

    An opportunity egalitarian view focus not only on equality of outcomes but essentially on the means or opportunities to realize such outcomes. In this paper we propose a methodology to decompose an opportunity egalitarian Atkinson index by income sources seeking for a measure of overall equality into an opportunity and a responsibility component.

  7. Equality, consistency, and impartiality in tax legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Gribnau, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The ideal of equality can be conceived in law in a formal as well as in a substantive way. Contrary to what some authors suppose, the principle of formal equality is not entirely meaningless. It generates standards for treatment, i.e., for legitimate discriminations in law. The principle is like a s

  8. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-21904 Filed 8-30-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... ensure equal pay laws are vigorously enforced throughout the country. Workplace flexibility is also... will not end until full parity and equal opportunity are attained in every State and workplace...

  9. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality are ......-oriented perspectives in the Danish statements is an illustrative example of how neo-liberal managerial ideas about work-place productivity and creativity entail new and more instrumental approaches to gender equality issues in academia.......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality are...... articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian and...

  10. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  11. Boys' Educational "Underachievement" in the Caribbean: Interpreting the "Problem"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Mary; Younger, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Education ministries in the Caribbean countries have directed considerable attention over the last decade to "solving" the "problem" of boys' underachievement. Rather than considering such interventions, our central concern in this paper is to revisit debates about the interpretation of the issue, to explore whether boys' underachievement is…

  12. Neighbourhood Factors and Depression among Adolescents in Four Caribbean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Gillian A.; Garth Lipps; Roger C Gibson; Sharon Halliday; Amrie Morris; Nelson Clarke; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past research suggests that perceived neighbourhood conditions may influence adolescents' emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of perceived neighbourhood conditions with levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. METHODS: Adolescents ...

  13. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  14. 77 FR 33601 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13950... rich narratives and recognize their immeasurable contributions to our country. Caribbean Americans have shaped every aspect of our society--enhancing our arts and humanities as titans of music and...

  15. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  16. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  17. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  18. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A focus on development results is at the heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in middle-income and low income countries alike. Through knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we strive to help people across the region create better opportunities and build a better future for themselves, their famil...

  19. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations...

  20. Latin America and the Caribbean Refinery Sector Development Project - Clients

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes two years of intense activity dedicated to the study of the issues confronted by the refining industry in Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the program for phasing out of lead from gasoline and convinced of the importance to progress with the harmonization of oil product's technical specifications, the organizations--OLADE, ARPEL, and the World Bank--decided...

  1. Nocturnal foraging by artificial light in three Caribbean bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    I discuss observations of opportunistic use of artificial light for feeding in the dark by the native White-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus cayennensis), the long-established Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), and the introduced Carib Grackle (Quiscalus lugubris) in Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean. The observation

  2. Embryonic transcriptome analysis of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic transcriptome of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing in an effort to isolate embryonic promoters and genes involved in programmed cell death. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA pooled from various time points in embryogenesis usi...

  3. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particul

  4. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  5. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R.; Spakman, W.; Wortel, R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Ric

  6. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Tripathy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]. These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13], who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based on rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of rough fuzzy sets. That is we introduce the concepts of approximate (rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and study their properties. We provide some real life examples to show the applications of rough equalities of fuzzy sets and rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

  7. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  8. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  9. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development:Past Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    2016-01-01

    Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not f...

  10. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  11. Deformation of the Caribbean region: One plate or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Neal W.; Diebold, John B.

    1998-11-01

    New deep-penetrating high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data collected in the eastern Caribbean during R/V Ewing cruise EW9501 imaged both the crustal structure and overlying stratigraphic successions. On the basis of this new multichannel seismic data, we define the geologic development of the Beata Ridge and Venezuelan basin. The Caribbean crust was formed by seafloor spreading in Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous time. Prior to the Senonian, widespread and rapid eruption of basaltic flows began in concert with extensional deformation of the Caribbean crust. Thick volcanic wedges characterized by divergent reflectors are observed along the boundary that separates rough from smooth oceanic crust, are coincident with an abrupt shallowing of the Moho, and appear to be bounded by a large, northwest-dipping fault system. The locus of major extensional deformation migrated through time from the Venezuelan basin to the western flank of the Beata Ridge. Extensional unloading of the Beata Ridge footwall caused uplift and rotation of the ridge. Sediment thicknesses and stratal geometry observed across the Venezuelan basin and Beata Ridge suggest that the majority of the deformation in this region occurred during and soon after the emplacement of the volcanics. Minor fault reactivation in the Neogene along the eastern flank of the Beata Ridge is associated with an accommodation zone (i.e., tear fault) that records a change in the deformation style from bending and subduction of the Caribbean plate along the Muertos Trough south of Puerto Rico to compressional deformation and obduction of the Caribbean plate south of Hispaniola. We propose that this difference in deformational style is, in part, a consequence of the thicker crust on the Beata Ridge, which is more resistant to subduction.

  12. The politics of representing the African diaspora in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Roots of Jamaican Culture. MERVYN C. ALLEYNE. London: Pluto Press, 1988. xii + 186 pp. (Paper US$ 15.95 Guinea's Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture. MAUREEN WARNER-LEWIS. Foreword by Rex Nettleford. Dover MA: The Majority Press, 1991. xxii + 207 pp. (Paper US$ 9.95 A recent trend in anthropology is defined by the interest in the role of historical and political configurations in the constitution of local cultural practices. Unfortunately, with some notable individual exceptions, this is the same anthropology which has largely ignored the Caribbean and its "Islands of History."1 Of course, this says much, much more about the way in which anthropology constructs its subject than it says about the merits of the Caribbean case and the fundamental essence of these societies, born as they were in the unforgiving and defining moment of pervasive, persuasive, and pernicious European construction of "Otherness." As Trouillot (1992:22 writes, "Whereas anthropology prefers 'pre-contact' situations - or creates 'no-contact' situations - the Caribbean is nothing but contact." If the anthropological fiction of pristine societies, uninfluenced and uncontaminated by "outside" and more powerful structures and cultures cannot be supported for the Caribbean, then many anthropologists do one or both of the two anthropologically next best things: they take us on a journey that finds us exploding the "no-contact" myth over and over (I think it is called "strawpersonism", suddenly discovering political economy, history, and colonialism, and/or they end up constructing the "pristine" anyway by emphasizing those parts of a diaspora group's pre-Caribbean culture that are thought to remain as cultural "survivals."

