WorldWideScience

Sample records for caribbean equal access

  1. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  2. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations... ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108.6 Equal access. (a) General. Consistent with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section,...

  3. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  4. The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures – a Danish perspective Like the Danish Healthcare Act (Para 2) basically prescribes a right to easy, equal access to healthcare, a Complaint Act (Para 2) entitles patients to file a complaint (about health professional conduct, informed consent...... obtainment etc.) with a Health Disciplinary Board at no cost. While there is no guarantee that healthcare is proportionately delivered across patient groups there is no warrant either that the complaint system actually promotes equal accessibility (by natives, cross-border patients etc.). To further study...... the actual complaint pattern a review was conducted on a 1-year General Practice care complaint sample (2007). Data were extracted on patient gender, age, and affiliation with labor market (if available). Interpreter use or family name presence on the Family Government Agency’s list of foreign names was used...

  5. Social Security Administration - Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year data...

  6. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  7. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  8. Functioning and Challenges in Equality and Accessibility Among People with Short Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Kirsti; Anttila, Heidi; Mäkitie, Outi; Leppäjoki, Sanna; Hiekkala, Sinikka

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility is not the same for all of us. This study concerns people with short stature, their functioning and challenges in equality and accessibility in our environment based on average measures.

  9. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  10. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  11. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for these variations in legal transposition and enforcement bodies, the paper finds two equifinal paths towards correct transposition of EU gender equality legislation and strong enforcement bodies: either the absence of high adjustment costs, or the combination of strong social democratic governments and NGOs with special expertise in EU gender equality legislation.

  12. Caribbean Equal Access Program: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Dancy, NLM, and Wilma Templin-Branner, ORISE

    2009-01-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine, of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  13. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general pr...

  14. Internet accessibility and disability policy: lessons for digital inclusion and equality from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Goggin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth decade of the internet, accessibility for all, especially those with disabilities, is central to digital inclusion. Yet internationally, the score card on internet and accessibility remains mixed, at best; and woefully inadequate, at worst. Via an Australian case study, we argue that it is imperative to better understand how internet technology interacts with the life worlds and dynamics of disability, and we suggest how policy can be articulated and improved to put people with disabilities on an equal basis to others in digital societies.

  15. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation. Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn’t one just as well, it is argued, consider receipt of other goods such as income or education? In consequence, simple allocation by lottery or first-come-first-served without consideration of any past receipt is thought to best afford equal opportunity, conditional on equal medical need. There are three issues with this view that need to be addressed. First, public views and patient preferences are less ambiguous than formal theories of ethics. Empirical work shows strong preferences for fairness in health care that have not been taken into account: repeated access to resources has been perceived as unfair. Second, while difficult to consider receipt of many other prior resources including non-medical resources, this should not be used a motive for ignoring the receipt of any and all goods including the focal resource in question. Third, when all claimants to a scarce resource are equally deserving, then use of random allocation seems warranted. However, the converse is not true: mere use of a randomizer does not by itself make the merits of all claimants equal. Summary My conclusion is that not ignoring prior receipt of the same medical resource, and prioritizing those who have not previously had access to the medical resource in question, may be perceived as fairer and more equitable by society.

  16. The Concepts of Accessibility and Equality in Design Education: The Universal Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mugan Akıncı, Guliz

    2014-01-01

    Universal design approach aims to design products and environments that provide equal access for everyone to the variety of activities. Universal design applications and research and discussions related to these applications can be seen in different fields very often especially in the last years. Concerning the fact that its possibility of application is very new in Turkey, on the one hand, one of the aims of this study is to introduce and explain this new approach. On the other hand, the stu...

  17. Access to medicines in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC): a scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess scientific publication and map research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in Latin American and the Caribbean low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Design Scoping review. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. Information sources Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: MEDLINE, ISI, SCOPUS and Lilacs, from 2000 to 2010. Eligibility criteria Research articles and reviews published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Studies including only high-income countries were excluded, as well as those carried out in very limited settings and discussion papers. Results The 77 articles retained were categorised through consensus among the research team according to the level of the health system addressed, ATM domain and research issues covered. Publications on ATM have increased over time during the study period (r 0.93, p=0.00; R2 0.85). The top five countries covered were Brazil (68.8%), Mexico (15.6%), Colombia (11.7%), Argentina (10.4%) and Peru (10.4%). ‘Health services delivery’ and ‘patients, household and communities’ were the health system levels most frequently covered. The ATM domains ‘leadership and governance’, ‘sustainable financing, affordability and price of medicines’, ‘medicines selection and use’ and ‘availability of medicines’ were the top four explored. There are research gaps in important areas such as ‘human resources for health’, ‘global policies and human rights’, ‘production of medicines’ and ‘traditional medicine’. Conclusions The upward trend on scientific publication reflects a growing research capacity in the region, which is concentrated on research teams in selected countries. The gaps on research capacity could be overcome through research collaboration among countries. It is important to strengthen these collaborations, assuring that interests and needs from the LMIC are

  18. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... orientation or gender identity to the list of hate crimes covered by existing Federal law. See Matthew Shepard.... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Proposed... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity...

  19. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  20. Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? Technical Appendix. NCEE 2011-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Max, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This appendix describes the methods and provides further detail to support the evaluation brief, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers?" (Contains 8 figures, 6 tables and 5 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? NCEE…

  1. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN480 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-07-13 to 2010-07-23 (NODC Accession 0103941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103941 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN480 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  2. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-08 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-22 to 2010-06-24 (NODC Accession 0104289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104289 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN197-08 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  3. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1110 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-09-03 to 2011-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0145826)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145826 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1110 in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  4. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  5. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  6. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  7. Forum for Change. An Articulation Workshop for Secondary and Post-Secondary Educators to Promote Equal Access in Vocational Education (Harlingen, Texas, February 17, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Service Center Region 2, Corpus Christi, TX.

    This volume contains materials for use in conducting an articulation workshop to train secondary and postsecondary educators to promote equal access to vocational education. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: inequalities in the workplace, the role of articulation in promoting equal access, outreach, career…

  8. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  9. Equal and universal access?: water at mealtimes, inequalities, and the challenge for schools in poor and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Stafford, Randall

    2013-05-01

    As a result of the rising national obesity rates, public health researchers and advocates have initiated a number of obesity prevention interventions to reduce the rates of overweight and obesity along with their related medical conditions and costs. Policymakers have also initiated a wide range of environmental and policies to support healthy eating and physical activity. Policies such as California's SB1413, which requires that free drinking water be served in school cafeterias during mealtimes, and subsequently the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, assume an equal access to safe and healthy drinking water. As a result, these policies and their application may unintentionally, exacerbate the inequities already present. Unless we take reasonable steps to address the needs of high-need communities, these one-size-fits-all policy efforts may result in an unequal patchwork of disparities and may have a greater negative impact in high-need poor and rural areas.

  10. Physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC469-02 in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-10-24 to 2010-10-28 (NODC Accession 0104338)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104338 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC469-02 in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-10-24 to 2010-10-28....

  11. Oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER as part of project M-I907-NF-11 in the Caribbean Sea from 2011-03-29 to 2011-04-16 (NCEI Accession 0130790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130790 includes physical and profile data collected aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER during project M-I907-NF-11 in the Caribbean Sea from 2011-03-29 to...

  12. Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I, EQUALANT II, and EQUALANT III projects from 1963-02-15 to 1964-07-09 (NODC Accession 0071432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I,...

  13. Equal Access to Health Care: Patient Dumping. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (July 22, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of equal access to health care and the practice of patient dumping which may take the form of transferring a patient to another hospital, refusing to treat a patient, or subjecting a patient to long delays, and which may…

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-11-02 to 1997-09-03 (NODC Accession 0115005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115005 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-09-22 to 2003-11-13 (NODC Accession 0108060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108060 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  17. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-05-25 to 2003-06-13 (NODC Accession 0116705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116705 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081041 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-27 to 2012-11-16 (NODC Accession 0108232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108232 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These data...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-04-12 to 2003-04-25 (NODC Accession 0117494)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117494 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2006-01-15 to 2006-12-24 (NODC Accession 0109925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109925 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-01-03 to 2005-01-02 (NODC Accession 0081033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081033 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-01-02 to 2005-12-18 (NODC Accession 0109924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109924 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109915 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-08-13 to 2005-09-19 (NODC Accession 0116566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116566 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-31 (NODC Accession 0117689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117689 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-02-08 to 2004-01-03 (NODC Accession 0081032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081032 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-07-10 to 2004-08-07 (NODC Accession 0116644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116644 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  13. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-06-07 to 2002-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115586 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  14. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  15. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  16. Expansion and equality of access to higher education in China%规模扩大与高等教育入学机会均等化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小浩

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the role of socio-economic status in determining access to higher education over time. Findings show that the overall equality of higher education opportunity has improved because of the inclusion of more marginal students into lower-tier higher education institutions (HEIs); however, students from higher socio-economic status have benefited disproportionably from the expansion in elite universities. A brief discussion of the potential implications is presented.

  17. NCCOS Caribbean Fishery Acoustic Assessment: Fish Density Data Collection from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster, from 2008-03-26 to 2014-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0156395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets show acoustically detected fish densities throughout the Caribbean ocean. NOAA/NCCOS collected these data sets to help characterize broad-scale fish...

  18. Two plus blue equals green: grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N; Alvarez, Bryan D; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-12-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250 ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information.

  19. Two plus blue equals green: Grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N.; Alvarez, Bryan D.; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with...

  20. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  1. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt;

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests whether the existence of vocationally oriented tracks within a traditionally academically oriented upper education system reduces socioeconomic inequalities in educational attainment. Based on a statistical model of educational transitions and data on two entire cohorts of Danish...... youth, we find that (1) the vocationally oriented tracks are less socially selective than the traditional academic track; (2) attending the vocationally oriented tracks has a negative effect on the likelihood of enrolling in higher education; and (3) in the aggregate the vocationally oriented tracks...... improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  2. Women’s leadership in local government in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzann Lee Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Women and men are traditionally cast in different roles, with males being leaders in the workplace, home and government. In contrast, communities promote women as caregivers who support male leaders and shape future generations as mothers, mentors and teachers. In recognition of this societal view of women that often led to inequality and inequity, the UNDP listed Gender Equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the United Nations in autumn 2015, also included gender equality and empowering women as Goal 5. In its work in the Caribbean, the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED examined gender as it relates to micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME development in six Caribbean countries.  The findings of this study showed gender gaps for both male and female entrepreneurs in different areas of development.  Traditionally gendered roles for MSME sectors, access to financing and lack of adequate guidance or community support were some areas that affected men and women differently in the region.  The study outlines ways in which male and female leaders can address traditional gender roles by identifying priority areas for development, creating an enabling environment for start-ups and expansion, and fostering a policy and legislative base that facilitates ease of doing business.  The recommendations further describe the public–private partnerships needed to successfully meet gender gaps, and the importance of both elected officials and technocrats in inter alia community engagement and advocacy towards local economic development. The importance of gender equality among elected officials and technocrats, and the influence gender has on determining priority areas of focus within local government strategic plans for communities are also set out within this paper.

  3. WIND DIRECTION, pH and other data from FOX in the Caribbean Sea from 1974-08-30 to 1974-08-31 (NCEI Accession 7601844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected in the Caribbean Sea from August 30-31, 1974. HMS FOX of the British navy was used to collect the data. Mr. Paul Ruiz, Tauton, Somerset, UK...

  4. The equality of opportunities in the access of higher education La igualdad de oportunidades en el acceso a la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Jesus Freire

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes equality of access to the university in Galicia (Spain as it was influenced by the political decision to finance higher education at between 80% and 85% of its real cost. The composition of the student body with respect to the level of their parents' education is examined. The analysis confirms that in spite of the significant effort at public financing, the objective of equal access will not be reached. Este trabajo analiza la igualdad de oportunidades de acceso a los estudios universitarios en Galicia (España. El examen se realiza teniendo en cuenta la decisión adoptada políticamente de financiar la educación superior entre un 80% y un 85% del costo real. Al tenor del enorme esfuerzo de financiación pública se examina la composición del alumnado en función del nivel de estudios de los padres. El análisis confirma que con la política de financiación pública aplicada no se podrá alcanzar el objetivo de igualdad de acceso a la universidad.

  5. Pushing the boundaries of accessibility – Governmental efforts on ensuring equal access to information to rural library users (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 a new Cultural Act was enacted which included, among other things, public library provision. Based on this act the Hungarian library system has been developed systematically through the consecutive strategic plans (Skaliczki, 1999. All projects aimed to push the boundaries of accessibility and to facilitate the realisation of the information society (Caidi, 2006. The 2003-2007 strategic period draws to an end and now we are able to review the tasks accomplished. (Skaliczki, 2003; 2006. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the strategic development of Hungarian libraries between 1997 and 2007, and to draw up the basic figures regarding to this period. (

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-07-22 to 2011-12-06 (NODC Accession 0108094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108094 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-02 to 2002-12-28 (NODC Accession 0108131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108131 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2013-02-28 to 2013-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0144355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144355 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-13 to 2008-12-11 (NODC Accession 0109928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109928 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2010-01-14 to 2011-01-02 (NODC Accession 0108230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108230 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2009-04-17 to 2009-10-18 (NODC Accession 0109931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109931 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2011-01-02 to 2011-11-20 (NODC Accession 0108231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108231 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2009-03-15 to 2009-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108229 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  15. Caribbean ,More than Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Ou

    2008-01-01

    @@ Have you ever watched the movie of Pirates of the Caribbean?This Hollywood movie hit several headlines in its time and pushed a charming and mysterious Caribbean under limelight.The Latin America and the Caribbean area caught the world's eyesight,so from China.On February 27th,the fourth session of CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)International Forum focus on Latin America and the Caribbean affairs was heldin Beijing,China.

  16. A unified, long-term, Caribbean-wide initiative to identity the factors responsible for sustaining mangrove wetland, seagrass meadow, and coral reef productivity, February 1993 - October 1998 (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 and retrieved during cruise LaPa20100121,...

  18. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  19. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  20. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  1. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar...

  2. Granting Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China granting equal representation in legislative bodies to rural and urban people was ratified by the National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.

  3. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  4. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  5. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NCEI Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 September 1979 - 01 December 1979 (NODC Accession 8100607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from September 27, 1979 to December 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 15 February 1979 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by University...

  8. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NCEI Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  9. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anadon-Irizarry; D.C. Wege; A. Upgren; Young, R.; Boom, B; Leon, Y.M.; Y. Arias; Koenig, K.; Morales, A. L.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive nat...

  10. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, Joelle M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; van Dijk, Liset; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  11. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Dijk, L. van; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  12. Creating (In)Equalities in Access to Higher Education in the Context of Structural Adjustment and Post-Adjustment Policies: The Case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the access of different socio-economic groups to post-secondary institutions by quintile, this paper examines the impact produced by higher education financing policies in Chile during the Pinochet (1973-1990), the Aylwin (1990-1994) and the Frei (1994-2000) administrations. To this purpose, CASEN databases and semi-structured…

  13. TURBO EQUALIZATION WITH JOINTLY GAUSSIAN EQUALIZER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Sen; Sun Hong; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    A Jointly Gaussian (JG) equalizer is derived for turbo equalization based on an augmented real matrix representation of channel model and a Gaussian approximation of the received symbol sequence. Using matrix inversion lemma and Cholesky decomposition, a lowcomplexity implementation of JG equalizer is also presented. The simulation results and complexity comparison confirm that turbo equalization with JG equalizer has a better performance and a lower complexity than the existing turbo equalization with linear minimum mean squared error equalizer.

  14. Caribbean Land Molluscs: Streptaxidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venmans, L.A.W.C.

    1963-01-01

    The material on which the present paper is based consists of a small number of Streptaxidae collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the Caribbean Islands and the mainland of Venezuela since 1930, and further of some specimens which, at various times, have reached the author thro

  15. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still...

