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Sample records for caribaea var hondurensis

  1. Biomass and carbon stock from Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis under homogenous stands in southwest Bahia, Brazil

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    Máida Cynthia Duca de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is a large number of studies evaluating methods to quantify biomass for the genus Pinus in different regions of Brazil. However, knowledge about this subject in the Northeast region of Brazil is still incipient. The objective of the present study was to assess the biomass and carbon stocks and select mathematical models to estimate these variables in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis , which is established in homogenous stands in the Southwest region of the state of Bahia (Brazil. The biomass was quantified using the destructive method. Samples of needles, bole, bark, and branches were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. Ten models were tested, and the best of them were chosen based on the following statistical indicators: adjusted determination coefficient, estimate standard error, maximum likelihood logarithm, and graphical analysis of waste. Values for total biomass and carbon stocks were 69 and 42Mg ha-1, respectively. Curtis and Schumacher-Hall Log models showed to be the most indicated to estimate the total dry biomass and carbon of the species under the conditions studied.

  2. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela Variação em procedências e famílias de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis da Guatemala e Honduras, testadas no Brasil, Colômbia e Venezuela

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    Vicente Pongitory Gifoni Moura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-pollinated families was planted near Planaltina, Federal District, in the Cerrado Region of Brazil. The provenances tested were Poptun (Guatemala, Gualjoco, Los Limones, El Porvenir and Santa Cruz de Yojoa (Honduras and assessed at 12 years of age. Poptun and Gualjoco had larger volume, and Los Limones and El Porvenir the lowest incidence of forks and foxtails. Individual tree heritabilities for volume, stem form and branch diameter were 0.34, 0.06, and 0.26 respectively. More than 90% of the trees had defects, common in unimproved P. caribaea. Selection criteria for quality traits need to be relaxed in the first generation of breeding to allow for larger genetic gains in productivity. Results from this test compared with P. caribaea var. hondurensis trials in other Brazilian, Colombian and Venezuelan sites suggest that provenance x site and family x site interactions are not as strong as in other pine species.Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. é uma espécie tropical que ocorre naturalmente nas terras baixas de Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicarágua e no leste do México. Esta espécie tem sido uma das mais estudadas entre os pinos tropicais e uma das mais importantes comercialmente no centro e norte do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as melhores procedências para plantios e também as melhores árvores dentro de famílias para o estabelecimento de pomares de semente. Para isso, um experimento com cinco

  3. Soil properties and variability of tracheid dimensions and wood density in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Solo, dimensão dos traqueídeos e densidade da madeira em Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis

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    Robson Schaff Corrêa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The understanding of wood quality in relation to different forest sites is of fundamental relevance in current timber market. There are only few studies available concerning soil and wood quality of tropical pinots. So, the goal of this work was to characterize tracheid dimensions and wood density of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, correlating these variables with soil properties at different sites. Discs were taken at 1.3 m height and comprised two radial samples in each of the four dominant trees removed at four different sites. Measurements for wood density were made from the third to the eleventh year old rings, and the measurement of tracheid dimensions were made in the fourth, eighth and eleventh year sold rings. The soil, collected in the canopy projection area of each tree was analyzed chemically and physically in different layers. The tracheid dimensions and wood density showed stabilization between the eighth and the eleventh years old rings. Moreover, the tracheid dimensions varied between sites and did not present a pattern of variation in relation to soil properties at the different sites.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.93

  1. Macronutrientes no sistema solo-Pinus caribaea Morelet em palntios apresentando amarelecimento das acículas e morte de plantas Macronutrients in the soil- Pinus caribaea Morelet system with yellowing of the needles followed by senescence and death

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    Roselene de Queiroz Chaves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido em áreas de Cerrado, no oeste de Minas Gerais, visando contribuir para o diagnóstico de causas que têm levado à morte precoce de pinheiros, verificada após amarelecimento e necrose progressiva das acículas. Foram comparadas árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet das variedades caribaea e hondurensis, plantadas entre 1977-82. Em cada local de amostragem, coletou-se material de 20 árvores, sendo 10 com amarelecimento das acículas e 10 normais. Foram coletadas acículas e tecidos do xilema e floema de raízes nos quais foram analisados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A classe de solo dos sítios de estudo é Latossolo Amarelo ácrico típico. As amostras foram coletadas nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-250 e 250-300 cm, nas quais se analisaram os teores trocáveis de Ca, Mg, P e K, bem como o pH em água e em KCl, a acidez extraível (H+Al e o teor de matéria orgânica. Os teores de N, P, K e S não diferiram significativamente entre acículas verdes e amarelecidas, enquanto os teores de Ca e Mg foram significativamente inferiores nelas. Os sintomas visuais, confirmados pelos resultados analíticos, revelaram um quadro complexo de deficiências no sistema solo-planta estudado, envolvendo principalmente os macronutrientes Ca e Mg.This study was carried out to diagnose senescence and pine trees death (Pinus caribaea Morelet, observed after yellowing and progressive necrosis of the needles in the Brazilian Cerrado in western Minas Gerais. The varieties caribaea and hondurensis, planted between 1977-82 were compared. In the three sites studied samples from twenty trees were collected; ten with yellowing of the needles and ten without symptoms. From each tree, phloem and xylem tissue from root segments and needles were collected and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were analyzed. The considered sites is formed by a Yellow Latosol (Typic Acrustox with high

  2. Optimisation of the manufacturing variables of sawdust pellets from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet: Particle size, moisture and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relova, I.; Leon, M.A. [Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Marti 270 esq, a 27 de Noviembre, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Vignote, S.; Ambrosio, Y. [Departamento de Economia y Gestion Forestal, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Different variables affect the processes of compacting biomass, and these variables depend on the raw material, such as the type of wood or type of biomass being compacted, its moisture, size, as well as on other aspects relating to the manufacturing process, such as the pressure applied and the temperature reached during compaction. This work analyses the influence of the size of the sawdust particles from the bark of the species Pinus caribaea var. Morelet, which ranges from 0.63 to 2 mm; it had a moisture content in dry basis of 6; 9.5; 13 and 20%; and the force applied in the laboratory was 8000, 12,000, 16,000 and 20,000 N. These values are relatively high given that they do not take into account the heat caused by the matrixes chafing with the material to be compacted, as occurs in industrial processes. The different experimental treatments were processed and statistically analysed using SSPS version 12.0, and Statgraphics version 5.0. Once the data had been tested in the ANOVA and in various comparison tests, it was observed that the results did not show any significant differences between the pellets obtained with forces of 16,000 and 20,000 N, or between pellets obtained with 9.5 and 13% moisture, and that the pellets with higher qualities were obtained from particle sizes of between 1 and 2 mm. (author)

  3. Identifying and assessing areas for pine woodland regeneration in the lowland savannas of Southern Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Katsigiannis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Lowland savannas occupy almost 10% of the total land area of Belize, comprising landscapes with high ecological and economical value. The most distinctive tree of the Belizean savanna, the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), is valuable not only as a timber resource, but also in forming natural habitats for the local endangered species. However, degradation by frequent fires, anthropogenic pressures and climate change often convert gallery pine forests and dense tree savannas (s...

  4. Wood plantations in virgin forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irion, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a pulpwood project in the Amazonas region of Brazil, 1000 square km of an eventual 16,000 squared km have been planted with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Eucalyptus deglupta. Though G. arborea reached a height of 20 metres in 7 years in the first generation and the other species showed hardly any sign of nutrient deficiency it is suggested that after the second generation (14-20 years) the soil will be completely exhausted.

  5. Ensayo de procedencias de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea en alturas de pizarras, viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Y. García-Quintana; A. Álvarez-Brito; E. Guízar-Nolazco

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios...

  6. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

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    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  7. Nuevo registro de Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae para el Mioceno Superior de El Salvador, América Central A new record of Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae on the Upper Miocene of El Salvador, Central America

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    Daniel H. Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un molar inferior, aislado, del proboscídeo endémico de América Central Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recuperado en el valle del río Torola en la localidad fosilífera de Corinto, la cual fue estudiada y caracterizada en los años 70 por los paleontólogos estadounidenses David S. Webb y Stephen Perrigo; la fauna local de Corinto es considerada una de las más importantes localidades fosilíferas del Mioceno Superior de América Central.An isolated lower molar of the endemic Central America Proboscidea Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recovered at the Valley of Torola River is described here. This locality corresponds with the outcrops of the Corinto local fauna, previously studied and defined by the American paleontologists David S. Webb and Stephen Perrigo during the 70’s years; which is considered as one of the most important fossiliferous localities of the Upper Miocene of Central America

  8. Wortelontwikkeling van Pinus caribaea morelet : 1. Opgravingen in een 17-jarige cultuur op savannegrond : 2. Opgravingen in een 10-jarige cultuur op diverse gronden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, J.A.; Jongh, de O.E.; Vries, de M.

    1973-01-01

    Te Blakawatra vak 3 werden van 17 t/m 19 januari 1973 de wortelstelsels uitgegraven van 4 Pinus caribaea bomen. Dit geschiedde in het kader van onderzoekprojekt 66/2 naar de wortelontwikkeling van Pinus caribaea Morelet. Tevens diende het onderzoek ter vergelijking met het onderzoek van HILLEGERS (1

  9. Larvicidal effect of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Efeito larvicida dos extratos de folhas secas de Pinus caribaea contra Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Luiz Alberto Kanis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the larvicidal activity of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea Morelet against Aedes aegypti was evaluated for the first time. Pinus caribaea extracts were obtained by macerating dried leaves in alkaline hydroethanol, ethanol and acetone solutions followed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The lignin content was quantified using the thioglycolic acid complexation method. Lethality bioassays (LC50 and LC90 were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that the acetone extract from Pinus caribaea was more active, and that larvicidal activity was associated with lignin concentration.Neste trabalho foi avaliada pela primeira vez a atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de extratos obtido a partir de folhas secas de Pinus caribae. Os extratos de Pinus caribaea foram obtidos a partir da maceração de folhas secas em solução hidroetanólica alcalina, etanol e acetona, seguido de evaporação sob pressão reduzida. O teor de lignina foi quantificado usando o método de complexação com ácido tioglicóliclo. Os ensaios de letalidade foram conduzidos de acordo com a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato obtido com acetona foi mais ativo, e a atividade larvicida esta associada com a concentração de ligninas.

  10. Effect of the heat treatment on physical and chemical properties of Pinus caribaea wood

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    Dallyene da Silva Poubel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the heat treatment on physical properties (density, equilibrium moisture content, mass loss, volumetric and linear swelling and shrinkage and chemical composition of normal (opposite side and compression wood of Pinus caribaea Morelet. Samples of 25 x 25 x 50 mm were heat-treated under two different temperatures: 200 and 220 ºC. The results indicated a reduction in equilibrium moisture content and swelling and shrinkage following heat treatment, independent of wood type. The compression wood showed higher longitudinal swelling than normal one, however, after heat treatment, the improvements were similar between both wood types. Samples heat-treated at 200 and 220 ºC had mass losses of 9.94 and 21.03 %, respectively. The heat treatment promoted a relative increase in lignin content and a decrease in holocellulose and α-cellulose contents, indicating the occurrence of thermal degradation of these components.

  11. Experiments on pulpwood species in the Edea Region, Cameroon

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    Wencelius, F.

    1980-01-01

    Trials were carried out to evaluate pulping properties of various species, selected on the basis of their silvicultural aptitudes, for replacement planting after felling natural forest for pulp. The techniques of production of seedlings, their preparation and the choice of planting density were studied for the different species selected, and the costs of these operations were evaluated. The results of the trials showed that 2 short-fibre species of average to good pulping quality, Gmelina arborea and Eucalyptus urophylla, were suitable for cultivation. Among long-fibre species, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis performed best, and P. oocarpa was promising.

  12. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

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    Wilson da Silva; Francisco A. Ferreira; José F. da Silva; Luís E. Firmino

    1999-01-01

    Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1), oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1), oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1), imazapyr (250 g ha-1) e testemunhas (capinada e sem ca...

  13. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

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    Fernando Fernández Méndez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se analizó en una plantación ubicada en el bosque húmedo tropical la posibilidad que tienen las especies nativas de formar un sotobosque bajo plantaciones de Pinus caribaea y Eucalyptus pellita. Se establecieron parcelas permanentes en las plantaciones por especie, edad y tratamiento silvicultural; parcelas similares se instauraron en bosque natural y sabana. Se registraron individuos clasificados por tamaño y hábito. Se determinaron 49 familias botánicas y 102 especies. La mayor y menor diversidad se presentó en el bosque natural y en la sabana con 53 y 18 especies, respectivamente. Entre plantaciones, se encontró mayor diversidad en P. caribaea, con 46 especies, que en E. pellita con 38 especies. El cociente de mezcla indicó una vegetación heterogénea en todos los usos. Los índices Margalef y Menhinick mostraron que el bosque es más diverso, seguido de las plantaciones de mayor edad y por último la sabana. Los índices de Shannon y Simpson califican todos los sitios con vegetación heterogénea. Los tratamientos tuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas en número de individuos, especies y categorías de tamaño, a excepción de las herbáceas. En cuanto a composición y abundancias se destacan tres grandes grupos: bosque con plantaciones maduras, plantaciones de edades intermedias y plantaciones jóvenes con sabana. Se observó una alta betadiversidad entre los tratamientos, que compartían menos del 50% de las especies y abundancias, según los índices Jaccard y Sorensen. Entre plantaciones se presentó el mayor número de especies compartidas. Se concluye que las plantaciones albergan buena cantidad de biodiversidad vegetal de sotoboque y no impiden el establecimiento de especies nativas.Abstract. It was analized in a plantation located in the tropical rainforest, the possibility that native species forming an understory in Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Were established permanent plots

  14. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

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    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  15. Selectividad de presas de Coralliophila abbreviata y C. caribaea en arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela: una aproximación experimental Selectivity of preys of Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea in coral reefs of the National Park Morrocoy, Venezuela: an experimental approximation

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    Carlos del Mónaco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la selectividad de presas de Coralliophila abbreviata y C. caribaea en seis arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Morrocoy (PNM, Venezuela, mediante métodos descriptivos y experimentales. Se estimó la abundancia y riqueza coralina, el número de Coralliophila spp. y su presa coralina mediante cuadratas aleatorias de 1 m² en tres sitios por cada arrecife . Se utilizaron ocho jaulas de exclusión de 1 m³ en cuyo interior se colocaron cinco colonias coralinas de diferentes especies, equidistantes a 10 individuos de C. abbreviata. Se observó una estrecha relación depredador-presa entre C. abbreviata y la hexacoralina Montastraea annularis, representando el 56,8% de todas las interacciones en todas las localidades, seguida por Diploria strigosa (19,3%, Agaricia agaricites (12,2%, Colpophyllia natans (4,6% y A. tenuifolia (3,1%. C. caribaea exhibió una mayor afinidad con el octocoral Erythropodium caribaeorum (42,6% y las hexacoralinas C. natans (24,1%, Montastraea faveolata (11,1%, Porites porites (7,4% y D. strigosa (11,1%. De igual forma, el experimento mostró mayor asociación de C. abbreviata con M. annularis 53,3%, seguida por C. natans (17,8%, A. tenuifolia y D. strigosa (11,1% cada una y A. agaricites (6,7%. Según estos resultados, C. abbreviata debería generar un mayor impacto que C. caribaea sobre el PNM debido a que sus presas más frecuentes están entre las principales formadoras de arrecife mientras que C. caribaea depredó mayormente a E. caribaeorum, la cual es competidora de hexacorales.Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are tropical gastropods of the Caribbean Sea. These gastropods have shown to be important corallivores. The objective of this work was to evaluate in situ the prey selectivity of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in some coral reefs of Morrocoy National Park by means of experimental and descriptive methods. We used quadrats of 1 m² to estimate coral abundance and richness, number of

  16. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

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    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  17. Efecto tóxico de los extractos acuosos de pinus caribaea y halimeda monile en células humanas

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    Marioly Vernhes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relacionado con la perspectiva farmacológica y/o nutricional que presentan algunas plantas y algas, el uso de estudios preclínicos que evalúan sus efectos tóxicos mutagénico y/o carcinogénico aumenta. Especies pertenecientes al género Pinus y género Halimeda han atraído la atención de especialistas por sus propiedades antioxidantes. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la toxicidad de los extractos acuosos de Pinus caribaea y Halimeda monile en células humanas. Dos líneas celulares transformadas con fragmento de SV40 fueron usadas como modelo experimental. Las células MRC5 y XP4PA fueron expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de ambos extractos durante 48 horas. El efecto citotóxico de los extractos fue evaluado mediante el ensayo de sobrevivencia clonogénica. Para ambas líneas celulares, el extracto acuoso de P.caribaea fue más tóxico que el extracto acuoso de H.monile. Para P.caribaea, dosis iguales y superiores a 10 ¿g/mL inhibieron la capacidad de formación de colonias en ambos tipos de células. Sin embargo, el efecto tóxico del extracto de H.monile se mostró a partir de las dosis 100 ¿g/mL y 2000 ¿g/mL para las células MRC5 y XP4PA respectivamente.

  18. Comparative mapping among subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mervyn; Williams, Claire G

    2008-05-01

    Comparative mapping in conifers has not yet been used to test for small-scale genomic disruptions such as inversions, duplications, and deletions occurring between closely related taxa. Using comparative mapping to probe this smaller scale of inquiry may provide clues about speciation in a phylogenetically problematic taxon, the diploxylon pine subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae). Genetic maps were constructed for two allopatric species of Australes, P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, using microsatellites and an F1 hybrid. A third map was generated directly from the meiotic products of an adult F1 hybrid, eliminating the need for an F2 generation. Numerous small-scale disruptions were detected in addition to synteny and collinearity, and these included (1) map shrinkage, (2) a paracentric inversion, (3) transmission ratio distortion, and (4) mild selection against a parental haplotype. Such cryptic signatures of genomic divergence between closely related interfertile species are useful in elucidating this problematic evolutionary history. PMID:18438435

  19. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  20. Prediction of stem biomass of Pinus caribaea growing in the low country wet zone of Sri Lanka

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    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important ecosystems as they reduce the atmospheric CO2 amounts and thereby control the global warming. Estimation of biomass values are vital to determine the carbon contents stored in trees. However, biomass estimation is not an easy task as the trees should be felled or uprooted which are time consuming and expensive procedures. As a solution to this problem, construction of mathematical relationships to predict biomass from easily measurable variables can be used.   The present study attempted to construct a mathematical model to predict the stem biomass of Pinus caribaea using the data collected from a 26 year old plantation located in Yagirala Forest Reserve in the low country wet zone of Sri Lanka. Due to the geographical undulations of this forest, two 0.05 ha sample plots were randomly established in each of valley, slope and ridge-top areas. In order to construct the model, stem wood density values were calculated by using stem core samples extracted at the breast height point. Stem volume was estimated for each tree using Newton’s formula and the stem biomass was then estimated by converting the weight of the known volume of core samples to the weight of the stem volume. Prior to pool the data for model construction, the density variations along the stem and between geographical locations were also tested.   It was attempted to predict the biomass using both dbh and tree height. Apart from the untransformed variables, four biologically acceptable transformations were also used for model construction to obtain the best model. All possible combinations of model structures were fitted to the data. The preliminary model selection for further analysis was done based on higher R2 values and compatibility with the biological reality. Out of those preliminary selected models, the final selection was done using the average model bias and modeling efficiency quantitatively and using standard residual distribution qualitatively

  1. Tannins extracted starting from residual bark of pinus caribaea morelet like protective of the adn before the damage induced by gamma rays a cellular cultivation of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was aimed to evaluate genotoxicity and anti genotoxicity activity against rays of the a tannins fraction obtained from barks of Pinus caribaea Morelet, as well as to elucidate the anti genotoxic mechanisms implicated in radioprotection using deferent's approaches as pre- co- and post-irradiation cell treatments with plant extract. The tannins fraction was not genotoxic to E. coli cells in experiments using different exposure times. This extract was anti genotoxic against rays when the cells were pre- or co-treated with this extracts, but not during post-irradiation treatments, suggesting a possibly anti genotoxic action through free radicals scavenging mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to the chemo preventive and therapeutic potential of the studied plant species

  2. Gmelina - large scale planting, Jarilandia, Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, A.

    1979-01-01

    A description of the Jari project in Brazil where 87,000 ha of virgin rain forest have so far (1978) been cleared and planted with (a) G. arborea and on lighter soils (b) Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis. A pulp mill (prefabricated on marine platforms) is now in operation, and the project employs 10,000 people. Planned production is 12,000 t/day by 1984 with (a) grown on a 7-yr rotation for pulp and 10-yr for sawlogs, and (b) on a 16-yr sawlog rotation with pulpwood thinnings at 6, 9, and 12 yr. It appears that the fertility and moisture retention of the soils is improving under the forest plantations.