  13. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  14. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  15. The Anatomy of a Successful Caribbean Substance Abuse Training Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SD Reid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the components of the Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems (CARIAD, a long-standing substance abuse training programme. It seeks to explain how certain strategies and pedagogic techniques may be contributing to its success. Methods: Authors deconstruct the core elements of CARIAD to demonstrate how the programme effectively meets the characteristics of a community of practice. The processes used to develop the learning community and the specific pedagogic strategies and techniques that foster collaborative knowledge construction and sharing are described. Results: Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems brings together a multi-disciplinary, multi-national group of individuals with interest in substance abuse. The programme provides a range of formal and informal learning activities which focus on sharing best practices and creating new sociocultural relevant knowledge to advance the domain of professional practice in substance abuse. The components of CARIAD promote interactivity, rapid bonding and a sense of identity. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems provides a unique platform for cultural sharing that gives participants an opportunity to reveal insights into local and regional expressions of substance abuse challenges. Participants, however, recognize the absence of structured continuity and the diminution of what could be accomplished by graduates over time. Conclusion: The success of CARIAD as a regional learning platform may be related to its success as a Caribbean community of practice for substance abuse. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems would do well to sustain the community of practice, generating and maintaining ongoing participation and collaboration among graduates. This can potentially serve to create new strategies for advancing the region in the area of substance abuse.

  16. New Kinematic Block Model for the Caribbean Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left- and right-lateral strike slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip faulting along major plate boundaries. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling along the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction zone whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. Previous studies used GPS data and a block modeling approach to infer coupling at the plate interface and strain partitioning at the transition with strike-slip fault in the northeastern Caribbean (Manaker et al., 2008; Benford et al., 2013), with three main findings: (1) a correlation between strong interplate coupling and strain partitioning, (2) low coupling of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico subduction, and, (3) internal deformation within the upper plate in Hispaniola. These studies were however based on a sparse and inhomogeneous GPS data set. Here we use a much updated geodetic GPS data set (~300 stations, 50% continuous) and earthquake slip vectors to expand these previous studies to the entire Caribbean region (excluding Central America, except to define the stable Caribbean plate). We use the block modeling approach described in McCaffrey et al. (2002) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solve for variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries, estimate angular velocities for each block/plate, and determine strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region.

  17. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  18. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  19. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M.; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    In addition, the author note should have included a license statement, which is provided in this correction.] In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of...

  20. Equality hypocrisy, inconsistency, and prejudice: the unequal application of the universal human right to equality

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M.; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value...

  1. Health and the elusive gender equality : Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Sörlin, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background: All over the world men and women show different health patterns, and therecan be many and various reasons for these differences. This thesis therefore evaluates theimpact of gender equality on health. To do this, we must be able to measure gender equality.In this thesis, we develop two new measurements of gender equality and evaluate the relationshipbetween gender equality and health. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies, one register-based and one survey study, are used tocompare...

  2. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  3. Marriage Equality and the Creative Class

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Data from the American Community Survey suggest that marriage equality has a small but positive impact on the number of individuals in same-sex couples who are attracted to a state. However, marriage equality appears to have a larger impact on the types of individuals in same-sex couples who are attracted to a state. This study shows that in Massachusetts marriage equality resulted in an increase of younger, female, and more highly educated and skilled individuals in same-sex couples moving t...

  4. Contributorships Are Not 'Weighable' to be Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-05-01

    A new trend to assign some authors as 'first co-authors' is noticeable in scientific publications as a statement highlighting that two or more authors 'contributed equally' to a reported work. However, the requirements of scientific rigor, honesty, and accuracy in academic standards make such statements invalid and, thus, should be avoided. A potential solution is to specify the role of each co-author, from study conception to communication of results, and let readers judge the importance of each contribution by themselves. Alternatively, authors should demonstrate how they contributed 'equally' when they are defined as 'equal contributors'. PMID:27025412

  5. Homonormativity, Charternormativity, and Processes of Legitimation: Exploring the Affective-Spatio-Temporal-Fixed Dimensions of Marriage Equality and Charter Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, marriage equality and charter schools have emerged at the forefront of political conversations about equality and rights. Some argue that these policies extend access to certain benefits and opportunities to historically oppressed communities, thus furthering liberalism and egalitarianism. In this article, I engage these arguments by exploring how and why people from dominant cultures come to support marriage equality or charter schools despite not directly benefitti...

  6. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to deliver scientific publications freely has presented a second source of current information for teaching. I have developed a genomics course that incor...

  7. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  8. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results and...... inspiration from a number of comparative research projects and networks. In the following I address three issues that have been central in academic debates: 1) The challenges from multiculturalism to gender equality, 2) gendering citizenship and migration and 3) Nordic feminist debates about diversity. In the...... last section I argue that one solution to the new gender equality dilemma posed by increased diversity among women is a simultaneous re-framing of multiculturalism and gender equality....

  9. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  10. The EU-Caribbean Trade Relationship Post-Lisbon: The Case of Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Constant Laforce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a legal perspective, the Lisbon Treaty changes over the European Union’s (EU common agricultural policy (CAP and their impact on developing countries. The study focuses particularly on the Caribbean region of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group, which signed an Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU in 2008, and will use bananas as the exemplar commodity. The Lisbon Treaty which entered into force in December 2009 has brought important institutional changes within the EU and altered the distribution of responsibility over European policies. The European Parliament (EP now exercises legislative functions ‘jointly’ with the Council over fields falling outside EU trade policy but which often have trade-related impacts. This is the case of the CAP which is now a shared rather than an exclusive competence policy area. The EU is an important market for developing countries’ export of agricultural food products. However, there is a risk that the EP positions, pressured by consumer opinion, could influence the negotiating process leading to the reinforcement of the EU’s protectionist agriculture policy. This subject is of high importance given the end of the so-called ‘banana war’ in 2009 against the EU banana import regime, allowing better access for Latin American countries’ bananas to the EU market. This article argues that ACP countries will not be affected by the EU internal changes post-Lisbon. They have managed to legally maintain special trade arrangements with the EU under the Economic Partnership Agreements, which provide them with favourable trading conditions, particularly for agricultural food products.