  16. Report of the Regional Meeting for Latin America and the Caribbean in Preparation for the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development, and Peace (Havana, Cuba, November 19-23, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The minutes of the regional meeting (for Latin America and the Caribbean) summarize discussions pertaining to the critical review and appraisal of the progress achieved and the formulation of strategies for the advancement of women up to the year 2000. They suggest concrete measures for overcoming obstacles to the realization of the goals and…

  17. “幸福广东”视域下公共体育服务均等化现状与对策%Current equal access to public sports service viewed from happy Guangdong prospect and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锋

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the concept,the paper defines the connotation of the public sports service and analyses the unequal access to the public sports service in Guangdong province.The paper also proposes to strengthen the public sports service function of the sports administrations,establish various channels of public sports service and improve the financial guarantee of the equal access of the public sports service.%基于建设幸福广东的理念,从公共体育服务的内涵出发,分析了广东省公共体育服务非均等化的原因,提出加强体育行政部门公共体育服务职能、建立多元化的公共体育服务供给模式、完善体育公共服务均等化财政制度保障等发展策略,旨在为推动广东省的公共体育服务均等化提供理论依据。

  18. Equal Measure: Shielding Students and Enabling Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    "If one life is saved, then it's worth it." That is the cliched argument frequently used to justify banning electronic communications, websites, and other forms of technology in schools. The common belief is that these prohibitions will prevent, among other things, the sexual assault of minors or suicides related to cyberbullying. But that…

  19. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  20. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  1. Laboratory-based surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from disease cases in Latin American and Caribbean countries, SIREVA II 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Ibarz-Pavón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. METHODS: Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. RESULTS: Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised.

  2. The Caribbean after-shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L; Levy, D

    1988-03-01

    The population of the Caribbean islands, is expected to double by the mid-21st century, placing new pressures on local labor markets and economic resources and increasing the need for social expenditures. Most of this growth will take place in urban areas. Emigration to the US is an increasingly important trend, especially in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, and local Caribbean economies are linked with labor markets in the US through a system of family remittances. Oil price hikes, escalating debt burdens, and falling export prices have created an economic crisis in the Caribbean since the late 1970s. There has been double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, and only sporadic growth in the gross national product. The Caribbean Basin Initiative, established by the Reagan Administration, provides the Caribbean nations with duty-free export entry to the US market for 12 years and targets manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, and foreign investment for growth. Overall, however, the results of this initiative have been an effective subsidy to US investors and little stimulus for growth in locally owned businesses. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the islands with the most poverty, while Trinidad and Tobago are the most prosperous. Puerto Rico plays an important role in the Caribbean region, serving as a link between North and South America and between cultural differences.

  3. Education, equality and difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Enslin

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Does the pursuit of equality in post-apartheid education require the removal of difference? This article examines the concepts of difference and equality by exploring two contemporary texts in political philosophy. It is argued that the pursuit of equality can and should, under certain circumstances, accommodate difference in the form of decentralisation and private schools.

  4. Large Earthquake Potential in the Southeast Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Paez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Lafemina, P.; Mattioli, G. S.; Molnar, P. H.; Audemard, F. A.; Perez, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axis of rotation describing relative motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America lies in Canada near Hudson's Bay, such that the Caribbean plate moves nearly due east relative to South America [DeMets et al. 2010]. The plate motion is absorbed largely by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar Fault in northeastern Venezuela, but in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia, the relative motion is distributed over a wide zone that extends from offshore to the northeasterly trending Mérida Andes, with the resolved component of convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates estimated at ~10 mm/yr. Recent densification of GPS networks through COLOVEN and COCONet including access to private GPS data maintained by Colombia and Venezuela allowed the development of a new GPS velocity field. The velocity field, processed with JPL's GOA 6.2, JPL non-fiducial final orbit and clock products and VMF tropospheric products, includes over 120 continuous and campaign stations. This new velocity field along with enhanced seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake location analysis strongly suggest the existence of an active oblique subduction zone. We have also been able to use broadband data from Venezuela to search slow-slip events as an indicator of an active subduction zone. There are caveats to this hypothesis, however, including the absence of volcanism that is typically concurrent with active subduction zones and a weak historical record of great earthquakes. A single tsunami deposit dated at 1500 years before present has been identified on the southeast Yucatan peninsula. Our simulations indicate its probable origin is within our study area. We present a new GPS-derived velocity field, which has been used to improve a regional block model [based on Mora and LaFemina, 2009-2012] and discuss the earthquake and tsunami hazards implied by this model. Based on the new geodetic constraints and our updated block model, if part of the

  5. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  6. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  7. Globalizing the English Curriculum through Caribbean Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Linda; Thomas, Katherine

    Although Caribbean (English) writers hold differing views on the effectiveness of making connections in an area of so much diversity, Caribbean literature can be connected to the English curriculum to promote diversity and understanding. V. S. Naipaul, Nobel Prize winning author from the region, presents a pessimistic view of Caribbean society in…

  8. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  9. Some Megadrili Oligochaeta from the Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righi, Gilberto

    1995-01-01

    Righi, Gilberto, 1995. Some megadrili oligochaeta of the Caribbean Region. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72, Amsterdam, 1993: 47-53. Numerous Caribbean samples of the Megadrili – mainly peregrine anthropochorous species – are presented; and a description of Diachaeta (D) bonairensis sp. n. is

  10. Strengthening Caribbean Pensions : Improving Equity and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to provide additional insights to existing analyses of public pension and social security schemes in the Caribbean. Such analyses have been undertaken with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Economic Commission for Latin America, and the Caribbean and the International Socia...

  11. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  12. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  13. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  14. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  15. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and productivity profile data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON Cruise 001, 19651014 to 19651207 in the Caribbean Sea and the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 7100507)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of University of Washington Department of Oceanography Technical Report No. 249, Physical, chemical, and productivity data from a...

  16. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-04-12 to 2015-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0129874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129874 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-10 to 2015-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0129840)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129840 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-03-19 to 2015-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0129817)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129817 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  19. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-13 to 2013-03-01 (NODC Accession 0113486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113486 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-16 to 2013-04-06 (NODC Accession 0113252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113252 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  1. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-05 to 2014-04-08 (NODC Accession 0125563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125563 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  2. Integer Equal Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  3. Rotaria of the Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de Marg.

    1977-01-01

    1. In this paper, a study of Rotifers has been made of extensive material, collected in the Caribbean province by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, between 1930 and 1973. 2. 64 species of Rotifers have been found. For 19 of these, particulars are given on their morphology, ecology and biogeographical dist

  4. Sidney Mintz and Caribbean Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Review of:Empirical Futures: Anthropologists and Historians Engage the Work of Sidney W. Mintz. George Baca, A isha Khan & Stephan Palmié (eds.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. v + 232 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95)Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations. Sidney W. Min

  5. How to Avoid a Darkening Debt Storm in the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2015-01-01

    growth. Specifically, we stress the need to prevent a build-up of debt, public and private, by introducing a mechanism to ensure that public and private borrowing is consistent with an overall macroeconomic strategy. This introduces elements of a banking union framework, tied into Europe's notion......Using the euro area and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union as case studies, this chapter argues that a comprehensive policy framework should comprise not only a rule for fiscal policy but also, and equally important, a broader set of strategies designed to improve competitiveness and economic...

  6. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  7. Symbiodinium photosynthesis in Caribbean octocorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D Ramsby

    Full Text Available Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals. Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9 and P. wagenaari (n = 6 colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and

  8. Symbiodinium photosynthesis in Caribbean octocorals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsby, Blake D; Shirur, Kartick P; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Goulet, Tamar L

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9) and P. wagenaari (n = 6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will

  9. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  10. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  11. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  12. Hospice and palliation in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox; Chiochankitmun, Nina; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2014-07-01

    This article presents empirical data on the limited availability of hospice and palliative care to the 6 million people of the English-speaking Caribbean. Ten of the 13 nations therein responded to a survey and reported employing a total of 6 hospice or palliative specialists, and having a total of 15 related facilities. The evolving socioeconomic and cultural context in these nations bears on the availability of such care, and on the willingness to report, assess, and prioritize pain, and to prescribe opiates for pain. Socioeconomics and culture also impinge on what medications and modalities of care are routinely available for pain or other conditions and can challenge professionalism, empathy, and responsiveness to patients' unrelieved pain. Although all respondents report having a protocol for pain management, hospice, or end-of-life care, their annual medical use of opiates is well below the global mean. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which monitors such use, encourages Caribbean and other low- and middle-income countries to increase their use of opiates to treat pain, and to overcome both unfounded fears of addiction and overly restrictive interpretation of related laws and regulations. Contextual considerations like those described here are important to the success of policies and capacity-building programs aiming to increase access to hospice and palliation, and perhaps to improving other aspects of health and healthcare. Exploring and responding to the realities of socioeconomic and cultural conditions will enhance public and policy dialogue and improve the design of interventions to increase access to palliative and hospice care. Improving access to palliative and hospice care in the Caribbean demonstrates beneficence and helps to fulfill human rights conventions.

  13. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  14. Motivation and Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.; Burton, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that if teachers maintain task involvement in all children, they will achieve justifiable form of educational equality. Discusses social and personal factors which influence task involvement, including value framework of school (i.e., purpose school is seen to serve), organizational strategies adopted to facilitate learning, and specific…

  15. Teale Board of Equalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  16. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  17. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  18. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  19. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take...

  20. Engaging African and Caribbean Immigrants in HIV Testing and Care in a Large US City: Lessons Learned from the African Diaspora Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakwa, Helena A; Wahome, Rahab; Goines, Djalika S; Jabateh, Voffee; Green, Arraina; Bessias, Sophia; Flanigan, Timothy P

    2016-05-19

    The lifting in 2010 of the HIV entry ban eliminated an access point for HIV testing of the foreign-born. The African Diaspora Health Initiative (ADHI) was developed to examine alternative pathways to testing for African and Caribbean persons. The ADHI consists of Clinics Without Walls (CWW) held in community settings. HIV testing is offered to participants along with hypertension and diabetes screening. A survey is administered to participants. Descriptive data were analyzed using SAS 9.2. Between 2011 and 2015, 4152 African and Caribbean individuals participated in 352 CWW. Participants were mostly (67.7 %) African. HIV rates were lowest in Caribbean women (0.4 %) and highest in Caribbean men (8.4 %). Efforts to engage African and Caribbean communities in HIV testing are important given the elimination of the HIV entry ban and continued immigration to the US from areas of higher prevalence. The ADHI offers a successful model of engagement.

  1. Equal Love Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Mingyang

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the LGBT community(including Lesbians,Gays,Bisexuals,Transgenders)has won big.In terms of their marriage rights,on July 2015,the Supreme Court of the United States has passed judegment to recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of their rights,which means one’s marriage with same sex is not only legal from then on,but also equal to that of opposite sex.

  2. Thoughts upon Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申辰瑜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Anyone who has some basic knowledge about The Declaration of Independence might not be unfamiliar with the following lines,"We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equal,that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,that they are among these are life,liberty and the pursuit of happiness."Those words were truly respectable and encouraging at that time as well as

  3. Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee took note of the appointment of four new members of the Panel: Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano and Markus Nordberg. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz et Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  4. Democracy, Redistribution, and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przeworski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that economic inequality inevitably generates politicalinequality, which in turn reproduces economic inequality. Basic concepts areintroduced first along with strong caveats concerning the quality of the crossnationaldata on income distributions; historical patterns of income inequalityare summarized next, and with these preliminaries, a distinction is made betweenredistribution of consumption at a particular time and equalization of incomeearning capacities over time. Following this economic considerations, the articlediscussion moves to political factors that may block redistributions.

  5. 75 FR 32081 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8530 of May 28, 2010 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010 By the... geography as well as our shared past and common aspirations. During National Caribbean-American Heritage... their heritage to the Caribbean. Throughout our history, immigrants from Caribbean countries have...

  6. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  7. Research on Fiscal Policy of the Equal Access to Basic Public Services between Urban and Rural Areas%城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕凌; 彭园媛

    2016-01-01

    Urban and rural areas “dual structure”interests curing of fiscal policy,makes large difference of regional urban and rural public services,and different parts of the urban and rural basic public services equalization degree also varies from place to place.Promote equal basic public services between urban and rural areas of fiscal policy,fundamental goal is to realize the public service of urban and rural development as a whole,is the main measure to speed up the ex-pansion of “agriculture,rural areas and farmers”by the national finance expenditure proportion, specific local governments bear the responsibility of the“three rural”spending,standard financial transfer payment,accelerate the new urbanization promoting the construction of urban and rural integration and synchronization.%城乡“二元结构”利益固化的财政政策,导致局部地区城乡公共服务差异大,且地区城乡基本公共服务均等化程度因地而异。推进城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策,根本目标在于实现公共服务城乡统筹发展,应加快扩大国家财政“三农”支出比重、明确地方财政承担“三农”支出的责任、规范财政转移支付、加快推进新型城镇化,并同步推进城乡一体化建设。

  8. Women and social security in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub- saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Folbre N

    1993-01-01

    One of a series of reports examining issues related to equality for women in employment. Provides an overview of the treatment of women in social security programmes in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Sub- Saharan Africa. Calls attention to four separate aspects of gender bias. Also traces the evolution of social security programmes and highlights specific aspects of gender bias in current provisions. Makes recommendations for specific policy changes. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  9. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  10. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  11. Increasing Public Access to University Qualifications: Evolution of The University of the West Indies Open Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Soares, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of The University of the West Indies' Open Campus (UWIOC), which is expected to expand service and increase access to the underserved communities of the Eastern Caribbean. At present, UWI, which caters to the needs of the 16 far flung countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, has not been able to fully serve these…

  12. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  13. 加大改革力度促进城乡基本医保服务均等化%Promote Equal Access to Basic Health Care Services in Urban and Rural Areas through the Way of Deepening Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓微

    2014-01-01

    The prominent obstacle to achieve equal basic medical insurance system between urban and rural areas in China is the segmentation of basic medical insurance system and the imbalance health care service. Under the background of comprehensively deepening health insurance reform in China, promoting the equalization in basic health care services for urban and rural residents should be conducted mainly from the reform and construction of three aspects, namely, providers of public products, receivers of basic health insurance and carriers of basic medical insurance. First of all, it should reform the administrative system of basic medical insurance, straighten out the relations of service providers, and reduce the internal friction of government departments so as to reduce administrative costs, and promote the equalization of basic medical insurance services. Secondly, it need to optimize the framework of the basic health care system, integrate the urban basic medical insurance system and new rural cooperative medical care system, and establish basic medical insurance system for residents. Third, change basic medical insurance for urban employees into basic medical insurance for employees, expand the coverage and improve the basic medical insurance level. Last, strengthen medical treatment system reform, optimize the resource allocation in basic medical insurance carriers, strengthen the construction of rural medical and health care network, and relieve the contradictions in medical manpower distribution between urban and rural.%在我国推进城乡基本医保服务均等化,主要应从公共产品供给主体、基本医保受众和基本医保实现载体三个方面着力。改革基本医疗保险行政管理体制,理顺基本医保供给主体,减少政府部门的摩擦和内耗,降低行政管理成本,保证基本医保服务均等化;优化基本医保制度体系,整合城镇居民医保与新农合,建立居民基本医疗保险制度;

  14. Turbo iterative equalization for HSDPA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiHui; ZHAO ChunMing; WANG JinLong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a turbo iterative receiver structure with chip equalization is proposed for the 3G high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) systems. The receiver equalizes the channel prior to the dispreading and then performs two successive soft-output decisions, achieved by a soft-input soft-output (SISO) multi-code detector and a SISO turbo decoder through an iterative process. At each iteration, extrinsic information is extracted from detection and decoding stages and is then used as a priori information in the next iteration, just as in turbo decoding. Computer simulations show that the turbo iterative receiver structure with chip equalization offers significant performance gain over the traditional receiver structure.

  15. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt;

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure. © 2016 UNU-WIDER. Journal of International Development published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright...

