WorldWideScience

Sample records for cargo vehicles

  1. NLS cargo transfer vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Hank C.; Langford, G. K.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion system of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle is designed to meet a wide range of requirements associated with the National Launch System (NLS) resupply function for Space Station Freedom. It provides both orbit adjustment and precise vehicle control capability, and is compatible with close proximity operation at the space station as well as return on the shuttle for ground refurbishment and reuse. Preliminary trade studies have resulted in designing and sizing an integrated bipropellant system using monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Design and analysis activities are continuing, and the design will evolve and mature as part of the NLS program.

  2. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  3. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., intermediate bulk containers, multi-unit tank car tanks, portable tanks, or tank cars. Cargo tank motor vehicle... tank to a motor vehicle or to a motor vehicle suspension component that involves welding on the...

  4. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  5. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  6. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  7. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... International Labor Organization (ILO), and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). These Guidelines are based on the existing ILO/IMO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles and...

  8. Structural Design and Analysis of Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA has defined a family of vehicles to support lunar exploration and International Space Station (ISS) re-supply missions after the Shuttle s retirement. The Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle (UCDV) has been envisioned to be an expendable logistics delivery vehicle that would be used to deliver external cargo to the ISS. It would be launched on the Crew Launch Vehicle and would replace the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The estimated cargo would be the weight of external logistics to the ISS. Determining the minimum weight design of the UCDV during conceptual design is the major issue addressed in this paper. This task was accomplished using a procedure for rapid weight estimation that was based on Finite Element Analysis and sizing of the vehicle by the use of commercially available codes. Three design concepts were analyzed and their respective weights were compared. The analytical structural weight was increased by a factor to account for structural elements that were not modeled. Significant reduction in weight of a composite design over metallic was achieved for similar panel concepts.

  9. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  10. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  11. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.

  12. Design of an autonomous teleoperated cargo transporting vehicle for lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James; Lao, Tom; Monali, Nkoy

    1989-01-01

    At the turn of the century NASA plans to begin construction of a lunar base. The base will likely consist of developed areas (i.e., habitation, laboratory, landing and launching sites, power plant) separated from each other due to safety considerations. The Self-Repositioning Track Vehicle (SRTV) was designed to transport cargo between these base facilities. The SRTV operates by using two robotic arms to raise and position segments of track upon which the vehicle travels. The SRTV utilizes the semiautonomous mobility (SAM) method of teleoperation; actuator-controlled interlocking track sections; two robotic arms each with five degrees of freedom; and these materials: titanium for structural members and aluminum for shell members, with the possible use of light-weight, high-strength composites.

  13. Trajectory design and navigation analysis for Cargo Transfer Vehicle proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, S. M.; White, B. D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper documents an investigation of alternative (or off-nominal) final approach trajectories and terminal guidance algorithms for Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) automated rendezvous and proximity operation in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Ten candidate trajectory designs, representing a survey of all approaches that reasonably satisfy the mission constraints, are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. It is shown that several fundamentally different types of approach strategies are feasible in the CTV application and enjoy more favorable passive collision avoidance and plume impingement properties than the nominal. They are, however, generally more costly in propellant. The extent to which an alternative approach is more costly is determined largely by the abort (or specifically the 'hold' or 'wave-off') requirements. These approach techniques are verified in a software simulation using a parametrically defined candidate navigation system, and proximity sensor accuracy requirements are derived.

  14. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Container...

  15. NASA Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicle Development Approach Builds on Lessons from Past and Present Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) Toward the end of the next decade, a heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will deliver the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) carrying the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), where it will rendezvous with the CEV launched on the CLV and return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in over 30 years. This paper outlines how NASA is building these new space transportation systems on a foundation of legacy technical and management knowledge, using extensive experience gained from past and ongoing launch vehicle programs to maximize its design and development approach, with the objective of reducing total life cycle costs through operational efficiencies such as hardware commonality. For example, the CLV in-line configuration is composed of a 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB), which is an upgrade of the current Space Shuttle 4- segment RSRB, and a new upper stage powered by the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X engine, which is an evolution of the J-2 engine that powered the Apollo Program s Saturn V second and third stages in the 1960s and 1970s. The CaLV configuration consists of a propulsion system composed of two 5-segment RSRBs and a 33- foot core stage that will provide the LOX/LED needed for five commercially available RS-68 main engines. The J-2X also will power the EDS. The Exploration Launch Projects, managed by the Exploration Launch Office located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is leading the design