  11. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  12. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  13. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and Gǎvruta etc. PMID:26904390

  14. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  15. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Baloch; Javed Ali Baloch; Mukhtiar Ali Unar

    2012-01-01

    In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks). The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN,...

  16. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baloch, Saba; Baloch, Javed Ali; Unar, Mukhtiar Ali

    2016-01-01

    In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks). The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has b...

  17. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists w...... perspective. It tackles a complex set of tensions across a dense and shifting landscape and addresses issues including labour, health, democracy, homosexuality, migration and racism....

  18. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  19. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The

  20. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  1. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  2. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... make ends meet, National Equal Pay Day reminds us that achieving equal pay for equal work is not just a..., our whole Nation will benefit. Achieving equal pay for women is vital to strengthening the...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  4. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  5. Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: regulation, education and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Keri Elizabeth; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pulcini, Joyce; Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Aguirre-Boza, Francisca; Park, Jeongyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the current state of advanced practice nursing regulation, education and practice in Latin America and the Caribbean and the perception of nursing leaders in the region toward an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional design utilizing a web-based survey of 173 nursing leaders about their perceptions of the state of nursing practice and potential development of advanced practice nursing in their countries, including definition, work environment, regulation, education, nursing practice, nursing culture, and perceived receptiveness to an expanded role in primary health care. Result: the participants were largely familiar with the advanced practice nursing role, but most were unaware of or reported no current existing legislation for the advanced practice nursing role in their countries. Participants reported the need for increased faculty preparation and promotion of curricula reforms to emphasize primary health care programs to train advanced practice nurses. The vast majority of participants believed their countries' populations could benefit from an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care. Conclusion: strong legislative support and a solid educational framework are critical to the successful development of advanced practice nursing programs and practitioners to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. PMID:27508923

  6. Out of balance? ‘Konesans’ and first world knowledges in Caribbean women’s studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Maurer

    1998-01-01

    [First paragraph] We Paid Our Dues: Women Trade Union Leaders of the Caribbean. A. LYNN BOLLES. Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1996. xxxviii + 250 pp. (Paper US$21.95) Gender: A Caribbean Multi-Disciplinary Perspective. ELSA LEO-RHYNIE, BARBARA BAILEY & CHRISTINE BARROW (eds.). Kingston: Ian Randle, 1997. xix + 358 pp. (Paper n.p.) Daughters of Caliban: Caribbean Women in the Twentieth Century. CONSUELO LOPEZ SPRINGFIELD (ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press...

  7. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  8. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  9. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  10. The 2009/2010 Caribbean drought: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Everson J

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of drought in the Caribbean have not been as dramatic as in some other parts of world, but it is not exempt from the experiences of drought. As a result of the effects of a prolonged drought in 2009/2010, the agenda for the 21st Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) paid particular attention to the issue of drought. This paper reviews the management framework for responding to drought disasters in five CARICOM countries. The paper also reports on some of the effects of the 2009/2010 drought with particular reference to Grenada and the Grenadines. During the drought in these islands there were numerous bush fires with devastating effects on agriculture, severe water shortages that impacted on the tourism industry and other social effects. It is evident that there was inadequate preparation for the event. Greater planning and investment are therefore required to reduce future impacts. PMID:25754334

  11. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  12. Cookbooks and Caribbean cultural identity : an English-language hors d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Higman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 119 English-language cookbooks (1890-1997 published in or having to do with the Caribbean. This study of the history of cookbooks indicates what it means to be Caribbean or to identify with some smaller territory or grouping and how this meaning has changed in response to social and political developments. Concludes that cookbook-writers have not been successful in creating a single account of the Caribbean past or a single, unitary definition of Caribbean cuisine or culture.

  13. Narratives of Return : The Contemporary Caribbean Woman Writer and the Quest for Home.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Rachel Grace

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates how diasporic Caribbean women writers use the vehicle of the novel to effect a ‘writing back’ to the Caribbean home through what I propose to consider as a specific sub-genre of Caribbean literature: ‘narratives of return’. I argue that novels which constitute ‘narratives of return’ reveal how diasporic identity continues to be informed by a particularised connection to the Caribbean homeland. Firstly, I propose the region’s literary representation within these narrat...

  14. Saving in Latin America and the Caribbean; Performance and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Grigoli; Alexander Herman; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes saving patterns and determinants in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including key policy variables and regimes. The review of previous empirical studies on LAC saving reveals contradictions and omissions. This paper presents empirical results of an extensive search of determinants of private and public saving rates, adding previously neglected variables (including different measures of key external prices and macroeconomic policy regimes), in linear form and in inte...

  15. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out: climate change and marine invasive species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Canning-Clode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New marine invasions have been recorded in increasing numbers along the world's coasts due in part to the warming of the oceans and the ability of many invasive marine species to tolerate a broader thermal range than native species. Several marine invertebrate species have invaded the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast from the Caribbean and this poleward range expansion has been termed 'Caribbean Creep'. While models have predicted the continued decline of global biodiversity over the next 100 years due to global climate change, few studies have examined the episodic impacts of prolonged cold events that could impact species range expansions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pronounced cold spell occurred in January 2010 in the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast and resulted in the mortality of several terrestrial and marine species. To experimentally test whether cold-water temperatures may have caused the disappearance of one species of the 'Caribbean Creep' we exposed the non-native crab Petrolisthes armatus to different thermal treatments that mimicked abnormal and severe winter temperatures. Our findings indicate that Petrolisthes armatus cannot tolerate prolonged and extreme cold temperatures (4-6 °C and suggest that aperiodic cold winters may be a critical 'reset' mechanism that will limit the range expansion of other 'Caribbean Creep' species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that temperature 'aberrations' such as 'cold snaps' are an important and overlooked part of climate change. These climate fluctuations should be accounted for in future studies and models, particularly with reference to introduced subtropical and tropical species and predictions of both rates of invasion and rates of unidirectional geographic expansion.