  3. Nota sobre la densidad y tasa de depredación de Coralliophila abbreviata y Coralliophila caribaea sobre colonias jóvenes de Acropora palmata en un arrecife deteriorado de Cayo Sombrero, Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela Note on density and predation rate of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea on juvenile colonies of Acropora palmata in a deteriorated coral reef of Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Mónaco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Morrocoy (PNM se encuentran actualmente impactados. Posterior a la mortandad masiva ocurrida en 1996, ha habido indicios de recuperación de Acropora palmata. Este proceso podría ser retrasado por Coralliophila. Se observaron solamente tres colonias de A. palmata en todo un arrecife de Cayo Sombrero. En julio 2005 estas presentaron densidades de Coralliophila abbreviata de 4, 0 y 2 ind/col y de Coralliophila caribaea de 22, 14 y 0 ind/col y, en enero 2006 las densidades fueron: 8, 0 y 4 ind/col de C abbreviata y 22, 14 y 0 ind/col de C caribaea. En las tres colonias se observaron cuatro lesiones (dos de cada depredador. Hubo pérdida de tejido de 66,14 cm a 162,85 cm en las lesiones ocasionadas por C abbreviata, con tasa de depredación de 0,52 cm día-1 en una de ellas, mientras que en otra fue de 37,41 a 72,50 cm con tasa de depredación de 0,19 cm día-1 . Las lesiones generadas por C caribaea no cambiaron. Es probable que el efecto de Coralliophila afecte la recuperación de A. palmata en el PNM, considerando la alta densidad de depredadores y la escasa abundancia de este coral en este parque.The coral reefs of Morrocoy National Park are currently deteriorated. After the massive mortality of 1996, Acropora palmata has shown some signs of recovery, a process that could be hampered by Coralliophila. We observed only three colonies of A. palmata in an entire reef in Cayo Sombrero. In July 2005, these colonies registered Coralliophila abbreviata densities of 4, 0, and 2 ind/col and Coralliophila caribaea densities of 22, 14, and 0 ind/col; in January 2006, said densities were 8, 0, and 4 ind/col (C. abbreviaté and 22, 14, and 0 ind/col (C. caribaea. Four sites of damage (two per predator were observed in the three colonies. In one colony, C abbreviata caused a loss of tissue of 66.14 to 162.85 cm , indicating a predation rate of 0.52 cm² day-1. In the other colony, the damage ranged from 37.41 to 72.50 cm2

  4. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  5. Ribosomal genes of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and var. farciminosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, C N; Kappe, R; Zakikhani, S; Nolte, O; Sonntag, H G

    1998-11-01

    A total of 1704 basepairs of the 18S rDNA of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (HCD, strain CBS175.57) and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF, strain CBS478.64) were sequenced (EMBL accession no. Z75306 and no. Z75307). The 18S rDNA of HCD was 100% identical to a published sequence of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (HCC). The 18S rDNA of HCF showed one transversional point mutation at the nucleotide position 114 (ref. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hybridization confirmed that, in the 18S rDNA of two out of five strains of HCF, guanine was substituted for cytosine at the nucleotide position 114. Furthermore, identical group 1C1 introns (403 bp) were found to be inserted after position 1165 in four out of five strains of HCF, including the two strains with point mutations in the 18S rDNA, and a slightly different group 1C1 intron (408 bp) was detected in one strain of HCC without this point mutation. Intraspecific sequence variability in the highly conserved 18S rDNA because of occurrence of introns and mutations as a possible source of error in molecular diagnostics is discussed. In addition, internal transcribed spacer regions between the 18S rDNA and the 5.8S rDNA (ITS1) of three strains of HCF, and one strain each of HCC and HCD showed significant sequence variability between varieties and strains of H. capsulatum. PMID:9916456

  6. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  7. New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Efendi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae and one cytotype of var. ensiformis are recorded from Indonesia: var. victoriae with 2n=58 (sexual diploid from Gorontalo, North       Sulawesi, and 2n=87 (triploid from Lombok Island and Bogor, West Java; and var. ensiformis with 2n=116 (sexual tetraploid. The diploid is smaller than the triploid in plant size. Results indicate a cytological variation in var. victoriae, like in var. ensiformis.

  8. Pinus tropical com potencial para uso em plantios comerciais no Brasil. Tropical pine for commercial planting in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira WREGE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the

  9. 湿加松F2子代一年生苗高的变异%Variations in Height Increments of One-year Old Seedlings from F2 of Slash×Honduras Caribbean Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干少雄; 王启和; 王勋杰; 熊大国; 代仕高; 曹小军; 蒲春林

    2004-01-01

    在四川省泸州市泸县、宜宾市珙县、广元市元坝区进行了湿加松Pee×Pch (Pinus elliottii var.elliottii×P.caribaea var.hondurensis)F2子代育苗试验.结果表明:3个地点的平均苗高分别为33.12 cm、25.42 cm、21.03 cm,差异达极显著水平,呈现随海拔和主要气象因子的渐变变异趋势,海拔越低、年均温和≥10 ℃积温越高、年降水量越大、无霜期越长,平均苗高越大且变异系数越小.初步认为湿加松在四川引种的适宜条件为:海拔500 m左右,年均温≥17.0 ℃,≥10 ℃积温5600 ℃以上,年降水量1150 mm左右,无霜期≥320 d.

  10. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  11. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  12. INFLATION AND COMPETITIVENESS, A VAR MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin FRATOSTITEANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VAR modeling in inflation forecasting has been widely used, and rathersuccessful, even if there have been several critiques of its exactness oraccuracy. This paper is structured into two sections. The first oneaccomplishes a general presentation of VAR modeling in forecastinginflation, and the second is focused on the results of this econometricapproach for inflation in Romania. Even if we considered methodologiescontaining inflation measured using CPI, CORE1 and CORE2, testing willonly be performed for the CPI Inflation.

  13. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Juselius, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by TrygveHaavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame-work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time-series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres-sion results, time dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank,model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden-ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions underwhich the VAR model repres...

  14. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  15. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  16. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  17. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  18. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  19. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Li; Yong-Ping Yang; Xi-Min Wang; Ke-Chun Liu; Si-Feng Wang; Yan-Li Zhao; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  20. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding...

  1. Yeasts occuring on wheat seeds. IV. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff.) Skinner var. laurentii and var. flavescens (Saito) Lodder et Kreger-van Rij

    OpenAIRE

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-01-01

    Morphology and physiology of strains of Crvptococcus laurentii var. laurentii and var. flavescens was studied. Morphological features found in var. laurentii suggested a close relation to Sporobolomycetaceae, and in particular to Bullera alba (Hanna) Derx.

  2. Yeasts occuring on wheat seeds. IV. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff. Skinner var. laurentii and var. flavescens (Saito Lodder et Kreger-van Rij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and physiology of strains of Crvptococcus laurentii var. laurentii and var. flavescens was studied. Morphological features found in var. laurentii suggested a close relation to Sporobolomycetaceae, and in particular to Bullera alba (Hanna Derx.

  3. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien

  4. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    OpenAIRE

    Callot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential procedure to determine the common cointegration rank of panels of cointegrated VARs. It shows how a panel of cointegrated VARs can be transformed in a set of independent individual models. The likelihood function of the transformed panel is the sum of the likelihood functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From th...

  5. VAR models and methods for monetary and health economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lopreite, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Negli ultimi anni i modelli VAR sono diventati il principale strumento econometrico per verificare se può esistere una relazione tra le variabili e per valutare gli effetti delle politiche economiche. Questa tesi studia tre diversi approcci di identificazione a partire dai modelli VAR in forma ridotta (tra cui periodo di campionamento, set di variabili endogene, termini deterministici). Usiamo nel caso di modelli VAR il test di Causalità di Granger per verificare la capacità di una variabile...

  6. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  7. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  8. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-10-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  9. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Zhan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Fang-Le; Zhu, Chen-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Two new abietane diterpenoids, Gerardianin B (1) and Gerardianin C (2), one new lignan glycoside, Gerardianin D (3) and one new lupane-type triterpenoid, Gerardianol A (4), together with seven known abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activities of the nine diterpenoids were evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Compounds 6-11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 from 4.68 to 9.43μM and HCF-8 cell lines with IC50 from 9.12 to 13.53μM. PMID:26608401

  10. Reduced-order 4D-Var: a preconditioner for the Incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Céline; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method can be applied efficiently preconditione d in an application to an oceanographic problem. The approach consists in performing a few iterations of the reduced-order 4D-Var prior to the incremental 4D-Var in the full space in order to achieve faster convergence. An application performed in the tropical Pacific Ocean, with assimilation of TAO temperature data, shows the method to be both feasible and efficient. It allows the global cost of the assimilation to be reduced by a factor of 2 without affecting the quality of the solution.

  11. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  12. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  13. 4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.

    2007-05-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  14. Immigration, Growth and Unemployment: Panel VAR Evidence from OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  15. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on ag...

  16. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  17. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  18. Inter-relação da produtividade de madeira do pinus com atributos físico-químicos de um latossolo do cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Madureira Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Com relação aos atributos do solo, a produtividade de madeira do pinus varia substancialmente em função do pH, do teor de matéria orgânica e da resistência à penetração. No ano de 2007, no Município de Selvíria (MS foi analisada a produtividade de madeira do Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, em função de alguns atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico estabelecido num maciço florestal com 21 anos de idade. O objetivo foi selecionar, entre os atributos pesquisados do solo, aquele que melhor se apresentasse para explicar a variabilidade da produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, foi instalado um grid geoestatístico, para a coleta dos dados do solo e da planta, contendo 121 pontos amostrais, numa área de 3 ha do referido maciço. A produtividade de madeira variou diretamente com o pH do solo, tanto linear quanto espacialmente, com valores de 27,0-32,6 m³ ha-1 ano-1 e 3,9-4,4, respectivamente. Nos maiores, 32,6-36,9 m³ ha-1 ano-1 e 4,4-4,9. Dessa forma, o pH revelou ser um apreciável indicador da qualidade química do solo quando o objetivo foi estimar, linear e espacialmente, a produtividade de madeira da essência florestal pesquisada nas condições do Cerrado brasileiro do Sudeste do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

  19. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ....... Specifically we look at the time path of the eigenvalues using a new result on the asymptotic distribution of the estimated eigenvalues. Furthermore we show that the fluctuation test by Ploberger et al. (1989) and the Lagrange multiplier (LM) type test for constancy of parameters by Nyblom (1989) can...

  20. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  1. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  2. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  3. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/cesdp2013.html Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2013.12 - ISSN : 1955-611X This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the ...

  4. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys;

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  5. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  6. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  7. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  8. Two New Abietane Quinones from Isodon lophanthoides var. Micranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two new abietane quinones, named micranthins A and B, weredetermined to be 7α-methoxy-14, 16-epoxy-8, 13-abietadiene-11, 12-dione (1) and 16-acetoxy-6,7-dehydroroyleanone (2) respectively, which were isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var.micranthus.

  9. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  10. A New Cyclohexene Oxide from Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, subglain B, was isolated from the stems of Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra and its structure was identified as 1S, 2R, 3S, 6R-1-benzoyloxymethylene-1,2- dihydroxy-3-benzoyloxy-6-chlorocyclohex-4-ene (1), by spectral evidences.

  11. New Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Spiraea japonica var. ovalifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five new diterpenoid alkaloids, 19-O-deethylspiramine N (1), deacetylspiramine S (2), spiramidine A (3), spiramidine B (4) and deacetylspiramine F (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Spireae japonica L. f. var. ovalifolia. Their structures were charaterized mainly based on spectral analysis.

  12. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  13. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  14. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) et Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : repas de survie pour Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The English version of this preprint can be found at hal-01270314 . Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753): survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae). When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In a...

  15. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organi

  16. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  17. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  18. Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio (PLR) co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co......-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...

  19. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  1. Da fødsler var en naturlig ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Grit

    For bare 40 år siden fødte kvinderne på landet deres børn hjemme i sengen. Jordemødrene boede i nabolaget og kendte familierne, og således var barnefødslerne en naturlig og ganske udramatisk del af livet - dengang. Med jordemoder Rosa Thomsens stilfærdige beretning om tiden som distriktsjordemode...

  2. Is China's Monetary Policy Effective? Evaluating the VAR Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiadan Jiang; David Kim

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with rapid economic growth and large structural changes in the economy, China's monetary authority has managed to influence the economy with its policy actions since 1983. This paper conducts a rigorous empirical test on the effect of China's monetary policy actions on its economy by properly identifying and estimating two vector autoregression (VAR) models. To identify exogenous monetary policy shocks, two identification approaches are considered in this paper: A recursive approac...

  3. Application of subsynchronous damping controller to static var compensator

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Moghadam, Davoud Esmaeil; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Candela García, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new auxiliary Subsynchronous Damping Controller (SSDC) for the Static Var Compensator (SVC) to damp out subsynchronous oscillations in power system containing series compensated transmission lines. The arrival of Wide Area Measurement (WAM) technology has made it possible to measure the states of a large power system interconnected with synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). This paper presents the idea of using remote signals obtained from PMU to damp SSR. An auxi...

  4. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Weiler; Karine Cristina Krycki; Divanilde Guerra; Carine Simioni; Miguel Dall’Agnol

    2015-01-01

    Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola) is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parent...

  5. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Desriani Desriani; Dwi Endah Kusumawati; Akhmad Rivai; Neneng Hasanah; Wiwit Amrinola; Lita Triratna; Ade Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms livi...

  6. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  7. Studies on the fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Dermot

    1985-01-01

    During this work the fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis under industrial conditions was studied with respect to the development of a process for the production of a mosquitocidal insecticide elaborated by this organism. This was done by the development of a two-stage inoculum protocol which produced a high biomass-containing inoculum of vegetative cells which were found to be preferable to free spores for use as an inoculum source. In order to optimize the production st...

  8. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  9. Efeito do comprimento do corpo-de-prova na velocidade ultra-sônica em madeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Fabiana Goia Rosa de; Miller Karla Peitl; Candian Marcela; Sales Almir

    2006-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a variação da velocidade ultra-sônica longitudinal em função do comprimento da peça de madeira. As espécies utilizadas foram: pinus caribaea (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea) eucalipto citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora), eucalipto grandis (Eucalyptus grandis) e jatobá (Hymenaea sp). Utilizou-se equipamento de ultra-som com transdutores exponenciais de 22 kHz. Foram feitas medições do tempo de propagação das ondas ultra-sônicas, com o comprimento varian...

  10. Efeito do comprimento do corpo-de-prova na velocidade ultra-sônica em madeiras Effect of the size of the specimen on ultrasonic velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira; Karla Peitl Miller; Marcela Candian; Almir Sales

    2006-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a variação da velocidade ultra-sônica longitudinal em função do comprimento da peça de madeira. As espécies utilizadas foram: pinus caribaea (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea) eucalipto citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora), eucalipto grandis (Eucalyptus grandis) e jatobá (Hymenaea sp). Utilizou-se equipamento de ultra-som com transdutores exponenciais de 22 kHz. Foram feitas medições do tempo de propagação das ondas ultra-sônicas, com o comprimento varian...

  11. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  12. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien

  13. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  14. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  15. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using...

  16. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P.; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A.; Padhye, A A

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. c...

  17. Incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme based on Lorenz model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xidong; XU Dongfeng; XU Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional variational(4D-VAR) data assimilation method is a perfect data assimilation solution in theory, but the compu- tational issue is quite difficult in operational implementation. The incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme is set up in order to re- duce the computational cost. It is shown that the accuracy of the observations, the length of the assimilation window and the choice of the first guess have an important influence on the assimilation outcome through the contrast experiment. Compared with the standard 4D-VAR assimilation scheme, the incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme shows its advantage in the computation speed through an assimilation experiment.

  18. Isolation of the Endophytic Fungi of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and Their Effects on the Embryo Development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHENG; Yanqiong YANG; Changling ZHAO; Li WANG; Shuying CHEN; Yuhan SHEN; Jing CHAI; Key words Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis; Endophytic fungus; P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seed; Embryo development; Embryo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi of Paris poly- phylla var. yunnanensis and investigate their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds. [Method] The endophytic fungi of P. poly- phylla were isolated and identified morphologically, and their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using paraffin sectioning and microphotography. [Result] Nine endophytic fungi, Le. P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis endophytic fungi PPYEF-1, PPYEF-2, PPYEF-3, PPYEF-4, PPYEF- 5, PPYEF-6, PPYEF-7, PPYEF-8 and PPYEF-9 belonging to seven genera in five families, three orders were isolated from the rhizomes. Except PPYEF-4 (Cladospori- um sp.), other fungi could promote the embryo development of the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds, mostly reaching the extremely significant or significant level. PPYEF-9 (Trichoderma sp.) resulted in the highest embryo length and embryo-e- merging ratio. [Conclusion] This paper could provide a reference for the applica- tion of the endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in the dormancy- breaking of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

  19. A new jacaranone derivative from Senecio scandens var. incisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lu, Peng; Duan, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao

    2010-03-01

    A new jacaranone derivative, 2-(1,6-dihydroxy-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl) acetic acid (1), has been isolated from the whole plants of Senecio scandens var. incisus, together with three known compounds: 2'-(p-hydroxyl-cinnamoyl)-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2'-caffeoyl-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kampferol-3-rhamnoside (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with the related known compounds. Cytotoxic activities of 1 against three human tumour cell lines have been evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:20221943

  20. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  1. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  2. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  3. Forecasting the South African Economy : A DSGE-VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.; Gupta, R.; Schaling, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro-founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the theoretical VAR model. The model is estimated via the maximum likelihood technique based on quarterly data on real Gross National Product (GNP), consumption, investment and hours worked, for the South African economy, over the period of 1970:1 to 2000:4. Based on a recursive estimation using the Kalman filter algorithm, the out-of-sample forecasts from the hybrid model are then...

  4. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  5. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct interpre

  6. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  7. The monetary transmission mechanism in the Czech republic (evidence from VAR analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoštová, Kateřina; Hurník, Jaromír

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the monetary policy transmission mechanism using VAR models – the most widely used empirical methodology for analyzing the transmission mechanism in the Czech economy. Using the VAR methodology, the paper tries to evaluate the effects of an exogenous shock to monetary policy.

  8. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji;

    2014-01-01

    and their VAR2CSA binding were characterized. All portions of human placenta contained sufficient amounts of the appropriate low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A to display high-affinity binding to a recombinant truncated VAR2CSA construct, as determined using surface plasmon resonance. The cotyledon is the only...

  9. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  10. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  11. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    La version française de l'article est hal-01277035. International audience When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In addition, four specimens of this species were found after surviving without water or food other than radish plants (Raphanus sativus var. sativus). So it seems that M. extrad...

  12. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  13. Normality assumptions and risk management: an application of the parametric var via goodness-of-fit test

    OpenAIRE

    Herick Fernando Moralles; Alexandre Sartoris Neto; Daisy Aparecida do Nascimento Rebelatto

    2014-01-01

    Given the weaknesses of the parametric VaR (Value-at-Risk) calculated by normality assumptions, this paper develops a method of parametric VaR calculation considering ten different probability distributions. Specifically, the distribution to be used for the VaR calculation of a specific asset or portfolio is indicated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. Additionally, the study compares the normality assumptions applicability for the VaR calculation of both individual assets, and t...

  14. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  15. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  16. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  17. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  18. Characterization of a Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, a pathogen of grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, CG 863, obtained from the grasshopper Schistocerca interrita, a crop pest in Peru. The characterization was done by comparing this isolate with two other ones of M. anisopliae var. acridum, from Brazil and Australia, and with an isolate of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. The three M. anisopliae var. acridum isolates had similar growth profiles in agar plates at 25°C and 37°C, and similar RAPD patterns according to the analysis of three primers. However, regarding these parameters and conidial size, these isolates were very distinct when compared to M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate. Bioassays indicated that the Peruvian isolate is as pathogenic as the Brazilian isolate against nymphs of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides.

  19. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2...

  20. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  1. Static Var Compensator for CERN's Proton Synchrotron Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2004-01-01

    The following paper summarises the design studies for a new 85Mvar 18kV Static Var Compensator (SVC) for CERN’s Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. Currently, the PS is supplied using a rotating motor-generator set in order to decouple the pulsating load from the electrical network. A study is undertaken to investigate the replacement of this rotating machine by an SVC. The proposed solution comprises a 85Mvar Thyristor Controlled Reactor and seven harmonic filters with a total power of 75Mvar. The paper gives a detailed description of the project background, system design and control strategy. Finally, the results of the computer studies are presented, showing the expected dynamic performance of the SVC.

  2. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  3. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  4. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  5. ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflorat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 吴海燕; 杜雪; 晋建新; 孙汉董

    2012-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 6fl,13ct,15fl-trihydroxy-16-ene-3a,20-epoxy-ent-kaur- 1,7-dione (1), 6-hydroxy-3a,20-epoxy-5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7,15-trione (2), 6-hydroxy-15fl-acetoxy-3a,20-epoxy-16]3,17-epoxy- 5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7-dione (3), 3ct,17-dihydroxy-15(16)-ene-ent-kaur-7-one (4), along with four known com- pounds 5--8 were isolated from the leaves oflsodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora. The structures were elucidated by ex- tensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 8 showed moderate inhibitory effects on HL-60, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines.

  6. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  8. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita;

    2012-01-01

    , laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis...... of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation...... participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass...