  16. DNA-based delivery vehicles: pH-controlled disassembly and cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jung-Won; Bermudez, Harry

    2012-12-25

    Non-Watson-Crick base pairing provides an in situ approach for actuation of DNA nanostructures through responses to solution conditions. Here we demonstrate this concept by using physiologically-relevant changes in pH to regulate DNA pyramid assembly/disassembly and to control the release of protein cargo. PMID:23143043

  17. Design of GPS-GPRS module for localization vehicles and cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr NOWAKOWSKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented results of market researches of logisticenterprises in Upper Silesia region which determine the level of implementation of GPS systems in vehicles. The results of that research implied design of GPS-GPRS module to be applied in vehicles as an alternative solution for modules already present on the market.

  18. A new vehicle for urban freight? An ex-ante evaluation of electric cargo bikes in courier services

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander; Lenz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    One possible strategy to tackle the negative effects of urban freight is the substitution of cars by electric cargo bikes for inner-city courier shipments. This paper determines whether there is a potential market for electric cargo bikes, how the current market is organized, how electric cargo bikes are perceived by bike and car messengers, and what factors drive their willingness to use them. We find that in terms of cost, payload and range, electric cargo bikes lie in between two existing ...

  19. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... at ports and intermodal rail facilities and vehicles used to perform maintenance and repair... received supplemental comment from CARB.\\5\\ \\3\\ 76 FR 5586 (February 1, 2011). \\4\\ See EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0862..., railcar movers, aerial lifts and any other type of equipment (except forklifts) that handles...

  20. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  1. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  2. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  3. Cargo work for maritime operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, D.

    2005-07-01

    Previously published as Kemp & Young's Cargo Work, this new edition has been revised and expanded to reflect unit load containerised systems that are now used in the majority of cargo shipping, while retaining the necessary detail on transporting key classes of cargoes safely, efficiently and profitably. The book covers general principles and the latest international regulations that affect all cargo work, including cargo types and key characteristics of a wide range of cargo classes. It also details Roll On-Roll Off cargo handling, containerisation, equipment and offshore supply. Chapter 4 on bulk cargoes contains a section headed: Coal, characteristics, categories and procedures, precautions.

  4. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  5. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejevs Ruslans; Guseinovs Raufs; Medvedev Alexander N.; Guseynov Sharif E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy) or several (partially corporate strategy) companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports), where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models b...

  6. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  7. 75 FR 9638 - Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... manufacturers of composite cargo tanks are not performing the required compatibility testing or maintaining test... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite... persons who manufacture or use composite cargo tank motor vehicles authorized under DOT special permits...

  8. Effect of process-dependent parameters of the handling-and-storage facility operation on the cargo handling cost

    OpenAIRE

    Шраменко, Наталя Юріївна

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the handling-and-storage facility operation revealed the disadvantages of the technology that is related to the non-consideration of incoming cargo traffic variations in the planning and organization of industrial activity.The criterion of the handling-and-storage facility operation that presents unit costs for cargo handling has been formalized. The criterion makes it possible to take into account the cargo owner's costs associated with downtime of vehicles waiting for service an...

  9. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  10. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  11. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, T.G.C.; Ebben, MJR; Gademann, AJRM Noud; Harten, van, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated Guided Vehicles CAGV s), we developed several rules and algorithms for empty vehicle management, varying from trivial First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) via look-ahead rules to integral planning. For ...