  16. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Puyana; Joseph Pawlik; James Blum; William Fenical

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sponges of the genus Aplysina are among the most common benthic animals on reefs of the Caribbean, and display a wide diversity of morphologies and colors. Tissues of these sponges lack mineralized skeletal elements, but contain a dense spongin skeleton and an elaborate series of tyrosine-derived brominated alkaloid metabolites that function as chemical defenses against predatory fishes, but do not deter some molluscs. Among the earliest marine natural products to be isolated and ide...

  17. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  18. Impact of Undertreated Sickle Cell Pain in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    PD Shah; CC Macpherson; M Akpinar-Elci

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undertreated pain around the world includes the acute and chronic pain caused by sickle cell disease (SCD). In collaboration with a Caribbean association that aims to provide assistance to those diagnosed with SCD, we surveyed adults with SCD about pain management and impact of SCD pain. Methods: Participants were recruited from a group of 55 adults with SCD. A survey was administered to those who agreed to participate. Questions centred on their self-assessed level of pain due ...

  19. New sciophilous sponges from the Caribbean (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Van, Soest

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen new species of sponges are described from coral reefs of the Netherlands Antilles and the Colombian Caribbean. Species were collected during quantitative investigations of reef sponges performed by students of the University of Amsterdam in the period between 1984 and 1991. Most of the reported specimens were taken from undersides of coral rubble, crevices or reef caves (sciophilous habitats) and without exception are small encrusting or fistular sponges. The material reported in thi...

  20. Different lives: inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This chapter summarizes information on inequality in living standards in Latin American and Caribbean countries. To that aim we work with a sample of more than 50 household surveys from 20 LAC countries from 1989 to 2001, and we survey results from other authors. Although the core of the statistics are on household income inequality, the study also presents information by country/year on inequality in the distribution of earnings, hourly wages, hours, worked, employment, unemployment, child l...

  1. Measuring the Informal Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Javier Vuletin

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the size of the informal economy for 32 mainly Latin American and Caribbean countries in the early 2000s. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we find that a stringent tax system and regulatory environment, higher inflation, and dominance of the agriculture sector are key factors in determining the size of the informal economy. The results also confirm that a higher degree of informality reduces labor unionization, the number of contributors to social security s...

  2. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  3. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps Garth; Lowe Gillian A; Gibson Roger C; Halliday Sharon; Morris Amrie; Clarke Nelson; Wilson Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  4. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lavieren, van, H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particularly chemical contaminants, and the ecological and/or human health risks. Given the substantial cultural and economic importance of coastal environments to WCR communities, this should be cause for...

  5. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision mak...

  6. Monetary sterilization and dual nominal anchors: some Caribbean examples

    OpenAIRE

    Khemraj, Tarron; Pasha, Sukrishnalall

    2011-01-01

    This paper notes that a high sterilization coefficient plus a de facto pegged exchange rate indicates the existence of dual nominal anchors. The econometric evidence presented shows that several Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rate regimes also possess high sterilization coefficients. Given open capital accounts in the various economies, the paper argues that this finding contravenes the money neutrality thesis, which holds that only one nominal anchor can prevail in the long-term. Th...

  7. Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    1998-01-01

    This technical study contains the strategy of the Inter-American Development Bank for its involvement in integrated water resources management in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy was developed through an iterative step by step procedure in consultation with country water resource officials, Bank staff, nongovernmental organizations, and international lending and technical assistance organizations. The first part of the study is an overview of water resource management in Latin Am...

  8. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  9. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses’ travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to ‘nurse empire’ by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primar...

  10. Intimacy’s Politics: New Directions in Caribbean Sexuality Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agard-Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the

  11. Environmental change preceded Caribbean extinction by 2 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Fortunato, Helena; Smith, J Travis; D'Croz, Luis; Johnson, Kenneth G; Todd, Jonathan A

    2007-03-27

    Paleontologists typically treat major episodes of extinction as single and distinct events in which a major environmental perturbation results in a synchronous evolutionary response. Alternatively, the causes of biotic change may be multifaceted and extinction may lag behind the changes ultimately responsible because of nonlinear ecological dynamics. We examined these alternatives for the major episode of Caribbean extinction 2 million years ago (Ma). Isolation of the Caribbean from the Eastern Pacific by uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus was associated with synchronous changes in Caribbean near shore environments and community composition between 4.25 and 3.45 Ma. Seasonal fluctuations in Caribbean seawater temperature decreased 3-fold, carbonate deposition increased, and there was a striking, albeit patchy, shift in dominance of benthic ecosystems from heterotrophic mollusks to mixotrophic reef corals and calcareous algae. All of these changes correspond well with a simple model of decreased upwelling and collapse in planktonic productivity associated with the final stages of the closure of the isthmian barrier. However, extinction rates of mollusks and corals did not increase until 3-2 Ma and sharply peaked between 2 and 1 Ma, even though extinction overwhelmingly affected taxa commonly associated with high productivity. This time lag suggests that something other than environmental change per se was involved in extinction that does not occur as a single event. Understanding cause and effect will require more taxonomically refined analysis of the changing abundance and distribution patterns of different ecological guilds in the 2 million years leading up to the relatively sudden peak in extinction. PMID:17369359

  12. Laments of the Caribbean Businessperson are Based on Facts?

    OpenAIRE

    Inder J. Ruprah; Ricardo Sierra

    2013-01-01

    In this policy brief, we review the laments of Caribbean businesspersons. We find that subjective perceptions are rooted in an objective reality. Businesspersons do not complain gratuitously. Furthermore, we find that constraints vary systematically by firm characteristics: In general, small firms and contracting firms face relatively harsher conditions. To enhance a country's economic growth, relevant policy needs to be changed toward a more pro-business stance.