  16. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.

  17. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  18. Origin of the Caribbean Plate Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith H. James; Maria Antonieta Lorente

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international research conference, entitled "Geology of the area between North and South America, with focus on the origin of the Caribbean Plate", took place in Siguenza, Spain, from May 29-June 2, 2006.

  19. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  20. Business Booms for Caribbean Med Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, William J.

    1979-01-01

    As a last chance medical haven, Caribbean medical schools are increasingly sought by U.S. students. Federal and state investigations are being run on one of these, and two former students have filed suit. (BB)

  1. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  2. Adaptive Equalization Algorithms: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Malik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent digital transmission systems impose the application of channel equalizers with short training time and high tracking rate. Equalization techniques compensate for the time dispersion introduced by communication channels and combat the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI effect. Given a channel of unknown impulse response, the purpose of an adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output such that the cascade connection of the channel and the equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal transmission medium. Typically, adaptive equalizers used in digital communications require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. A replica of this sequence is made available at the receiver in proper synchronism with the transmitter, thereby making it possible for adjustments to be made to the equalizer coefficients in accordance with the adaptive filtering algorithm employed in the equalizer design. In this paper, an overview of the current state of the art in adaptive equalization techniques has been presented.

  3. Physical and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V HERMANO GINES from the continental shelf of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea in support of the project: Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean (CARIACO) from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007 (NODC Accession 0014920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the R/V HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007. Data...

  4. A comparative study of Caribbean return migration from Britain and France: towards a context-dependent explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M; Condon, S

    1996-01-01

    "The currently dominant element in the labour migration from the Caribbean to Britain and France is a return flow of migrants. This paper focuses on the migrations from the Commonwealth and the French Caribbean to Britain and France respectively. While these migrations are historically similar in origin, subsequent differences in the colonial and immigration policies of Britain and France have resulted in divergent migration trends and experiences. New sources of data are drawn on in this comparative study of return migration to the Caribbean, providing up-to-date information on the size and demographic characteristics of the returnee populations. Equally important to this study is the section of the migrant population who are likely to remain in Europe. The authors argue that a comprehensive model of labour migration would need to incorporate the non-return situation in its dynamic entirety."

  5. The cultural politics of biomedicine in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brodwin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Healing the Masses: Cuban Health Politics at Home and Abroad. JULIE M. FEINSILVER. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xx + 307 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.00 The Blessings of Motherhood: Health, Pregnancy and Child Care in Dominica. ANJA KRUMEICH. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994. iii + 278 pp. (Paper NLG 47.50 Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Jamaica: An Ethnographic Study. RONNIE LINDA LEAVITT. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1992. 249 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.50 Based on research in three Caribbean societies, these books explore the contours of biomedicine ("Western" or scientific medicine as a cultural system and an instrument of state power. On a theoretical level, the authors take up the blurred boundaries between Western biomedicine and other forms of healing as well as the political meanings and contradictions hidden behind everyday clinical routines. Their particular research projects, however, ask what has happened to the dream of universally accessible medical care in the past twenty years in the Caribbean region. The books focus on a community-based pediatric disability program in Jamaica(Leavitt, maternal and child health care in Dominica (Krumeich, and Cuba's national project of medical modernization (Feinsilver. Specific diseases or clinical outcomes are less at issue than the cultural and political dimensions of planned health development and the social transformations it sets into motion on both local and national levels.

  6. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions.

  7. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients.

  8. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  9. 77 FR 33601 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8835 of June 1, 2012 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012 By the... their lives what they will, and during National Caribbean- American Heritage Month, we celebrate their... Caribbean-American Heritage Month. I encourage all Americans to celebrate the history and culture...

  10. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster... than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Additional Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster...

  11. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  12. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  13. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  14. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  15. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  16. Equal accessequal egress: Accounting for people with disabilities in emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    (Papaioannou, 2006). It is essential to use models, enabling the prediction of the egress of a total population in a building. In the current quantitative and qualitative study evacuation times and -characteristics from a train in a tunnel are measured for a full-scale evacuation exercise. The results...

  17. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  18. Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    provides a response to a prominent argument against multicultural accommodation of religious minorities, what is really at stake in discussions of multiculturalism and secularism are political principles. Modood's case for accommodation of Muslims along the lines of moderate secularism presupposes...... a normative conception of equality, but his characterisation of multicultural equality is inadequate in several respects...

  19. 75 FR 17622 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...., Washington, DC 20552. The telephone number for the Telecommunications Device for the Deaf is (800) 877-8339... adjudication, without regard to whether the official is designated as a hearing examiner, administrative law... Justice Act in light of the actual relationship between the affiliated entities to consider them to...

  20. Cataract surgery: ensuring equal access for boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Shirima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, many children are not brought for surgery in a timely fashion and follow up is often poor. Research at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC has shown that girls are more likely than boys to be negatively affected: * Only half as many girls as boys received cataract surgery. * Girls tended to be brought for surgery later than boys. * Girls who did receive surgery were less likely than boys to be brought for the appropriate two-week follow-up visit (36 per cent of girls vs 64 per cent of boys.

  1. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... establish procedures for the submission and consideration of applications for the award of fees and other.... Comments must be received on or before August 28, 2012 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: You may... unjust.'' 5 U.S.C. 504(a)(1). The Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) was charged...

  2. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... submission and consideration of applications for awards of fees and other expenses by prevailing parties in... agency's position was substantially justified or other circumstances make such an award unjust. II... and requested comments on a regulation to establish procedures for the submission and consideration...

  3. On Migrant Children's Right to Equal Access to Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN KAILIN; LIU XIAOLIANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ By "migrant children," we mean children living in cities with their parents who are migrants from the countryside.Under the current education system practiced in Chinese cities, the so-called "migrant children," as an underprivileged group, are often denied of the same right and opportunity to attend school as their counterparts in their host cities.While infringing upon a legitimate right of those "migrant children," this is adversely affecting the national endeavor to ensure fairness in education and the process of urbanization.

  4. Globalisation and Comparative Education: A Caribbean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisy, Pearlette

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization argues for a broader world view that makes allowances for cultural diversity. Caribbean states have a history of living and working with people from diverse backgrounds, and could make a contribution to the new perspective through closer engagement with the field of comparative education, which has always stressed…

  5. Distance Education for Caribbean Social Studies Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pam

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a distance education Certificate in Education program for teachers in the Commonwealth Caribbean, administered by the University of the West Indies in association with the University of London. Highlights the learning modules of the Teaching of Social Studies option. Examines student evaluation and explores problems that arise in…

  6. Further studies on Caribbean tenebrionid beetles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzi, G.

    1977-01-01

    The study of some newly collected material from the West Indies may justify a fourth paper on Caribbean Tenebrionidae in these “Studies”. Thanks to dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK’S collecting work, the Tenebrionid fauna of the Antilles and the adjacent South American mainland shores may be considered to

  7. Necobelac supporting open access, a path to open science

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo-Calderon, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the International Open Access week, a global event now in its 5th year, promoting Open Access (OA) as a new norm in scholarship and research, we, the NECOBELAC (Network of collaboration between Europe and Latin American Caribbean (LAC) countries to spread know-how in scientific writing and provide the best tools to exploit open access information for the safeguard of public health) project partners, wish to stimulate the scientific community to take action and make their wo...

  8. Sparsity Enhanced Decision Feedback Equalization

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    For single-carrier systems with frequency domain equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) performs better than linear equalization and has much lower computational complexity than sequence maximum likelihood detection. The main challenge in DFE is the feedback symbol selection rule. In this paper, we give a theoretical framework for a simple, sparsity based thresholding algorithm. We feed back multiple symbols in each iteration, so the algorithm converges fast and has a low computational cost. We show how the initial solution can be obtained via convex relaxation instead of linear equalization, and illustrate the impact that the choice of the initial solution has on the bit error rate performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is applicable in several existing wireless communication systems (SC-FDMA, MC-CDMA, MIMO-OFDM). Numerical results illustrate significant performance improvement in terms of bit error rate compared to the MMSE solution.

  9. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  10. From Equality of Opportunity to the Society of Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rosanvallon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to reaffirm equality as a fundamental democratic value faces two tasks: it must respond to social and cultural changes accompanying the most recent phase of capitalist development, and it must reactivate the original context of the democratic transformation that brought equality to prominence, in close conjunction with other aspects of an innovative vision. At the outset, equality was interpreted in terms of “a world of similar human beings, a society of autonomous individuals, and a community of citizens”. In this context, equality was closely linked to liberty, but their interconnections were also open to historical changes. Later developments – including the shift to a more organized kind of capitalism, two world wars and the rise of a temporarily successful rival version of modernity – led to significant upgradings of equality. But during the past half-century, the case for equality has been undermined by historical trends. Mutations of the capitalist economy, on the level of organization as well as production, and the disappearance of a really existing alternative, lent support to a new type of individualism. Drawing on Simmel’s distinction between the individualism of similarity and the individualism of distinction, the present phase can be interpreted as a radicalization and democratization of the individualism of distinction into an individualism of singularity. A social-liberal strategy, aiming at a reconciliation of liberty and equality, must take this new individualism on board and understand it as a social relationship, thus maintaining critical distance from neo-liberal ideology.

  11. All Men are Created Equal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉欣

    2015-01-01

    <正>I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:"We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equal."This is an abstract from Martin Luther King’s famous speech I Have a Dream,which we all learnt in middle school."All men are created equal",he said,and he devoted his

  12. Inorganic and stable isotope geochemistry of tropical Atlantic/Caribbean planktonic foraminifera : implications for the reconstruction of upper ocean temperatures and stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Regenberg, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Planktonic foraminifera from tropical Atlantic and Caribbean sediment-surface samples (0-1 cm) show general westward-directed increasing calcification depths depending on the east-west increase in thermocline depth. Positively related planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and carbonate ion concentration in the Caribbean show well preserved Mg/Ca down to depths about 1.5 km above the lysocline, which equals a carbonate ion concentration of 26-18 µmol/kg. Species-specific calibrations of Mg/Ca with d1...

  13. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  14. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  15. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  16. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... by focusing on two subtle aspects. The first is to consider the {\\em expected} communication cost (at a worst-case input) for a protocol that uses limited interaction---i.e., a bounded number of rounds of communication---and whose error probability is zero or close to it. The second is to consider the {\\em...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  17. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  18. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  19. Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe. UNESCO Boletin 14 (Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. UNESCO Bulletin 14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document begins by describing the technological revolution and the impact of computers, and their role in education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Some educators believe that computer literacy can provide young people with access to better jobs in the society of the future and upgrade the level of education in general. An article by…

  20. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  1. Understanding trophic relationships among Caribbean sea urchins

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Barreras, Ruber; Cuevas, Elvira; Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Branoff, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The species Echinometra lucunter, Echinometra viridis, Lytechinus variegatus, Tripneustes ventricosus, and Diadema antillarum are the most common sea urchins of littoral habitats in the Caribbean. T. ventricosus and L. variegatus are associated with seagrass beds, while the other three species usually inhabit hardground substrates. Food preferences of these species are well documented and they are commonly accepted as being primarily herbivorous-omnivorous; nevertheless, few of them have prev...

  2. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  3. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music, goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  4. Achieving Energy Security in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    biodiesels. Ethanol is the liquid biofuel that results from the fermentation of sugar crops, or from the hydrolysis of starch or cellulose. Biodiesel...exports from 24 to 52 percent. 31 Competition from artificial and starch -based sweeteners has also damaged Caribbean exports. Diversification from...generous tax holidays and exemptions for potential biofuels investment. Some private investment has materialized. In 2002, China invested $250

  5. Combined Operations a Commonwealth Caribbean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    162 Boundaries and Objectives. C Strategy and Correlation fo Forces. C: Commonwealth Caribbean Current Security Pos tur e...ase Islas COL.OMBIA) .t.. *5lItCARAGUA) vas. i. %OSTA Boca ~RICA del Tono Colo.. -- - GO fit Panama a -aPacific PANAMA r *> Ocean-. lala del Coco...Grenada Post- Mortem : A Report That Wasn’t. Army, June 1984. 176 Cragg, D. Operation Urgent Fury: The US Army in Grenada. Army, December 1983. Hixson

  6. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  7. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  8. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    rabbits, bats and even some reptiles and amphibians . Most songbirds are not adversely affected by EEE viral infection, although domestic birds such...susceptible to infection, as well as some reptiles and amphibians . The virus produces severe morbidity and mortality in equines. Most studies have implicated...speaking Caribbean and Suriname . <http://www.uwimona.edu.jm/> 222 Appendix I. Metric Conversion Table. Metric System

  9. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  10. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anadon-Irizarry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive national-level stakeholder consultation. By applying the Vulnerability criterion, a total of 284 Key Biodiversity Areas were defined and mapped as holding 409 (54% of the region’s threatened species. Of these, 144 (or 51% overlapped partially or completely with protected areas. Cockpit Country, followed by Litchfield Mountain - Matheson’s Run, Blue Mountains (all Jamaica and Massif de la Hotte (Haiti were found to support exceptionally high numbers of globally threatened taxa, with more than 40 such species at each site. Key Biodiversity Areas, building from Important Bird Areas, provide a valuable framework against which to review the adequacy of existing national protected-area systems and also to prioritize which species and sites require the most urgent conservation attention.

  11. Equal Opportunity Through Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Margarite A.

    1985-01-01

    The assumption is that sex-integrated classes are inherently equal by the very fact that boys and girls are in the same class. In fact, educational inequity has increased primarily because of instructional design which perpetuates differences among individuals. Good teaching must accommodate individual differences. (MT)

  12. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...

  13. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  14. Equal, but not the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gabriel

    2006-10-19

    In April 2007, the gender equality duty will make it obligatory for all health providers to actively demonstrate equity in service provision. Good practice tends to exist in small projects with little evidence of national progress towards gender equity. The DoH says trusts should already be working towards

  15. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  16. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  17. A Review of Caribbean Ecosytems and Fishery Resources Using ECOPATH Models

    OpenAIRE

    S.G. Smikle; Christensen, V.; Aiken, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of ecosystems modelling within the Caribbean using the Ecopath approach and software tools. The review is not intended to provide a direct comparison of the modelled ecosystems attributes and performance, as this would require having access to the models and the data sets used to build the models. Rather, a general comparison is made of the outputs of the models and the various authors’ descriptions of ecosystem attributes. L’article présente une revue des écos...

  18. Revising the Musical Equal Temperament

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2015-01-01

    Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of $2^{1/12}$. Although this temperament has been in use since the 19th century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this paper we confirm this conjecture quantitatively. Using entropy as a measure for harmonicity, we show numerically that the harmonic optimum is in fact obtained for frequency ratios larger than $2^{1/12}$. This suggests that the equal temperament should be replaced by a harmonized temperament as a new standard.

  19. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  20. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  1. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  2. Reminder - Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee also took note of the nomination of a fourth new member of the Panel: Wisla Carena. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is now as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz and Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  3. The equal right to drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  4. 78 FR 32623 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC706 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and ] Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES: The SSC meetings will be held June...

  5. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC933 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES: The SSC meetings will...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using PAR Sensor and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and others in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 1994-01-28 to 2004-07-02 (NODC Accession 0109923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109923 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER,...

  7. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  8. Systems Science for Caribbean Health: the development and piloting of a model for guiding policy on diabetes in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, L.; Guell, C.; Samuels, T.A.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Woodcock, J.; Hambleton, I.R.; Unwin, N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Diabetes is highly prevalent in the Caribbean, associated with a high morbidity and mortality and is a recognised threat to economic and social development. Heads of Government in the Caribbean Community came together in 2007 and declared their commitment to reducing the burden of non-

  9. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  10. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  11. Teachers’ challenges education for equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Anguita Martínez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality among women and men has been, and still is a key issue regarding the development of formal education systems. In some way, it can be seen as the cornerstone of equity. Although the most visible gender issues are drawing back in our country, others specially related to the hidden curriculum are still present. Teacher´s initial and lifelong training constitute the best tool to minimize the aforementioned hidden-curriculum-related gender inequalities. However, there is not much done with this regard in our current teacher´s formal training system.