  9. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  10. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  11. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  12. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  13. Genetic diversity of expressed Plasmodium falciparum var genes from Tanzanian children with severe malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugasa Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malaria has been attributed to the expression of a restricted subset of the var multi-gene family, which encodes for Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. PfEMP1 mediates cytoadherence and sequestration of infected erythrocytes into the post-capillary venules of vital organs such as the brain, lung or placenta. var genes are highly diverse and can be classified in three major groups (ups A, B and C and two intermediate groups (B/A and B/C based on the genomic location, gene orientation and upstream sequences. The genetic diversity of expressed var genes in relation to severity of disease in Tanzanian children was analysed. Methods Children with defined severe (SM and asymptomatic malaria (AM were recruited. Full-length var mRNA was isolated and reversed transcribed into var cDNA. Subsequently, the DBL and N-terminal domains, and up-stream sequences were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequences derived from SM and AM isolates were compared and analysed. Results The analysis confirmed that the var family is highly diverse in natural Plasmodium falciparum populations. Sequence diversity of amplified var DBL-1α and upstream regions showed minimal overlap among isolates, implying that the var gene repertoire is vast and most probably indefinite in endemic areas. var DBL-1α sequences from AM isolates were more diverse with more singletons found (pvar DBL-1α sequences from SM patients were rare and restricted suggesting that certain PfEMP1 variants might induce severe disease. Conclusions The genetic sequence diversity of var genes of P. falciparum isolates from Tanzanian children is large and its relationship to disease severity has been studied. Observed differences suggest that different var genes might have fundamentally different roles in the host-parasite interaction. Further research is required to examine clear disease-associations of var gene subsets in different geographical settings

  14. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...... with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  15. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  16. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C;

    2012-01-01

    antibodies and the var transcript and PfEMP1 expression profiles of the generated parasites were investigated. The IgG reactivity by plasma from children living in malaria-endemic Tanzania was tested to parasites and recombinant VAR3 protein. Parasites from hospitalized children were isolated and the...... recognition of parasites expressing VAR3 and to the recombinant VAR3 protein after a malaria episode and the isolated parasites showed high levels of var3 transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the presented data suggest that var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected...... transcript level of var3 was investigated. RESULTS: Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children's IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased...

  17. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on...

  18. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  19. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  1. Three new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium laxicymosum var. Pilostachyum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Qiao Hong Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Three new lycoctonine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, laxicymine 1, laxicymisine 2, and laxicyminine 3 have been isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium laxicymosum var.pilostachyum W.T.Wang.Their structures were established by spectra data.

  2. Myte: Var Danmark det første land, der ophævede slaveriet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?......Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?...

  3. VaR and Liquidity Risk.Impact on Market Behaviour and Measurement Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Erzegovesi, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Current trends in international banking supervision following the 1996 Amendment to the Basel Accord emphasise market risk control based upon internal Value-at-risk (VaR) models. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of VaR models in the light of their impact on market liquidity. After a preliminary review of basic concepts and measures regarding market risk, market friction and liquidity risk, the arguments supporting the internal models approach to supervision on market risk are dis...

  4. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapp...

  5. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske...... hyperinflationer var et betragteligt fremadskuende element i agenterne pengeefterspørgsel. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  6. E(var)3-9 of Drosophila melanogaster Encodes a Zinc Finger Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a gene's natural chromatin environment for its normal expression is poignantly illustrated when a change in chromosome position results in variable gene repression, such as is observed in position effect variegation (PEV) when the Drosophila melanogaster white (w) gene is juxtaposed with heterochromatin. The Enhancer of variegation 3-9 [E(var)3-9] gene was one of over a hundred loci identified in screens for mutations that dominantly modify PEV. Haploinsufficiency for E(var)...

  7. Macroeconomic and credit forecasts in a small economy during crisis: A large Bayesian VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitris P. Louzis

    2014-01-01

    We examine the ability of large-scale vector autoregressions (VARs) to produce accurate macroeconomic (output and inflation) and credit (loans and lending rates) forecasts in Greece, during the latest sovereign debt crisis. We implement recently proposed Bayesian shrinkage techniques and we evaluate the information content of forty two (42) monthly macroeconomic and financial variables in a large Bayesian VAR context, using a five year out-of-sample forecasting period from 2008 to 2013. The e...

  8. Effect of Pre-Chilling Duration and Kinetin on Germination of Capers (Capparis Spinosa Var. Spinosa And Capparis Ovata Var. Canescens) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Talip; SÖYLER, Durmuş Ali; ÖZCAN, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine theeffects of pre-chilling and kinetin treatment on germination of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata var. canescens seeds. Seeds were kept 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for pre-chilling at +4 ºC. After the prechilling, Seeds were treated with distilled water, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm doses of kinetin and 2000 ppm dose of GA3 which was used as positive control for 24 hours at 22 ºC. The research was conducted with 4 repetitionin in fitler pape...

  9. Hibridação interespecífica entre Gossmum hirsutum L. var. latifolium e G. Herbaceum L. var. africanum Interespecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium and G. Herbaceum var. africanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Chiavegato

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi obtida, pelos autores, variabilidade genética para resistência da fibra do algodoeiro a partir da hibridação entre a espécie alotetraplóide cultivada Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. e a espécie diplóide selvagem G. herbaceum L. vai. africanum Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as características agronômicas e tecnológicas da fibra do híbrido são descritas e discutidas. Visando à duplicação do número de cromossomos da espécie diplóide, foram realizados nove tratamentos com o alcalóide colchicina, em solução aquosa e em adição com pasta de lanolina, com diferentes concentrações e tempo de ação para o tratamento de sementes, radicelas e gemas apicais: revelou-se mais eficiente o de gemas apicais com colchicina a 1%, em pasta de lanolina, durante 32 horas. Diversos cruzamentos das plantas duplicadas com variedades comerciais de algodoeiro levaram à obtenção de híbrido estéril. A seguir, dois retrocruzamentos foram realizados, sendo que, a partir do primeiro, a fertilidade foi restaurada. Estas plantas, com características agronômicas promissoras, possuem grande variabilidade para resistência da fibra, num nível superior ao de G. hirsutum.Genetic variability was obtained by the authors for fiber strenght in cotton, through hybridization between the cultivated alotetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. and the wild diploid species G. herbaceum L. africanum Hutch. The underlying methods and the hybrid's characteristics are reported and described. As a first step, the number of chromosomes in the diploid species was duplicated. Nine treatments with aqueous colchicina or colchicina in lanolina paste were carried out, comprising several concentrations and times of application to seeds, radicles and apical buds of the main stem. Success was obtained by treating apical buds with lanolina paste containing 1% colchicina, during 32 hours. Two hundred fourty five crosses between the

  10. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  11. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  12. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  13. Working Alliance Inventory applied to Virtual and Augmented Reality (WAI-VAR: Psychometrics and Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiragall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR therapies (WAI-VAR. The relationship between the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage= 34.41. Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. Not changed patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than improved and recovered patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the therapeutic alliance with therapist (WAI-S and the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR (WAI-VAR, due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the therapeutic alliance with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  14. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  15. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  16. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  18. The "firing cannons" of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Andries P S; Swart, Chantel W; Pohl, Carolina H; van Wyk, Pieter W J; Swart, Hendrik C; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Schoombie, Schalk W; Smit, Jon; Kock, Johan Lodewyk F

    2013-06-01

    According to literature, the elongated ascospores of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata exhibit smart movement when forcefully ejected from bottle-shaped asci. This type of movement is defined as the unique patterns of non-random movement of ascospores with specialized morphology thereby facilitating release from asci. Smart movement is required to actively release ascospores individually through the narrow ascus neck, without causing an obstruction and blocking ascospore release. However, little is known about the propulsion mechanism of this cannon-type release system. We show that asci of this yeast contain a central channel (barrel) filled with ascospores. These are surrounded by a sheath-like structure that lines the inner surface of the ascus wall. We found that this sheath is responsible for forcing the naked ascospores out of the ascus by exerting turgor pressure from the bottom towards the tip of the ascus. This cannon firing system is in contrast to that found in Dipodascus geniculatus, where no sheaths lining the ascus interior were observed. Instead, sheaths were found enveloping each ascospore. PMID:23750956

  19. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed chemical investigation of the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides, namely, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-OE- feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-feruloyl-β-Dgalactopyranoside (2. In addition, four known compounds, quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-Dglucopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, quercetin-3- O-(6′′-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-pcoumaroyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (6 were obtained. The structures of the new isolates were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  1. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  2. COPULA BASED VaR APPROACH FOR EUROPEAN STOCKS PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives stochastic assessments of the financial crisis and discusses the Value at Risk European stocks from the point of view of copula based approach. Copula techniques can be based on the connection between rank correlation and certain one–parameter bivariate copulas. This relation allows easy calibration of the parameters. We use more general numerical calibration techniques that are based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Using this approach we want to estimate VaR of the EU stocks portfolio using Monte Carlo simulation. The focus will be on modelling the interdependence between two risk factor returns. We suppose that the risk factor returns have some assumed marginal distributions, which need not be identical, and their dependency is modelled with copulas. We find that standard parametric copula functions (such as Gaussian are not able to provide a good fit to the data. This is especially true when one or more of the marginal distributions has fat tails. We overcome this problem by fitting a t–copula with different marginal which can approximate any possible shape for the joint density.

  3. Intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weiriiem ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As intoxicações por Baccharis coridifolia afetam especialmente animais de fazenda famintos ou curiosos e que não haviam tido contato prévio com a planta. B. coridifolia ocorre usualmente em terrenos secos de coxilhas no Rio Grande do Sul e estados ou países vizinhos. Uma forma indistinguível e esporádica da doença tem sido associada com a ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica que ocorre em áreas úmidas. Relata-se a intoxicação natural de quatro cordeiros após ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. A doença foi observada em uma propriedade localizada em Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. O rebanho era composto por 220 ovinos, os quais eram mantidos em área de pastagem nativa sem qualquer suplementação. Uma rápida doença clínica caracterizada por anorexia, cólica, diarréia e desidratação causou a morte de três cordeiros em um período de 8 a 24 horas, o outro foi encontrado morto. A necropsia revelou alterações significativas no rúmen, no qual havia edema de serosa e hemorragias equimóticas na submucosa. Microscopicamente, o rúmen apresentou edema de submucosa, além de edema, tumefação, vacuolização e necrose de mucosa. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado nos achados clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos.Spontaneous poisoning of livestock by Baccharis coridifolia affects mostly hungry or curious animals that have not entered in contact with the plant previously. The plant occurs usually in dried hilly soils of Rio Grande do Sul and neighboring states or countries. An indistinguishable and sporadic form of the disease has been associated with the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica, a species occurring in moist areas. This communication reports the spontaneous poisoning of four lambs after ingestion of B. megapotamica var. weirii. Clinical signs were observed in three lambs, the other was found dead. A rapid clinical disease characterized by anorexia, colic, dehydration, and diarrhea resulted in death

  4. The chondroitin sulfate A-binding site of the VAR2CSA protein involves multiple N-terminal domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M; Nielsen, Morten A;

    2011-01-01

    by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been...... of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDR(PAM) and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite...

  5. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  6. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  7. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  8. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m3. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m3. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for

  9. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  10. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  11. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  12. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  13. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion;

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  14. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  15. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained articles presented in three separate chapters. The overall aim is to provide a foundation for combining the new theoretical framework of Imperfect Knowledge Economics (IKE) developed by Frydman and Goldberg (2007, 2011) with the econometric...... model embedding key features of IKE and show that empirical regularities in the simulated data can be found using the cointegrated VAR model, despite bounded parameter-instability and stochastic cointegration in the data-generating process. Finally, the third chapter is a purely econometric article...... conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  16. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Hee-Young

    2014-03-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea.

  17. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  18. Genetic variability and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengran Zhao

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted. At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei's gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei's gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei's gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794 was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively, which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus.

  19. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  20. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø;

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible...

  1. Genetic Interactions Reveal that Specific Defects of Chloroplast Translation are Associated with the Suppression of var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiayan Liu; Mengdi Zheng; Rui Wang; Ruijuan Wang; Lijun An; Steve R. Rodermel; Fei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development.

  2. The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.W.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Arnot, D.E.; Theander, T.G.; Lavstsen, T.

    2009-01-01

    The var genes encode a family of adhesion receptor proteins, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which profoundly influence malaria pathogenesis. Only a single var gene is transcribed and one PfEMP1 expressed per P.falciparum parasite. Here we present the in vivo transcrip

  3. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  4. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  5. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The disaccharide trehalose, known to be an effective protectant against various kinds of stress, was observed to accumulate in the cytosol of Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum during heat stress. Trehalose was apparently neither involved in the defence of C. thermophilum var. coprophilum...

  6. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  7. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S;

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses...

  8. A NEW AROMATIC ESTER AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF Salvia aucheri var. canescens

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN*, N. TAN*, G. TOPÇU**,

    2015-01-01

    The roots of an endemic Salvia species, Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss.and HeIdr. have been investigated and a new aromatic ester together with two diterpenoids, a triterpenoid and a steroidal compound were isolated. The structures of the new and the known compounds were determined by spectral methods and by TLC comparision with authentic samples except for the new compound.Key words: Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss. and Heldr.; Labiatae; aromaticester; terpenoidal compounds.

  9. Two New Highly Oxygenated Spirostanol Saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling-Yu; Lu, Ting-Xiang; Qin, Xu-Jie; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Hui; He, Hong-Ping; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, named paristenosides A (1) and B (2), together with seven known compounds. Their structures were established mainly on the base of NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the two new saponins was tested. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, paristenosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. PMID:27255683

  10. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  11. [Finding of dairy yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis in natural habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S; Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Well-known yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis, which are usually associated with dairy prod- ucts, were discovered in nature (in woodland park soil under Impatiens glandulifera Royle plants). Reliable identification of the yeasts was carried out using physiological criteria (lactose and maltose utilization) and molecular markers (nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA fragment, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization of chromosomal DNA with the LAC4 probe). Ecology of KI. lactis var. lactis is discussed. PMID:25941717

  12. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Korish, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ra...

  13. Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Alzugaray; Nélida Carnevale; Rodrigo Freire; Mirian Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Título en ingles: In vitro culture of Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Resumen: Schinus fasciculata es un árbol de la ecorregión chaqueña argentina. Es una especie de bajo porte, usada como antiséptico, analgésico, antiinflamatorio y antifúngico. Estudios previos registraron baja germinación y deficiente sanidad. El objetivo fue evaluar la germinación y la re...

  14. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  15. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one...... is to review and evaluate the existing and recent techniques and algorithms for advanced VVC applications and identify the requirements for integrated Volt/Var control and optimization function in distribution management systems within the smart grid concepts....

  16. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen;

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  17. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  18. The modular structure of the floral phenotype in Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae) Estructura modular del fenotipo floral en Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GASTÓN CARVALLO; RODRIGO MEDEL

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of multivariate evolution on the floral phenotype assume that traits evolve independently one from each other, ignoring the modular structure that results from genetic correlations or developmental constraints. In this paper we describe the interdependence of nine floral traits in the herb Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae), as an attempt to characterize functional modules on which natural selection can potentially act upon. Using edge exclusion deviance analysis, we detecte...

  19. VAR-Tree-A New High-Dimensional Data Index Structure%VAR-Tree--一种新的高维数据索引结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董道国; 梁刘红; 薛向阳

    2005-01-01

    在多媒体信息检索和数据挖掘等应用领域,实现高维矢量的K近邻搜索是非常具有挑战性的研究课题,为此人们提出了很多种索引结构.然而,现有研究成果表明,随着矢量维数的增加,基于树状索引结构的查询性能急剧下降,例如在R-Tree,X-Tree和SS-Tree中都会出现"维数灾难".为此,又引入近似压缩的思想,即通过压缩数据来减少查询过程中的磁盘读写代价,例如VA-File等,不过,VA-File没有对近似矢量数据做任何的排序或层次处理.提出了一种新的索引结构VAR-Tree,它将VA-File与R-Tree有机结合起来,用R-Tree管理和组织VA-File中的近似数据,并用已提出的R-Tree类相似查询算法实现基于VAR-Tree的查询.实验结果表明,VAR-Tree较好地提高了检索性能.

  20. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  1. Interactions between Eurozone and US Booms and Busts: A Bayesian Panel Markov-switching VAR Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Interactions between the eurozone and US booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis. The model accommodates changes in low and high data frequencie

  2. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a num

  3. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  4. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  5. Simón Bolívar: aproximación al pensamiento del Libertador

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2005-01-01

    Primero de una serie de artículos en los que se analizará y expondrá el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar con la finalidad de comprender mejor su mentalidad, su esencial protagonismo en los acontecimientos que originaron la independencia hispanoamericana, sus ideas y planteamientos políticos, etc.

  6. Simón Bolívar y la carta de Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2010-01-01

    La Carta de Jamaica es un documento fundamental para comprender el proceso emancipador hispanoamericano y en especial para entender el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar, su actitud ante la situación política del continente americano y sus previsiones "sobre la suerte futura de la América".

  7. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  8. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  9. A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides and a new derivation of phenolic glycoside from Paris Polyphylla var. yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Wen Yuan Gao; Tie Jun Zhang; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides 1, named parispolyside F, and a novel derivation of phenolic glycoside 2, named parispolyside G, as well as two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  10. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spec

  11. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism

  12. Identifying Shocks in Regionally Integrated East Asian Economies with Structural VaR and Block Exogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sato (Kiyotaka); Z. Zhang (Zhaoyong); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we use a structural VAR model with block exogeneity to investigate if external shocks originating from the USA played a dominant role in influencing the macroeconomic fluctuations in East Asia during the period 1978-2007. The empirical results show a dynamic effect of exter

  13. Identifying Shocks in Regionally Integrated East Asian Economies with Structural VAR and Block Exogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sato (Kiyotaka); Z. Zhang (Zhaoyong); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we use a structural VAR model with block exogeneity to investigate if external shocks originating from the USA played a dominant role in influencing the macroeconomic fluctuations in East Asia during the period 1978-2007. The empirical results show a dynamic effect of exter

  14. Improved Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration Rank in the VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boswijk, H. Peter; Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We suggest improved tests for cointegration rank in the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and develop asymptotic distribution theory and local power results. The tests are (quasi-)likelihood ratio tests based on a Gaussian likelihood, but of course the asymptotic results apply more generally...

  15. Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var.Pengzhouense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChongShengPENG; FengPengWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var. pengzhouense, two new norditerpenoid alkaloids, pengshenines A(1) and B(2),have isolated from the roots of the plants and their strucures were elucidated by 1D-and 2D-NMR.

  16. Two new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from roots Aconitum hemsleyanium var. atropurpureum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new franchetine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid 3-hydroxyfranchetine 1 and a new aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid atropurpursine 2 have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanium var.atropurpureum.The structures of these new alkaloids were established on the basis of spectral data.

  17. Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu Liu; Qiao Hong Chen; Feng Peng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, designated as anthriscifolmines A-C (1-3), together with two known alkaloids denudatine and delgramine, were isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri. The structures of these new alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  18. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852. Class: Phycomycetes. Order: Mucorales. Family: Mortierellaceae....

  19. Disseminated Nosocomial Fungal Infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bolignano, Giuseppe; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    We report on a rare case of disseminated nosocomial fungal infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum in a severely traumatized patient. Repeated blood and urine cultures yielded multicellular filamentous hyphal structures of varying size accompanied by budding yeast-like-cells of ellipsoidal morphology. The patient became asymptomatic after fluconazole therapy.

  20. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  1. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  2. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A;

    2014-01-01

    called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa) intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA....

  3. Structural Insight into Epitopes in the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Protein VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P; Nielsen, MA; Resende, M;

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein o...

  4. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  5. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  6. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  7. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation o

  8. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  9. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  10. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  11. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  12. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Transmission in the Euro-area: evidence from a structural VAR analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Garretsen, H.; Gobbin, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the transmission of monetary and fiscal policy in the Euro-area. To do so, structural VAR models are estimated. First, the EMU countries are considered as an aggregate entity and the estimation results are compared with those for the US and Japan. Attention is also paid to interac

  13. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK)

    OpenAIRE

    BARBULESCU MARINELA; HAGIU ALINA; VASILICA RADU

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  14. GROWTH DYNAMICS OF Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil AND Tabebuia impetiginosa FROM PANTANAL MATO-GROSSENSE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Póvoa de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for wood within tropical natural forests and a scarcity of available data to carry out a management program. It is of great importance, therefore, that growth ring information is being enhanced. The Pantanal of Nhecolândia, sub-region of Pantanal Mato-grossense, may be viewed as one of these regions. Its natural forests are systematically cut to be used as solid wood or fuel, or replaced by cultivated pastures. Peculiar climatic and soil factors of Nhecolandia induce the formation of annual growth rings. This work aims at determining the radial increments of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa by growth ring analysis. Disks from eight trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and six of Tabebuia impetiginosa were collected, in July 1996, in Nhumirim Farm, Embrapa Pantanal, located in Nhecolandia sub-region. The trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa were 14 to 30 and 15 to 30 years old, respectively. Diameter increment varied from 5.4 to 8.0 mm/year for Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and from 4.8 to 11.6 mm/year for Tabebuia impetiginosa. The average estimated time for both species to reach a diameter of 40 cm was 55 years.

  15. Potential of 4d-VAR for exigent forecasting of severe weather

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ross N; Nehrkorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Severe storms, tropical cyclones, and associated tornadoes, floods, lightning, and microbursts threaten life and property. Reliable, precise, and accurate alerts of these phenomena can trigger defensive actions and preparations. However, these crucial weather phenomena are difficult to forecast. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of 4d-VAR (four dimensional variational data assimilation) for exigent forecasting (XF) of severe storm precursors and to thereby characterize the probability of a worst-case scenario. 4d-VAR is designed to adjust the initial conditions (IC) of a numerical weather prediction model consistent with the uncertainty of the prior estimate of the IC while at the same time minimizing the misfit to available observations. For XF the same approach is taken but instead of fitting observations, a measure of damage or loss or an equivalent proxy is maximized or minimized. To accomplish this will require development of a specialized cost function for 4d-VAR. When 4d-VAR s...