  13. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  14. Economic reform and progress in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman; Palacios, Luisa

    1997-01-01

    In the late 1980s, after decades of poor economic management, many Latin American and Caribbean countries undertook structural reform that placed them on a path toward superior economic performance. The authors examine the experience in structural reform in five areas: governance (reforming public institutions), international trade, financial markets, labor markets, and the generation and use of public resources. To characterize the experience with structural reform in the region, they develo...

  15. A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano-Montalvo, Claribel; Boulogne, Isabelle; Gavillán-Suárez, Jannette

    2013-01-01

    Background The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study w...

  16. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  17. Distribution of tortoises and freshwater turtles of the colombian caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea; Liliana Patricia Saboyá-Acosta; Vivian Páez; Karen Vega; Juan Manuel Renjifo

    2014-01-01

    This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side ...

  18. Chaetognatha of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Harding B.

    1984-01-01

    This illustrated manual is a guide to the distribution and identification of the 6 genera and 28 species of benthic and planktonic Chaetognatha known to occur in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexlco, the Florida Straits, and the southwestern North Atlantic Ocean. As background, previous studies of chaetognaths in these areas are reviewed, gross morphology of the different forms is described, and instructions on methods of preserving and handling specimens preparatory to identification are...

  19. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-01-01

    Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process o...

  20. Exploring the influences on the Caribbean's emerging medical tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Roderick Neil

    2016-01-01

    Governments and hospitals worldwide have increasingly expressed interest in ‘medical tourism’, where medical treatments are privately purchased by foreign visitors seeking non-emergency care. There is steady discussion worldwide about the development of medical tourism, including countries with volumes of health service exports that are currently very small. Caribbean countries are no exception. In a region not well known for its medical tourism destinations (excepting Cuba and Costa Rica), t...

  1. Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Cox, Peter M.; Economou, Theo; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Carilli, Jessica; Guzman, Hector M.

    2013-05-01

    Coral growth rates are highly dependent on environmental variables such as sea surface temperature and solar irradiance. Multi-decadal variability in coral growth rates has been documented throughout the Caribbean over the past 150-200 years, and linked to variations in Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Multi-decadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic, in turn, has been linked to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Here, we examine the drivers of changes in coral growth rates in the western Caribbean between 1880 and 2000, using previously published coral growth chronologies from two sites in the region, and a numerical model. Changes in coral growth rates over this period coincided with variations in sea surface temperature and incoming short-wave radiation. Our model simulations show that variations in the concentration of anthropogenic aerosols caused variations in sea surface temperature and incoming radiation in the second half of the twentieth century. Before this, variations in volcanic aerosols may have played a more important role. With the exception of extreme mass bleaching events, we suggest that neither climate change from greenhouse-gas emissions nor ocean acidification is necessarily the driver of multi-decadal variations in growth rates at some Caribbean locations. Rather, the cause may be regional climate change due to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  2. Agro-climatology of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-meteorology has for object the knowledge of the physical environment where the plants and the animals are developed, to make of him a better use, with the primordial purpose of optimizing the agricultural production. The climatology of the Caribbean Region, it is governed by the zonal processes of thermal and dynamic convection, together with the effect of the Inter-tropical Confluence Area (ITC) however, this extensive plain of the Colombian Caribbean, to be interrupted by the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta and framed by the Caribbean Sea and the Andean mountain ranges, it makes that big differences are presented in their climatic regime. In this study, climatic elements are analyzed in the region, such as the precipitation, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the radiation and the solar shine, the speed of the wind and the potential evapo-perspiration, besides the calculation of the hydraulic balances, those which as integrative of the agriculture-climatic aspects, they serve as base to make the climatic classifications, to know the growth periods and to calculate the potential water demands, fundamental parameters in the planning of the agricultural activities. With these results they stand out the diverse climates in the region, represented in climatic areas from arid until per-humid offer a wide range for the requirements of the different species that are used in the agricultural exploitations

  3. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  4. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. William Proenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events times measures of elements at risk (human exposure times measures of vulnerability (preparedness in a given epoch (Nott, 2006. While the tsunami hazard in the Caribbean (averaging 19 ± 22 years between deadly events is lower than Pacific coastal areas, the total risk to life and property is at least as high as the USA West Coast, Hawaii, or Alaska, because of the higher Caribbean population density and beach tourism so attractive to more than 35 million visitors a year. Viewed in this light, the allocation of resources by governments, industry, and insurers needs to be adjusted for the better protection of life, for coastal engineering, and for infrastructure.

  5. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E.; Behr, Joshua G.; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room ( n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration ( R 2 = 0.036, p asthma was positively correlated with rainfall ( R 2 = 0.055, p asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure ( R 2 = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity ( R 2 = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  6. Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of a Federation of Radiation Protection Societies in Latin America came up at the First Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety that was held in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in October 1991. At the Second Regional Congress, in Zacatecas (Mexico), in 1993, the Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC) was officially launched. The founder members were the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), the Brazilian Radiation Protection Society (SBPR), the Mexican Radiation Safety Society (SMSR) and the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society (SPR). Now, the FRALC has accepted as members the Radiation Protection Section of the Cuban Physics Society (SPRC) and the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association (AUR). The basic objectives of the FRALC are: to promote the safe use of radiation and radioactive sources in Latin America and the Caribbean; to promote the foundation of new Radiation Protection Societies within the region, as mean of associating radiation protection professionals, and then, to promote of affiliation of this new societies to IRPA; to encourage the cooperation and mutual aid in the study, research and use of resources, in order to promote the radiation protection development in Latin America and the Caribbean

  7. The principle of equality and the right to assisted procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of equality is the foundation of developing an entire system of human rights, and its implementation represents the standard of respecting each right individually. With these premises as a starting point, the subject of the author’s interests is whether the right to assisted reproduction, as a segment of reproductive rights, is regulated in conformity with the equality principal. In order to reach an answer, the author examines the concept of human assisted reproduction and analyzes the application of reproductive technologies in the light of legal, social and political reforms which affected marriages, the family and partnership in general at the end of the 20th century. The author finds that the most significant ones among them are the emancipation of women, recognition and legal formation of same sex unions and statements prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, by considering the right to assisted reproduction in the context of other human rights with which it is interconnected and interdependent (the right to life, right to privacy, the right to a family life, health rights, children’s rights, the author finds there are no absolute, unlimited rights in the contemporary system of human rights, but that they inevitably have certain restrictions. Since the same limitation attribute also characterizes the right to assisted reproduction, the author further researches whether there is discrimination, positive or negative, towards the existing forms of limitations to this right. The following forms of limitations have been singled out, as the key ones for this analysis: request for (nonmarital status and heterosexual orientation, sexual affiliation and age and the accessibility (prohibition of applying certain methods of assisted reproduction which are primarily in the function of eliminating female sterility. The author concludes that there are elements of discrimination based on family status, sexual

  8. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  9. Troubling Gender Equality : Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic...