  12. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2005-09-01

    The chemical system can be analyzed in different resolutions. The assumed resolution imposes a given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently explored are global, reactant, atoms-in-molecule, orbital, and local resolutions. In this paper we have considered reactant resolution, i.e., the mutually polarized reactants before the charge-transfer among them. We have demonstrated that a certain type of generalized sensitivity, the system responses to the population variables, is equalized throughout the space up to the infinite order in the perturbation expansion.

  13. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  14. Are Men and Women Equal in Employment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    EQUALITY was one of the themes of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The motto of the Conference was "Action for Equality, Development and Peace." But is there a real possibility for equality between men and women? Equality in employment remains an important concern. Recently, Zheng Yefu, research worker of the Beijing Academy of Social

  15. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  16. Boosting equal time bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Dennis D; Jarvinen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave ...

  17. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  18. Phaseolin diversity in cultivated common bean from the Caribbean Diversidad de faseolinas en frijol común cultivado del Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Rigoberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 180 genotypes of cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris from the Caribbean were evaluated with the phaseolin marker. All the accessions belonged to the germplasm collection of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT. Beans from Cuba were mostly S phaseolin (68.0 % type, with small seed size, red and black seed color and type II or type III growth habit. These were followed by beans with T phaseolin (20.0 % and finally by those with B, CH and Sd phaseolin. In Haiti, the most common phaseolin was T (48.1%, the majority of which were large seeded bush beans, mostly of the red mottled seed color class. Many of the remaining accessions were S phaseolin (42.6% and had small black seed, although a few had B, Sb and Sd phaseolin (4.6, 2.8 and 1.9% of genotypes, respectively. In Puerto Rico, T phaseolin was in the majority with 57.1%, most of these with large red or red mottled seed. S phaseolin was represented by 42.9 % of landraces some of which had small yellow, black or white seed. In the Dominican Republic, the T phaseolin was very abundant (85.7% the majority of which were medium to large seeded bush beans all of which were red mottled. A smaller proportion of Dominican landraces had S and B phaseolin (9.5% and 4.8% respectively. Finally, in Jamaica, T phaseolin was found for 40.0 % of the landraces, B phaseolin was equally common and 20% of the landraces had S phaseolin although this was based on a small sample of genotypes. The phaseolin patterns indicated the prevalence of both Andean and Mesoamerican beans in the Caribbean.

    Se evaluó el tipo de faseolina en 180 accesiones cultivadas de Phaseolus vulgaris del Caribe de la colección del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT

  19. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  20. Education and health care in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, V

    1997-06-01

    Primary and secondary education and preventive health care are essential to the well-being of the poor in developing countries. Average expenditures on education and health care as a percentage of the gross domestic product in Caribbean countries exceed those in other developing countries. Such investment has resulted in high literacy rates and steady declines in infant mortality. Barbados, which has provided free and universal primary and secondary education since 1985, ranks first among developing countries in human development indicators (e.g., life expectancy and income). There are concerns, however, that the poor are not benefiting from this public sector investment. Government subsidies for tertiary-level services (e.g., university education and hospital-based curative care) disproportionately benefit higher-income urban families who could afford to pay a substantial portion of the cost of such services. Although primary and secondary school attendance rates are impressive in Caribbean countries, schools in rural areas tend to provide poor instruction and lack appropriate educational materials. Public sector funding should focus on basic services to maximize the returns to society. If the public sector is the primary provider of tertiary services, charges should be introduced to facilitate cost recovery from high-income users.

  1. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pei; Lin, Zihuai; Fagan, Anthony; Cowan, Colin; Vucetic, Branka; Wu, Yi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  2. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  3. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2006-12-31 to 2007-12-01 (NODC Accession 0081035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081035 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy,...

  5. Equality and Empowerment for Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Substantive equality encompasses equality of results, opportunity, and human dignity. To implement it requires an incremental approach ranging from voluntary participation to penalties for noncompliance, active participation of all stakeholders, and empowerment of disadvantaged groups. (SK)

  6. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  7. Faults of the Caribbean Region (flt6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes faults and structural features of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin...

  8. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... for independence, our countries won the right to chart their own destinies after generations of... history, Caribbean Americans have made our country stronger--reshaping our politics and reigniting...

  9. Surface Geology of the Caribbean Region (geo6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes polygons that describe the geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas,...

  10. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay-for-perfo......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay......-for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  11. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  12. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  13. Virginia Tech creates Caribbean center for education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech has established a research, education, and outreach center in the Caribbean that will serve as part of a broad strategy to create international centers of scholarship around the world. The Caribbean Center for Education and Research (CCER) in Punta Cana, on the eastern tip of the Dominican Republic, will allow Virginia Tech faculty to conduct research as well as instruct students on biodiversity, environmental and social sustainability, global issues in natural resources, and ho...

  14. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Miloslavich; Juan Manuel Díaz; Eduardo Klein; Juan José Alvarado; Cristina Díaz,; Judith Gobin; Elva Escobar-Briones; Juan José Cruz-Motta; Ernesto Weil; Jorge Cortés; Ana Carolina Bastidas; Ross Robertson; Fernando Zapata; Alberto Martín; Julio Castillo

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Car...

  15. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the over...

  16. Mesoscale Variability of the Caribbean Sea from GEOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    anomalies, their magnitude, and to track them as they travel through the basin. If insufficient data were available over the Caribbean during a given ERM...anticyclonic eddies traveling through the Caribbean Sea begin in the season of lower wind intensity (March to May) of both years. Apparently the wind plays... corriente norte colombiana para la circulaci6n de las aguas en la plataforma continental : Su acci6n sobre la dispersi6n de los efluentes en

  17. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers.

  19. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  20. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors.

  1. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  2. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation.

  3. 'We are doing our best': African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Stewart, Mel; Liles, Clive; Wildman, Stuart

    2012-03-01

    Recent policy pronouncements emphasise the importance of engaging fathers with preventive primary care services. However, in England, there is a paucity of literature which examines African and African-Caribbean fathers' experiences of service provision. This paper reports a study that investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' beliefs about fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, with the aim of addressing the deficit in the literature. Nine focus groups involving 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers, recruited using purposive sampling, were undertaken between October 2008-January 2009. Fatherhood was seen as a core aspect of the participants' identities. The fathers enacted these identities in a number of ways, such as caring for and protecting children, which were influenced by spirituality, relationships with women, paid work and racism. The fathers had concerns about their bodies, medical conditions, physical activity and forms of consumption. However, their primary focus was on maintaining and improving the well-being of their children. This resulted in them neglecting their own health needs as they had to meet the obligations of family life and paid work. The fathers reported limited contact with preventive primary care services and were unaware of their purpose, function and availability. They identified ethnicity as a positive asset, and felt their families and communities had particular strengths. However they acknowledged that structural constraints, including racism, influenced their perceptions of and access to local health services. The engagement of African and African-Caribbean fathers needs to be addressed more specifically in policy as part of a broader programme of action to tackle health inequalities. In addition, child health services could build on fathers' commitment to children's well-being through practice that addresses fathers' as well as mothers' needs in families.

  4. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2008-01-01

    does not have stringent power constraints. In this paper, a turbo equalization technique to improve Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) performance is proposed. A new adaptive coefficients solution for frequency domain equalization is considered. The work is in the context...... that the turbo equalizer can improve the BLER performance around 1 dB with only a few iterations, and improve the SC-FDMA performance over OFDM, especially at high coding rate.......Turbo equalization is known as an advanced iterative equalization and decoding technique that allows to enhance the performance of the data transmission over a frequency selective fading channel. The turbo equalizer will result in extra receiver complexity, but isolated to the base-station, which...

  5. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  6. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  7. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results an....... In the last section I argue that one solution to the new gender equality dilemma posed by increased diversity among women is a simultaneous re-framing of multiculturalism and gender equality....

  8. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  9. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  10. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  11. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality is primary to and the reason why recognition of fundamental rights cannot be left to the chance of social development.

  12. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  13. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  14. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  15. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  16. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  17. 3 CFR 8390 - Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009 8390 Proclamation 8390 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009 Proc. 8390 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009By the President... Caribbean-American Heritage Month. I urge all Americans to commemorate this month by learning more about...

  18. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  19. Synopsis of the freshwater Triclads of the Caribbean (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    SLUYS, R., 1992. Synopsis of the freshwater triclads of the Caribbean (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam, 1992: 1-23. An account is given of the five species of freshwater triclads which are known from the Caribbean region, including taxonomi

  20. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba, Cura

  1. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  3. 47 CFR 73.1941 - Equal opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunities. 73.1941 Section 73.1941... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1941 Equal opportunities. (a) General requirements...-spot coverage of bona fide news events (including, but not limited to political conventions...

  4. Electricity consumption and projected growth in selected Caribbean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, B.M. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Economics; Moseley, L. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Computer Science, Mathematics and Physics; Sunday Osaretin Iyare [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Economics

    2007-11-15

    This paper examines two issues that are central to the understanding of the need to increase efficiency in the use, distribution, and production of energy in the Caribbean region. The empirical results of this Paper suggest the following: first, the three Caribbean countries provide evidence of short-run bi-directional Granger-causality from energy consumption to real gross domestic product per capita. Second, the forecasts with A BVAR model indicate that significant growth in energy demand could be expected in Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago until at least 2010. Third, the increased growth in energy consumption suggests the need for long-term commitments from Caribbean countries to undertake a series of policy, economic, market, and research and development measures to advance the adoption and deployment of new energy technologies. (author)

  5. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...... and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice...

  6. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  8. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Tripathy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]. These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13], who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based on rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of rough fuzzy sets. That is we introduce the concepts of approximate (rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and study their properties. We provide some real life examples to show the applications of rough equalities of fuzzy sets and rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  10. The Care Chain, Children's Mobility and the Caribbean Migration Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Children’s mobility is analysed in this article as an important foundation of the migration tradition that has been an integral aspect of most Caribbean societies. I show that, because of their position as dependents who are not yet fully socialised and who are subject to adult authority, children...... move, and are moved, relatively easily between varying social domains and households in different locations. This migration has created a Caribbean ‘care chain’ that has played an important role in the generating and reinforcing of local, regional and transnational networks of interpersonal relations...

  11. Presence of Ruvettus pretiosus (Gempylidae in the Colombian continental Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Gómez-Cubillos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco, 1833 for the Colombian continental Caribbean is presented. The specimen was collected at Los Cocos, department of Magdalena (11°16’33, 84’’ N 73°53’33, 01’’ W, using a demersal longline gear placed at 100 m depth. Biometrics, diagnosis and comments regarding its distribution, ecology and biology are included in the description. This new record expands the distribution of the species in the Caribbean Sea and increases the reported number of gempylids for Colombia to five.

  12. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  13. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  14. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  15. A Pan American Health Organization strategy for cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, and disproportionately affects poorer women. Mortality rates in the region are seven times greater than in North America. In light of the significant public health burden, the Pan American Health Organization has drafted a Regional Strategy for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control. The Strategy calls for increased action to strengthen programmes through an integrated package of services: health information and education; screening and pre-cancer treatment; invasive cervical cancer treatment and palliative care; and evidence-based policy decisions on whether and how to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. It calls for a seven-point plan of action: conduct a situation analysis; intensify information, education and counselling; scale up screening and link to pre-cancer treatment; strengthen information systems and cancer registries; improve access to and quality of cancer treatment and palliative care; generate evidence to facilitate decision-making regarding HPV vaccine introduction; and advocate for equitable access and affordable HPV vaccines. This proposed strategy, approved by the PAHO Directing Council on 1 October 2008, has the possibility of stimulating and accelerating the introduction of new screening technology and HPV vaccines into programmes throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

  16. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  17. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies...

  18. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  19. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  20. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L. P.; Barnes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. PMID:25904660

  1. Maintenance Manual for School Buildings in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Pedro

    A manual provides guidelines for school maintenance activities for schools located in the Caribbean, and examines the organization of a maintenance program, the inspection process, and the maintenance plan. The assessment process is detailed and forms are provided for assessing school roofs, building exteriors and interiors, plumbing, electrical…

  2. 78 FR 67127 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Outreach & Education USVI Style'' --Caribbean Fisheries Teacher's Resource Book --Development of Visual...'s Outreach and Education Advisory Panel (OEAP) will meet. DATES: The meeting will be held on... with disabilities. For more information or request for sign language interpretation and/...

  3. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  4. Gilligan's "Crisis of Connections": Contemporary Caribbean Women Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Renee Hausmann

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that contemporary women novelists from the Caribbean are writing a new chapter in the literature of adolescence--a study of connections. Discusses the works of Carol Gilligan, and the idea of measuring women's development against a different truth than the male standard. Presents a 10-item annotated reading list. (PRA)

  5. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R.; Spakman, W.; Wortel, R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Ric

  6. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    -infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...

  7. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  8. Lessons from NAFTA for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Daniel; Maloney, William F.; Servén, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing the experience of Mexico under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), "Lessons from NAFTA" aims to provide guidance to Latin American and Caribbean countries considering free trade agreements with the United States. The authors conclude that the treaty raised external trade and foreign investment inflows and had a modest effect on Mexico's average income per person. It ...

  9. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...

  10. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  11. The Turbellarian Hofstenia miamia in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrêa, Diva Diniz

    1963-01-01

    Some years ago I described Hofstenia miamia from Virginia Key, in the Miami area (CORREA 1960, p. 211 ff.). The species was based on a single specimen found among algae in the intertidal zone. When a grant from the Government of the Netherlands gave me the chance to work at the Caribbean Marine Biol

  12. 77 FR 40587 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    .... ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Doubletree by Hilton San Juan Hotel, 105 De Diego Avenue, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00911. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920, telephone: (787)...

  13. 76 FR 10562 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... (former Pierre Hotel), De Diego Avenue, Santurce, Puerto Rico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920..., 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920, telephone: (787) 766-5926,...

  14. Amblyomma variegatum ticks and heartwater on three Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiéry, Nathalie; Jeffery, Helena; Pegram, Rupert; Aprelon, Rosalie; Pinarello, Valérie; Kandassamy, Ranleen Lloyd Yane; Raliniaina, Modestine; Molia, Sophie; Savage, Hazel; Alexander, Randolph; Frebling, Mathieu; Martinez, Dominique; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    Amblyomma variegatum tick infestation, tick infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER), and ER genetic diversity were studied in the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, and Antigua between 2003 and 2005. Nested PCR for pCS20 was used to detect ER, while ER strains were characterized by sequencing or by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of map-1 PCR products. In 2003 in Guadeloupe, the prevalence of tick-infested herds was 35.6%. In Marie-Galante 79.1% of herds in 2003 and 73.8% in 2005 were infested, while only an average of 2.2% of the herds were infected in Antigua between this same period. In Marie-Galante, 19.1% of ticks were ER positive, and ER-infected ticks were found in 33.3% of the herds. In Antigua only 5.8% of the ticks were ER positive. High ER tick infection rate combined with a very high level of tick infestation highlight the risk of heartwater in Marie-Galante and Guadeloupe more than in Antigua. The three islands still represent a reservoir for tick and heartwater in the Caribbean. Nine different African and Caribbean map-1 ER genotypes were identified. This diversity was observed even in restricted areas, and identical map-1 genotypes were observed on all three islands. This high genetic diversity of ER strains suggests that there was a simultaneous introduction of several strains from African countries into the Caribbean region.

  15. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  16. The Deductive Logical Competence of Non-Graduate Caribbean Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, E. P.