  16. A VAR Analysis of Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrinović, Ivan; Benazić, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the functioning of the monetary transmission mechanism in the EU. It analyses the influence of an increase in short-term interest rate on real and monetary variable e.g. industrial production of the EU members, retail prices, monetary mass and real exchange rate. Frequently used econometric technique of VAR has been used to analyse the monetary transmission mechanism.

  17. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  18. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  19. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  20. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J. Carl; Dry, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  1. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Dry, Jonathan R

    2016-06-20

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  2. Var Gene promoter activation in clonal Plasmodium falciparum isolates follows a hierarchy and suggests a conserved switching program that is independent of genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderes, Corinna; Kombila, Davy; Dal-Bianco, Matthias; Dzikowski, Ron; Kremsner, Peter; Frank, Matthias

    2011-11-15

    Antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by a mutually exclusive expression mechanism that limits expression to an individual member of the multicopy var gene family. This process determines the antigenic and adhesive phenotype of the infected red blood cell. Previously, we showed that var gene switching is influenced by chromosomal position. Here, we address whether var gene transcription follows a general conserved pattern in long-term laboratory parasites and in recently culture-adapted field parasites. Activation of the var gene family was monitored in biological replicates in each parasite isolate every 3-5 generations for up to 3 months. We used transgenic parasites carrying a drug-selectable marker at a defined var locus to characterize var gene activation after the exclusive expression of the transgene. Transgenic parasites exhibited a repeatable hierarchy of var gene activation and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the transgenic var locus. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type laboratory and field parasites showed a universal bias toward transcription of UpsC var genes and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the dominant var promoter. The data suggest the existence of an intrinsic var gene transcription program that is independent of genetic background. PMID:21926380

  3. Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria preferentially expresses PfEMP1 encoded by group A var genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Magistrado, Pamela; Sharp, Sarah;

    2004-01-01

    Parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSAs) like the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family are responsible for antigenic variation and infected red blood cell (RBC) cytoadhesion in P. falciparum malaria. Parasites causing severe malaria......(SM) to identify PfEMP1 responsible for the VSA(SM) phenotype. Expression of VSA(SM) was accompanied by up-regulation of Group A var genes. The most prominently up-regulated Group A gene (PFD1235w/MAL7P1.1) was translated into a protein expressed on the infected RBC surface. The proteins encoded by Group A var...

  4. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is precipitated by the accumulation of parasites in the placental intervillous spaces and causes maternal anemia and low birth weight. In PAM, placental parasites adhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) through a unique set of variant surface antigens...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  5. Estudio sobre la influencia de la inoculación de las rizobacterias Azospirillum brasilense y Pseudomonas fluorescens sobre el desarrollo morfológico y el contenido de aceites esenciales en las especies aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Trenado, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la influencia de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, con Pseudomonas fluorescens y la inoculación conjunta con ambas rizobacterias en las especies de plantas aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis. Se evaluará su desarrollo morfológico, atendiendo a tres parámetros: la longitud del tallo, el peso fresco y la superficie foliar. Así como el posible incremento en el c...

  6. Purification and characterization of a new Xylanase from Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea Produção, purificação e caracterização de uma nova Xilanase de Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea

    OpenAIRE

    Severino de Albuquerque Lucena-Neto; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira-Filho

    2004-01-01

    The thermophilic fungus Humicola grisea var. thermoidea secretes extracellular xylanase when grown on solid and in liquid media containing wheat bran and banana plant residue as substrates, respectively. At 55ºC, xylanase from the culture filtrate of H. grisea var. thermoidea grown on banana stalk retained 50% of its activity after 28 h of incubation. A xylanase (X2) was isolated from solid state cultures with wheat bran as the carbon source. It was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafi...

  7. Yeasts occurring on wheat seeds. II. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff. Skinner var. magnus Lodder et Kreger-van Rij and C. albidus (Saito Skinner var. albidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and physiology of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii var. magnus and C. albidus var. albidus isolated from winter wheat seeds was studied. It was concluded on the basis of morphological similarity that these fungi were closely related. Resting spores of a "dangeardien'' type were found in C. laurentii, while in some cultures of C. albidus unusually large resting spores were dis00vered.

  8. Chemical constituents of leaves of Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schard.) Irwin and Barneby; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schrad.) Irwin and Barneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio de Oliveira; Oliveira, Irvila Ricarte de; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. excelsa were isolated caffeine, the triterpenes lupeol, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, cycloeucalenol, friedelin and ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids, besides the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol and their respective glucosides. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. spectabilis var. excelsa. (author)

  9. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  10. Final Critical Habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) island of Mokoli'i (Chinaman's Hat), Oahu, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) occur the based on the...

  11. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  12. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  13. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  14. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  15. Fertilização de mudas de espécies arbóreas nativas e exóticas Fertilization of native and exotic tree seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Pires de Moraes Neto; José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves; José Carlos Arthur Jr.; Fabiane Ducatti; José Hamilton Aguirre Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Doses crescentes de fertilizante de liberação controlada (FLC) foram comparadas com fertilização convencional e tratamento sem fertilização. Estes tratamentos foram testados em mudas das pioneiras Guazuma ulmifolia (mutambo), Eucalyptus grandis e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, da secundária inicial Peltophorum dubium (canafístula) e da clímax Calycophyllum spruceanum (mulateiro), as quais cresceram em casa de vegetação. As mudas foram cultivadas em tubetes de 50 cm³ de capacidade, tendo como s...

  16. Macurije (Pinar del Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González Izquierdo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de las clases de calidad de sitio de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea en la Empresa Forestal Integral Macurije (Pinar del Río, Cuba. La inves-tigación se realizó en rodales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea de plantaciones de la Empresa Forestal Integral (EFI Macurije (22º 06´ y 22º 42´ de latitud Norte y los 83º 48´ y 84º 23´ de longitud oeste perteneciente a la provincia de Pinar del Río (Cuba occidental. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las clases de calidad de sitio de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea en la empresa para correlacionarlas con las propiedades de los suelos que así las definen. Para ello, se tomó una muestra de 50 rodales al azar de los 677 rodales existentes en esta empresa, teniendo como variable de interés la calidad de sitio y como variables predictoras: tipo de suelo, textura, saturación, humificación, profundidad del suelo, profundidad pedológica y pendiente topográfica. Estas variables se escogieron por su fuerte influencia sobre la calidad de sitio. Se establecieron como restricciones para la selección que hubiese 10 rodales por cada calidad de sitio y que estuviesen en las clases de edades superiores a 10 años. Se obtuvo un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple paso a paso, el cual explicó la relación existente entre las variables edáficas y la pendiente topográfica con la calidad de sitio. El modelo explicó el 30 % de la variación de la calidad de sitio. El subtipo de suelo y la pendiente topográfica fueron las variables más explicativas de la calidad de sitio y por lo tanto deben tomarse como referentes a la hora de planificar la gestión forestal de las plantaciones de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea.

  17. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo; Maria Daniela Silva Buonafina; Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima-Neto; Rejane Pereira Neves

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated ...

  18. Diversity of endophytic fungi from root of Maize var. Pulut (waxy corn local variety of south sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. The objective of this investigation was to isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from roots of maize plant var. Pulut (a local variety of south Sulawesi). Sixty three isolates of fungal endophytes were isolated from the root of maize var. Pulut. The isolates belonged to six genera, namely :Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Acremonium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Botryodiplo...

  19. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph; Voss, Till S

    2014-01-01

    Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups) sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. PMID:24937593

  20. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M B Brancucci

    Full Text Available Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus discovers putative ocotillol-type ginsenosides biosynthesis genes and genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guang-hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Qing-Yan; He, Mu-Han; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Jiang, Ni-Hao; Yang, Sheng-chao

    2015-01-01

    Background P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, called “Yesanqi” in Chinese, is a new variety of P. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. Compared with other Panax plants, this species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2. Despite the pharmacological importance of ocotillol-type saponins, little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus is a suitable medicinal herb...

  2. Study of the Geo-effectiveness of VarSITI Campaign Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the geomagnetic response during the five VarSITI campaign events, 14 July 2012, 08 October 2012, 17 March 2013, 31 May 2013 and 17 March 2015. We identify distinct features of interplanetary coronal mass ejections during the passage of these VarSITI campaign events. We analyze the hourly resolution data of geomagnetic indices along with the simultaneous and same time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters. We identify features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during the development of different phases of geomagnetic storms. We discuss our results in the light of plasma/field variations and physical mechanism(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic activity and GCR intensity.

  3. VAR ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina CIORAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the monetary policy impulses transmission on inflation and unemployment in Romania, through the interest rate channel and to show the role played by interest rate in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy impulses. I have also revised a variable’s response to the shocks of another variable VAR analysis. VAR analysis on Romania during 2005 - 2013 shows that an interest rate shock can explain the movement in inflation and unemployment rates. We find that there are significant changes in the interest rate based on the inflation rate, and vice versa, due to the relationship of co-integration between variables.

  4. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). PMID:7617014

  5. Antifungal activity of evernia prunastri, parmelia sulcata, pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the In vitro efficacy of 96% alcohol extracts of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea that were in foliose-fruticose form and Parmelia sulcata in foliose form against important plant pathogens. The growth of fungal colonies in Petri plates amended with lichen extracts at 25 degree C was measured a day before covering all surface of Petri plate in control treatment. Data were analysed according to statistic analysis test LSD at p=0.05. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of E. prunastri, P. sulcata and P. furfuracea var. furfuracea showed a significant inhibition against mycelia and spor growth of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium expansum and Rhizoctonia solani. The level of inhibition among extracts showed variation. It was concluded that secondary metabolites of lichens may be used as biological chemicals against some plant pathogens. (author)

  6. Components Essential Oils in Different Parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The components of the essential oils obtained from different parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm were analyzed. The percentages of the essential oils extracted are 0. 27% (mL/100 g material) for the flowers, 0. 07% for the stems and leaves and 0. 01% for the roots. Fifty-four, Sixty-six and Thirty-three compounds were, respectively,separated and identified from the flowers, the stems and leaves and the roots, among which unsaturated alkene compounds are thirty-nine, thirty-nine and twenty-one, respectively, accounting in turn for up to 90. 21%, 90. 49% and 72. 65% of the total essential oils. Because alkene compounds have double bonds that are easily oxidized, it can be inferred that the components of the essential oils in the different parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm should show an activity of the anti-formation of free radicals to some extent.

  7. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  8. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  9. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Qiushi; Li, Xiwen; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009 bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful tool to sequence and assemble chloroplast genomes. PMID:26370383

  10. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Monika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize cerpegin from root of Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii. The isolated cerepegin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antiurolithiatic activity of cerpegin was evaluated by using modified invitro model. The isolated compound cerpegin (A1 was showed maximum dissolution of both types of stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in comparison to the all extract tested. Cystone was found to be more effective.

  11. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Ishikawa, K; Mii, M

    2005-01-01

    Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana is a terrestrial orchid that is an endangered species native to Japan, and it germinates more readily in immature seeds than in mature seeds. To preserve this orchid, an efficient protocol was established for the cryopreservation of immature seeds of P. graminifolia var. suzukiana. When immature seeds of 6 weeks after pollination, which showed higher germination and protocorm formation than mature seeds, were precultured on New Dogashima (ND) medium with 0.3M sucrose for 3 days and cryopreserved by vitrification method (treated with PVS2 for 60 min), the viability after preservation as assessed with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining test was about 86%. Immature seeds thus treated showed equal rates of germination and protocorm formation to the untreated control immature seeds, and they developed into normal plantlets on ND medium.

  12. Medicinal activities of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Repon Kumer Sahaa; Srijan Acharyaa; Syed Sohidul Haque; Shovon Priyanka Royb

    2013-01-01

    This study is to investigate the medicinal value of methanolic extract of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in Bangladesh. Methods: Several biochemical assays, thin layer chormatogarphy and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compounds in this extract. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Receptor binding activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay were performed by hemagglutination assay and hemolysis assay using erythrocytes. Disk diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect of the extract. Results: Methanolic extract of the leaves showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. The extract showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. Conclusion:Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris can be an useful medicinal plant.

  13. Variogram Analysis of Response surfaces (VARS): A New Framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Earth and environmental systems models (EESMs) are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. Complexity and dimensionality are manifested by introducing many different factors in EESMs (i.e., model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.) to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for characterizing the role and importance of such factors in producing the model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are limiting cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  14. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  15. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  16. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus%真菌Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus的次生代谢产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春华; 黄耀坚; 沈月毛

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究西双版纳粗榧共生真菌Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus的次生代谢产物.方法:通过柱层析法分离发酵产物的化学成分,并利用波谱数据和文献数据对照鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离到2个化合物,分别鉴定为trypacidin (1)及其衍生物1,2-seco-trypacidin (2).结论:化合物2是新结构;并对文献中关于trypacidin的C-4和C-7a位碳谱数据的指定进行了更正.%AIM: To study the secondary metabolites of the commensal microorganism (Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus) of Cephalotaxus mannii. METHOD: Chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis. RESULT: Two compounds were purified from the fermented extracts and identified to be trypacidin (1) and 1,2-seco-trypacidin (2), respectively. CONCLUSION: Compound 2 is a new compound, and the 13C NMR assignments for the C-4 and C-7a of trypacidin were revised based on HMQC and HMBC experiments.

  17. Research on the synchronization of three modernizations based on VAR model%基于 VAR 模型的“三化”同步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖六亿; 高玉胭

    2015-01-01

    采用中国1978-2013年的经济数据,通过构建稳定的 VAR 模型,运用脉冲响应函数和方差分解方法对中国城镇化、工业化和经济增长三者之间的关系进行了分析。研究发现,相比工业化而言,城镇化冲击对经济增长的作用更强。同时,城镇化对经济增长具有非均匀作用,因此推动中国经济增长的动力阶段性地依赖于工业化,长期性地依赖于城镇化。%Using China's economic data from 1978 to 2013,this paper applies impulse response function and variance decom -position method to analyze the relationship among urbanization ,industrialization and economic growth based on the stable VAR model.Our reaserch shows that compared with industrialialization , urbanization has a more notable effect on the economy growth.Meanwhile, urbanization has an heterogeneous effect on economy growth ,so the impetus of promoting economy growth depend on industrialization periodically and urbanization in the long term .

  18. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  19. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  20. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. ( Santalaceae ) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, ne...

  1. Analysis of correlations and path effects for popping expansion in popcorn ( Zea mays var. everta Sturt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis involving 35 genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt. indicated thatdegree of popping alone exhibited positive association with popping expansion. The path analysis revealed thatcob weight showed very high positive direct effect on popping expansion followed by plant height, days tomaturity and days to 50% silking. Characters namely degree of popping, lesser cob length, cob girth and 100-kernel weight could be given greater emphasis while making selections for the improvement of poppingexpansion

  2. Turkiye'de Istikrarsiz Buyumenin Var Modelleri Ile Analizi (1991.1-2004.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Recep Tari; Asst. Prof. Hilal Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    Unstable growth process has been observed in Turkish economy. This process has started 1980 and has increased after 1990. The aim of this study is to investigate resources of unstable growth. Quarterly data between 1991.1-2004.3 has been analysed. As a result of stationary review, variables have not been seen as a stationary at same degree. Thus they have been examined with VAR model. According to results of inpulse-response and variance decomposition analysis, effective variables are psbr, c...

  3. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; Puja Bohra; S. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new the...

  4. Gastroprotective effect of leaf extracts of Basella alba var. alba against experimental gastric ulcers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; N A Khan; I. A. Chashoo; Irfat Ara

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Basella alba L. var. alba Wight, Basellaceae, were investigated for antiulcer activity on rats employing the pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models. The various gastric secretion parameters such as total acidity, free acidity, gastric acid volume, pH and histopathological parameters such as ulcer index and percent protection were comparatively examined between control, test and standard groups. The antiulcer activity of aqueous extr...

  5. The taxonomic identity of Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identity of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae is discussed based on the discovery of the specimen based on which this name was assigned. The specimen is not a variation of Eueides tales surdus Stichel, 1903, as previously stated, but is in fact a variation of H. melpomene f. pyritosa, which is a synonym of Heliconius erato amalfreda Riffarth, 1901.

  6. Ranking of VaR and ES Models: Performance in developed and emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zikovic, Sasa; Filer, Randall

    2012-01-01

    An inherent problem with comparing and ranking competing Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected shortfall (ES) models is that they measure only a single realization of the underlying data generation process. The question is whether there is any significant statistical difference in the performance of different models. Is it only a matter of chance that in a particular market and in particular time period a certain model performs better than some other? It all comes down to a question whether someth...

  7. Performance of static var compensator control type thyristor controlled reactor and thyristor switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Josias M. de; Yung, Chou Shaw; Rose, Eber H.; Pantoja, Antonio L.A. [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Fouesnant, Thomas; Boissier, Luc

    1994-12-31

    This paper has the objective of presenting the philosophy of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Control as well the necessary adjustments in the project of control system to guarantee suitable performance under different operating conditions. The verification on the performance of the SVC control has been done by Transient Network Analyzer (TNA/CEPEL) studies, commissioning tests and a factory tests. The SVC is the type of Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC). (author) 3 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Estimación de VAR Bayesianos para la Economía Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Jaramillo G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR models are estimated for the Chilean economy. Under this approach, the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy and forecast exercises are studied and evaluated for the main macroeconomic variables. Then, the results are contrasted with the standard VAR models presented in the previous literature for the case of Chile and the implications for the monetary policy design are discussed.

  9. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Putih Kecil (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum terhadap Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanny Satriyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of many antifungal drugs make it necessary to find an herbal alternative with reduced side effects. Many herbals are knwon to have an antifungal effect, including ginger with its volatile oil composition. However, the specific antifungal effect and optimal concentration of the volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. amarum against C. albicans is not yet known. This research was done to verify the antifungal effect of Zingiber officinale var. amarum volatile oil on C. albicans, to determine its optimal concentration, and to determine the relation between the volatile oil was provided by water and steam distillation of BALITTRO, Bogor. The colonies were double counted in two steps. First, the volatile oil at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78% were applied for treatment, wheras in the second step concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were used. In the disk diffusion method, the volatile oil concentrations of 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% were applied in triplicate in Petri dishes containing C. albicans by using 6 mm blank disks. Result: Mann-Whitney test showed the significant decrease of the colonies between 6.25% and 3.125% of the volatile oil concentration (α = 0.021, and also between the volatile oil concentration 6.25% and the control group (α = 0.014. The Spearman test showed a positive and strong correlation between the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum and its inhibition zone (r = 0.91. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans with an optimal concentration of 6.25%, and increasing volatile oil concentration is followed by increasing inhibition zone.

  10. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miragall, Marta; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR ther...

  11. Global Liquidity and Commodity Prices – A Cointegrated VAR Approach for OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Bordon, Ingo G.; Torben W. Hendricks

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the interactions between money, consumer prices and commodity prices at a global level from 1970 to 2008. Using aggregated data for major OECD countries and a cointegrating VAR framework, we are able to establish long run and short run relationships among these variables while the process is mainly driven by global liquidity. According to our empirical findings, different price elasticities in commodity and consumer goods markets can explain the recently observed overshoot...

  12. Culture Technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis%佛手丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文武; 朱雯

    2014-01-01

    文章介绍了佛手的生物学特性、种苗繁育、栽植技术和主要病虫害防治等,为佛手栽培种植提供技术指导。%Cultrue technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis was introduced in this article,which in-cluding technology in seedling breeding,planting and method of main disease and pest control.

  13. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  14. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  15. Structure-activity relationship study of twelve compounds from Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xianxiao; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; Gao, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

    2010-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizoma of Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens Handel-Mazzetti. Based on spectral data, the isolated compounds were identified as stigmasterol (1), β- Ecdysterone (2), Diosgenin (3), Ophiopogonin C’ (4), Diosgenin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucoside (5), Dioscin (6), Paris saponin I (7), Paris saponin II (8), Pennogenin-3-O-α-L- arabinofuranosyl (1→4)- β- D-glucoside (9), Paris saponin VI (10), Pennog...

  16. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Campos Florián; Deysi Bobadilla Villa; Mercedes Huamán Bermeo; Mónica Bazán Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruv...

  17. Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Indolizidines from the Leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa†

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Jacob, Melissa R.; Sahu, Rajnish; Jain, Surendra K.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named Δ1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2–6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were isolated from P. glandulosa leaves collected in Texas, USA. The structures of compound 1 and 7 were determined using a combination of NMR and MS techniques. Compound 7 exhibited potent antiplasmodial act...

  18. Interactions between eurozone and US booms and busts: A Bayesian panel Markov-switching VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Billio, Monica; Casarin, Roberto; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Dijk, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between eurozone and United States booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model. The model is well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis and accommodates changes in low and high data frequencies and endogenous time-varying transition matrices of the country-specific Markov chains. The transition matrix of each Markov chain depends on its own past history and on the history of other chains...