  12. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  13. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  14. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  15. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  16. Vehicle Design Evaluation Program (VDEP). A computer program for weight sizing, economic, performance and mission analysis of fuel-conservative aircraft, multibodied aircraft and large cargo aircraft using both JP and alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center vehicle design evaluation program (VDEP-2) was expanded by (1) incorporating into the program a capability to conduct preliminary design studies on subsonic commercial transport type aircraft using both JP and such alternate fuels as hydrogen and methane;(2) incorporating an aircraft detailed mission and performance analysis capability; and (3) developing and incorporating an external loads analysis capability. The resulting computer program (VDEP-3) provides a preliminary design tool that enables the user to perform integrated sizing, structural analysis, and cost studies on subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Both versions of the VDEP-3 Program which are designated preliminary Analysis VDEP-3 and detailed Analysis VDEP utilize the same vehicle sizing subprogram which includes a detailed mission analysis capability, as well as a geometry and weight analysis for multibodied configurations.

  17. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Documents and Cargo Information § 153.908 Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge:...

  18. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Exporters and Importers, Cargo Airline Association, Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP...

  19. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  1. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.328 Cargo tanks. (a) Providing and affixing identification numbers. Unless a cargo tank is already marked with the identification numbers required by this subpart,...

  2. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  3. Thermoresponsive microcapsules for controlled release of hydrophilic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Thermoresponsive microcapsules that collapse upon increasing the temperature above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) such as poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) capsules are well known. However, capsules consisting of thermoresponsive polymers that possess an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and therefore swell upon increasing the temperature above their UCST are scarce. We will present a microfluidic method to assemble thermoresponsive poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]-dimethyl-[3-sulfopropyl-ammoniumhzdroxide) (PMEDSH) microcapsules that have UCST. These capsules are in a collapsed state at room temperature and become highly water permeable upon increasing the temperature above the UCST. To simultaneously allow for encapsulation of hydrophilic cargo and enable the water based polymerization reaction of the PMEDSH shell, these microcapsules are assembled as water/water/oil emulsions using capillary microfluidic devices. The resulting PMEDSH microcapsules are envisaged as delivery vehicles and microreactors that allow for temperature induced controlled release of hydrophilic cargo. .

  4. RFID in Space: Exploring the Feasibility and Performance of Gen 2 Tags as a Means of Tracking Equipment, Supplies, and Consumable Products in Cargo Transport Bags onboard a Space Vehicle or Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erick C.; Richards, Casey; Herstein, Kelli; Franca, Rodrigo; Yagoda, Evan L.; Vasquez, Reuben

    2008-01-01

    Current inventory management techniques for consumables and supplies aboard space vehicles are burdensome and time consuming. Inventory of food, clothing, and supplies are taken periodically by manually scanning the barcodes on each item. The inaccuracy of reading barcodes and the excessive amount of time it takes for the astronauts to perform this function would be better spent doing scientific experiments. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative method of inventory control by NASA astronauts. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic data capture technology that has potential to create a more effective and user-friendly inventory management system (IMS). In this paper we introduce a Design for Six Sigma Research (DFSS-R) methodology that allows for reliability testing of RFID systems. The research methodology uses a modified sequential design of experiments process to test and evaluate the quality of commercially available RFID technology. The results from the experimentation are compared to the requirements provided by NASA to evaluate the feasibility of using passive Generation 2 RFID technology to improve inventory control aboard crew exploration vehicles.

  5. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers. PMID:27091107

  6. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  7. 49 CFR 393.106 - What are the general requirements for securing articles of cargo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... likely to roll must be restrained by chocks, wedges, a cradle or other equivalent means to prevent rolling. The means of preventing rolling must not be capable of becoming unintentionally unfastened or... cargo, and is then attached to an anchor point on the same side of the vehicle. (3) The working...

  8. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... transfer of ownership or title, in their capacity as carriers of goods or as instruments of such carriers... to sale or other transfer from ownership in the United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel,...

  9. High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided.

  10. Low cost, robust and real time system for detecting and tracking moving objects to automate cargo handling in port terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, Victor; Repiso, Ely; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Vissers, John; Kwakkernaat, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking moving objects for autonomous cargo handling in port terminals using a perception system which input data is a single layer laser scanner. A computationally low cost and robust Detection and Tracking Moving Objects (DATMO) algorithm is presented to be used in autonomous guided vehicles and autonomous trucks for efficient transportation of cargo in ports. The method first detects moving objects and then tracks them, taking int...