    Data on some aspects of the deductive logical competence of nongraduate teachers in the English-speaking Caribbean, primarily Jamaica, are reported in this document. The teachers sampled were those who sat for entrance examinations for the University of the West Indies (Mona) Faculty of Education Bachelor of Education and Certificate of Education…

  17. Graduate Programmes in Educational Administration: The Commonwealth Caribbean and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olembo, Jotham Ombisi

    The availability and characteristics of graduate programs in educational administration offered by universities in African and Caribbean countries belonging to the Commonwealth are summarized in this paper. The programs reviewed are offered by universities in the West Indies, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, and Nigeria. The paper notes that…

  18. Library Education in the English-Speaking Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Dorothy

    1973-01-01

    A library school to serve the English-speaking Caribbean has been set up with Unesco assistance at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. This article examines the potential demand for librarians in the region, discusses various problems facing the profession and prospects for the future. (15 references) (Author)

  19. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particul

  20. The Teacher as a Professional in the Caribbean Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    The changing patterns of Caribbean society have affected and will continue to influence the concept of professionalism as it is applied to teaching. Teachers' organizations should promote the professional development of their members, as implied through acceptance of standards of personal conduct, competence on the job, and commitment to student…

  1. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  2. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  3. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-08-02

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  4. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  5. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  6. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  7. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  8. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  9. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  10. The EU-Caribbean Trade Relationship Post-Lisbon: The Case of Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Constant Laforce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a legal perspective, the Lisbon Treaty changes over the European Union’s (EU common agricultural policy (CAP and their impact on developing countries. The study focuses particularly on the Caribbean region of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group, which signed an Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU in 2008, and will use bananas as the exemplar commodity. The Lisbon Treaty which entered into force in December 2009 has brought important institutional changes within the EU and altered the distribution of responsibility over European policies. The European Parliament (EP now exercises legislative functions ‘jointly’ with the Council over fields falling outside EU trade policy but which often have trade-related impacts. This is the case of the CAP which is now a shared rather than an exclusive competence policy area. The EU is an important market for developing countries’ export of agricultural food products. However, there is a risk that the EP positions, pressured by consumer opinion, could influence the negotiating process leading to the reinforcement of the EU’s protectionist agriculture policy. This subject is of high importance given the end of the so-called ‘banana war’ in 2009 against the EU banana import regime, allowing better access for Latin American countries’ bananas to the EU market. This article argues that ACP countries will not be affected by the EU internal changes post-Lisbon. They have managed to legally maintain special trade arrangements with the EU under the Economic Partnership Agreements, which provide them with favourable trading conditions, particularly for agricultural food products.

  11. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  12. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  13. The principle of equality and the right to assisted procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of equality is the foundation of developing an entire system of human rights, and its implementation represents the standard of respecting each right individually. With these premises as a starting point, the subject of the author’s interests is whether the right to assisted reproduction, as a segment of reproductive rights, is regulated in conformity with the equality principal. In order to reach an answer, the author examines the concept of human assisted reproduction and analyzes the application of reproductive technologies in the light of legal, social and political reforms which affected marriages, the family and partnership in general at the end of the 20th century. The author finds that the most significant ones among them are the emancipation of women, recognition and legal formation of same sex unions and statements prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, by considering the right to assisted reproduction in the context of other human rights with which it is interconnected and interdependent (the right to life, right to privacy, the right to a family life, health rights, children’s rights, the author finds there are no absolute, unlimited rights in the contemporary system of human rights, but that they inevitably have certain restrictions. Since the same limitation attribute also characterizes the right to assisted reproduction, the author further researches whether there is discrimination, positive or negative, towards the existing forms of limitations to this right. The following forms of limitations have been singled out, as the key ones for this analysis: request for (nonmarital status and heterosexual orientation, sexual affiliation and age and the accessibility (prohibition of applying certain methods of assisted reproduction which are primarily in the function of eliminating female sterility. The author concludes that there are elements of discrimination based on family status, sexual

  14. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, M. E., E-mail: msh@mi.ras.ru [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  15. Equal or different? LGBTI rights under discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Arrubia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminism has emerged in a context of struggle for equality.  As formal rights gained ground, material inequalities resulting from ineffective legal rules became evident. These issues are the starting point for the discussion on equality and differences in the field of LGBTI human rights theory. Accordingly, this essay explores the new legal rights gained by the LGBTI community in the Argentine Republic, along with material tensions arising from social reality. Such reality is addressed by relevant literature as well as by the analysis of interviews conducted in the city of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires. The core idea of this essay focuses on the search for a theory connecting both equality and difference when it comes to sexual minorities. 

  16. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  17. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  18. School Leadership and Educational Equality: Analysis of Greek Secondary School Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Using data derived from interviews with Greek school principals, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to investigate whether or not equitable access to schools is for all children; and (b) to determine the extent to which the Greek educational system, in particular, offers equal opportunities to immigrant students. The results showed that…

  19. Higher Education as Object for Corporate and Nation Branding: Between Equality and Flagships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy

    2015-01-01

    Branding has become an important issue within higher education. The use of core value statements and visions are expressions of this. To be a successful brand, organisations must also make sure they are different from others. However, in both the scholarly discourse and in political rhetoric, the Nordic model highlights equal access to education…

  20. Multigradient for Neural Networks for Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulhee Lee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new training algorithm, multigradient, has been published for neural networks and it is reported that the multigradient outperforms the backpropagation when neural networks are used as a classifier. When neural networks are used as an equalizer in communications, they can be viewed as a classifier. In this paper, we apply the multigradient algorithm to train the neural networks that are used as equalizers. Experiments show that the neural networks trained using the multigradient noticeably outperforms the neural networks trained by the backpropagation.

  1. Wavelet Neural Networks for Adaptive Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGMinghu; DENGBeixing; GIELENGeorges; ZHANGBo

    2003-01-01

    A structure based on the Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) is proposed for nonlinear channel equalization in a digital communication system. The construction algorithm of the Minimum error probability (MEP) is presented and applied as a performance criterion to update the parameter matrix of wavelet networks. Our experimental results show that performance of the proposed wavelet networks based on equalizer can significantly improve the neural modeling accuracy, perform quite well in compensating the nonlinear distortion introduced by the channel, and outperform the conventional neural networks in signal to noise ratio and channel non-llnearity.

  2. EQUALITY AND DISCIMINATION – ROMA SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea George GHERASIM

    2015-01-01

    Substantiating the idea of equality of all citizens, Ion Ghica shows the special value of this concept and its importance for the Romanian society, saying that "equality is a noble and good aspiration of the generous man, of the man endowed with a sense of justice and fairness; it is the urge and hope of the intelligent person, of the scholar and of the worker, of the one who wants to climb the social ladder, who aspires to the development of progress and civilization". The purpose of this st...

  3. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  4. Prevalence of Risk Factors for the Metabolic Syndrome in the Middle Income Caribbean Nation of St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen O’Brien Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to measure the presence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in a sample population in the middle income Caribbean nation of St. Lucia and to identify the demographic and behavioral factors of metabolic syndrome among the study participants. Interviews and anthropometric measures were conducted with 499 St. Lucians of ages 18–99. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. Fifty-six percent of females and 18 percent of males had a waist size equal to or above the indicator for the metabolic syndrome. Behavioral risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and alcohol consumption varied by gender. Thirty-six percent of women and 22% of men reported a sedentary lifestyle and 43% of women and 65% of men reported any alcohol consumption. More research should be done to determine the cultural norms and gender differences associated with modifiable risk behaviors in St. Lucia.

  5. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  6. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Divan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions: The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV

  7. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  8. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that literacy is of…

  9. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six...

  10. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  11. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...

  12. Comparing Several Robust Tests of Stochastic Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Andras; Delaney, Harold D.

    In this paper, six statistical tests of stochastic equality are compared with respect to Type I error and power through a Monte Carlo simulation. In the simulation, the skewness and kurtosis levels and the extent of variance heterogeneity of the two parent distributions were varied across a wide range. The sample sizes applied were either small or…

  13. Negotiating Equality and Diversity in Europe -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Mokre, Monika

    European integration and increased migration has challenged theories of equality, diversity and rights attached to the nation state. Research demonstrates that European nation states face similar problems with regard to issues of migration in spite of differences in national histories, institutions...

  14. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  15. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... remains committed to advancing women's equality in all areas of our society and around the world. I was... their societies. To help address this, I appointed the first-ever Ambassador at Large for Global Women's... rights of women around the world. Women's rights are ultimately human rights, and the march for......

  16. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  17. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  18. Emancipation and Equality: A Critical Genealogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Joan Wallach

    2012-01-01

    I have been suggesting that the deployment of the language of sexual emancipation and gender equality to dismiss Muslim claims for recognition as full members of the nation-states of Western Europe in which so many have now for so long resided, needs to be read not simply as Islamophobia (which it c

  19. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that…

  20. Evaluating Faculty Performance Under the Equal Pay for Equal Work Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, Bert Carl; Hunt, Thomas Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Faculty promotion and salary policies at the University of Texas at Austin are analyzed to determine whether male and female faculty members are rewarded equally for equal academic qualifications and performances. This regression analysis tends to support the discrimination hypothesis with respect to both promotion and salary policies. (Author/LBH)

  1. Venezuelan Caribbean Sea under the threat of TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Villarraga, César Augusto; Castro, Italo B; Miloslavich, Patricia; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Although environmental tributyltin (TBT) contamination is considered a solved problem, imposex occurrence in Plicopurpura patula as well as butyltins (BTs) contamination in sediments and tissues were detected along 700 km of the Caribbean coastal shore. Areas under the influence of five main ports of Venezuela were covered, as well as large marinas and sites located away from expected sources. Marinas were the most contaminated areas, whilst imposex incidence and TBT levels were relatively low in areas nearby commercial harbors. Thus, it is evident that marinas have become the main source of fresh TBT to the region. This might explain why imposex incidence seems to be widely distributed along the Venezuelan coast, since leisure boats are circulating along the whole coastal region. In fact, this could be the pattern for other areas of the Caribbean Sea.

  2. First report of folliculinid ciliates affecting Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cróquer, A.; Bastidas, C.; Lipscomp, D.; Rodríguez-Martínez, R. E.; Jordan-Dahlgren, E.; Guzman, H. M.

    2006-05-01

    This is the first report of a ciliate of the genus Halofolliculina infecting hard coral species of six families (Acroporidae, Agaricidae, Astrocoeniidae, Faviidae, Meandrinidae and Poritidae) and milleporids in the Caribbean. Surveys conducted during 2004 2005 in Venezuela, Panama and México confirmed that this ciliate affects up to 25 scleractinian species. The prevalence of this ciliate at the coral community level was variable across sites, being most commonly found at Los Roques, Venezuela, and at Bocas del Toro, Panama (prevalence 0.2 2.5%), but rarely observed in the Mexican Caribbean. Ciliates were more prevalent within populations of acroporids ( Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis and Acropora prolifera) in Los Roques. Recent observations also corroborate the presence of these ciliates in Curacao and Puerto Rico. Our observations indicate that ciliates affecting corals have a wider distribution than previously thought, and are no longer exclusively found in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea.

  3. Chikungunya Fever in Japan Imported from the Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Eri; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Mitarai, Aoi; Honma, Yasuko; Miyake, Satoru; Kaku, Koki; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR and serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer and immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean islands. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis and have a history of travel to an endemic area.

  4. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  5. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  6. Narratives of Return : The Contemporary Caribbean Woman Writer and the Quest for Home.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Rachel Grace

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates how diasporic Caribbean women writers use the vehicle of the novel to effect a ‘writing back’ to the Caribbean home through what I propose to consider as a specific sub-genre of Caribbean literature: ‘narratives of return’. I argue that novels which constitute ‘narratives of return’ reveal how diasporic identity continues to be informed by a particularised connection to the Caribbean homeland. Firstly, I propose the region’s literary representation within these narrat...

  7. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in a Caribbean Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251

  8. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  9. Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Seales Dawn; Nwagbara Emeka; Jones-LeCointe Altheia; Ezenwaka Chidum E; Okali Fidelis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were meas...

  10. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out: climate change and marine invasive species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Canning-Clode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New marine invasions have been recorded in increasing numbers along the world's coasts due in part to the warming of the oceans and the ability of many invasive marine species to tolerate a broader thermal range than native species. Several marine invertebrate species have invaded the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast from the Caribbean and this poleward range expansion has been termed 'Caribbean Creep'. While models have predicted the continued decline of global biodiversity over the next 100 years due to global climate change, few studies have examined the episodic impacts of prolonged cold events that could impact species range expansions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pronounced cold spell occurred in January 2010 in the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast and resulted in the mortality of several terrestrial and marine species. To experimentally test whether cold-water temperatures may have caused the disappearance of one species of the 'Caribbean Creep' we exposed the non-native crab Petrolisthes armatus to different thermal treatments that mimicked abnormal and severe winter temperatures. Our findings indicate that Petrolisthes armatus cannot tolerate prolonged and extreme cold temperatures (4-6 °C and suggest that aperiodic cold winters may be a critical 'reset' mechanism that will limit the range expansion of other 'Caribbean Creep' species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that temperature 'aberrations' such as 'cold snaps' are an important and overlooked part of climate change. These climate fluctuations should be accounted for in future studies and models, particularly with reference to introduced subtropical and tropical species and predictions of both rates of invasion and rates of unidirectional geographic expansion.

  11. Mapping Colombian Caribbean and Pacific bottom seascapes and marine ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rozo Garzón, Daniel Mauricio; Vides C., Martha P.; Lozano R., Pilar; Reyes, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Colombia is recognized as a mega diverse country on the basis of the number of terrestrial animal and plant species occurring within its boundaries (Williams 1997). However, its privileged coasts position on both Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean exhibiting distinct geological, oceanographic, and climatic features could perhaps rank the country within the highest marine biological diversity in South America and among the most biodiverse in the world. An inventory of the full variety of phys...

  12. Weak Prezygotic Isolating Mechanisms in Threatened Caribbean Acropora Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, Nicole D.; Steven V Vollmer; Don R. Levitan

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, recently have undergone drastic declines primarily as a result of disease. Previous molecular studies have demonstrated that these species form a hybrid (A. prolifera) that varies in abundance throughout the range of the parental distribution. There is variable unidirectional introgression across loci and sites of A. palmata genes flowing into A. cervicornis. Here we examine the efficacy of prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms...

  13. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they

  14. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  15. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  16. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Moreno-Estrada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, two mainland (Honduras, Colombia, and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse--which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts--consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse--reflected by longer, younger tracts--is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  17. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  18. Intimacy’s Politics: New Directions in Caribbean Sexuality Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agard-Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the

  19. Measuring the Informal Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Javier Vuletin

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the size of the informal economy for 32 mainly Latin American and Caribbean countries in the early 2000s. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we find that a stringent tax system and regulatory environment, higher inflation, and dominance of the agriculture sector are key factors in determining the size of the informal economy. The results also confirm that a higher degree of informality reduces labor unionization, the number of contributors to social security s...

  20. Social Exclusion and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Berkman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how social exclusion contributes to violence in communities throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Residents in socially excluded communities cannot depend on those institutions designed to protect them, and violence becomes an instrument to achieve certain outcomes, such as justice, security, and economic gain. When conventional methods of obtaining and working for increased social status, higher income, and wider influence are limited, as they often are in marginali...

  1. O enigma da igualdade The conundrum of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Scott

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Scott estabelece, através deste artigo, uma discussão sobre os conceitos de igualdade e diferença, do gênero, das identidades individuais e de grupo, enfatizando a necessidade de historicidade do tema dentro da sociedade contemporânea. O artigo trata também de questões que envolvem as políticas de ação afirmativa, diferenças de gênero e raça no mundo do trabalho ou acesso de minorias a universidades. Scott argumenta que a questão da igualdade precisa ser entendida em termos de paradoxo.Through this article, Scott sets up a discussion about the concepts of equality and difference, gender, individual identity and group identity, emphasizing that this theme needs to be historicized in contemporary society. This article draws attention to questions that envolve affirmative action policies, gender and race differences in the labour world or minorities' access to universities. Scott argues that the equality question must be understood in terms of paradox.