  19. Technology of VAr Compensators for Induction Generator Applications in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Zobaa; K. A. Nigim; Bansal, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Many of today utility interconnected wind farms use induction generator (IG) to convert the captured wind mechanical power into electricity. Induction generator has some advantages over the synchronous generator (SG). The main advantages are its robustness and its capability to be synchronized directly to the grid. The main disadvantage, however, is its dependency on the grid for supplying its own reactive power ‘VAr’. Whether fixed or adjustable VAr systems are connected across its terminal,...

  20. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  1. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  2. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmenta...

  3. Analisis Histologi Embriogenesis Somatik Dari Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var Tenera

    OpenAIRE

    Meilvana, Tengku Nilayanda

    2014-01-01

    A study of Histological Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis from Apical Bud of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera has been conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of FMIPA USU. The experimental design was completely randomized with three levels of 2,4-D concentrations: 110; 120; 130 mg/L and three position of explants: apical, median, and basal. The statistical analysis showed that 120 mg/L of 2,4-D significantly affected the primary and embryogenic calluses initiation. Explant...

  4. Biologically active constituents of leaves and roots of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T; Suga, T

    1977-01-01

    Several biologically active substances, such as aloenin (1), magnesium lactate, aloe-emodin (4), barbaloin (5), and succinic acid, were found to be contained in the leaf juice of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger, which has widely been used in domestic medicines. Aloenin (1) and magnesium lactate were elucidated to exhibit an inhibitory action on the gastric juice secretion of rats. Various constituents other than the above bioactive substances were found in the leaves and the roots of the plant. PMID:145111

  5. Phoma sabdariffae's impact on roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l. var. sabdariffa) fructification parameters in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Nicaise LEPENGUE; Yala, Jean Fabrice; Judicaël LEBAMBA; Isaac MOUARAGADJA; Daouda KONE; Bertrand M'BATCHI

    2013-01-01

    Phoma sabdariffae Sacc. (Sphaerioidaceae) is the main pathogenic fungus agent of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa), in Gabon. It does induce wet rot on every part of the infected plant's organs. This work was initiated to evaluate in greenhouse the impact of this pathogenic fungus agent on 13 roselle cultivars through the study of some morphological and biochemical parameters of the fruits. Morphological parameters evaluated have been fruit's number, weight and contamination ra...

  6. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Honfi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul (18m + 8sm y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (12m + 14sm se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  7. Analysis of correlations and path effects for popping expansion in popcorn ( Zea mays var. everta Sturt.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayabharathi A; C.R. Anandakumar; R.P. Gnanamalar

    2009-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis involving 35 genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.) indicated thatdegree of popping alone exhibited positive association with popping expansion. The path analysis revealed thatcob weight showed very high positive direct effect on popping expansion followed by plant height, days tomaturity and days to 50% silking. Characters namely degree of popping, lesser cob length, cob girth and 100-kernel weight could be given greater emphasis while making selecti...

  8. THE DETERMINANTS OF STOCK MARKET INDEX: VAR APPROACH TO TURKISH STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Eşref Savaş Başçı; Süleyman Serdar Karaca

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the relationship between ISE 100 Index and a set of four macroeconomic variables using Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Variables we used in our model are Exchange, Gold, Import, Export and ISE 100 Index. ISE 100 Index is a dependent variable and the others are independent variables. In this study we used 190 observations for the sample period from January, 1996 to October, 2011. All variables have seasonal movements. After seasonal adjustments, all series have ha...

  9. Steady-state priors and Bayesian variable selection in VAR forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Louzis, Dimitrios P.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes methods for estimating Bayesian vector autoregressions (VARs) with an automatic variable selection and an informative prior on the unconditional mean or steady-state of the system. We show that extant Gibbs sampling methods for Bayesian variable selection can be efficiently extended to incorporate prior beliefs on the steady-state of the economy. Empirical analysis, based on three major US macroeconomic time series, indicates that the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of ...

  10. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Ling Si; Shi-Chao Liu; Hai-Yan Hu; Ju-Zheng Jiang; Guo-Jing Yu; Xiao-Dan Ren; Guang-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT) has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction, which exhibited th...

  11. A state space approach for estimating VAR models for panel data with latent dynamic components

    OpenAIRE

    Raknerud, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The econometric literature offers various modeling approaches for analyzing micro data in combination with time series of aggregate data. This paper discusses the estimation of a VAR model that allows unobserved heterogeneity across observation unit, as well as unobserved time-specific variables. The time-latent component is assumed to consist of a persistent and a transient term. By using a Helmert-type orthogonal transformation of the variables it is demonstrated that the likel...

  12. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Hee-Young

    2014-01-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disea...

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  14. Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens as Biofertilizer in Secondary Hardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Var. Poovan

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ramesh; V. Ramassamy

    2015-01-01

    The present study brings out the effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens in secondary hardening of tissue cultured banana var.Poovan. Two concentrations (1% & 2%) of liquid medium grown Pseudomonas fluorescens (3×109 cells/ml) were used in borewell water and the growth performance of the banana plantlets was assessed. Seven different growth parameters were studiedviz. shoot weight, height and girth, leaf length, leaf width, no. of leaves and chlorophyll content. Best results were obtained in1%Pseu...

  15. Essays in Time Series Econometrics: Nonlinear, Nonstationary GMM Estimation, Credit Shock Transmission, and Global VAR Models

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters dealing with different topics in time series econometrics including generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation and vector autoregressions (VAR). These econometric models have revolutionized empirical research in macroeconomics. Previous work by Hansen and Singleton (1982) showed that the GMM method can be applied to estimate nonlinear rational expectations models in a simple way that the models need not even be solved. The seminal work of Sims ...

  16. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez; Irma G. López-Muraira; Juan F. Goméz-Leyva; Guadalupe Luna-Solano; Rosa I. Ortíz-Basurto; Isaac Andrade-González

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray dryi...

  17. Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts and Components of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Ahmet; MAVİ, Ahmet; KAZAZ, Cavit; Yildirim, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the developing stages of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale on the antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the extracts obtained with different organic solvents were investigated. The aerial parts of the plant samples were collected at the budding, flowering and vegetative stages and then the plant samples were extracted separately with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using 2 ...

  18. Specificities of monoclonal antibodies against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber-Lukac, M; Lüthy, P; Braun, D G

    1983-01-01

    Eight hybrid cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis were grown in BALB/c mice. Ascites fluids were collected, and the antibodies were purified by antigen-affinity chromatography. The specificity of each monoclonal antibody for the toxin and protoxin was established by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the antibodies consisted of gamma 1 heavy and kappa light chains. They were reac...

  19. ViVar: a comprehensive platform for the analysis and visualization of structural genomic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sante

    Full Text Available Structural genomic variations play an important role in human disease and phenotypic diversity. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing tools, mate-pair/paired-end/single-read sequencing has become an important technique for the detection and exploration of structural variation. Several analysis tools exist to handle different parts and aspects of such sequencing based structural variation analyses pipelines. A comprehensive analysis platform to handle all steps, from processing the sequencing data, to the discovery and visualization of structural variants, is missing. The ViVar platform is built to handle the discovery of structural variants, from Depth Of Coverage analysis, aberrant read pair clustering to split read analysis. ViVar provides you with powerful visualization options, enables easy reporting of results and better usability and data management. The platform facilitates the processing, analysis and visualization, of structural variation based on massive parallel sequencing data, enabling the rapid identification of disease loci or genes. ViVar allows you to scale your analysis with your work load over multiple (cloud servers, has user access control to keep your data safe and is easy expandable as analysis techniques advance. URL: https://www.cmgg.be/vivar/

  20. The New 4D-En-Var Regional Deterministic Prediction System at the Canadian Meteorological Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean-François; Milewski, Thomas; Reszka, Mateusz; Fillion, Luc; Buehner, Mark; St-James, Judy; Pellerin, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The regional deterministic prediction system (RDPS) at the Canadian Meteorological Center will be replaced in the near future by the 4D-En-Var scheme, in which the background error covariances are a combination of climatological covariances and flow-dependent covariances derived from an ensemble-Kalman-filter global prediction system. The new approach is computationally less expensive than 4D-Var (currently operational) and has shown to be a promising technique in the context of global data assimilation. The RDPS uses a limited-area domain covering all of North America and a horizontal grid spacing of 10 km. Here we discuss the final stages of the development of this scheme, shortly before introduction into operations. Specifically, we show a comparison of the forecasting skill between the operational system and the new 4D-En-Var scheme, as well as the impact of several improvements related to the treatment of observations and the addition of new observation sources such as ground-based GPS.

  1. Gastroprotective effect of leaf extracts of Basella alba var. alba against experimental gastric ulcers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Basella alba L. var. alba Wight, Basellaceae, were investigated for antiulcer activity on rats employing the pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models. The various gastric secretion parameters such as total acidity, free acidity, gastric acid volume, pH and histopathological parameters such as ulcer index and percent protection were comparatively examined between control, test and standard groups. The antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of B. alba (AEBA and ethanol extract of B. alba (EEBA were studied in rats treated with the doses of 1 mL/kg of absolute ethanol, 200 and 400 mg of test extracts and 20 mg/kg of famotidine for control, test and standard groups respectively in both the models. The animals pretreated with AEBA and EEBA showed a dose-dependent protection against gross damaging action of ethanol and pylorus ligation on gastric mucosa of animals. Histopathological evaluation also revealed that Group I treated with absolute ethanol showed severe gastric mucosal damage. The AEBA and EEBA showed 68.25 and 58.11% protection in gastric mucosal damage as compared to control group. Both the extracts of B. alba var. alba were able to decrease the gastric acidity and increase the mucosal defense in the gastric mucosal area. This study indicate that B. alba var. alba possesses significant gastroprotective effect and the same is substantiated by the histopathological examination of the ulcerated stomachs of the animals.

  2. Estimasi Nilai VaR Dinamis Indeks Saham Menggunakan Peak-Over Threshold dan Block Maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Dharmawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kejadian ekstrim pada bidang finansial pada periode 2008/2009  telah menyadarkan para praktisi maupun peneliti di bidang finansial untuk mengevaluasi kembali teknik-teknik pemodelan risiko finansial.  Ini menegaskan bahwa diperlukan model-model matematika atau teknik pemodelan yang lebih baik di bidang manajemen risiko finansial yang dapat mengatisipasi adanya kejadian-kejadian yang jarang muncul seperti pada periode tahun tersebut di atas. Metode yang paling sesuai dalam menangani kejadian kejadian ekstrim seperti ini adalah Extreme Value Theory (EVT. Dalam pemodelan Value at Risk(VaR, tingkat pengembalian (return suatu data finansial biasanya ditaksir menggunakan suatu pendekatan yang mengasumsikan bahwa data tersebut terdistrubusi secara normal. Namun asumsi ini tidak merefleksikan perilaku nilai return yang sesungguhnya, sebab distribusi data finansial menunjukkan adanya ekor distribusi yang lebih gemuk (heavy-tail, yaitu ekor distribusi turun lebih pelan dibandingkan dengan ekor distribusi normal.  Ini berarti peluang munculnya nilai ekstrim lebih besar. Sehingga pendekatan secara konvensional dianggap mengabaikan nilai-nilai ekstrim ini. Paper ini membahas penerapkan EVT pada data finansial. Kemudian menghitung nilai VaR dinamis dari nilai indeks IHSG (Jakarta Stock Exchange periode 28 Desember 2007-28 Desembar 2012. EVT dipakai untuk memprediksi VaR statis dan EVT-GARCH(1,1 dipakai untuk memprediksi VaR dinamis.

  3. [Comparison between Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys based on ITS sequences and metabolomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Mei-li; Li, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Fu-sheng; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-12-01

    Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys belong to different genera, but have similar drug efficacy in traditional Chinese medicine theory, and H. polybotrys was used as the legal A. membranaceus var. mongholicus previously. In this study, similarities and differences between them were analyzed via their ITS/ITS2 fragments information. The ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced in two-way. The alignment lengths of ITS regions were 616 bp, in which 508 loci were consistent, and 103 loci were different, accounting for 82.47% and 16.72% of the total ITS nucleotides in length, respectively. As genotype determines phenotype, 1HNMR-based metabolomic approach was further used to reveal the chemical similarities and differences between them. Thirty-four metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra, and twenty-seven metabolites were the common components. Amino acids, carbohydrates and other primary metabolites were similar, while a large difference existed in the flavonoids and astragalosides. This study suggests that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and H. polybotrys show similarities and differences from molecular and chemical perspectives, which has laid a foundation for elucidating the effective material basis of drug with similar efficacy and resources utilization. PMID:27169287

  4. Tyrosinase inhibitory properties of phenylpropanoid glycosides and flavonoids from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boghrati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae, a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. Materials and Methods: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assays. Results: In this research, we isolated two phenylpropanoid glycosides including verbascoside and poliumoside and two flavonoids including jaranol and isorhoifolin using chromatographic techniques. We found promising antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase compounds from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes. Conclusion: To date, different compounds have been isolated and characterized from T. polium including terpenoids and flavonoids. But no phytochemical study has been reported from T. polium var. gnaphalodes. Poliumoside and jaranol showed promising antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, respectively.

  5. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  6. Data assimilation (4D-VAR) to forecast flood in shallow-waters with sediment erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Eric; Vincent, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the four-dimensional variational data assimilation technique (4D-VAR) is presented as a tool to forecast floods. Our study is limited to purely hydrological flows and supposes that the weather, here a big rain, has been already forecasted by meteorological services. The technique consists in minimizing, in the sense of Lagrange, the cost function: a measure of the difference between calculated data and available observations, here the water level. This is done under constraints that are the equations of the physical model. In our case, we modified the shallow-water equations to include a simplified sediment transport model. The steepest descent algorithm is then used to find the minimum. This is made possible because we can compute analytically the gradient of the cost function by using the adjoint equations of the model. As an application of the 4D-VAR technique, the overflowing of the Chicoutimi River at the Chute-Garneau dam, during the 1996 flood, is investigated. It is found that the 4D-VAR method reduces the error in the water height forecast even when the erosion model is not activated. In terms of Lyapunov exponents, we estimate the predictability horizon of such an event to be about half-an-hour after a big rain. However, this limit of predictability can be increased by using more observations or by using a finer computational grid.

  7. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  8. Arbutin Analysis In Leaves, Fruit And Branches Of Pyrus Amygdaliformis Vill. Var. Amygdaliformis Method Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bulduk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbutin is a derivative of hydroquinone that develops naturally. It is produced in numerous plant species belonging to various families, such as Lamiaceae, Ericaceae, Saxifragaceae and Rosaceae. It is a tyrosinase inhibitor and one of its uses is as a cosmetic skin whitening agent. Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. var. amygdaliformis, also known as the almond-leaved pear, is a species of plant in the Rosaceae family. It is native to southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and west Asia. In this study, Arbutin was analyzed in leaves, fruits and branches of Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. var. amygdaliformis and analytical method was optimized. A modeling of the ultrasound assisted extraction of arbutin from leaves, fruits and branches of Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. var. amygdaliformis was achieved using response surface methodology. A three-level-three-factor Box– Behnken design was implemented with the aim of optimizing three extraction variables, including extraction temperature (X1, extraction time (X2, and methanol concentration (X3, for the achievement of high extraction yield of the arbutin. The optimized conditions are extraction temperature of 43.76 ˚C, methanol concentration of 48.50 %, extraction time of 39.44 min. Under this optimized conditions, the experimental yield of arbutin is 8.13 %, which aligns well with the predicted yield of 8.05 %.

  9. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  10. Resistance of oat to‘take-all'causing fungus (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation with the pot assay at seedling stage in greenhouse showed that oat (Avena sativa) was highly resistant to take-all disease to which, however, wheat (Triticum aestivum) was extremely susceptible. The oat roots were shown to be inhibitory to the invasion and spread of take-all causing fungus G. graminis var. tritici by the following criteria: ( i ) less infection sites were observed (about 1/7 of those in wheat); (ii) the ectotrophic growth of G. graminis var.tritici on oat roots was much slower than that on those of wheat, and the runner hyphae appeared as kidney- or fork-shaped hyphopodia on the surface of oat roots which could not be discerned on that of wheat roots; (iii) the period from inoculation to penetration into the epidermis of oat roots was about 2.9 times as long as that of wheat; (iv) the infection hyphae were hindered substantially when it was about to penetrate into the epidermis of oat roots with the mycelium deformed; and ( v ) the cortical layer of oat roots was revealed to be unsuitable for the G. graminis var. tritici infestation as some lysed hyphae were found therein, and the spread of hyphae from the first layer of cortex to the pericycie needed 108 h, about 1.8 times as long as it did on wheat roots.

  11. Technology of VAr Compensators for Induction Generator Applications in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zobaa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of today utility interconnected wind farms use induction generator (IG to convert the captured wind mechanical power into electricity. Induction generator has some advantages over the synchronous generator (SG. The main advantages are its robustness and its capability to be synchronized directly to the grid. The main disadvantage, however, is its dependency on the grid for supplying its own reactive power ‘VAr’. Whether fixed or adjustable VAr systems are connected across its terminal, IG must operate at unity power factor at the rated loading while the wind power varies. With supervised control and appropriate coordination, VAr can be used to the benefits of both the wind farm developer and the hosting utility. The incorporation of today adjustable reactive power compensators such as the Static VAr Compensation (SVC and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM with IG are vital ingredient toward a successful penetration of wind energy in today distribution grid to ensure voltage stability during the steady state and transient periods.

  12. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapped regulatory elements and variants' potential target genes. Two new types of regulatory elements (lncRNAs and miRNA target sites) have been introduced to provide additional annotation. Detailed information about variants' overlapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) (often less than 15 bp) within experimentally supported TF-binding regions (∼ 150 bp) is provided, along with the binding motifs of matched TF families. Additional types of extended variants and variant-associated phenotypes were also added. In addition to the enrichment in data content, an element-centric search module was added, and the web interface was refined. In summary, rVarBase hosts more types of human variants and includes more types of up-to-date regulatory information to facilitate in-depth functional research and to provide practical clues for experimental design. PMID:26503253

  13. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa (Myrtaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billmary Z. Contreras-Moreno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Essential oils represent a therapeutic alternative in natural products against pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics and threaten public health and individual health of patients. Aims: To determine the antimicrobial activity of two essential oils of different densities, obtained by hydrodistillation of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa fresh leaves collected from Táchira, Venezuela against different multirresistant bacterial strains of nosocomial origin. Methods: Disc diffusion agar method was carried out against seven reference strains: Candida albicans (CDC-B385, Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 23357, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and three different bacterial strains of nosocomial origin: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. Results: The essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa inhibited the development of all microorganisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 20 to 400 μL/mL. Conclusions: This is the first report concerning antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa collected from Táchira, Venezuela with different densities. Furthermore, results showed the essential oils of this species might be an alternative as antimicrobial agent for the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes located at different chromosomal loci occur in many Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The var2csa gene encodes a Plasmodium falciparum adhesion receptor which binds chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). This var gene is more conserved than other PfEMP1/var genes and is found in all P. falciparum isolates. In isolates 3D7, FCR3/It4 and HB3, var2csa is transcribed from a sub...... distinct phylogenetic groups possessing one or the other variant of a large (approximately 26 amino acid) dimorphic motif, but whether either motif variant is linked to a specific locus is not known. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two or more related but distinct var2csa-type PfEMP1/var genes exist in many P...

  16. Sub-grouping of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 var genes based on sequence analysis of coding and non-coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnot David E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1 is an important target for protective immunity and is implicated in the pathology of malaria through its ability to adhere to host endothelial receptors. The sequence diversity and organization of the 3D7 PfEMP1 repertoire was investigated on the basis of the complete genome sequence. Methods Using two tree-building methods we analysed the coding and non-coding sequences of 3D7 var and rif genes as well as var genes of other parasite strains. Results var genes can be sub-grouped into three major groups (group A, B and C and two intermediate groups B/A and B/C representing transitions between the three major groups. The best defined var group, group A, comprises telomeric genes transcribed towards the telomere encoding PfEMP1s with complex domain structures different from the 4-domain type dominant of groups B and C. Two sequences belonging to the var1 and var2 subfamilies formed independent groups. A rif subgroup transcribed towards the centromere was found neighbouring var genes of group A such that the rif and var 5' regions merged. This organization appeared to be unique for the group A var genes Conclusion The grouping of var genes implies that var gene recombination preferentially occurs within var gene groups and it is speculated that the groups reflect a functional diversification evolved to cope with the varying conditions of transmission and host immune response met by the parasite.