  11. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems Algorithms and case study: Algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2002-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  12. Electronic Method to Detect Persons Hidden Within Cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1997-11-10

    Physical security technologies have been unable to address most `Trojan Horse' scenarios at vehicle portals which provide access through the perimeter of a secure area. Thorough visual searches of vehicle cargo containers are time consuming, involve a number of security personnel and are cursory at best. Vehicles entering or exiting a protected site provide an adversary with an easy pathway across secure boundaries. A method to detect the presence of persons hiding within a vehicle's enclosed cargo container has been developed by LQckheed Martin Energy Systems. The system measures vibrations coupled to the container and generated by the human heart. Each time the human heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave. This shock wave is propagated through the body and transmitted to anything with which the body has contact. This wave is referred to as a baflistocardiograrn and is the mechanical equivalent to an electrocardiogram. Systems have been installed in several State prisons and have been independently tested and evaluated. The effectiveness of the system has been determined by the Thunder Mountain Evaluation Center at Fort Huachuca. Arizona. Sympathetic vibrations of the cargo container's surface can be collected using any of several detection methods, i.e. infrared, Doppler microwave, Doppler ultrasonic wave and geophones. The analog signal delivered by the sensors is passed through an amplifier and a low pass filter and then fed to a microprocessor via an analog to digital converter. When initiated by the operator, anafog signals are recorded for a specific interval of time and rate. At the end of the recording intervaL the data are analysed using wavelet transform techniques and compared with a ballistocardiographic template. If the collected data are similar, the system informs the operator that there is a high degree of probability that a person is within the vehicle. The paper describes in depth the development of the system

  13. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  14. Fully autonomous navigation for the NASA cargo transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, James R.; Skulsky, E. David

    1991-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid to navigation during the close approach (less than or equal to 1 km) phase of spacecraft rendezvous. However, most spacecraft also require a navigation system which provides the necessary accuracy for placing both satellites within the range of the docking sensors. The Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System (MANS) is an on-board system which uses Earth-referenced attitude sensing hardware to provide precision orbit and attitude determination. The system is capable of functioning from LEO to GEO and beyond. Performance depends on the number of available sensors as well as mission geometry; however, extensive simulations have shown that MANS will provide 100 m to 400 m (3(sigma)) position accuracy and 0.03 to 0.07 deg (3(sigma)) attitude accuracy in low Earth orbit. The system is independent of any external source, including GPS. MANS is expected to have a significant impact on ground operations costs, mission definition and design, survivability, and the potential development of very low-cost, fully autonomous spacecraft.

  15. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on deck or in compartments near the hose connections when Table 1 requires the cargo's containment.... (i) No repair work is underway in areas where cargo or cargo vapors may collect. (j) Cargo and sea... containment systems do not exceed the pressure ranges for which the transfer hose and containment systems...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  17. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  18. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo...

  19. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumping installation. 105.25-10 Section 105.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in...

  20. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  1. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... symbols used in lines 1 and 2, in order, under the tank segregation column of Table 151.05....

  2. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  3. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 105.20-3 Section 105.20-3 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a) Construction and Materials. (1) The cargo tanks must be constructed of iron, steel, copper, nickel...

  4. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  7. Cargo Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Thacker, Karen; Williams, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, retired in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  8. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  9. Higher-order assemblies of oligomeric cargo receptor complexes form the membrane scaffold of the Cvt vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertipaglia, Chiara; Schneider, Sarah; Jakobi, Arjen J; Tarafder, Abul K; Bykov, Yury S; Picco, Andrea; Kukulski, Wanda; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim Jh; Ravichandran, Arvind C; Wilmanns, Matthias; Kaksonen, Marko; Briggs, John Ag; Sachse, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6.3 Å cryo-EM structure. We show that the major dodecameric cargo prApe1 exhibits a tendency to form higher-order chain structures that are broken upon interaction with the receptor Atg19 in vitro The stoichiometry of these cargo-receptor complexes is key to maintaining the size of the Cvt aggregate in vivo Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further visualize key stages of Cvt vesicle biogenesis. Our findings suggest that Atg19 interaction limits Ape1 aggregate size while serving as a vehicle for vacuolar delivery of tetrameric Ams1. PMID:27266708