  2. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E.; Behr, Joshua G.; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room ( n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration ( R 2 = 0.036, p cultures, population sizes, industrialization level, and economies. Therefore, different than from the studies in Trinidad and Barbados, Grenada is a non-industrialized low-income small island without major industrialized air pollution addition; asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure ( R 2 = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity ( R 2 = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  3. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. William Proenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events times measures of elements at risk (human exposure times measures of vulnerability (preparedness in a given epoch (Nott, 2006. While the tsunami hazard in the Caribbean (averaging 19 ± 22 years between deadly events is lower than Pacific coastal areas, the total risk to life and property is at least as high as the USA West Coast, Hawaii, or Alaska, because of the higher Caribbean population density and beach tourism so attractive to more than 35 million visitors a year. Viewed in this light, the allocation of resources by governments, industry, and insurers needs to be adjusted for the better protection of life, for coastal engineering, and for infrastructure.

  4. Genetic species delineation among branching Caribbean Porites corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, C.; DeBiasse, M. B.; Neigel, J. E.; Yednock, B.; Stake, J. L.; Forsman, Z. H.; Baums, I. B.; Hellberg, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coral species are difficult to discern because of their morphological plasticity, long generation times, and slow rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution. Among Caribbean representatives of the genus Porites are three named species ( P. divaricata, P. furcata, and P. porites) with branching colony morphologies whose validity as genetically isolated species has been debated. We present sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, nuclear ITS, and nine single-copy nuclear loci for the Caribbean Porites and a related eastern Pacific species. mtDNA sequences were nearly invariant among the three branching species and their crustose sister P. branneri, and ITS sequences from these four were intermingled. An information theoretic analysis provided no support for upholding the three named Caribbean branching species. Both a clustering analysis and an analysis of molecular variance showed that sequence variation from the three branching forms is partitioned more by geography than by taxonomy. Multi-locus coalescent phylogenetic analysis provided a calibrated estimate for the nuclear DNA substitution rate (0.14 % Ma-1) close to that for other corals. Because no generalities have emerged from genetic investigations of the validity of morphologically defined coral species, the use of single-copy nuclear data is likely to be important in testing problematic species designations.

  5. [Euphausiids (Crustacea: Melacostraca) from the southern Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Iván; Gasca, Rebeca

    2002-03-01

    The composition, abundance and distribution of euphausiids from the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean Sea (August 1986) were sampled during the ARCOMM I cruise on board the R/V "Justo Sierra" of UNAM. Sampling was done using a Bongo-net (0.5 mm mesh size) performing oblique hauls from 200 m to the surface at 28 stations. Of the total euphausiid numbers, the most abundant species was Stylocheiron carinatum (49%), followed by Euphausia americana (9.8%) and E. tenera with (7.8%). The highest total density and that of the three most abundant species occurred during the night sampling, and probably was related to vertical migration patterns. The Bray-Curtis index revealed three station assemblages, related to the day-night variations of the euphausiid community. Species were distributed mainly in the oceanic area, and were absent in the neritic zones. The local fauna shows a strong affinity for the euphausiid community of the Gulf of Mexico and other areas of the Caribbean Sea. Four species are considered to be new records for the western Caribbean Sea.

  6. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  7. Random Access Transport Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

  8. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    . There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals......Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept...

  9. Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, L

    1982-01-01

    is further used by this system of production for its only ends. Priorities in the Western feminist movements in the 1970s have been equal pay for equal work and sexual and psychological autonomy. In the 3rd world the priorities have been the right to adequate employment and to primary services such as schools, drinking water, housing, and medical services. The main strategy for women in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to participate alongside men in political movements seeking to attain national sovereignty or to challenge economic inequalities, both internally and internationally, as a precondition to the setting up of women's demands as a gender group. The research makes it clear that dependent capitalist development brings an added burden of poverty and subordination to women. Strategies to advance women must be assessed within their particular context.

  10. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen considerable deforestation due to a complex web of interconnected and interdependent causes, which include agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, social demographics and governmental policies and activity. It is necessary for successful and efficient policy development to understand how variability in these causes can potentially result in increased or decreased deforestation. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool that can quantify the risk, as in the threat or pressure, of potential deforestation, whilst identifying the key indicators that contribute to this risk. This tool will take the form of a composite index that will provide spatial and temporal trends of deforestation risk across Latin America and the Caribbean. The development of the Deforestation Risk Index (DRI) was based upon work performed in the EU project ROBIN1. Indicators of deforestation included in the index were identified based upon the multi-scalar approach adopted in ROBIN- nationally from principal component analysis and econometric modelling, provincially from extensive interviews with experts and farmers (subsistence and commercial) in Amazonian regions of Bolivia and Brazil, and locally from stakeholder workshops in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. The identification process was supported by an extensive literature review. In total, 11 indicators were identified and grouped into four components (biophysical, economic, governance and social) capable of explaining the risk of deforestation in Latin America and Caribbean countries. The DRI was calculated for 24 Latin American and Caribbean countries in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 using national-level data collected from open access databases (FAOStat, WorldBank and UNDP). The DRI was subjected to two weighting schemes; the first based upon the opinions of experts from ROBIN (weighted biophysical and governance components heavily), and the second developed from the results of

  11. TROUBLING GENDER EQUALITY: REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Edström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic methodology and two previous empirical studies. By analysing interviews conducted with people involved in gender equality work, this article emphasises the effects of market-oriented and project-based gender equality work in education and working life in Sweden and in Finland. The findings highlight an alliance between projectisation and heteronormativity that acts to regulate how gender equality ought to be talked about in order for its issues to be heard. A persistently constructed ‘remedy’ to ‘the gender equality problem’ is that girls and women are positioned as ‘needing’ to change more than boys and men, by adopting more traditionally ‘masculine manners’ and choosing to work in more ‘masculine sectors’. The findings also show that the constitutive forces of these discourses provide little leeway for critical perspectives.

  12. Kalman filtering approach to blind equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mehmet

    1993-12-01

    Digital communication systems suffer from the channel distortion problem which introduces errors due to intersymbol interference. The solution to this problem is provided by equalizers which use a training sequence to adapt to the channel. However in many cases in which a training sequence is unfeasible, the channel must be adapted blindly. Most of the blind equalization algorithms known so far have problems of convergence to local minima. Our intention is to offer an alternative approach by using extended Kalman filtering and hidden Markov models. They seem to yield more efficient algorithms which take the statistics of the transmitted sequence into consideration. The theoretical development of these new algorithms is discussed in this thesis. Also these algorithms have been simulated under different conditions. The results of simulations and comparisons with existing systems are provided. The models for simulations are presented as MATLAB codes.

  13. EQUALITY AND DISCIMINATION – ROMA SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea George GHERASIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the idea of equality of all citizens, Ion Ghica shows the special value of this concept and its importance for the Romanian society, saying that "equality is a noble and good aspiration of the generous man, of the man endowed with a sense of justice and fairness; it is the urge and hope of the intelligent person, of the scholar and of the worker, of the one who wants to climb the social ladder, who aspires to the development of progress and civilization". The purpose of this study is to focus on the issues of the Roma minority and on the ethnic discrimination in this segment, which is not limited to Romania, becoming rapidly a center of interest and concern throughout Europe.

  14. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky;

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  15. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  16. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, Caribbean Marine Research Center, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Undersea Research Center for the Caribbean Marine Research Center, Perry Institure for Marine Science, for the Caribbean region explores and studies...

  17. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Council (Council) and NMFS to use when making future management decisions for Caribbean reef fish. DATES... be provided to the Council and NMFS to use when making future management decisions for Caribbean...

  18. AVHRR CoastWatch Caribbean Regional Node Data, May 1991-March 2004 (NODC Accession 0121316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature (SST) products were derived from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) for the coastal United States and...

  19. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  20. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  1. Equality of differences in Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Serradell; Lídia Puigvert; Lena de Botton

    2009-01-01

    We are currently living in a multicultural society where its members show a great social and educational potential. However, ethnic discrimination still represents a strong limitation in our societies, and more specifically in Europe. Successful experiencessuch as the “Learning Communities” show that an equality of differences, that is to say everybody’s right to live their lives in a different way, helps to improve academic performance, instrumental learning, and reduces conflicts in college...

  2. Challenging equality policies: The emerging LGBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cruells, Marta; Coll Planas, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The state members of the European Union have witnessed the emergence of equality policies which target discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. These are usually based on the single issue model focusing exclusively on discrimination suffered by LGBT people, however there are other approaches to this issue which take into account the interaction of different axes of inequality, namely, the multiple and intersectional discrimination models. This ar...

  3. Rudiments of Sexual Equality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE people’s earliest awakening to sexual equality occurred in the middle- and latestages of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Although still a feudal society, China had seen the relation of production with capitalist economic systems at that time. Capitalist ideology also found a space in some people’s thinking. Feudal ideology, especially ethical codes discriminating against women, were being attacked then. One outstanding figure who attacked the

  4. A Possible Generalized Form of Jarzynski Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Zhan-Chun; ZHOU Zi-Cong

    2006-01-01

    The crucial condition in the derivation of the Jarzynski equality (JE) from the fluctuation theorem is that the time integral of the phase space contraction factor can be exactly expressed as the entropy production resulting from the heat absorbed by the system from the thermal bath. For the system violating this condition, a more general form of JE may exist. This existence is verified by three Gedanken experiments and numerical simulations, and may be confirmed by the real experiment in the nanoscale.

  5. Chinese and Foreign Students Debate Gender Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    WITH the Fourth World Conference on Women drawing near, more and more people are showing a strong interest in women’s issues. On April 12 the debate "Is the Equality Between Men and Women Impossible?" was held at Beijing Language and Culture University. Hundreds of students and teachers crowded into the 200-seat university theater where the debate was held. The debate consisted of two teams representing positive and negative sides

  6. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic reef fishes indicates both origin and accumulation of diversity in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson D Ross

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two processes may contribute to the formation of global centers of biodiversity: elevated local speciation rates (the center of origin hypothesis, and greater accumulation of species formed elsewhere (the center of accumulation hypothesis. The relative importance of these processes has long intrigued marine biogeographers but rarely has been tested. Results To examine how origin and accumulation affected the Greater Caribbean center of diversity, we conducted a range-wide survey of mtDNA cytochrome b in the widespread Atlantic reef damselfish Chromis multilineata (N = 183 that included 10 locations in all four tropical Atlantic biogeographic provinces: the Greater Caribbean, Brazil, the mid-Atlantic ridge, and the tropical eastern Atlantic. We analyzed this data and re-evaluated published genetic data from other reef fish taxa (wrasses and parrotfishes to resolve the origin and dispersal of mtDNA lineages. Parsimony networks, mismatch distributions and phylogenetic analyses identify the Caribbean population of C. multilineata as the oldest, consistent with the center of origin model for the circum-Atlantic radiation of this species. However, some Caribbean haplotypes in this species were derived from Brazilian lineages, indicating that mtDNA diversity has not only originated but also accumulated in the Greater Caribbean. Data from the wrasses and parrotfishes indicate an origin in the Greater Caribbean in one case, Caribbean origin plus accumulation in another, and accumulation in the remaining two. Conclusion Our analyses indicate that the Greater Caribbean marine biodiversity hotspot did not arise through the action of a single mode of evolutionary change. Reef fish distributions at the boundaries between Caribbean and Brazilian provinces (the SE Caribbean and NE Brazil, respectively indicate that the microevolutionary patterns we detected in C. multilineata and other reef fishes translate into macroevolutionary processes

  7. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  8. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  9. Web Accessibility - A timely recognized challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Qadri, Jameel A

    2011-01-01

    Web Accessibility for disabled people has posed a challenge to the civilized societies that claim to uphold the principles of equal opportunity and nondiscrimination. Certain concrete measures have been taken to narrow down the digital divide between normal and disabled users of Internet technology. The efforts have resulted in enactment of legislations and laws and mass awareness about the discriminatory nature of the accessibility issue, besides the efforts have resulted in the development of commensurate technological tools to develop and test the Web accessibility. World Wide Web consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has framed a comprehensive document comprising of set of guidelines to make the Web sites accessible to the users with disabilities. This paper is about the issues and aspects surrounding Web Accessibility. The details and scope are kept limited to comply with the aim of the paper which is to create awareness and to provide basis for in-depth investigation.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 2002-02-22 to 2007-12-22 (NODC Accession 0110259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0110259 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the...

  11. Seeking electoral equality for IDP voters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Grace

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiding Principle 22 affirms IDPs’ “right to vote and toparticipate in governmental and public affairs, includingthe right to have access to the means necessary to exercisethis right.” Despite the clarity of this language, there is noset of universally accepted policies and practices protectingIDP voting rights.

  12. African-Caribbean cancer consortium for the study of viral, genetic and environmental cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odedina Folakemi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a short summary of a meeting of the "African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium", jointly organized by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica as a satellite meeting at the Caribbean Health Research Council, 52nd Annual Council and Scientific meeting on May 4, 2007.

  13. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Latin America and the Caribbean (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Latin America and the Caribbean was derived from a revised version of the 1:5M Soil and Terrain Database for the region (SOTERLAC, ver. 2.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. The land surface of Latin America and the Caribbean has been char

  14. Second Forum on China-Latin America and Caribbean People-to-People Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second Forum on China-Latin American and Caribbean People -to-People Friendship,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Latin America and Caribbean Federation of Friendship with China(LACFFC), was held in the Cuban capital Havana from October 29 to 30,2009. Over 80 representatives from 26 friendship-with-China organizations

  15. Caribbean Migration as a Structural Reality. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingot, Anthony P.

    Demographic and economic conditions in the Caribbean region combine with social and historical factors to create a structural migration situation: direction and magnitude of the flow might shift, pressures pushing Caribbean Islanders toward migration are constant. Five structural "pull" features encourage migration: (2) the…

  16. The Caribbean Basin: U.S. Strategy and Security Challenges in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Maingot , The United States and the Caribbean,(Colorado: Westview Press, 1994) p. 228 2 Jorge Beruff and Humberto Muniz, Ed.,Security Problems and...Century. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Maingot , Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean. Boulder: Westview. 1994. National

  17. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural practices…

  18. OBSTETRICAL CONDITION AND NEONATAL NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME IN DOMINICA, THE CARIBBEAN - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEERE, CN; LUTEYN, AJ; SORHAINDO, BA; FERREIRA, CJ; BOERSMA, ER; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL; HADDERSALGRA, M

    1992-01-01

    Risk factors during pregnancy and delivery and neurological morbidity of newborns were assessed in a birth cohort in Dominica, the Caribbean. The data were compared with two reference groups, one from Grenada, the Caribbean, and the other from Groningen, the Netherlands. Despite variations in cultur

  19. Language Planning and Development in the Caribbean: Multi-Ethnic Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Aonghas

    1999-01-01

    Examines language planning and development in Suriname in reference to a Caribbean-wide phenomenon arising from movements of cultural nationalism in the region after the Second World War. During this period, people throughout the Caribbean began to question local supremacy of European languages and cultures and denigration of creole language and…

  20. The marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean: a comparison between EEZ sectors, contrasts and concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Witte, R.H.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-01-01

    We here provide a synoptic overview and preliminary update of the marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean EEZ based on 279 cetacean sighting and stranding records. The Dutch Caribbean EEZ is composed of two distinct sectors. One is centered around the leeward Dutch islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaça

  1. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  2. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  3. The Application of Distance Teaching to Training in Labour Administration: The Caribbean Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, A. N.

    This presentation describes a collaborative distance education project between the University of the West Indies (UWI) and the Caribbean Labor Administration Center (CLAC) which resulted in CLAC using the UWI Distance Teaching Enterprise (UWIDITE) network to offer a training course for labor administrators in the Caribbean region. In addition, UWI…

  4. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  5. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  6. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  7. Equality of differences in Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Serradell

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We are currently living in a multicultural society where its members show a great social and educational potential. However, ethnic discrimination still represents a strong limitation in our societies, and more specifically in Europe. Successful experiencessuch as the “Learning Communities” show that an equality of differences, that is to say everybody’s right to live their lives in a different way, helps to improve academic performance, instrumental learning, and reduces conflicts in college classrooms as well asin communities, neighborhoods or even in the municipality.