  17. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  18. Germinación y establecimiento de Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae Seed germination and seedlings establishment of Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numa P. Pavón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El arbusto deciduo espinoso Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera que se distribuye en las zonas semiáridas de México tiene potencial para usarse en proyectos de restauración ecológica; sin embargo, no existe información básica que sustente esta afirmación. Evaluar las condiciones óptimas de germinación y establecimiento de la especie fue el objetivo de este estudio. En cuanto a la germinación, se experimentó con 3 factores (escarificación, luz y temperatura y adicionalmente se determinó la depredación por brúquidos. Para evaluar el establecimiento se midió el efecto de la luz y el nitrógeno en el suelo sobre la sobrevivencia, el crecimiento y la nodulación de las raíces de las plántulas. La escarificación y la temperatura fueron factores significativos en la germinación. Las semillas no fueron fotoblásticas y los parámetros germinativos indicaron que los mejores resultados de germinación se obtuvieron a 30º C. Las semillas dañadas por los brúquidos no germinaron, la infestación fue de 26.8 % y se definieron 4 especies de brúquidos. La mayor sobrevivencia de plántulas y el mayor crecimiento de las raíces se registraron en condiciones de alta luminosidad. La fertilización del suelo con nitrógeno tuvo efecto negativo significante sobre la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de las plántulas. Estos resultados apoyan la recomendación de usar a M. aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera en proyectos de restauración de zonas semiáridas en México.Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera, spiny drought-deciduous shrub has the potential to be used in restoration projects in degraded semi-arid areas of México. However, basic information that supports this does not exist. The objective of the study was to evaluate the germination conditions and establishment of this species. Germination experiments were realized using 3 factors (scarification, light and temperature. Also, seeds predation for bruquids was registered. We evaluated the effect

  19. Efeito do comprimento do corpo-de-prova na velocidade ultra-sônica em madeiras Effect of the size of the specimen on ultrasonic velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a variação da velocidade ultra-sônica longitudinal em função do comprimento da peça de madeira. As espécies utilizadas foram: pinus caribaea (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea eucalipto citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora, eucalipto grandis (Eucalyptus grandis e jatobá (Hymenaea sp. Utilizou-se equipamento de ultra-som com transdutores exponenciais de 22 kHz. Foram feitas medições do tempo de propagação das ondas ultra-sônicas, com o comprimento variando de 300 cm a 10 cm e mantendo-se a seção transversal constante de 12 cm x 5 cm. Os resultados apontaram que ocorre variação da velocidade em função da distância percorrida e do comprimento de onda (lambda utilizado. Conclui-se que adequar a freqüência do transdutor com o comprimento da peça é essencial para a determinação correta da velocidade ultra-sônica em madeiras.This paper reports on a study of the variation of ultrasonic velocity with the length of the specimen of pinus caribaea (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea eucalipto citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora, eucalipto grandis (Eucalyptus grandis and jatobá (Hymenaea sp. Ultrasonic measurements were taken with an experimental apparatus having 22 kHz transducers. Tests were carried out with length from 300 cm to 10 cm and constant cross-section (12 cm x 5 cm. The results showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in the distance between transducers and wavelength (lambda. The adjustment between the frequency of transducer and the length of the specimen is essential in order to obtain correct measurements of ultrasonic velocity in wood.

  20. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  1. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  2. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Doritchamou

    Full Text Available The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM. It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development.

  3. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  4. AN IMPROVED CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR «DYNAMIC CAPACITOR» VAR COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Podnebennaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern approaches of VAR compensation are: using compensators with stepped regulation, STATCOMs, active power filters. Recently, more attention is paid to VAR compensator’s design based on the direct AC / AC converters, which are called dynamic capacitors. Methodology. The dynamic capacitor (D-CAP is the capacitor bank, which is connected to the mains through direct AC / AC buck converter. By varying the duty cycle of bidirectional switches, smooth control of reactive power can be achieved. However, in case of distorted mains voltage, D-CAP mains current will have a high THD. This is due to the fact that the D-CAP affects the frequency response of electric grid thus leading to the appearance of resonances. With non-sinusoidal mains voltage, capacitors are affected by harmonics. This reduces the reliability of the D-CAP, increasing the probability of their failure. To eliminate these drawbacks it is suggested to improve the D-CAP control system so that the input current of the dynamic capacitor is forced to be close to sinusoidal. This can be achieved if the duty cycle of the switching bi-directional switches is changed according to the proposed expression. Results. The research is done on a single-phase D-CAP with the proposed control system, its input current diagrams are shown. In contrast to the D-CAP with a constant duty cycle control, the resulting THD of its input current is much lower. Thus, the control system provides a form of the input current that is close to a sine wave. This reduces the influence of mains voltage harmonics on the D-CAP operation, increases its reliability and improves power quality. Originality. The proposed D-CAP control system ensures reliable operation with non-sinusoidal mains voltage. Practical value. Application of D-CAPs with the proposed control system allows for improved energy efficiency of electrical mains by providing VAR compensation and improving power quality.

  5. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  6. VarB Plus: An Integrated Tool for Visualization of Genome Variation Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Hidayah, Lailatul

    2012-07-01

    Research on genomic sequences has been improving significantly as more advanced technology for sequencing has been developed. This opens enormous opportunities for sequence analysis. Various analytical tools have been built for purposes such as sequence assembly, read alignments, genome browsing, comparative genomics, and visualization. From the visualization perspective, there is an increasing trend towards use of large-scale computation. However, more than power is required to produce an informative image. This is a challenge that we address by providing several ways of representing biological data in order to advance the inference endeavors of biologists. This thesis focuses on visualization of variations found in genomic sequences. We develop several visualization functions and embed them in an existing variation visualization tool as extensions. The tool we improved is named VarB, hence the nomenclature for our enhancement is VarB Plus. To the best of our knowledge, besides VarB, there is no tool that provides the capability of dynamic visualization of genome variation datasets as well as statistical analysis. Dynamic visualization allows users to toggle different parameters on and off and see the results on the fly. The statistical analysis includes Fixation Index, Relative Variant Density, and Tajima’s D. Hence we focused our efforts on this tool. The scope of our work includes plots of per-base genome coverage, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), integration with a read alignment viewer named LookSeq, and visualization of geo-biological data. In addition to description of embedded functionalities, significance, and limitations, future improvements are discussed. The result is four extensions embedded successfully in the original tool, which is built on the Qt framework in C++. Hence it is portable to numerous platforms. Our extensions have shown acceptable execution time in a beta testing with various high-volume published datasets, as well as positive

  7. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  8. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  9. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  10. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Walteros; Deisy Molano; Pedro José Almanza; Mauricio Camacho; Sergio González Almanza

    2012-01-01

    The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed) on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá). Si...

  11. Forecasting market shares using VAR and BVAR models: A comparison of their forecasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco F. R. Ramos

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian vector autoregressive model(BVAR) for the leader of the Portuguese car market to forecast the market share. The model includes five marketing decision variables.The Bayesian prior is selected on the basis of the accuracy of the out-of-sample forecasts. We find that our BVAR models generally produce more accurate forecasts of market share. The out-of-sample accuracy of the BVAR forecasts is also compared with that of forecasts from an unrestricted VAR model and o...

  12. Empleo del ozono en la poscosecha de fruta bomba var Maradol-roja

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Bataller Venta; José Efraín González Ramirez; Eliet Veliz Lorenzo; Dariem Nápoles González; Caridad Álvarez Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de la aplicación de ozono en el control del crecimiento de hongos patógenos, así como su efecto en la vida de anaquel, en el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas y en el contenido de sólidos solubles (0Brix) durante la poscosecha de fruta bomba (Carica papaya) var Maradol-roja. Tres dosis de ozono fueron aplicadas in vitro a siete especies de hongos, los cuales se identifican entre los más comunes que causan la pudrición de la f...

  13. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  14. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  15. A Novel 18-Norclerodane Diterpenoid from the Roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liang; Yan Yin; Yun Dai; Xiang-Zhong Huang; Jun-Ming Guo; Guang-Miao Fu; Chun-Mei Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A novel 18-nor-clerodane diterpenoid named sagitone (1) was isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of dry roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis together with the five known diterpenoids columbin (2), palmatoside C (3), fibleucin (4), tinophylloloside (5) and epitinophylloloside (6). The structure of the new compound 1 was determined based on MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. The compounds 1~6 did not show significant cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60.

  16. Plant Male Sterility Induced by Anti-Gene CYP86MFin Brassica oleracea var. Italica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An anti-gene CYP86MF was introduced into hypocotyls of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica Plenck) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transgenic plants were obtained by kanamycin selection. The results of PCR, Southern blot and Northern blot indicated that the anti-CYP86MF has been integrated into chromosome of the transgenic plant.And also, plants with hypogenetic stamina or ungerminated pollen were observed. The transgenic male sterility plant could fructify via artificial pollination with normal pollen. Thus it was proved that the pistil of male sterility plant was normally developed, and the sterility originated from anti-CYP86MF.

  17. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  18. Interploid and intraploid hybridizations to produce polyploid Haskap (Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Tomomi; Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We produced polyploid Haskap (Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx) plants by performing interploid and intraploid crosses of wild accessions. Embryo rescue in a tetraploid (4x) × diploid (2x) cross produced triploid plants; reciprocal 2x × 4x cross failed to produce viable seeds. Intraploidy crosses of 4x × 4x produced mostly tetraploids but also several hexaploid (6x) and octoploid (8x) plants. Using hexaploids obtained from this cross, we examined reciprocal 4x–6x crosses and found that bo...

  19. Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Wang; Minchang Wang; Min Xu; Yi Wang; Haifeng Tang; Xiaoli Sun

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–5, together with five known saponins 6–10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these...

  20. Effect of salt stress on some sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Shtereva Lydia A.; Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana D.; Karceva Tanya V.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out hydroponically under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of salt stress on several physiological and biochemical parameters of three sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) genotypes: lines 6-13, C-6 (pollen source) and their heterotic F1 hybrid “Zaharina”. The degree of salinity tolerance among these genotypes was evaluated at three different sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations: 0 mM, 100 mM, 125 mM and 150 mM. ...

  1. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Secreted Laccase of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici

    OpenAIRE

    Edens, William A.; Goins, Tresa Q.; Dooley, David; Henson, Joan M.

    1999-01-01

    We purified a secreted fungal laccase from filtrates of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici cultures induced with copper and xylidine. The active protein had an apparent molecular mass of 190 kDa and yielded subunits with molecular masses of 60 kDa when denatured and deglycosylated. This laccase had a pI of 5.6 and an optimal pH of 4.5 with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as its substrate. Like other, previously purified laccases, this one contained several copper atoms in each subunit, as determined by...

  3. The Adjustment of VaR to the Empirical Distribution of Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lupu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Basel II Recommendations concerning internal rating based models approach for financial institutions and the success of RiskMetrics made Value-at-Risk (VaR is the most important risk measurement instrument at international level. The objective of this paper is to address the problem of adapting this method to the statistical properties of the returns for portfolios that include derivatives in the form of options too. We assume that the returns for the analyzed portfolios are not normally distributed. The methodologies presented are the ones used to capture the percentile when returns follow the features of the empirical distributions reviewed in Cont (2001.

  4. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively. PMID:26475984

  5. Flavonoids from the Stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Mei Zou; Jun-Shan Yang; Yuan Wang; Hong-Wu Zhang; Zhi-Heng Su; Guo-An Zou

    2010-01-01

    A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1), was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (2), tangeretin (3), nobiletin (4), 5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxy-flavone (5), sinensetin (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9) and rutin (10). The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC ...

  6. On the link between oil and commodity prices: a panel VAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between the price of oil and a large dataset of commodity prices, relying on panel data settings. Using second generation panel co-integration tests, our findings show that the WTI and commodity prices are not linked in the long term. Nevertheless, considering our results in causality tests, we show that short-run relations exist, mainly from the price of crude oil to commodity prices. We thus implement a panel VAR estimation with an impulse response function analysis. Two main conclusions emerge: (i) fast co-movements are highlighted, while (ii) market efficiency is emphasized. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  8. Impact of lead ions on biosynthetic capacity of Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus 2p-15 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. P. Kilochok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different concentrations of Pb ions on biosynthetical ability of Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus 2P-15, which is the producer of compound complex of extracellular enzymes and growth stimulators, was studied. It has been showed, that Pb ions introduced in agar medium have had a stimulative effect on production of surface and depth mycelia. The Pb ions, which have been inoculated into liquid fermentative medium in concentration of 1,0–2,0 mg/l realized directed synthesis of bacterio- and proteolytic enzymes, had an influence on qualitative and quantitative composition of produced enzymes.

  9. Antineoplastic agents; I. Three spirostanol glycosides from rhizomes of Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K; Dong, A; Yao, X; Kobayashi, H; Iwasaki, S

    1996-12-01

    By activity-guided fractionation, three known steroidal saponins, prosapogenin A of dioscin, dioscin and gracillin, were isolated from the total saponin fraction of Dioscorea coiletti var. hypoglauca as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. The compounds also exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell line K562 in vitro. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and IR, FAB-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR (2D-NMR) analysis. PMID:9000889

  10. A protocol of homozygous haploid callus induction from endosperm of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan-Lin; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Jia-Yin; Bu, Feng-Jiao; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Xiong, Xing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Obtainment and characterization of the novel endosperm callus of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei are valuable for haploid breeding, genome, and functional genome in Taxus. Callus was obtained by hydropriming with sterile water for 3 days and suitable medium composition. The highest callus induction (70.89 %) and lower browning ratio (7.95 %) were obtained from Gamborg (B5) medium supplemented with 30 g l−1 of sucrose, 2.5 mg l−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), 0.5 mg l−1 of 6-benzylad...

  11. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  12. EFFECT OF SPACING SIZE AND SHAPE ON OIL PUMPKIN YIELD (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Zvjezdana Augustinović; Tomislava Peremin-Volf; Marcela Andreata-Koren; Marijana IvanekMartinčić; Nada Dadaček

    2006-01-01

    Effect of spacing size and shape on oil pumpkin yield (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) was investigated in two – year field experiments during 2004 and 2005 on The College of Agriculture at Križevci experimental fields. The investigated planting distances were: 100x100, 140x70, 140 x 50, 80 x 80 and 140x30 cm. The experiment was set out by to the Latin square method with five replications, and data was analyzed using analysis of variance. Austrian cultivar Gleissdorf was tested. Number of ...

  13. A New Steroidal Saponin from Dioscorea deltoidea Wall var.orbiculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new steroidal saponin,orbiculatoside B, together with a pair of furostanol saponins, protobioside and methyl protobioside,from the fresh rhizomes of Dioscorea deltoidea Wall var. orbiculata. The new compound was identified to be isonarthogenin 3 - O - α - L - rhamnopyranosyl (1→2) - [ α - L - rhamnopyranosyl- ( 1→ 4 ) ] - β - D - glucopyranoside by various NMR techniques in combination with chemical methods. The three saponins showed strong activity against Pyricularia oryzae, and were cytotoxic to cancer cell line K562, HCT-15, A549, and A2780a in vitro.

  14. Optimal Location of Static Var Compensator Using Bat Algorithm for the Improvement of Voltage Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venugopal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes optimal location of FACTS devices in power system using Evolutionary algorithms. The location of FACTS controllers, their type and rated values are optimized simultaneously by using the proposed algorithm. From the FACTS devices family, shunt device Static Var Compensator (SVC is considered. The proposed BAT algorithm is a very effective method for the optimal choice and placement of SVC device to improve the Voltage profile of power systems. The proposed algorithm has been applied to IEEE 30 bus system.

  15. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  16. Rübsen (Brassica rapa var. silvestris) als Fangpflanze zur Kontrolle von Schadinsekten in Winterraps

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Alexander; Wedemeyer, Rainer; Saucke, Helmut; Ulber, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that most of the specialized rape pests prefer turnip rape over oilseed rape. In our studies two trap crop strategies were tested under field conditions in central Germany. In the first trial a turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. silvestris) strip was sown along the edges of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) main crop. In the second trial a seed mixture of 95% oilseed rape and 5% turnip rape was sown and was compared to oilseed rape in pure crop. In both experiments th...

  17. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  18. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  19. Goniothalamin, a cytotoxic compound, isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus

    OpenAIRE

    Niwat Keawpradub; Arunporn Itharat; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Puttachat Sangprapan; Boonsong Wangsintaweekul

    2005-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation by brine shrimp lethality test led to isolation of a cytotoxic compound, goniothalamin, from the root and stem of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus. Goniothalamin showed a promising cytotoxicity (SRB assay) against colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 0.51±0.02 μg/ml), breast cancer cell lines (IC50= 0.95±0.02 μg/ml) and lung carcinoma (IC50 = 3.51± 0.03 μg/ml). LDH assay of goniothalamin suggested that it had no toxicity on cell m...

  20. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA VAR AMARA SEED OIL FOR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani G. A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of an indigenous seeds of Luffa acutangula var amara (Family: Cucurbitaceae commonly known as Kadwi turai was carried out. The air-dried seeds were powdered and extracted with petroleum ether (40-60oC in a soxhlet extractor for 24 hrs. The physico-chemical properties of the oil was determined by Official and tentative methods of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Chicago. Characterization of the oil was determined by Gas Liquid Chromatography. Oil was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CUCUMIS MELO VAR. AGRESTIS SEEDS FOR THEIR THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Manpreet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an endeavor to evaluate antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cucumis melo var. agrestis seeds for their therapeutic potential. In- vitro antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The methanolic seed extract was found to have significant scavenging activity 75.59% at 300 µg/ml by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl method and 69.86% at 400 µg/ml by Hydrogen peroxide method as compared to standard (ascorbic acid. Presence of phytochemicals like triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, coumarin glycosides, carbohydrates might contribute to observed antioxidant activity.

  2. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  3. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  4. Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of natural populations of Pinus kesiya var. Langbinanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of natural populations of Pinus kesiya var. Langbinanensis were examined by means of electrophoresis technique. Analysis of 9 enzyme systems including 16 loci showed that all the three natural populations of the pine were high in genetic diversity but low in inter -population genetic differentiation. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.667 , with eachlocus holding 2.13 alleles, averagely. The average expected and obse rved heterozygosity was 0.288 and 0.197, respectively. The gene differentiation among populations was 0.052, but the mean genetic distance was only 0.015.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana on Knee Damage Associated with Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ching-Fent; Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. var. taiwaniana Lu (VT) is an indigenous plant in Taiwan that is traditionally used for promoting joint health. In this study, we used in vitro primary human chondrocytes (PHCs) and two in vivo animal models to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of VT on arthritis. Results showed that the water extract of the stems and roots from VT (VT-SR) was rich in flavones and phenols with 1.1 mg/g of resveratrol, 6.7 mg/g of hopeaphenol, and 5.1 mg/g of (+)-ɛ-viniferi...

  6. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana

  7. Koolipärimuse kogumisest Noarootsis ja Vormsis 2006. aasta kevadel : Rootsi-Eesti lastenaljade kogumik Det var en ko och det var poängen / Piret Voolaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voolaid, Piret, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Autor käsitleb artiklis Ahvenamaa Põhjamaade Instituudi (Nordens Institut på Åland) eestvedamisel korraldatud lastepärimuse projekti, mille käigus koguti koolipärimust Soomest Ahvenamaalt ja Rootsist Gotlandilt ning Eestist endistelt rannarootsi aladelt. Kogutu põhjal ilmus rootsikeelne antoloogiline naljakogumik Det var en ko och det var poängen. Artiklis keskendutakse välitööde kogumismetoodikale ja tulemustele Eestis. Välitööd toimusid Noarootsi Koolis ja Vormsi Põhikoolis

  8. Immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1-VarO Adhesin: Induction of Surface-Reactive and Rosette-Disrupting Antibodies to VarO Infected Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Guillotte

    Full Text Available Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC to human erythrocytes (i.e. rosetting is associated with severe malaria. Rosetting results from interactions between a subset of variant PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins and specific erythrocyte receptors. Interfering with such interactions is considered a promising intervention against severe malaria. To evaluate the feasibility of a vaccine strategy targetting rosetting, we have used here the Palo Alto 89F5 VarO rosetting model. PfEMP1-VarO consists of five Duffy-Binding Like domains (DBL1-5 and one Cysteine-rich Interdomain Region (CIDR1. The binding domain has been mapped to DBL1 and the ABO blood group was identified as the erythrocyte receptor. Here, we study the immunogenicity of all six recombinant PfEMP1-VarO domains and the DBL1- CIDR1 Head domain in BALB/c and outbred OF1 mice. Five readouts of antibody responses are explored: ELISA titres on the recombinant antigen, VarO-iRBC immunoblot reactivity, VarO-iRBC surface-reactivity, capacity to disrupt VarO rosettes and the capacity to prevent VarO rosette formation. For three domains, we explore influence of the expression system on antigenicity and immunogenicity. We show that correctly folded PfEMP1 domains elicit high antibody titres and induce a homogeneous response in outbred and BALB/c mice after three injections. High levels of rosette-disrupting and rosette-preventing antibodies are induced by DBL1 and the Head domain. Reduced-alkylated or denatured proteins fail to induce surface-reacting and rosette-disrupting antibodies, indicating that surface epitopes are conformational. We also report limited cross-reactivity between some PfEMP1 VarO domains. These results highlight the high immunogenicity of the individual domains in outbred animals and provide a strong basis for a rational vaccination strategy targeting rosetting.

  9. Presencia simultánea de las fases tetraspororangial y carposporangial sobre el mismo talo en Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta Mixed phases tetrasporangial and carposporangial on the same thallus in Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez la presencia simultánea de las fases tetrasporangial (tetrasporangios y carposporangial (cistocarpos sobre el mismo talo en Polysiphonia scopulorum W.H. Harvey var. villum (J. Agardh Hollenberg. El material fue recolectado en la zona intermareal rocosa de Playa Saldamando, Baja California, México, durante octubre de 2004.Mixed tetrasporangial (tetrasporangia and carposporangial (cistocarps phases on the same thallus in Polysiphonia scopulorum W.H. Harvey var. villum (J. Agardh Hollenberg (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta are described for the first time. The material was collected on Octuber, 2004 in the intertidal zone in Playa Saldamando, Baja California, Mexico.