  10. Research on probability distribution of port cargo throughput

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang; TAN De-rong

    2008-01-01

    In order to more accurately examine developing trends in gross cargo throughput, we have modeled the probability distribution of cargo throughput. Gross cargo throughput is determined by the time spent by cargo ships in the port and the operating efficiency of handling equipment. Gross cargo throughput is the sum of all compound variables determining each aspect of cargo throughput for every cargo ship arriving at the port. Probability distribution was determined using the Wald equation. The results show that the variability of gross cargo throughput primarily depends on the different times required by different cargo ships arriving at the port. This model overcomes the shortcoming of previous models: inability to accurately determine the probability of a specific value of future gross cargo throughput. Our proposed model of cargo throughput depends on the relationship between time required by a cargo ship arriving at the port and the operational capacity of handling equipment at the port. At the same time, key factors affecting gross cargo throughput are analyzed. In order to test the efficiency of the model, the cargo volume of a port in Shandong Province was used as an example. In the case study the actual results matched our theoretical analysis.

  11. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  12. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  13. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  14. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  15. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  16. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  17. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  18. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  19. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  20. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  1. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section...

  2. Membrane trafficking: licensing a cargo receptor for ER export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-01-19

    Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum prevents packaging of immature and misfolded proteins into vesicles, but the actual mechanisms involved in this process have not been defined for most cargos. A recent study demonstrates that the engagement of mature cargo with its receptor triggers the recruitment of a vesicle cargo adaptor. PMID:25602305

  3. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gauging devices. 151.15-10 Section 151.15-10... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section contains definitions and requirements for types of gauging devices specified in Table 151.05. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-5 Cargoes having... transporting liquids having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 14 pounds per square inch absolute or vented at...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks: Filling limits. 154.1844 Section 154.1844... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1844 Cargo tanks... cargo tank is not loaded: (1) More than 98 percent liquid full; or (2) In excess of the...

  7. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  8. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime.... vessels or for foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters. In a notice (64 FR 1648; Jan. 11,...

  9. Assembly and Mechanical Properties of the Cargo-Free and Cargo-Loaded Bacterial Nanocompartment Encapsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Joost; Kononova, Olga; Barbu, Ioana M; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Rurup, W Frederik; Burnley, Rebecca J; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heck, Albert J R

    2016-08-01

    Prokaryotes mostly lack membranous compartments that are typical of eukaryotic cells, but instead, they have various protein-based organelles. These include bacterial microcompartments like the carboxysome and the virus-like nanocompartment encapsulin. Encapsulins have an adaptable mechanism for enzyme packaging, which makes it an attractive platform to carry a foreign protein cargo. Here we investigate the assembly pathways and mechanical properties of the cargo-free and cargo-loaded nanocompartments, using a combination of native mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and multiscale computational molecular modeling. We show that encapsulin dimers assemble into rigid single-enzyme bacterial containers. Moreover, we demonstrate that cargo encapsulation has a mechanical impact on the shell. The structural similarity of encapsulins to virus capsids is reflected in their mechanical properties. With these robust mechanical properties encapsulins provide a suitable platform for the development of nanotechnological applications. PMID:27355101

  10. Simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of the interior temperature and induced cargo release from pore-restricted mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juyao; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature changes initiated within nano structures are being increasingly used to externally activate responsive delivery vehicles. Yet, the precise measurement of the nano environment temperature increase and its correlation with the induced macroscopic cargo release are difficult to achieve. In this study, we focus on a photothermally activated drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and use an optical nanothermometer - NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ crystals - for a ratiometric temperature measurement. Using fluorescent dyes as the payload molecule, both the nanoparticle interior temperature change and the macroscopic cargo release amount are monitored simultaneously by fluorescent spectroscopy. We found that the cargo release lags the temperature increase by about 5 min, revealing the threshold temperature that the particles have to reach before a substantial release could happen. Using this spectroscopic method, we are able to directly compare and correlate a nano environment event with its stimulated macroscopic results.Temperature changes initiated within nano structures are being increasingly used to externally activate responsive delivery vehicles. Yet, the precise measurement of the nano environment temperature increase and its correlation with the induced macroscopic cargo release are difficult to achieve. In this study, we focus on a photothermally activated drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and use an optical nanothermometer - NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ crystals - for a ratiometric temperature measurement. Using fluorescent dyes as the payload molecule, both the nanoparticle interior temperature change and the macroscopic cargo release amount are monitored simultaneously by fluorescent spectroscopy. We found that the cargo release lags the temperature increase by about 5 min, revealing the threshold temperature that the particles have to reach before a substantial release could happen. Using this spectroscopic method, we are