  8. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  9. Equality of Education and Citizenship: Challenges of European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follesdal, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    What kind of equality among Europeans does equal citizenship require, especially regarding education? In particular, is there good reason to insist of equality of education among Europeans--and if so, equality of what? To what extent should the same knowledge base and citizenship norms be taught across state borders and religious and other…

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  11. Accessibility in the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available FIABA is a cultural route for all, its aim is to promote a Global Accessibility and a Universal Usability through the removal of architectural, cultural, psychological and sensory barriers. FIABA is carrying out a real change and a cultural renewal in the name of equal opportunities. Respect for the environment in which we live is also a duty towards the younger generations to whom we must deliver a world in which free movement and the normal use of spaces are goals already achieved. There are millions of citizens who, because of their physical conditions are prisoners in their homes because there isn’t any elevator or any elevator maintenance. FIABA project aims at implementing “a Space for all” or “a landscape for all” following the path of the ONU Convention on the Rights of People with disabilities with an emphasis on architectural, cultural, and psychological barriers, the last ones in particular, create barriers to equal opportunities and they are often carriers of discrimination. The principle of accessibility is invoked in Article 9 of the Convention which confirms the principle that people have a right to live independently and participate fully in all spheres of life and thus States are required to take all necessary measures to ensure accessibility to physical environment, transport, information and communications, including systems and technologies of information and communication and other facilities and services open to the public, both in urban and rural areas.

  12. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Hastings, Alan; Edwards, Helen J

    2007-11-01

    The deteriorating health of the world's coral reefs threatens global biodiversity, ecosystem function, and the livelihoods of millions of people living in tropical coastal regions. Reefs in the Caribbean are among the most heavily affected, having experienced mass disease-induced mortality of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum in 1983 and two framework-building species of coral. Declining reef health is characterized by increases in macroalgae. A critical question is whether the observed macroalgal bloom on Caribbean reefs is easily reversible. To answer this question, we must resolve whether algal-dominated reefs are an alternative stable state of the ecosystem or simply the readily reversible result of a phase change along a gradient of some environmental or ecological parameter. Here, using a fully parameterized simulation model in combination with a simple analytical model, we show that Caribbean reefs became susceptible to alternative stable states once the urchin mortality event of 1983 confined the majority of grazing to parrotfishes. We reveal dramatic hysteresis in a natural system and define critical thresholds of grazing and coral cover beyond which resilience is lost. Most grazing thresholds lie near the upper level observed for parrotfishes in nature, suggesting that reefs are highly sensitive to parrotfish exploitation. Ecosystem thresholds can be combined with stochastic models of disturbance to identify targets for the restoration of ecosystem processes. We illustrate this principle by estimating the relationship between current reef state (coral cover and grazing) and the probability that the reef will withstand moderate hurricane intensity for two decades without becoming entrained in a shift towards a stable macroalgal-dominated state. Such targets may help reef managers face the challenge of addressing global disturbance at local scales.

  13. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  14. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  15. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. David

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I look at the changes in higher education (HE and women’s lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963 on HE was published in the same year that I went to university. It inaugurated a process of change and educational expansion that was linked to other major social transformations, including feminism. Its effects have been widely felt such that women now participate in education and employment on unprecedented levels. Indeed, it has opened up opportunities for education and employment for women including individual and social mobility. From my study I show how it opened up opportunities for women from both middle class and working class backgrounds to be first-in-the-family to go to university. I will also argue that whilst there have been very welcome changes in education, and HE especially, such that there is a gender balance of undergraduate students in HE, this does not mean that gender equality has been achieved. Patriarchy or hegemonic masculinity in HE is still strongly felt and experienced despite women’s and feminist involvements in academe over the last 50 years. The question remains about how to transform universities to achieve genuine gender equality across all students and academics in HE.

  16. Potential Fluctuation Equality for Free Energy Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Van

    2011-01-01

    Jarzynski's equality [1] allows us to investigate free energy landscapes (FELs) by constructing distributions of work performed on a system from an initial ensemble of states to final states. This work is experimentally measured by extension-versus-force (EVF) curves. We proposed a new approach that enables us to reconstruct such FELs without necessity of measuring EVF curves. We proved that any free energy changes could be computed by measuring the fluctuations of a harmonic external potential in final states. The main assumption of our proof is that one should probably treat a potential's minimum {\\lambda} (thought to be control parameter) and time in separate and independent manners. We recovered Jarzynski's equality from the introduction of a double Heaviside function. We then applied the approach in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to compute the free energy barrier of breaking DNA base pairs (bps). The free energy barrier for breaking a CG bp in our simulations is identified as 1.7 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol t...

  17. The Error-Pattern-Correcting Turbo Equalizer

    CERN Document Server

    Alhussien, Hakim

    2010-01-01

    The error-pattern correcting code (EPCC) is incorporated in the design of a turbo equalizer (TE) with aim to correct dominant error events of the inter-symbol interference (ISI) channel at the output of its matching Viterbi detector. By targeting the low Hamming-weight interleaved errors of the outer convolutional code, which are responsible for low Euclidean-weight errors in the Viterbi trellis, the turbo equalizer with an error-pattern correcting code (TE-EPCC) exhibits a much lower bit-error rate (BER) floor compared to the conventional non-precoded TE, especially for high rate applications. A maximum-likelihood upper bound is developed on the BER floor of the TE-EPCC for a generalized two-tap ISI channel, in order to study TE-EPCC's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for various channel conditions and design parameters. In addition, the SNR gain of the TE-EPCC relative to an existing precoded TE is compared to demonstrate the present TE's superiority for short interleaver lengths and high coding rates.

  18. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  19. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkel, Jean; Wagner, Franz; Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discreti...

  20. Fishery-independent data reveal negative effect of human population density on Caribbean predatory fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Stallings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable.

  1. Viral hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Padrisa, Núria; Castellanos, Luis Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    Viral hepatitis (VH) is an emergent concern in public health agendas worldwide. More than one million people die annually from hepatitis and 57% and 78% of global cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively, are caused by VH. The burden of disease caused by hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is high. Data on hepatitis has been collected in several countries, but more accurate and comparable studies are needed. Hepatitis B vaccination and screening of donated blood are routine practices in the region. However, integrated policies covering prevention and control of disease caused by all types of hepatitis viruses are scarce. Existing preventive measures need to be reinforced. Attention must be paid to at-risk populations, awareness campaigns, and water and food safety. Affordable access to diagnosis and treatment, population screening, referral to health services and monitoring of positive cases are among the main challenges currently posed by VH in LAC. The World Health Organization framework and Pan American Health Organization regional strategy, defined in response to resolution WHA63.18 of the World Health Assembly, may help to overcome these difficulties. Successful experiences in the fight against hepatitis in some LAC countries may also provide very interesting solutions for the region.

  2. Left ventricular thrombus in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Case report and Caribbean focused update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Potu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well documented benefit of echocardiography in acute coronary syndromes, its wide-scale use in the Caribbean is limited by access, health literacy and affordability. Because of the limited use of echocardiography in the region, routine complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI are not fully appreciated and may go unrecognized, further contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is therefore necessary to bring focus to this common clinical condition and highlight the clinical utility of echocardiography in facilitating timely and accurate diagnosis. We report here a case of large left ventricular (LV thrombus in a patient with AMI. Coronary angiography showed completely occluded left anterior descending artery (LAD with angiographically normal remaining vessels. Immediate anticoagulation was commenced with heparin and overlapped with warfarin. No Primary Angioplasty (PA was done based on the evidence from occluded artery trial. LV thrombus was completely resolved on echocardiography at three months. No evidence of thrombo-embolism was found during the resolution of LV thrombus.

  3. Left ventricular thrombus in patients with acute myocardial infarction:Case report and Caribbean focused update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potu, Cr; Tulloch-Reid, Ee; Baugh, Ds; Madu, Ec

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well documented benefit of echocardiography in acute coronary syndromes, its wide-scale use in the Caribbean is limited by access, health literacy and affordability. Because of the limited use of echocardiography in the region, routine complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not fully appreciated and may go unrecognized, further contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is therefore necessary to bring focus to this common clinical condition and highlight the clinical utility of echocardiography in facilitating timely and accurate diagnosis. We report here a case of large left ventricular (LV) thrombus in a patient with AMI. Coronary angiography showed completely occluded left anterior descending artery (LAD) with angiographically normal remaining vessels. Immediate anticoagulation was commenced with heparin and overlapped with warfarin. No Primary Angioplasty (PA) was done based on the evidence from occluded artery trial. LV thrombus was completely resolved on echocardiography at three months. No evidence of thrombo-embolism was found during the resolution of LV thrombus.

  4. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  5. SOME BLIND FRESH EQUALIZATION ALGORITHMS WITH ANTI-INTERFERENCE CAPABILITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some novel blind FREquency.Shift (FRESH) equalizer algorithms axe proposed for the equalization of Finite Impulse Response(FIR)single channel with anti-interference capabilities.These algorithms based on FRESH filter can work well without any training sequence.Simulation results show that the equalizer algorithms can effectively reject many types of interferences and the performances of these new equalizer algorithms are superior to the conventional equalizer algorithms.

  6. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  7. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion.

  8. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the

  9. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Bracamonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival, the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S≥Do-S, low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3Do-R2>Cu-R2>Do-R3>Do-R4>Cu-R3>>Cu-S≥Do-S. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively, whereas a little glyphosate (<9.32% was degraded in both susceptible accessions at 96 h after treatment. There were significant differences between P. hysterophorus accessions in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity enzyme with and without different glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 µmol µg-1 TSP protein min-1 basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025 accessions. The same trend was found in the EPSPS enzyme activity treated with glyphosate, where a higher enzyme activity inhibition (glyphosate µM corresponded to greater resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting

  10. A primer on equalization, decoding and non-iterative joint equalization and decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Hermanus C.; Olivier, Jan C.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, a general model for non-iterative joint equalization and decoding is systematically derived for use in systems transmitting convolutionally encoded BPSK-modulated information through a multipath channel, with and without interleaving. Optimal equalization and decoding are discussed first, by presenting the maximum likelihood sequence estimation and maximum a posteriori probability algorithms and relating them to equalization in single-carrier channels with memory, and to the decoding of convolutional codes. The non-iterative joint equalizer/decoder (NI-JED) is then derived for the case where no interleaver is used, as well as for the case when block interleavers of varying depths are used, and complexity analyses are performed in each case. Simulation results are performed to compare the performance of the NI-JED to that of a conventional turbo equalizer (CTE), and it is shown that the NI-JED outperforms the CTE, although at much higher computational cost. This article serves to explain the state-of-the-art to students and professionals in the field of wireless communication systems, presenting these fundamental topics clearly and concisely.

  11. Equalization of Legal Status with Respect to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Tarusina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current trends in Russian legal doctrine and legislation on aligning the legal status of women and men, taking into account the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights.It analyzes and critically reflects upon the gender aspects and content of those branches of Russian law in which such aspects are most clearly represented, either objectively or by tradition – techniques for gender neutralization of legal norms, the establishment of gender privileges and gender restrictions in legal status.Constitutional law: the basic premise of gender equality, preferential treatment for certain categories of citizens, gender limitations; problems of quotas for women’s representation in government, administration and other structures, provisions for women’s representation in party electoral lists, etc.Criminal Law: trends in the gender neutralization of crimes of a sexual nature while maintaining criminal responsibility for offenses against pregnant women, etc.; gender neutralization of preferential treatment in the punishment of persons with children.Family Law: Russia’s traditional view of marriage and parenthood; privileges for women in the divorce process, disputes about children, maintenance obligations; gender restrictions on adoption, assisted reproductive technologies; variants of gender neutralization of some family law norms.Labor law: the preservation of absolute protection of the rights and interests of pregnant women and mothers of young children; the trend for gender neutralization of the legal status of parents of young children; continued restrictions on women’s access to certain areas of work.Analysis of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights shows that on a number of gender equality aspects in Russian legislation and law enforcement practice, the views of these

  12. An Adaptive Multiuser Chip-Rate Equalizer for CDMA Underwater Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jing; HUANG Jian-guo; SHEN Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    Direct-sequence code-division multiple access (CDMA) is considered for multiuser communication network in underwater acoustic channel, where extended multipath and rapid time-variability are encountered. To track and compensate the channel distortion, a decentralized hypothesis-feedback equalization (HFE) algorithm based on chip-rate update has been used[1]. But due to multiple access interference (MAI), its performance suffers degradation. For this reason, successive interference cancellation hypothesis-feedback equalization (SIC-HFE) algorithm is proposed, which combines the capabilities of HFE to track the time-varying channel and SIC implemented by cross-over feedback filters to cancel out the MAI effects between users. Simulation and experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the performance of asynchronous multiuser CDMA underwater communication system.

  13. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

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    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  14. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

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    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  15. STEEL BARRIER: LEGAL IMPLICATIONS FROM A GENDER EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PERSPECTIVE

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    María Bastida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, legal Acts, norms, and regulations have proliferated in order to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in multiple contexts, including public and private organizations. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, to date, real and legal equality do not match. The current context of the global economy suggests that there may now be a new barrier, related to the fact that women have been partially excluded from positions abroad which would facilitate the acquisition of professional and personal skills which are essential in the present century. This new inequality in access to senior management seems to be in contradiction with the different pressures and initiatives put in place to achieve equality of opportunities between women and men, protected in our national and international laws. In this paper, the main causes excluding women from international assignments, and consequently from senior management, are reviewed, highlighting the motivational and legal aftereffects that this trend may have. En las últimas décadas han proliferado diversas disposiciones legales y normativas con el objetivo de garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en múltiples contextos, entre ellos el que atañe a las organizaciones públicas y privadas. Pese a ello, existe suficiente evidencia de que la igualdad real no se acerca, hasta la fecha, a la legal. El contexto actual de economía globalizada sugiere que puede aparecer una nueva barrera, al quedar la mujer excluida parcialmente de puestos en el extranjero que le facilitan la adquisición de capacidades profesionales y personales imprescindibles en el siglo actual. Esta nueva desigualdad en el acceso a puestos de alta dirección no parece responder a las distintas presiones e iniciativas por conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres, protegida en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico nacional e internacional. En este trabajo revisamos

  16. The Borders of Equality. Recognition, Inclusion, Exclusion

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    Luca Scuccimarra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the sociologist Ulrich Beck, the contemporary debate on social inequalities is an exemplary case study of the phenomenon of systematic distortion of «scientific perspective of the observer» which he proposed to define as methodological nationalism. In this horizon of investigation it is possible to touch the «great gray areas» - and the gross errors - produced on the level of empirical research by a vision of society and politics that programmatically tends to assume «the logic of the national perspective». Moving from some famous passages of Alexis de Tocqueville, the essay aims to focus on the complex foundational dynamics which are the basis of this territorialized approach to the issue of equality, within a path of reflection that calls into question some of the latest theoretical contributions on the theme.

  17. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Maluleke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2011 Advocate Joyce Maluleke, Director in the Gender Directorate of the South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development addressed the Annual General Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of Women Judges held in Potchefstroom on the dangers of harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriages, virginity testing, widow's rituals, levirate and sororate unions, female genital mutilation, breast sweeping/ironing, the primogeniture rule, practices such as 'cleansing' after male circumcision, and witch-hunting. Although she considers respect for tradition, culture and customs to be part of the South African identity, she argues that cultural practices should be rooted in respect for human rights, democracy and equality. We publish her paper here as an oratio.