  10. 刺枝野丁香和穗花野丁香(茜草科)名称之合格发表%Validation of names of Leptodermis pilosa var.acanthoclada and L.pilosa var.spicatiformis (Rubiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文香英; 林祁

    2007-01-01

    刺枝野丁香Leptodermis pilosa Diels var.acanthoclada Lo和穗花野丁香L.pilosa Diels var.spicatiformis Lo发表时没指明模式,是不合格发表的名称.现通过指定模式,将它们的名称作合格发表.还对此2新变种及其近缘类群提供了分类检索表和地理分布图.

  11. PROYECCIÓN DE LA TASA DE CAMBIO DE COLOMBIA BAJO CONDICIONES DE PPA: EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA USANDO VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATHERINE FAYAD HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evalúa la proyección de la tasa de cambio (peso colombiano/dólar con datos de 1995 a 2005 de Colombia a través del modelo de Tasa de Cambio de Paridad de Poder Adquisitivo (TCPPA. Se realizó una comparación del desempeño en la muestra (reservando los datos históricos de 2001 a 2005 de las proyecciones de modelos que utilizan la PPA, con las de un modelo de Vectores Autorregresivos (VAR. El método VAR tiene mejor desempeño para predecir la tasa de cambio nominal, de acuerdo con los indicadores RMSE, MAE y U-Theil, mientras que de acuerdo con el MAPE en el primer y segundo mes pronosticado, el VAR tiene peor desempeño que los modelos que utilizan PPA.

  12. A Multiscale Transient Modeling Approach for Predicting the Solidification Structure in VAR-Processed Alloy 718 Ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastac, Laurentiu

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a comprehensive multiscale modeling approach capable of predicting at the mesoscopic scale level the ingot solidification structure and solidification-related defects commonly occurring during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. The approach consists of a coupling between a fully transient macroscopic code and a mesoscopic solidification structure code. The predictions from the multiscale model, including grain morphology and size and columnar-to-equiaxed transition, were validated against experimental measurements for a 20-inch (508 mm) diameter VAR alloy 718 ingots. The validated model was then used to investigate the effects of melting rate and ingot diameter on the solidification structure of VAR processed 718 ingots.

  13. Global financial crisis and VaR performance in emerging markets: A case of EU candidate states - Turkey and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Aktan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relative performance of a wide array of Value at Risk (VaR models with the daily returns of Turkish (XU100 and Croatian (CROBEX stock index prior to and during the ongoing financial crisis. In addition to widely used VaR models, we also study the behaviour of conditional and unconditional extreme value theory (EVT and hybrid historical simulation (HHS models to generate 95, 99 and 99.5% confidence level estimates. Results indicate that during the crisis period all tested VaR model except EVT and HHS models seriously underpredict the true level of risk, with EVT models doing so at a higher cost of capital compared to HHS model

  14. Effect of phenolic compounds and osmotic stress on the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes from Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Ferreira Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are aromatic pollutants that inhibit biological treatment of wastewaters. Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum is a halotolerant fungus that previously showed the ability to degrade phenol and resorcinol in high salinity conditions. The presence of the penicillin biosynthetic cluster in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was recently described. In this article, we examined the expression of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE, genes responsible for δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase activities, respectively, in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. A quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to determine how these genes were expressed in media with 2% and 5.9% NaCl supplemented with phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The effect of salt on the capability of P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum to degrade aromatic compounds was measured using HPLC. qPCR analysis of RNA extracted from P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum indicated that the expression levels of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE decreased in high saline concentrations compared to the levels expressed in media with glucose. High concentrations of salt significantly repress the expression of pcbAB and penDE. The pcbC gene was expressed differentially in catechol containing medium. There was no evident relationship between the expression levels of penicillin biosynthetic genes and yields of penicillin. Meanwhile, the presence of phenol and phenolic compounds seems to positively influence the antibiotic production; high concentrations of salt stimulated penicillin production. These results support the hypothesis that phenol, phenolic compounds and high concentrations of salt could act like a stress factor for P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum resulting in higher yields of β-lactam antibiotic production.

  15. Mitificación y desmitificación de las independencias americanas: Bolívar y San Martín

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Review Essay de: LYNCH, John, San Martín. Argentine Soldier, American Hero, Yale University Press, New Haven y Londres, 2009. LYNCH, John, Simón Bolívar. A Life, Yale University Press, New Haven y Londres, 2006. MADARIAGA, Salvador de, Bolívar, Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1975, [1951].

  16. Descripción de una nueva especie de Ctenodecticus Bolívar, 1876, de Sierra Nevada, España (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Decticinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascual, Felipe

    1978-01-01

    A new species of the genus Ctenodecticus Bolívar, Ct. granatensis n. sp., from the Sierra Nevada, Spain, is described. It is compared with Ct. masferreri Bolívar, and a key to the Iberian species of the genus is given.

  17. Infections with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy affect VAR2CSA DBL-5 domain-specific T cell cytokine responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Cottrell, Gilles; Vianou, Bertin;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current knowledge of human immunological responses to pregnancy-associated malaria-specific Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA concerns almost exclusively B cell-driven antibody-mediated activity. Knowledge of VAR2CSA-specific T cell-mediated activity is minimal by comparison, with...

  18. The antibody response of pregnant Cameroonian women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a small recombinant protein containing the CSA-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Leke, Rose G F; Salanti, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women natura...

  19. Induction of adhesion-inhibitory antibodies against placental Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using single domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Pinto, Vera V; Resende, Mafalda;

    2009-01-01

    between a parasite protein expressed on erythrocytes named variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) and CSA on syncytiotrophoblasts. VAR2CSA is a large polymorphic protein consisting of six Duffy binding-like (DBL), domains and with current constraints on recombinant protein production...

  20. Differential adhesion-inhibitory patterns of antibodies raised against two major variants of the NTS-DBL2X region of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Bigey, Pascal; Nielsen, Morten Agertoug;

    2013-01-01

    VAR2CSA is a large polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum protein expressed on infected erythrocytes (IE) that allows their binding in the placenta, thus precipitating placental malaria (PM). The N-terminal part of VAR2CSA that contains the binding site to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) is curr...

  1. CHRONIC MENINGITIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOST DUE TO CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS VAR. GRUBII - FIRST CASE REPORT FROM TRIPURA, NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis, caused by either of two species, C. neoformans, which is characterized by haploid isolates with the A or D capsular serotype, as well as AD hybrids, or C. gattii, traditionally denoted by serotype B or C. However, more than 90% of infections worldwide are due to haploid strains of C. neoformans var. grubii, which possess the serotype A capsular epitope. Cryptococcal meningitis is mainly a disease of immunocompromised and rare in immunocompetent patients. Prognosis in immunocompetent patients is generally considered good. We report first case of cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent female caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.

  2. Metabolites from roots of Colubrina greggii var. yucatanensis and evaluation of their antiprotozoan, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Carmona, Dafne B.; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Garcia-Sosa, Karlina; Pena-Rodriguez, Luis M., E-mail: lmanuel@cicy.m [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (Mexico). Unidad de Biotecnologia; Ruiz-Pinell, Grace; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Gimenez-Turba, Alberto [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Farmaco-Bioquimicas; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J. [Universidad Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Dept. de Microbiologia Ambiental y Biotecnologia; Moo-Puc, Rosa E. [Centro Medico Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Col. Industrial, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico). Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan y Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad; Veitch, Nigel C. [Jodrell Laboratory, Richmond, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Purification of the root extract of Colubrina greggii var. yucatanensis resulted in the isolation and identification of 3-O-acetyl ceanothic acid as a new natural ceanothane triterpene, together with the known metabolites ceanothic acid, cenothenic acid, betulinic acid, discarine B and chrysophanein. The natural products and the semisynthetic esters acetyl dimethyl ceanothate, dimethyl ceanothate and chrysophanein peracetate showed moderate to low leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. None of the metabolites showed cytotoxic or antiproliferative effects. The results also suggested that betulinic acid contributes to the antiplasmodial activity originally detected in the crude root extract of C. greggii var. yucatanensis. (author)

  3. The Research of Static Var Compensator's Time Characteristics and System-level Model of Controlled Current Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Qi-rong; Sun, Shou-xin

    In the status of lacking research on response time of static var compensator (SVC), this paper established the controlled current source model which can achieve the same effect in response time and reactive compensation with the physical model of SVC by analyzing of characteristics in reactive power compensation and the response of the static var compensator (SVC) physical model. Through the time module in control signal of controlled current source, it can accurately calculate the response time of SVC. It tested the consistency of two models through the simulation of a rolling mill start experiment in PSCAD.

  4. Wild pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui in Southeastern Amazonia Pupunha brava (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui no sudeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista F. da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and morpho-genetic variation of wild and domesticated populations of a crop species are essential information for identifying a center of origin. The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is the only domesticated neotropical palm, whose starchy-oily fruits are subsistence products and whose heart-of-palm is an expanding agribusiness. The origin of pejibaye is unresolved, but probably will be found in the distribution of type 1 B. gasipaes var. chichagui in southwestern Amazonia. A new area of occurrence of this type is reported around São Felix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil, 52°41' W 6°34' S, about 600 km northeast of the eastern-most known population, in central Mato Grosso, Brazil. The plants of this population are slightly less robust than other type 1 plants and have small fruit bunches (60-70 fruit, small fruit (0.45 g and 10 by 9 mm and seed (0.23 g and 6.5 by 7.4 mm, all smaller than previous descriptions. Although this find is disjunct from earlier reports, it is unlikely that other populations are absent between it and central Mato Grosso, expanding type 1 var. chichagui's distribution by 30% and redefining it as a typical element of the transition between humid and semi-humid forests across southern Amazonia, rather than an Andean element expanding into the region.As distribuições geográfica e da variação morfo-genética de populações silvestres e cultivadas de espécies agrícolas são informações essenciais para identificar o centro de origem de um cultivo. A pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é a única palmeira domesticada nos Neotrópicos, cujos frutos amidosos e oleosos são produtos de subsistência e cujo palmito é um agronegócio em expansão. A origem da pupunha é desconhecida, mas provavelmente pode ser encontrada na distribuição de B. gasipaes var. chichagui do tipo 1, até agora encontrado apenas no sudoeste da Amazônia. Uma nova área de ocorrência deste tipo foi encontrada ao redor de

  5. Var C: Long-term photometric and spectral variability of an LBV in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Burggraf, B; Bomans, D J; Henze, M; Meusinger, H; Sholukhova, O; Zharova, A; Pellerin, A; Becker, A

    2015-01-01

    So far the highly unstable phase of luminous blue variables (LBVs) has not been understood well. It is still uncertain why and which massive stars enter this phase. Investigating the variabilities by looking for a possible regular or even (semi-)periodic behaviour could give a hint at the underlying mechanism for these variations and might answer the question of where these variabilities originate. Finding out more about the LBV phase also means understanding massive stars better in general, which have (e.g. by enriching the ISM with heavy elements, providing ionising radiation and kinetic energy) a strong and significant influence on the ISM, hence also on their host galaxy. Photometric and spectroscopic data were taken for the LBV Var C in M33 to investigate its recent status. In addition, scanned historic plates, archival data, and data from the literature were gathered to trace Var C's behaviour in the past. Its long-term variability and periodicity was investigated. Our investigation of the variability i...

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  7. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  8. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and medicinal plants on Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Zibaee, AR Bandani, JJ Sendi, R Talaei-Hassanloei, B Kouchaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae is an insect native to NorthAmerica that was recently introduced into Iran resulting in severe damage to trees and agriculturalproduction. An experiment was conducted to examine potential effects of medicinal plants, Artemisiaannua and Lavandula stoechas and the insect pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki on activities of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, α- and β-glucosidase, lipase and proteasesand lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in H. cunea by using two hosts, mulberry and sycamore. Resultsshowed that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and plant extracts when administered orally, affected thedigestive enzyme profiles of H. cunea. Combined effect of B. thuringiensis, A. annua and L. stoechasextracts on mulberry decreased the activities of digestive enzymes in a dose-related manner, exceptfor β-glucosidase and lipase. When larvae were treated by different concentrations of the mentionedinsecticides, LDH activity increased i.e. the higher activity was obtained by B. thurengiensis alone andB. thurengiensis and L. stoechas extracts together. The least activity was observed in the case of L.stoechas extracts alone on both hosts. Physiological analysis would be particularly informative whenusing combination of biopesticides to enhance the efficiency of a safe management process.

  9. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  10. Multiyear climate prediction with initialization based on 4D-Var data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    An initialization relevant to interannual-to-decadal climate prediction has usually used a simple restoring approach for oceanic variables. Here we demonstrate the potential use of four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation on the leading edge of initialization approach particularly in multiyear (5 year long) climate prediction. We perform full-field initialization rather than anomaly initialization and assimilate the atmosphere states together with the ocean states to an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model. In particular, it is noteworthy that ensembles of multiyear hindcasts using our assimilation results as initial conditions exhibit an improved skill in hindcasting the multiyear changes of the upper ocean heat content (OHC) over the central North Pacific. The 4D-Var approach enables us to directly assimilate a time trajectory of slow changes of the Aleutian Low that are compatible with the sea surface height and the OHC. Consequently, we can estimate a coupled climate state suitable for hindcasting dynamical changes over the extratropical North Pacific as observed.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  12. Comportamiento de peces dulceacuicolas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 6 meses el comportamiento de 13 especies de peces de la fauna dulceacuícola cubana, que fueron puestas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var danyz en concentración de 10 8 ufc/mL. En la evaluación se utilizaron los alevinos y juveniles procedentes de reservorios naturales, de la Estación de Guanímar y de Manpostón, ubicadas en Batabanó, Gaunímar, Guajaibón y La Lisa (Ciudad de la Habana. Antes de los ensayos, los peces fueron sometidos a 15 días de adaptación al cautiverio. Durante las evaluaciones, se registraron los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua de los acuarios, detectándose incremento en los valores de nitritos y nitratos después de 48 horas de haberse colocado el inóculo. Se registraron los valores extremos de talla y peso de los peces, que comparados con el grupo control no evidenciaron diferencias significativas y al finalizar el ensayo todos los peces presentaron aspecto físico normal; por lo que se determinó que la dosis utilizada de Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz fue inocua para las diferentes especies de peces.

  13. HPLC determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xixiang; Wang, Rongxiang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Chaoshen; Li, Famei

    2009-03-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay using the internal standard method is developed for the simultaneous determination of eight polyphenols. The analyzed compounds isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major include chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin. HPLC analysis is performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, i.d., 5-microm) using solvent (A) acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (95:5, v/v) and (B) 1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with UV absorption at 270 nm. The calibration curves of the eight polyphenols are linear (r(2) > 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.0894-120.0 microg/mL. The mean recoveries are 95.4% to 98.1%. The results indicate that the HPLC method developed can easily be applied to the determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

  14. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  15. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  16. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  17. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively). PMID:20359228

  18. Cloning, expression, and characterization of thermostable manganese superoxide dismutase from Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning-Ning; Zheng, Yan; E, Shi-Jin; Li, Duo-Chuan

    2009-02-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus, a thermophilic fungus, was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Pichia pastoris and its gene product was characterized. The coding sequence predicted a 231 residues protein with a unique 35 amino acids extension at the N-terminus indicating a mitochondrial-targeting sequence. The content of Mn was 2.46 microg/mg of protein and Fe was not detected in the purified enzyme. The enzyme was found to be inhibited by NaN(3), but not by KCN or H(2)O(2). These results suggested that the SOD in Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus was the manganese superoxide dismutase type. In comparison with other MnSODs, all manganese-binding sites were also conserved in the sequence (H88, H136, D222, H226). The molecular mass of a single band of the enzyme was estimated to be 21.7 kDa. The protein was expressed in tetramer form with molecular weight of 68.0 kDa. The activity of purified protein was 2,324 U/mg. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 55 degrees C and it exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5. The enzyme was thermostable at 50 and 60 degrees C and the half-life at 80 degrees C was approximately 40 min. PMID:19229500

  19. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Sarac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The ethanolic extract of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, a wild edible plant in Anatolia was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, total AA, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. Results: The IC 50 value for DPPH radicals was 7.84 ± 0.603 mg/mL. The total AA increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, containing linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 284.71 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of T. longirostis var. longirostis. These activities are an important topic in the food industry, as well as in the medical field.

  20. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  1. Capacitive VAr requirements for wind driven self-excited induction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the capacitive VAr requirements of a three phase pole changing self-excited induction generator and a single phase self-excited induction generator, used as isolated power sources by a constant speed or a variable speed prime mover, to obtain the desired voltage regulation at various values of load and speed. Different performance criteria such as constant terminal voltage or constant air gap flux have been considered. The developed mathematical model using nodal analysis based on graph theory is quite general in nature and can be used for any combination of the unknown variables such as magnetizing reactance (X M) and frequency (F) or capacitive reactance (X C) and frequency (F) or capacitive reactance (X C) and speed (υ). The proposed model completely avoids the tedious and erroneous manual work of segregating the real and imaginary components of the complex impedance of the machine for deriving the specific model for each operating modes. Moreover, any element, like the core loss component, can be included or excluded from the model if required. Next, to obtain the capacitive VAr requirements of a three phase pole changing self-excited induction generator and a single phase self-excited induction generator, a fuzzy logic approach is used for the first time to find the unknown variables using the above model. The results are presented in a normalized form so that they are valid for a wide range of machines and would be useful for the design of voltage regulators for such generators

  2. Reproductive isolation between sympatric sister species, Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglai Luo; Tingting Duan; Shuai Yuan; Shi Chen; Xiufeng Bai; Dianxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive isolation defines the biological species concept and plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of species. The relative contributions of different isolating stages has been suggested to be closely associated with phylogenetic relatedness. Few studies have focused on the relative contributions of pre- versus post-zygotic mechanisms, and even fewer have been conducted under strict phylogenetic frameworks. Pre-and post-zygotic reproductive isolation stages have been investigated in the sister species Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. The two species have partly overlapping distribu-tion ranges and flowering times, while the principal pollinators differed strikingly for them, demonstrating strong pre-zygotic isolations. Natural hybrids were detected by simple sequence repeat markers and their maternal parents were identified based on chloroplast gene sequen-ces. Five out of 81 individuals were suggested to be hybrids that fall into the categories F2, BC1, and BC2 by the NewHybrids analysis. Interspecific crossings resulted in significantly reduced fruit set and seed germination rates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed short Kimura-2-parameter distance between M. kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. These findings strongly supported the hypothesis that for species with a closer phylogenetic relationship, pre-zygotic isolation plays an important part in limiting gene exchange in sympatric areas.

  3. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  4. A novel mechanism controls anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DingKang; SUN GuiFang; WANG LiFang; ZHAI ShuHua; CEN XiaoJiang

    2009-01-01

    a School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China The phenomena of anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch)Hand.-Mazz were described in detail, and the effects of ecological factors on those phenomena related to anther opening, closing and the fly-pollination mechanism were discussed. Anthers of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensls open in the morning and close in the evening every day during an over 20 days' pe-riod of anthesis. Light was detected as the main factor controlling this daily anther opening and closing.Anther opening can be reversed in response to rain and re-opens when rain stops. Relative humidity (RH) has a slight effect on anther opening and closing. Flower spans can be prolonged under labora-tory conditions. This novel behavior of anther is likely to be a mechanism to enhance the male fitness in this species, of which has no inherited structure to protect pollen from the perianth.

  5. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  6. First report of an endophyte (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae) from Kandelia candel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhong-shan; TANG Wen-cheng; XU Shu-lan; SUN Shi-feng; Huang Bo-You; Yan Xi; CHEN Qi-jin; LIN Yong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove endophytic fungus 1893 was isolated from Kandelia candel from an estuarine mangrove on the South China Sea Coast.Two new lactones 1893A and 1893B,together with other known compounds,have been isolated from its fermentation broth.To classify the endophyte correctly for further industrial application,a combination of morphological and molecular techniques was used to approach its identity.The endophyte was compared with similar species having trichogynes or trichogyne-like hyphae which apparently fused with antheridium-like hyphae,and perithecia initials developing from an ascogonial coil surrounded by enveloping hyphae in early developmental stages on pure culture.Further morphological characteristics on host and non-host were used for comparison with similar species when the endophyte was cultivated on leaves of Kandelia candel and Mangifera indica,respectively,which resulted in classifying the endophyte as a Phomopsis species.The ITS sequence of rDNA was used to infer its phylogenetic relationships with Phomopsis species that resembled the strain in morphology or ecology.Finally,the endophyte was identified as Diaporthe phaseolorum var.sojae based on morphological and molecular evidence.Our study is a first report of Diaporthe phaseolorum var.sojae isolated from mangrove Kandelia candel.

  7. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  8. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Using Illumina Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast (cp genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp. The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  9. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B, in an immunocompetent patient Criptococose cutânea primária causada por Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii sorotipo B em paciente imunocomprometido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos da Silva LACAZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a male patient, a seller with no detected immunosuppression, with an extensive ulcerated skin lesion localized on the left forearm, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B. Oral treatment with fluconazole was successful. A review of the literature showed the rarity of this localization in HIV-negative patients. In contrast, skin lesions frequently occurs in HIV-positive patients, with Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype A predominating as the etiological agent. In this paper, the pathogenicity of C. neoformans to skin lesions in patients immunocompromised or not, is discussed, showing the efficacy of fluconazole for the treatment of these processes.Os autores registram em paciente do sexo masculino, vendedor ambulante sem qualquer doença de base, lesão cutânea extensa, localizada no antebraço esquerdo, sob forma ulcerada, provocada pelo Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii sorotipo B. Sucesso terapêutico com fluconazol, por via oral. Revisão da literatura foi realizada, mostrando raridade de tal localização em pacientes HIV-negativos. Já em pacientes HIV-positivos, lesões cutâneas ocorrem com freqüência, predominando como agente etiológico o Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, sorotipo A. A patogenicidade do C. neoformans nas lesões cutâneas é discutida em pacientes imunocomprometidos ou não, mostrando a eficácia do fluconazol no tratamento de tais processos.