  10. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  11. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks. The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has been trained by utilizing the error back-propagation algorithm. The weights of the network are updated in accordance with training of the network. This paper presents a very effective method for blind channel equalization, being more efficient than the pre-existing algorithms. The obtained results show a visible reduction in the noise content.

  12. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  13. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  14. School Leadership and Educational Equality: Analysis of Greek Secondary School Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Using data derived from interviews with Greek school principals, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to investigate whether or not equitable access to schools is for all children; and (b) to determine the extent to which the Greek educational system, in particular, offers equal opportunities to immigrant students. The results showed that…

  15. Asynchronous Orthogonal Multi-Carrier CDMA Using Equal Gain Combining in Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, G; Ng, TS

    1998-01-01

    Performance of an asynchronous orthogonal multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system for the reverse link of the mobile communication system with equal gain combining is obtained. The performance of MC-CDMA is compared with that of conventional CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA in numerical results in a multipath Rayleigh fading channel.

  16. A Pathway to Equality for Queer-Friendly Student Groups in U.S. Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Malila N.

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses the Equal Access Act of 1984 and the clarifications set out in the 1990 case of "Board of Education of the Westside Community Schools v. Mergens", as to the protections afforded to queer-friendly student clubs and organizations in public schools. The brief also touches on why these queer-friendly clubs and organizations are…

  17. Higher Education as Object for Corporate and Nation Branding: Between Equality and Flagships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy

    2015-01-01

    Branding has become an important issue within higher education. The use of core value statements and visions are expressions of this. To be a successful brand, organisations must also make sure they are different from others. However, in both the scholarly discourse and in political rhetoric, the Nordic model highlights equal access to education…

  18. Book Review: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000). Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002).

    OpenAIRE

    Ballance, Virginia C.

    2005-01-01

    Review of two books: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000). Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002).

  19. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen considerable deforestation due to a complex web of interconnected and interdependent causes, which include agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, social demographics and governmental policies and activity. It is necessary for successful and efficient policy development to understand how variability in these causes can potentially result in increased or decreased deforestation. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool that can quantify the risk, as in the threat or pressure, of potential deforestation, whilst identifying the key indicators that contribute to this risk. This tool will take the form of a composite index that will provide spatial and temporal trends of deforestation risk across Latin America and the Caribbean. The development of the Deforestation Risk Index (DRI) was based upon work performed in the EU project ROBIN1. Indicators of deforestation included in the index were identified based upon the multi-scalar approach adopted in ROBIN- nationally from principal component analysis and econometric modelling, provincially from extensive interviews with experts and farmers (subsistence and commercial) in Amazonian regions of Bolivia and Brazil, and locally from stakeholder workshops in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. The identification process was supported by an extensive literature review. In total, 11 indicators were identified and grouped into four components (biophysical, economic, governance and social) capable of explaining the risk of deforestation in Latin America and Caribbean countries. The DRI was calculated for 24 Latin American and Caribbean countries in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 using national-level data collected from open access databases (FAOStat, WorldBank and UNDP). The DRI was subjected to two weighting schemes; the first based upon the opinions of experts from ROBIN (weighted biophysical and governance components heavily), and the second developed from the results of

  20. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  1. Equality of Opportunity and Non-Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Dascălu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the normative grounds of both equality of opportunity and non-discrimination, working with the underlying assumption of a connection between the two. In order to test this assumption, various core issues of egalitarianism are discussed, and contrasted with the common understanding of discrimination. As this research attempts to prove, though less questioned than other principles of social justice, and though apparently akin (to some extent even overlapping, equality of opportunity and non-discrimination are bound to remain rather limited in scope unless a comprehensive (substantial view of justice is endorsed.

  2. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...... implementing norms of equality allowed them to rapidly mobilise a considerable following, the same structures systematically reduced their capacity to consolidate support in the longer term – a weakness that might eventually put these parties' survival at risk. Second, they show that differences in the extent...

  3. Mosaic origins of Bradyrhizobium legume symbionts on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew A; Rousteau, Alain

    2014-08-01

    To analyze geographic affinities of Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts associated with the diverse legume flora on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, 39 isolates from 18 legume genera were compared to a reference set of 269 Bradyrhizobium strains from North America, Central America, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. A multilocus sequence analysis (4192 bp) showed that nucleotide diversity in Guadeloupe equaled or exceeded that found in all other regional Bradyrhizobium populations examined. Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis grouped the Guadeloupe Bradyrhizobium strains into clades with at least 20 distinct sets of non-Guadeloupe relatives, implying that the island was colonized numerous times from multiple source regions. However, for 18% of the Guadeloupe isolates, inferred geographic affinities for the nifD locus, in the symbiosis island region of the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, conflicted with the source region deduced from a tree based on six concatenated housekeeping genes. Geographic mosaic ancestry was therefore evident among Guadeloupe bradyrhizobia. Horizontal gene transfer subsequent to island colonization appears to have generated strains that carry combinations of genes from disparate source regions. PMID:24747127

  4. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  5. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  6. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, Caribbean Marine Research Center, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Undersea Research Center for the Caribbean Marine Research Center, Perry Institure for Marine Science, for the Caribbean region explores and studies...

  7. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program. PMID:12381609

  8. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  9. Efficiency and Equality in the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Agell, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the costs and benefits of welfare state intervention in the labour market, and argues that many forms of intervention can be justified for efficiency reasons. The paper reviews recent evidence on income inequality and income mobility, and it discusses labour market reforms that may improve efficiency without violating European voters’ preference for equality.