  11. A performance comparison of nuclear electric and nuclear thermal propulsion for Mars cargo missions across the 15-17 year synodic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponaugle, Steven J.; Davis, Steven F.; Everett, Shonn F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Earth-Mars synodic cycle on Mars cargo missions. Cargo vehicles that use nuclear thermal propulsion are compared with those that use nuclear electric propulsion. It will be shown that for low energy class cargo missions, nuclear electric systems exhibit far less variation in peak performance over the synodic cycle than comparable nuclear thermal systems. Performance is measured by the amount of usable mass delivered to Mars, as well as the initial mass requirements in nuclear safe orbit. Nuclear electric propulsion systems also have significantly longer injection window opportunities for a given 26 month synodic period, resulting in much greater mission design flexibility. Injection window opportunities over a 20 year period from 2010 to 2030 are examined. This covers a complete synodic cycle and shows its effects on performance for Mars cargo missions.

  12. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  13. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  14. Developing a model law restricting the transporting of passengers in the cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, T; Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C; Del Valle, C

    2000-01-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States, accounting for about one in five vehicles involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes. A critical factor in these deaths is the practice of carrying passengers in truck cargo areas, which are not designed for this purpose. Each year approximately 200 deaths occur to occupants riding in the back of pickup trucks. Over half the states have laws dealing with preventable injury problem, but these laws vary widely and most are too limited to be effective. We have reviewed existing laws, as well as crash injury data, and we have developed and recommend a model bill. The bill focuses on intended use, restricting passengers to only those portions of a vehicle designed for human transport. We have also conducted and report on a survey of legislative sponsors of pickup truck legislation. PMID:10754798

  15. Photoactivated colloidal dockers for cargo transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Chaikin, Paul M; Pine, David J

    2013-10-30

    We introduce a self-propelled colloidal hematite docker that can be steered to a small particle cargo many times its size, dock, transport the cargo to a remote location, and then release it. The self-propulsion and docking are reversible and activated by visible light. The docker can be steered either by a weak uniform magnetic field or by nanoscale tracks in a textured substrate. The light-activated motion and docking originate from osmotic/phoretic particle transport in a concentration gradient of fuel, hydrogen peroxide, induced by the photocatalytic activity of the hematite. The docking mechanism is versatile and can be applied to various materials and shapes. The hematite dockers are simple single-component particles and are synthesized in bulk quantities. This system opens up new possibilities for designing complex micrometer-size factories as well as new biomimetic systems. PMID:24131488

  16. Detection of Neutron Sources in Cargo Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of detecting the presence of clandestine neutron sources, such as would be produced by nuclear weapons containing plutonium, within cargo containers. Small, simple and economical semiconductor photodiode detectors affixed to the outsides of containers are capable of producing statistically robust detections of unshielded sources when their output is integrated over the durations of ocean voyages. It is possible to shield such sources with thick layers of neutron-abs...

  17. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  18. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  19. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War...

  20. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  1. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  2. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  3. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.15 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  4. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle..., Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.62 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  5. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.37 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  6. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  7. Single-Commodity Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Martinovic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel variation of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. Single commodity cargo with pickup and delivery service is considered. Customers are labeled as either cargo sink or cargo source, depending on their pickup or delivery demand. This problem is called a single commodity vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery service (1-VRPPD. 1-VRPPD deals with multiple vehicles and is the same as the single-commodity traveling salesman problem (1-PDTSP when the number of vehicles is equal to 1. Since 1-VRPPD specializes VRP, it is hard in the strong sense. Iterative modified simulated annealing (IMSA is presented along with greedy random-based initial solution algorithm. IMSA provides a good approximation to the global optimum in a large search space. Experiment is done for the instances with different number of customers and their demands. With respect to average values of IMSA execution times, proposed method is appropriate for practical applications.