  10. Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)%Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangnong LIU; Shicheng PENG; Lianren LIU

    2012-01-01

    Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae) is a perennial herb. This paper summarized its classification, distribution, morphological characteristics, habit, flowering and fruiting, cultivation and reproduction, as well as multiple uses in daily life, which provided references for the exploitation and utilization of Agave americana Vat. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae).

  11. Reclassification of the Candida haemulonii Complex as Candida haemulonii (C. haemulonii Group I), C. duobushaemulonii sp. nov. (C. haemulonii Group II), and C. haemulonii var. vulnera var. nov.: Three Multiresistant Human Pathogenic Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cendejas-Bueno, E.; Kolecka, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Theelen, B.; Groenewald, M.; Kostrzewa, M.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Candida haemulonii species complex is currently known as C. haemulonii groups I and II. Here we describe C. haemulonii group II as a new species, Candida duobushaemulonii sp. nov., and C. haemulonii var. vulnera as new a variety of C. haemulonii group I using phenotypic and molecular methods. Th

  12. Reclassification of the Candida haemulonii Complex as Candida haemulonii (C. haemulonii Group I), C. duobushaemulonii sp. nov. (C. haemulonii Group II), and C. haemulonii var. vulnera var. nov. : Three Multiresistant Human Pathogenic Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cendejas-Bueno, E.; Kolecka, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Theelen, B.; Groenewald, M.; Kostrzewa, M.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Candida haemulonii species complex is currently known as C. haemulonii groups I and II. Here we describe C. haemulonii group II as a new species, Candida duobushaemulonii sp. nov., and C. haemulonii var. vulnera as new a variety of C. haemulonii group I using phenotypic and molecular methods. Th

  13. Cloning and sequencing of antifreeze protein gene inDaucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl%胡萝卜var sativus Hoffm Deutschl抗冻蛋白基因的克隆及测序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹明安; 崔鸿文; 樊代明; 郭立

    2001-01-01

    Antifreeze protein gene (afp) in three native carrot cultivars(Daucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl),Wuzhong carrot in Ningxia,H uaxian carrot in Shaanxi and Hanzhong carrot in Shaanxi,was cloned by PCR (polym erase chain reaction).Wuzhong carrots afp was sequenced and its sequence w as compared with that of Daucus carota var \\%autumn\\% King from British.Ther e were 35 different bases between two varieties in 1004 sequenced nucleotides,among which there were 20 nonsense mutations and 15 sense mutations.Based on sense mutations homology was 98.5%.%以宁夏吴忠胡萝卜、陕西华县胡萝卜、陕西汉中胡萝卜3个地方品种为材料,用PCR方法克隆了中国胡萝卜var\\%sativus\\%HoffmDeutschl的抗冻蛋白基因\\%afp\\%,测定了宁夏吴忠胡萝卜\\%afp\\%的核苷酸序列,和英国胡萝卜var\\%autumn\\%King\\%afp\\%序列对比,在所测1004个核苷酸中,有35个碱基不同,其中无义突变20个,有义突变15个。按有义突变计,同源性为\\{98.5%\\}

  14. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele is a quarantine disease in Europe with a zero tolerance for commercial

  15. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  16. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; Silva, F.R.; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; Souza, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and

  17. Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior and Hormographiella aspergillata Infections in a Leukemic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient with Refractory Neutropenia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abuali, Mayssa M.; Posada, Roberto; Del Toro, Gustavo; Roman, Elizabeth; Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; LaBombardi, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomucor variabilis and Hormographiella aspergillata rarely cause human infections. This report details a fatal case of a 14-year-old female with leukemia posthematopoietic cell transplant and relapse with refractory pancytopenia. The patient first developed an R. variabilis var. regularior palate infection and later developed a cutaneous H. aspergillata infection while on posaconazole and caspofungin therapy.

  18. Two New C-glucoside Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new C-glucoside flavonoids,namely 8-C-(-D-(2(-O-acetyl) glucofuranosyl apigenin and 3(-O-acetylvitexin,were isolated from leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br..Their structures were elucidated by the spectroscopic means and chemical evidence.

  19. Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van

    2006-01-01

    We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...

  20. Differential induction of functional IgG using the Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Vera V; Ditlev, Sisse B; Jensen, Kamilla E;

    2011-01-01

    chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placental intervillous space and lack of protective antibodies. PM impairs fetal development mainly by excessive inflammation processes. After infections during pregnancy women acquire immunity to PM conferred by antibodies against VAR2CSA. Ideally, a vaccine against PM will...... induce antibody-mediated immune responses that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the placenta....

  1. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa from Nevada and Texas USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named (Delta) 1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2-6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were...

  2. Insight into Antigenic Diversity of VAR2CSA-DBL5 epsilon Domain from Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Placental Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnidehou, Sedami; Jessen, Leon Ivar; Gangnard, Stephane;

    2010-01-01

    attractive targets for vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings: VAR2CSA DBL5e-domain sequences obtained from cDNA of 40 placental isolates were analysed by a combination of experimental and in silico methods. Competition ELISA assays on two DBL5e variants, using plasma samples from women from two...

  3. Human pregnancy-associated malaria-specific B cells target polymorphic, conformational epitopes in VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, L.; Bernasconi, N. L.; Dahlback, M.;

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta by PAM-associated clonally variant surface antigens (VSA). Pregnancy-specific VSA (VSA(PAM)), which include the PfEMP1 variant VAR2CSA, are t...

  4. Production and purification of an Endo-1,4-b-Xylanase from Humicola grisea var. thermoidea by electroelution

    OpenAIRE

    Monti Rubens; Cardello Leonardo; Custódio Marcos F.; Goulart Antonio J.; Sayama Adriana H.; Contiero Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Humicola grisea var. thermoidea produces two forms of extracellular xylanase. The component form 1 was purified using the electroelution method, due to the very small production of this extracellular enzyme. The apparent molecular mass was 61.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE.

  5. Improvements in the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations for population and sequence variation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Patrinos (George); B. Giardine (Belinda); C. Riemer (Cathy); W. Miller (Webb); D.H. Chui (David); N.P. Anagnou (Nicholas); H. Wajcman (Henri); R.C. Hardison (Ross)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHbVar (http://globin.cse.psu.edu/globin/hbvar/) is a relational database developed by a multi-center academic effort to provide up-to-date and high quality information on the genomic sequence changes leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and hemogl

  6. Efficient estimation of time-mean states of ocean models using 4D-Var and implicit time-stepping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.D.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for estimating a time-mean state of an ocean model subject to given observations using implicit time-stepping. The new method uses (i) an implicit implementation of the 4D-Var method to fit the model trajectory to the observations, and (ii) a preprocessor which applies

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain (AR, a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  8. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

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    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  9. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae) and comparative analysis with its congeneric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Zhao; Geng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in plant systematics, genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and divergence dating. The genus Gentiana contains 362 species, but there are only two valuable complete cp genomes. The purpose of this study is to report the characterization of complete cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Methods Using high throughput sequencing technology, we got the complete nucleotide sequence of the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome. The comparison analysis including genome difference and gene divergence was performed with its congeneric species G. straminea. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and phylogenetics were studied as well. Results The cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri is a circular molecule of 138,750 bp, containing a pair of 24,653 bp inverted repeats which are separated by small and large single-copy regions of 11,365 and 78,082 bp, respectively. The cp genome contains 130 known genes, including 85 protein coding genes (PCGs), eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses indicated that G. lawrencei var. farreri is 10,241 bp shorter than its congeneric species G. straminea. Four large gaps were detected that are responsible for 85% of the total sequence loss. Further detailed analyses revealed that 10 PCGs were included in the four gaps that encode nine NADH dehydrogenase subunits. The cp gene content, order and orientation are similar to those of its congeneric species, but with some variation among the PCGs. Three genes, ndhB, ndhF and clpP, have high nonsynonymous to synonymous values. There are 34 SSRs in the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome, of which 25 are mononucleotide repeats: no dinucleotide repeats were detected. Comparison with the G. straminea cp genome indicated that five SSRs have length polymorphisms and 23 SSRs are species-specific. The phylogenetic analysis of 48 PCGs from 12 Gentianales taxa cp genomes

  11. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  12. Active and recreative power control in the presence of types of static VAR compensators (SVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobnaghi, Davoud Mostafa [Department of Electrical Engineering, Parsabad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: dmostafa@iaupmogan.ac.ir; Najafi, Atabak; Sadeghi Nasrabadi, Jafar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: Jafarsadegi64@gmail.com, email: atabak_najafi@yahoo.com; Karimi, Mohammad; Farhadi, Payam [Department of Electrical Engineering, Parsabad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: mohammadkarimi62@gmail.com, email: pfarhadi@iaupmogan.ac.ir

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the effects of various types of Static Var Compensators, a particular sort of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System), on active and reactive power flow control with the purpose of increasing the capacity of existing electrical transmission systems rather than having to build new ones. The prime reasons are both economic and environmental: deregulation in the electrical market increases the need to be competitive while ensuring security and operating within various physical limitations related to thermal capacity and stability of voltage in transmission lines. The development of high power semiconductor devices makes it now possible to use these in power systems. After an overall review of SVCs, six were selected, analysed, and classified in order from lowest to highest power flow control range. It was also concluded that with the use of SVCs there is more fluctuation in reactive power control and almost no oscillation in active power control.

  13. A VAR analysis of the connection between FDI and economic growth in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria LUDOŞEAN (STOICIU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of FDI on economic growth is neither homogeneous, nor completely clarified. Due to the accumulation of capital in the host economy, FDI is expected to encourage the incorporation of new inputs and technologies in the process of production. However, the impact of FDIon economic growth is not so shaped up in empirical studies. Accordingly, while some studies remarked a positive impact of FDI on economic growth, others showed a negative relationship between the two variables. In this article, we carried out an analysis of vector autoregressive type (VAR, so as to identify the relationship between FDI and economic growth in Romania between1991-2009. The main conclusion of our study is that the FDI volume does not initiate growth; and that economic growth is an important factor in terms of attracting FDI in Romania.

  14. DOCUMENTO: OBSERVATORIG PARA EL DESPLAZAMIENTO EN BOLÍVAR Y CARTAGENA

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    Ana Pombo Gallardo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno del desplazamiento forzoso en el Departamento de Bolívar, data desde 1 991 y se agudizado en los últimos 5 años, como resultado del recrudecimiento del conflicto armado en el territorio bolivarense. Este proceso ha derivado hacia la migración de 9.700 familias, es decir, un total de 56.263 personas‘, en el período de Enero de 1996 hasta Junio de 2000, de - acuerdo con cifras de ‘la Conferencia Episcopal Pastoral Social Movilidad Humana, entre otras la entidad que cuenta con un sistema de información RUT, coherente, continuo y oportuno, para efectos de analizar e interpretar el fenómeno del desplazamiento forzoso y sus innumerables consecuencias sobre la población afectada y la sociedad colombiana en general.

  15. Biofunctional Constituents from Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis with Anti-Melanogenic Properties

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    Chia-Wei Chu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven compounds were extracted and purified from the roots of Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis. These compounds are liriodenine, (−-N-acetylanonaine, pressalanine A, p-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (−-bornesitol and β-sitostenone. These compounds were screened for anti-proliferation and anti-tyrosinase activities in B16F10 cells. Liriodenine, pressalanine A, (−-bornesitol and β-sitostenone displayed cytotoxicity at high concentration (100 μM, but liriodenine (5 μM, (−-N-acetylanonaine (10 μM, and β-sitostenone (5 μM inhibit tyrosinase activity and reduce the melanin content in B16F10 cells without cytotoxicity, suggesting that liriodenine and β-sitostenone could be safe and potentially used in cosmetic skin whitening.

  16. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

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    Vijender Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC. The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agent. In this work the methanolic extract of Basella alba (M.E.B.A. and aqueous extract of Basella alba (A.E.B.A. were studied for its in-vitro antiinflammatory activities. The potency of the extracts was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (50 and 100 @g/ml. The aqueous extract showed the most significant membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane.

  17. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  18. Coordinated setting of stabilizers for synchronous generators and static var compensators in multimachine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Costa, A.J.A.; Silva, A.S.; Freitas, F.D. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1994-12-31

    Two distinct approaches for the coordinated setting of multimachine power system controllers are presented. The first strategy is based on the re-allocation of the poles related to the electromechanical modes of the system through decentralized control. The second method is a coordinated global procedure based on structurally constrained optimal control. Both approaches considered power system stabilizers and supplementary signals for static var compensators as the controllers to be adjusted. Other types of controllers, such as FACTS devices, can also be tuned by using the proposed techniques. A 13-machine, 77-bus power system which is based on the Brazilian South-Southeast interconnected network is employed to assess the performance of the proposed methods. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Identification of Local Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek Based on Chromosomal Characters

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    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartek is one of local melon varieties mainly cultivated in Pemalang, Central Java. Bartek has three variations of fruits; Long-Green, Ellips-Green, and Yellow. Chromosome characterization of the Bartek was investigated to determine the genetic variation. The main purpose of this research was to determine the genetic characters of Bartek including chromosome number, mitosis, cell cycle, and karyotype. Squash method was used for chromosome preparation. The results showed that all of Bartek observed in this study have similar diploid (2n chromosome number = 24. According to the total number of chromosome, Bartek is closer to melon than cucumber. The mitotic analysis exhibited that the Bartek has similar karyotype formula, 2n = 2x = 24m. Based on the R value of the three kinds of Bartek (R < 0.27, it indicated that three kinds of Bartek were considered to be originated from similar species and one of melon varieties (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek.

  20. Methods of estimation of the pathogenicity of the fungus Phoma exigua var. exigua

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    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1977-1981 33 isolates of Phoma exigua were recovered from diseased leaves, stems, root crowns and seeds of soybean cultivated in different localities of Poland. None of the obtained isolates caused disease symptoms on soybean and other plant species when they were inoculated by spraying with conidial suspension. Infection developed only on wounded plants after inoculation. Phoma exigua occurring on soybean in Poland is not a specialized pathogen of this plant, but a plurivorous weak or waund parasite which attacks all kinds of plants and so is P. exigua var. exigua. Among seven of the applied inoculation methods the best one seems to be the laboratory one, in Petri plates, with culture discs exposed on the seedling hypocotyl. Other methods varied in precision and were more time-consuming.

  1. A comparison of the VAR model and the PC factor model in forecasting inflation in Montenegro

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    Lipovina-Božović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Montenegro started using the euro in 2002 and regained independence in 2006. Its main economic partners are European countries, yet inflation movements in Montenegro do not coincide with consumer price fluctuations in the eurozone. Trying to develop a useful forecasting model for Montenegrin inflation, we compare the results of a three-variable vector autoregression (VAR model, and a principle component (PC factor model starting with twelve variables. The estimation period is January 2001 to December 2012, and the control months are the first six months of 2013. The results show that in forecasting inflation, despite a high level of Montenegrin economic dependence on international developments, more reliable forecasts are achieved with the use of additional information on a larger number of factors, which includes domestic economic activity.

  2. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Monetary policy and inflation in Brazil (1975-2000: a VAR estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella André

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates monetary policy and basic macroeconomic relationships involving output, inflation rate, interest rate, and money in Brazil. Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR estimation, it compares three different periods: moderately-increasing inflation (1975-1985, high inflation (1985-1994, and low inflation (1994-2000. The main results are the following: monetary policy shocks have significant effects on output; monetary policy shocks do not induce a reduction in the inflation rate in the first two periods, but there are indications that they have gained power to affect prices after the Real Plan was launched; monetary policy does not usually respond rapidly or actively to inflation-rate and output innovations; in the recent period, the interest rate responds intensely to financial crises; positive interest-rate shocks are accompanied by a decline in money in all the three periods; the degree of inflation persistence is substantially lower in the recent period.

  4. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  5. Juan de Pitano y Bolívar, platero vitoriano del siglo XVI

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    Martín Vaquero, Rosa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Juan de Pitano y Bolívar is one of the most important silversmiths of the second half of the 16th century in Vitoria. He was the successor to one of Vitoria's oldest silversmiths which had its origins in the previous century. Here we provide a biography of the man and present ten pieces of his work in which we are able to appreciated their quality together with the artistic techniques employed. All of the pieces bear his mark: PI/TANO. He was a master of his art and participated in all three of the styles which dominated the art of the silversmith in the 16th century: Gothic, Renaissance and Mannerism.No disponible

  6. Laser He-Ne effect on bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain LBT-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin is one of the world widely used entomopathogen. It presents an strong insecticide activity on Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. It was studied the effect of Laser He-Ne on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain LBT-24. Growing curves were made and were calculated the duplication time and the specific growing speed of each one. The curves were statistically compared. It was also analysed the phage induction with and without Laser red light influence. Also, it was observed the presence of the d-endotoxin crystal with this treatment. The red Laser He-Ne enhanced the growth of this micro-organism under laboratory conditions and didn't have any effect over the other characteristics analysed

  7. Flavonoids from the Stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook

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    Zhong-Mei Zou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1, was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (2, tangeretin (3, nobiletin (4, 5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxy-flavone (5, sinensetin (6, kaempferol (7, tiliroside (8, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9 and rutin (10. The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  8. Flavonoids from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guo-An; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Jun-Shan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2010-02-26

    A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1), was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (2), tangeretin (3), nobiletin (4), 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy-flavone (5), sinensetin (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9) and rutin (10). The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  9. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  10. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment.

  11. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes

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    Onofre Sideney Becker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P <= 0,05.

  12. Multiple forms of α-glucosidase in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L., var Nipponbare)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Kamiya, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Matsubara, Kazuki; Kim, Young-Min; Jintanart, Wongchawalit; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Chiba, Seiya; Sanoa, Yoshio; Kimura, Atsuo

    2007-01-01

    Two isoforms of α-glucosidases (ONG2-I and ONG2-II) were purified from dry rice seeds (Oryza sativa L., var Nipponbare). Both ONG2-I and ONG2-II were the gene products of ONG2 mRNA expressed in ripening seeds. Each enzyme consisted of two components of 6 kDa-peptide and 88 kDa-peptide encoded by this order in ONG2 cDNA (ong2), and generated by post-translational proteolysis. The 88 kDa-peptide of ONG2-II had 10 additional N-terminal amino acids compared with the 88 kDa-peptide of ONG2-I. The ...

  13. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  14. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Comportamiento de peces dulceacuicolas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz, La Habana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Natividad Hernández; Aymara Torres; Margarita Ramírez; Israel García; Zulema Menéndez; Julia Castro

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó durante 6 meses el comportamiento de 13 especies de peces de la fauna dulceacuícola cubana, que fueron puestas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var danyz en concentración de 10 8 ufc/mL. En la evaluación se utilizaron los alevinos y juveniles procedentes de reservorios naturales, de la Estación de Guanímar y de Manpostón, ubicadas en Batabanó, Gaunímar, Guajaibón y La Lisa (Ciudad de la Habana). Antes de los ensayos, los peces fueron sometidos a 15 días de adaptación al cautiv...

  16. Application Lyapunov Theory to Determine Control Strategy of Static Var Compensator for Damping Power System Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It causes in power system oscillation. Approach: This study applied the Static Var Compensator (SVC to damp power system oscillation. The stability criterion of the Lyapunov is applied to derive the control strategy of SVC. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with disturbance. The generator rotor angle curve of the system without and with a SVC is plotted and compared for various cases. Results: It was found that the system without a SVC has high variation whereas that of the system with a SVC has much smaller variation. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SVC can damp power system oscillaton.

  17. Static Var Compensator based on Fuzzy Logic Control for Damping Power System Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It causes in power system oscillation. Approach: This study applied the Static Var Compensator (SVC to damp power system oscillation. The fuzzy logic control is applied to determine the control strategy of SVC. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with disturbance. The generator rotor angle curve of the system without and with a SVC is plotted and compared. Results: It was found that the system without a SVC has high variation whereas that of the system with a SVC has much smaller variation. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SVC can damp power system oscillation.

  18. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ling Si

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc soluble fraction, which exhibited the strongest antioxidative effect, was subjected to repeated open column chromatography for purification. The screening process was carried out under the guidance antioxidative activity via diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Eight phenolic compounds, glucodistylin (I, luteolin (II, ellagic acid (III, cistanoside F (IV, campneoside II (V, isocampneoside II (VI, verbascoside (VII, and isoverbascoside (VIII, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic analyses. Among the phenolics, II~VIII showed significant antioxidative activity.

  19. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls. PMID:19031237

  20. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Besek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003 was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in control of annual grass- and broad-leaved weeds. The efficacy of all herbicide treatments in 2003 was lower. The best results of herbicide effectiveness were achieved with combination of linuron + dimethenamid (91.3%, trifluralin (90.1% + napropamide and clomazone + linuron (89%.