  10. Wikigender: Initiating Dialogue on Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler

    2008-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how many women are in paid employment compared to men? We know they get unequal wages, but just how unequal is their pay? Meanwhile, who are the managers, and what is their gender makeup? Are women and men entering the higher levels of state in equal numbers?

  11. Sourcebook of Equal Educational Opportunity. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977

    This reference book offers current information about equal opportunity in education through the elimination of racial, cultural, sexist, and linguistic barriers facing minority groups. The volume consists of seven parts, plus subject and geographical indexes. The first section includes a general demographic overview of the U.S., with statistics on…

  12. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  13. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  14. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  15. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  16. Gender equality as a politics of declaration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    on the kinds of gendered understanding that underline research surveys like the WIME project and discusses the potential limitations of this approach to gender analysis. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits and potential problems of applying gender inclusive policies to media institutions by......-racist practice. Using this concept, this article critically discussed diversity policies and gender equality policies as they apply to media institutions....

  17. Emancipation and Equality: A Critical Genealogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Joan Wallach

    2012-01-01

    I have been suggesting that the deployment of the language of sexual emancipation and gender equality to dismiss Muslim claims for recognition as full members of the nation-states of Western Europe in which so many have now for so long resided, needs to be read not simply as Islamophobia (which it c

  18. Cohen on Socialism, Equality and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gilabert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss G. A. Cohen’s account of the principles animating the socialist ideal. In his book Why Not Socialism? Cohen argues that socialism is based on two principles of radical equality of opportunity and community. Although I am quite sympathetic to Cohen’s contribution, I identify what I take to be some problems in it and suggest ways to overcome them. I challenge Cohen’s claim that although the principle of radical equality of opportunity is a principle of justice, the principle of community is only a wider moral requirement. I argue that to fully account for the role and weight of considerations of community within the socialist ideal, and to justify the limitations on liberty that they would impose in practice, we have reason to see some of them as more stringent demands of justice. More specifically, I propose a construal of some of the demands of community as focused on sufficientarian concerns with basic needs and on requirements to protect equal political status and self-respect, and explain how, so construed, the demands of community relate to demands of equality of economic opportunity and to the protection of personal and political liberty.

  19. Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 162 (2008), s. 135-152. ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008

  20. Power Equalization through Organization Development Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Jean M.; Keys, Christopher B.

    The effects of a three-year Organization Development (OD) intervention on power equalization were examined in seven experimental and seven control schools. The principals and teachers from experimental schools participated in OD workshops, in a project-coordinating council for planning and policy, and in school goal-setting activities. The power…

  1. Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator...

  2. Equal opportunities practices and enterprise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pérotin, V; A. Robinson; Loundes, J

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey 1995 and the British Workplace Employee Relations Survey 1998. Explores the incidence and nature of equal opportunities practices and investigates their effect on on firm performance, using productivity as a measure of performance. Focuses on small and medium-size enterprises and compares their case with larger firms.

  3. 76 FR 13896 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... designated transfer date as July 21, 2011. 75 FR 57252 (Sept. 20, 2010). The Board is proposing to amend... includes 2,872 institutions regulated by the FDIC and 369 thrifts regulated by the OTS. See 75 FR 36016... CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD67 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  4. AVHRR CoastWatch Caribbean Regional Node Data, May 1991-March 2004 (NODC Accession 0121316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature (SST) products were derived from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) for the coastal United States and...

  5. Module 11: Gender Equality & Social Exclusion Issues in Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael

    2003-01-01

    1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Equality Argument 1.3 Equality and the Culture of Contentment 1.4 Rawls and the Theory of a Just Society 1.5 Equal Opportunities and the Equality Continuum 1.6 The Equality Context

  6. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept....... There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals...

  7. O enigma da igualdade The conundrum of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Scott

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Scott estabelece, através deste artigo, uma discussão sobre os conceitos de igualdade e diferença, do gênero, das identidades individuais e de grupo, enfatizando a necessidade de historicidade do tema dentro da sociedade contemporânea. O artigo trata também de questões que envolvem as políticas de ação afirmativa, diferenças de gênero e raça no mundo do trabalho ou acesso de minorias a universidades. Scott argumenta que a questão da igualdade precisa ser entendida em termos de paradoxo.Through this article, Scott sets up a discussion about the concepts of equality and difference, gender, individual identity and group identity, emphasizing that this theme needs to be historicized in contemporary society. This article draws attention to questions that envolve affirmative action policies, gender and race differences in the labour world or minorities' access to universities. Scott argues that the equality question must be understood in terms of paradox.

  8. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  9. Caribbean Conference on Early Childhood Education (2nd, Dover Convention Centre, Barbados, April 1-5, 1997). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Christine

    The objectives of the Second Caribbean Conference on Early Childhood Education included: (1) setting a framework for the development of early childhood programs in the Caribbean; (2) initiating a Plan of Action to address early childhood issues in the Caribbean in terms of policy, structure, and implementation; and (3) facilitating the networking…

  10. International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean descent: Veni, vidi, vici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharing a history similar to that of its Caribbean neighbours, yet endowed with greater economic and logistic liquidity, Nassau, The Bahamas’ capital city (on the island of New Providence, seemed the best venue for the first International Symposium on Composers of African & Afro-Caribbean Descent, held on February 21, 2013.

  11. 77 FR 19537 - MARPOL Annex V Special Areas: Wider Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 39334). This notice... Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 19380). That notice... Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization ISM International...

  12. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  13. African-Caribbean cancer consortium for the study of viral, genetic and environmental cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odedina Folakemi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a short summary of a meeting of the "African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium", jointly organized by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica as a satellite meeting at the Caribbean Health Research Council, 52nd Annual Council and Scientific meeting on May 4, 2007.

  14. Caribbean Immigration to the United States. RIIES Occasional Papers No. 1. Second Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.; Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.