  18. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  19. HEBS: Histogram Equalization for Backlight Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Iranli, Ali; Pedram, Massoud

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for finding a pixel transformation function that maximizes backlight dimming while maintaining a pre-specified image distortion level for a liquid crystal display. This is achieved by finding a pixel transformation function, which maps the original image histogram to a new histogram with lower dynamic range. Next the contrast of the transformed image is enhanced so as to compensate for brightness loss that would arise from backlight dimming. The proposed approach relies on an accurate definition of the image distortion which takes into account both the pixel value differences and a model of the human visual system and is amenable to highly efficient hardware realization. Experimental results show that the histogram equalization for backlight scaling method results in about 45% power saving with an effective distortion rate of 5% and 65% power saving for a 20% distortion rate. This is significantly higher power savings compared to previously reported backlight dimming approa...

  20. Unequal Access to Universities in a Country with High Social Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Baklanov, Nikita

    likely to choose elite humanities than females, lifted by mothers in higher professions, whereas females are more likely to choose elite social sciences. Students living in urban areas are more likely to enter elite universities. Family income of the parents still plays a part in choosing elite social...... likely to choose gymnasium. The results also show a social gradient at the university level with males being more likely to become a graduate student. The choice of elite university is even more exclusive since especially students with relatively wealthy, highly educated parents, and mothers...... with a professional background have a higher chance of entering. Social selection is increasing at a lower level of strength. Our model 2 shows that students from families with higher levels of income are more likely to choose health sciences, social and natural sciences than the humanities. Also individuals...

  1. Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk Remain Among US Servicemen With Equal Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    occupational in nature, cadmium has been studied as a possible carcinogen for human prostate cancer [19,20]. Cadmium is commonly used as a component in nickel...G, Thun MJ, Travis R, Virtamo J, Andriole G, Gelmann E, Willett WC, Hunter DJ. A common 8q24 variant in prostate and breast cancer from a large nested...Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy. Sci Total Environ 2007;373(1):77–81. 20. Sahmoun AE, Case LD, Jackson SA

  2. 76 FR 11667 - Procedures Relating to Awards Under the Equal Access to Justice Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... response to a Petition for Rulemaking (PFR) received by USDA on September 29, 2008, filed by Public Citizen....187 and 1.28. The PFR sought an increase in the maximum attorney fees payable based on the...

  3. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  4. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahson Berhane Alemu I

    Full Text Available Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  5. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisahak, Samrawit F; Beagley, Jessica; Hambleton, Ian R; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2014-02-01

    The North America and Caribbean (NAC) Region faces a high burden of diabetes. In 2013, the number of children (aged 0-14 years) with type 1 diabetes was 108,600, with 16.7 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 children. Furthermore, there were 36,755,500 individuals with diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes) in adults (20-79 years), and an additional 44,277,700 individuals had impaired glucose tolerance. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults was 9.6%; the second highest among the seven Regions of the International Diabetes Federation. This estimate is expected to grow to 9.9% by 2035. There was some heterogeneity in the estimates within the Region with the age-adjusted prevalence for the USA estimated at 9.2%, 7.9% for Canada, 12.6% for Mexico, and 9.6% for the Caribbean islands. Mortality due to diabetes in the NAC Region is not limited to older age groups, with 37.6% of deaths occurring in people under the age of 60. The economic impact was also enormous, with healthcare expenditure due to diabetes estimated at 263.2 billion USD for 2013 - the highest of all IDF Regions. Diabetes threatens the public health and economies of countries in the NAC Region, and efforts in prevention and management must be intensified in order to surmount this growing problem.

  6. Impact of Undertreated Sickle Cell Pain in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD Shah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Undertreated pain around the world includes the acute and chronic pain caused by sickle cell disease (SCD. In collaboration with a Caribbean association that aims to provide assistance to those diagnosed with SCD, we surveyed adults with SCD about pain management and impact of SCD pain. Methods: Participants were recruited from a group of 55 adults with SCD. A survey was administered to those who agreed to participate. Questions centred on their self-assessed level of pain due to SCD, the extent to which that pain interferes with daily activities, and how they seek and obtain pain relief. Results: Responses were received from 39 participants (female: n = 28, 72%, male: n = 11, 28%; mean age: 31.6 (SD ± 13.7 years. Sickle cell disease pain significantly disrupts participants’ daily activities (62%, mood (72%, work (64% and sleep (69%. Prescription medicine was ineffective for 41% and about half (n = 19 sought alternate means of relief. Conclusion: Sickle cell disease pain is undertreated in the Caribbean, disrupts daily activities and affects quality of life by impinging on education, employment and marital status. Sickle cell disease and other types of pain can be clinically managed safely, effectively and inexpensively. By failing to palliate and overcome the problem of undertreated pain, healthcare systems and providers contribute to socio-economic amongst other repercussions for sufferers, their families and caregivers, and their nations.

  7. Capacity Building for Caribbean Tsunami Warnings: A Regional Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Robertson, R.; Kong, L.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; McCreery, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Lynch, L.

    2007-12-01

    Between June 25 and June 30 the Seismic Research Unit (SRU) of the University of the West Indies (UWI) hosted a Caribbean regional training program in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings. A total of 43 participants from 21 countries and territories, representing meteorological, emergency management, and seismological institutions in the region, attended this training aimed at developing their understanding of the science of tsunamis, hazard and risk assessment, preparedness, education, and outreach, and operational best practices. As an outcome of the course the participants drafted six recommendations (outlined on the poster) that they felt were priority action items for expeditious realization of a Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System. The program was conducted under the UNESCO IOC banner in response to a call for such a training program at the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS II), held in Cumanã, Venezuela, March 12-14, 2007. The majority of funding for the course was provided by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (ODFA) of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Disaster Reduction Center of the UWI, and the US Geological Survey (USGS).

  8. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  9. Combat Exclusion: An Equal Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Distribution Unlimited D DIShUMMION STATE3MEN L E TaT AVALABIUTTY COD= DsIM ~tMGK Av~AUABRz ANMWr W9=AL’ DATE ACCESSIONED DISTRIUWTION ATM R E D)ATE RMETUN...because some servicemembers can’t control their sexual urges targets the women instead of the true problem. A more reasonable solution would be to take...guidance and strong leadership are the keys to controlling these challenges. The Danish tests showed that women performed well during adverse physical

  10. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  11. Towards access for all? Policy and research on access of ethnic minority groups to natural areas in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jay, M.; Peters, K.B.M.; Buijs, A.E.; Gentin, S.; Kloek, M.E.; O'Brien, L.

    2012-01-01

    Migration and growing ethnic diversity pose new questions for forest and nature policy and research, especially on the equality of access to natural areas. This paper compares national approaches in policy and research on ethnic minority groups' access to natural areas in four Western-European count

  12. School Finance, Equivalent Educational Expenditure, and the Income Distribution: Equal Dollars or Equal Chances for Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Lambright, Kristina; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article breaks new ground in the debate on school finance and equality of per pupil school expenditures. We are able to merge school district data with the individual and family data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). This allows us to examine both student and school district characteristics and to assess several measures of…

  13. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items.

  14. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    The continental reference frame of SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas) is at present realized by the SIRGAS Continuously Operating Network (SIRGAS-CON) composed by about 200 stations distributed over all Latin America and the Caribbean. SIRGAS member countries are qualifying their national reference frames by installing continuously operating GNSS stations, which have to be consistently integrated into the continental network. As the number of these stations is rapidly increasing, the processing strategy of the SIRGAS-CON network was redefined during the SIRGAS 2008 General Meeting in May 2008. The new strategy relies upon the definition of two hierarchy levels: a) A core network (SIRGAS-CON-C) with homogeneous continental coverage and stabile site locations ensures the long-term stability of the reference frame and provides the primary link to the ITRS. Stations belonging to this network have been selected so that each country contributes with a number of stations defined according to its surface and guarantying that the selected stations are the best in operability, continuity, reliability, and geographical coverage. b) Several densification sub-networks (SIRGAS-CON-D) improve the accessibility to the reference frame. The SIRGAS-CON-D sub-networks shall correspond to the national reference frames, i.e., as an optimum there shall be as many sub-networks as countries in the region. The goal is that each country processes its own continuously stations following the SIRGAS processing guidelines, which are defined in accordance with the IERS and IGS standards and conventions. Since at present not all of the countries are operating a processing centre, the existing stations are classified in three densification networks (a Northern, a middle, and a Southern one), which are processed by three local processing centres until new ones are installed. As SIRGAS is defined as a densification of the ITRS, stations included in the core network, as

  15. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin, with the descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-02-29

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species.

  16. Local Government and Local Development: Bridging the Gap through Critical Discourse: Evidence from the Commonwealth Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris D Schoburgh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Local development, whether construed broadly as community development or more narrowly as local as economic development (LED is not always associated with local government but rather is the purview of a central government department or agency in Anglophone Caribbean policy systems. However with the emergence of ‘local place - and people-oriented approaches’ to development that offer new propositions about how to respond to risks and opportunities brought by globalization, local government is seen increasingly as an appropriate institutional context in which to pursue short-range objectives, such as creation of market opportunities and redressing the disparities within national economies; as well as the long-range goal of social transformation. A developmental role for local government raises two questions that form the central concerns of this paper: What are the institutional and organisational imperatives of a developmental role for local government? To what extent have these imperatives been addressed in reform? A critical analysis of local government reform policies in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica revealed substantive convergence around local development as an outcome of reform but also important divergence in the approach to achieving this goal which suggests the absence of a cohesive model. The paper argues for a new agenda in reform that links local government more consistently with a local development strategy. It asserts that such a strategy must incorporate gender equality, the informal economy and institutional organisational capacity in the process of transformation and as a basis for creating a local context in which all types of resources can be maximized in the process of wealth creation in a locality.

  17. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 resistance accessions (Do-R3 resistance accessions (Do-R1 resistance factor levels were similar to those found in the shikimic acid accumulation at 1000 μM of glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 >> Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non-target-site resistance) possessed by the different P. hysterophorus accessions, concurrently. PMID:27999586

  18. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 > Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 μmol μg(-1) TSP protein min(-1) basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025) accessions. The same trend was found in the EPSPS enzyme activity treated with glyphosate, where a higher enzyme activity inhibition (glyphosate μM) corresponded to greater resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non

  19. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  20. Contrast Enhancement through Clustered Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chuan Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a contrast enhancement algorithm. Some methods enhance images depending on only the global or the local information, therefore it would cause over-enhancement usually and make the image look unnatural. The proposed method enhances image based on the global and local information. For the global part, we proposed mapping curves to find the new average, maximum and minimum intensity to try to suit the concept of Human Visual System (HVS for obtaining the better perceptual results. For the local part, we utilized fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to group image and we can obtain the information of intensity distribution and pixel number from each group. Then we calculate weights according to the information and enhance images by Histogram Equalization (HE depending on the weights. The experiment results show that our method can enhance the contrast of image steadily and it causes over-enhancement with lower probability than other methods. The whole image not only looks natural but also shows detail texture more clearly after applying our method.

  1. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  2. To DNA, all information is equal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Lau; Bentin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Information storage capabilities are key in most aspects of society and the requirement for storage space is rapidly expanding. In principle, DNA could be a high-density medium for information storage. Church and coworkers recently demonstrated how binary data can be encoded, stored in......, and retrieved from a library of oligonucleotides, increasing by several orders of magnitude the amount and density of manmade information stored in DNA to date. The technology remains in its infancy and important hurdles have yet to be overcome in order to realize its potential. However, DNA may be particularly...... useful as a storage-medium over long time-scales (centuries), because data-access is compatible with any large-scale DNA-sequencing and -synthesis technology....

  3. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on aging treatment of Al-7075 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H. Shaeri; M. Shaeri; M.T. Salehi; S.H. Seyyedein; M.R. Abutalebi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aging treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Al-7075 alloy was examined. Commercial Al-7075 alloy in the solid solution heat-treated condition was processed by equal channel angular pressing through route BC at both the room temperature and 120 1C. Only three passes of equal channel angular pressing was possible due to the low ductility of the alloy at both temperatures. Followed by equal channel angular pressing, the specimens have been aged at 120 1C for different aging times. Mechanical properties were measured by Vickers microhardness and tensile tests and microstructural observations were undertaken using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer as well as optical microscopy. Microstructural investigations showed that ultrafine-grained materials with grain size in the range of 200–350 nm and 300–500 nm could be obtained after three passes of equal channel angular pressing at room temperature and 120 1C, respectively. Equal channel angular pressing of solid solution heat-treated Al-7075 alloy accelerates precipitation rate and subsequently leads to a significant decrease in aging time to attain maximum mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is possible to achieve maximum mechanical properties during equal channel angular pressing at 120 1C as a result of dynamic aging and formation of smallɳ´ phase.&2015 Chinese Materials Research Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  4. Structural Equality at the Top of the Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogut, Bruce; Colomer, Jordi; Belinky, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of structural equality as a compromise between competing policy preferences of equality and individual liberty to address a stunning property of the governance of corporations, namely, the paucity of female directors on corporate boards. An argument for imposing a quota for w...... well-connected networks of women directors who attain equality in their centrality and influence. The analysis demonstrates the utility of computational social science for identifying policies that generate alternative and possible worlds of greater structural equality...

  5. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal

  6. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality...

  7. Channel Equalization for Chaos-Based Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯久超; 鲁瑞华

    2002-01-01

    We study the equalization of the channel for chaotic communication systems. A channel equalizer is designed and realized by a modified recurrent neural network for eliminating channel distortions. The results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the equalizer as applied to a chaotic communication system.

  8. The relevance vector machine technique for channel equalization application

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Gunn, S.R.; Harris, C J

    2001-01-01

    The recently introduced relevance vector machine (RVM) technique is applied to communication channel equalization. It is demonstrated that the RVM equalizer can closely match the optimal performance of the Bayesian equalizer, with a much sparser kernel representation than that is achievable by the state-of-art support vector machine (SVM) technique.

  9. The Fate of Equality in a Technological Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The meaning of equality has been radically altered since the Enlightenment. In the 18th century, equality acquired political and economic meanings specifically in the contexts of democracy and capitalism. Today, the context in which equality is understood and practiced is technology as our most immediate and compelling environment. Moreover, the…

  10. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Equal Housing Lender Poster shall be at least 11 inches by 14 inches in size, and shall bear the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for...

  11. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... exist for working women, who still earn less on average than working men. Each year, National Equal Pay... harder to close the gaps that still exist. At a time when families across this country are struggling...

  12. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  14. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  15. Poverty, Equity and Access to Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Altaf; Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh has made great improvements in the scale and quality of access to education in recent years and gender equality has almost been achieved in primary education (World Bank, 2008). Evidence from CREATE's nationwide community and school survey (ComSS) confirms results from other research (such as Al-Samarrai, 2009) which suggests that…

  16. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  17. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... access to education, economic opportunity, and health care increases broader economic prosperity, as well... Directive on Global Development, and the 2010 U.S. Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review. To elevate... Federal Government to ensure that U.S. diplomacy and foreign assistance promote gender equality...

  18. Born free and equal?: on the ethical consistency of animal equality

    OpenAIRE

    Bruers, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the possibility of constructing a consistent ethical system that offers clear notions of equality and incorporates an animal ethic. The first part is more meta-ethical in nature, reflecting on notions such as moral intuitions, universalism, consistency and coherence. It demonstrates that moral illusions might exist and offers a method to discover such moral illusions. The second part turns to normative ethics, dealing with principles of welfare, justice and ...

  19. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF TEMPERATURE RESPONSES OF CARIBBEAN SEAWEEDS FROM DIFFERENT BIOGEOGRAPHIC GROUPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAKKER, H; BREEMAN, AM; VANREINE, WFP; VANDENHOEK, C

    1995-01-01

    Temperature tolerances were determined for Caribbean isolates (total 31) of seaweeds belonging to three distributional groups: 1) species confined to the tropical western Atlantic (Botryocladia spinulifera, Chamaedoris peniculum, Cladophoropsis sundanensis, Dictyopteris justii, Dictyurus occidentali

  20. Oil and Gas Fields of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (fld6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Caribbean region is part of World Energy Assessment region 6 (Central and South America). A fundamental task in the assessment is to map the locations and type...