    Twelve research papers on Caribbean immigrants to the United States are collected in this volume. Their titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "The United States' Role in Caribbean Migration: Background to the Problem" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "International Migration and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Aspects of the…

  15. Addressing the Challenges and Needs of English-Speaking Caribbean Immigrant Students: Guidelines for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…

  16. The Landfill Gas-to-Energy Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Terraza, Horacio; Grajales, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the Landfill Gas-to-Energy (LFGTE) Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean are to. 1) contribute to the maximization of methane emissions reductions and the development of carbon trading opportunities; 2) promote LFGTE investment in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve solid waste management practices in the region; 3) create awareness of LFGTE opportunities; ...

  17. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a dive

  18. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 2002-02-22 to 2007-12-22 (NODC Accession 0110259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0110259 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the...

  20. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  1. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky;

    2009-01-01

    employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth and....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the...

  2. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be......The results of a theoretical study of sound equalization in enclosures at low frequencies are presented. The sound field is controlled by sources distributed in the enclosure so that a certain region has a desired complex pressure corresponding to that of a traveling plane wave. The task is the...... detection of the optimum positions for a number of sources in order to minimize the energy of the error over the region of control. According to the direction of propagation, the sources should be placed so as to couple with the modes that will benefit the reproduction of the plane wave (the "desired" modes...

  3. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    interventions are recommended, where there is no evidence to support them, notwithstanding the ambition of interventions being evidence-informed. Ethical considerations are scanty, scattered and unsystematically integrated. Further, although some packages mention the importance of avoiding stigmatization, there......Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article is...... to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards...

  4. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study of sound equalization in enclosures at low frequencies are presented. The sound field is controlled by sources distributed in the enclosure so that a certain region has a desired complex pressure corresponding to that of a traveling plane wave. The task is the...... detection of the optimum positions for a number of sources in order to minimize the energy of the error over the region of control. According to the direction of propagation, the sources should be placed so as to couple with the modes that will benefit the reproduction of the plane wave (the "desired" modes......) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be...

  5. Maxwell's equal area law for Lovelock Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We present the construction of Maxwell's equal area law for the Guass-Bonnet AdS black holes in $d=5,6$ and third order Lovelock AdS black holes in $d=7,8$. The equal area law can be used to find the number and location of the points of intersection in the plots of Gibbs free energy, so that we can get the thermodynamically preferred solution which corresponds to the first order phase transition. We have the radius of the small and larger black holes in the phase transition which share the same Gibbs free energy. The latent heat can also be calculated. For the third order Lovelock AdS black holes in $d=8$, the first order phase transition can be found in $T_t

  6. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    capability approach to questions of health or equality. In the present paper we extend the notion of rationalizing orderings of capabilities to a dynamical context, in the sense that the utility function is not yet revealed to the individual at the time when the capabilities are ordered. It turns out that......The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...... over capabilities as sets of functionings can be rationalized by maximization of a suitable utility function over the set of functionings. Such a rationalization turned out to be possible only in cases which must be considered exceptional and which do not allowfor interesting applications of the...

  7. The Role Of Men for Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Farré, Lídia

    2012-01-01

    Gender as an interdisciplinary concept refers to women and men, the relations between them, and the institutions that govern these relationships. However, most of the literature on gender focuses on women and girls and the factors that affect their socioeconomic outcomes. For a long time, a commitment to promoting gender equality in economic outcomes, as in other areas of social development and human rights, has emphasized women's empowerment. There is evidence that expanding woman's opportun...

  8. Challenging equality policies: The emerging LGBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cruells, Marta; Coll Planas, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The state members of the European Union have witnessed the emergence of equality policies which target discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. These are usually based on the single issue model focusing exclusively on discrimination suffered by LGBT people, however there are other approaches to this issue which take into account the interaction of different axes of inequality, namely, the multiple and intersectional discrimination models. This ar...

  9. Globalization and Gender Equality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Potrafke; Heinrich Ursprung

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically assesses the influence of globalization on the institutional root causes of gender equality as measured by the new OECD Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI). We capture the multifaceted concept of globalization with the KOF index and its three sub-indices which measure the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization. Observing the progress of globalization for a sample of almost one hundred countries at ten year intervals starting in 1970, we find ...

  10. Testing For Equality Between Two Copulas

    OpenAIRE

    Rémillard, Bruno; SCAILLET, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    We develop a test of equality between two dependence structures esti- mated through empirical copulas. We provide inference for independent or paired samples. The multiplier central limit theorem is used for calculating p-values of the Cram ́er-von Mises test statistic. Finite sample properties are assessed with Monte Carlo experiments. We apply the testing procedure on empirical examples in finance, psychology, insurance and medicine.

  11. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  12. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Addessi; Marta Borgi; Elisabetta Palagi

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of fema...

  13. Equal Superposition Transformations and Quantum Random Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Preeti

    2007-01-01

    The largest ensemble of qubits which satisfy the general transformation of equal superposition is obtained by different methods, namely, linearity, no-superluminal signalling and non-increase of entanglement under LOCC. We also consider the associated quantum random walk and show that all unitary balanced coins give the same asymmetric spatial probability distribution. It is further illustrated that unbalanced coins, upon appropriate superposition, lead to new unbiased walks which have no cla...

  14. Towards a coherent theory of animal equality

    OpenAIRE

    Bruers, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    In this article I want to construct in a simple and systematic way an ethical theory of animal equality. The goal is a consistent theory, containing a set of clear and coherent universalized ethical principles that best fits our strongest moral intuitions in all possible morally relevant situations that we can think of, without too many arbitrary elements. I demonstrate that impartiality with a level of risk aversion and empathy with a need for efficiency are two different approaches that bot...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse in the Eastern Caribbean: The report of a study carried out across the Eastern Caribbean during the period October 2008 to June 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Adele; Trotman Jemmott, Ena

    2009-01-01

    This report from the Centre for Applied Childhood Studies at the University of Huddersfield in the United Kingdom (UK) and the UK-based Action for Children describes an action research project study that investigated child sexual abuse across several Caribbean countries. The study, "Perceptions of, Attitudes to, and Opinions on Child Sexual Abuse in the Eastern Caribbean", was carried out across 6 countries - Anguilla, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, and St. Kitts and Nevis - in an e...

  16. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  17. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  18. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  19. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

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    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  20. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the