  8. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil. 155.775 Section 155.775 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.14 - Stacking of cargo and pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stacking of cargo and pallets. 1917.14 Section 1917.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... pallets. Cargo, pallets and other material stored in tiers shall be stacked in such a manner as to...

  10. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. (c) The steel cover for the aluminum... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  11. 49 CFR 180.405 - Qualification of cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereof. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.405, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of cargo tanks. 180.405 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Cargo Tanks § 180.405...

  12. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  13. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Gúlcan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30 in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special terminal form where high and international levels of safety and quality elements applied. Unlike conventional bulk cargo and container cargo operations, chemical cargo operations include own priorities, applications, and the evaluation criteria. The aim of this study is to perform a qualitative research to determine the factors affecting the operational efficiency of ship, berth and warehousing operations in chemical cargo terminals.

  14. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible. Except as described in § 150.160, the person in charge of a... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1)...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  16. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat...

  17. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  18. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  19. Building and Leading the Next Generation of Exploration Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human spaceflight to the Moon and beyond. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to: conduct the first flight test of Ares I, test-fire the Ares I first stage solid rocket motor; build the first integrated Ares I upper stage; continue testing hardware for the J-2X upper stage engine, and continue refining the design of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. These efforts come with serious challenges for the project leadership team as it continues to foster a culture of ownership and accountability, operate with limited funding, and works to maintain effective internal and external communications under intense external scrutiny.

  20. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  1. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in... electronic information filing requirement in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Cargo entered under...

  2. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  3. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  4. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  5. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  7. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  8. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  9. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  10. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  11. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  12. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  13. An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Alenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF, having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The Equivalent Electrode Method (EEM is used to solve this problem.

  14. The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Ohlsson, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research Authors: Martin Eriksson and Tobias Ohlsson Supervisor: Cecilia Lindh University: University of MälardalenDepartment: School of Sustainable Development of Society and TechnologyCourse: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits Research question: Is the Indian cargo tray industry a promising place for Autoform to make futureinvestments? Target group: The primary target is Autoform. The secondary target group is other cara...

  15. Design and Inspection of Liquid Cargo Piping of Chemical Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Sheng; Jiang Chengsong

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variety of liquid chemicals, and many shipowners are not clear about the cargos their ships will carry at the early stage of the design and construction of chemical tankers. In addition, because of the inclination to choose low cost construction material due to cost concern, the sources of cargos that ships can carry are greatly limited and the operation efficiency will be influenced. What should we do to avoid such situations?

  16. CARGO INSURANCE. TOTAL LOSS UNDER NORWEGIAN, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneeva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis was created because of great personal interest towards marine insurance as such ans cargo insurance in particular. The purpose of this work is to give a proper overview of three legal fields - Norwegian, English and Russian Law. Cargo insurance is of no doubts tremendously important nowadays. How often do people consider where the goods they use daily are coming from? Some tea from India, a new phone form Japan, household appliances from Germany. All these goods were made l...

  17. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  18. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  19. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  20. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  1. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  2. Lipid Raft-Mediated Membrane Tethering and Delivery of Hydrophobic Cargos from Liquid Crystal-Based Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Okhil K; Naciri, Jawad; Oh, Eunkeu; Spillmann, Christopher M; Delehanty, James B

    2016-04-20

    A main goal of bionanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery (NMDD) continues to be the development of novel biomaterials that can controllably modulate the activity of the NP-associated therapeutic cargo. One of the desired subcellular locations for targeted delivery in NMDD is the plasma membrane. However, the controlled delivery of hydrophobic cargos to the membrane bilayer poses significant challenges including cargo precipitation and lack of specificity. Here, we employ a liquid crystal NP (LCNP)-based delivery system for the controlled partitioning of a model dye cargo from within the NP core into the plasma membrane bilayer. During synthesis of the NPs, the water-insoluble model dye cargo, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO), was efficiently incorporated into the hydrophobic LCNP core as confirmed by multiple spectroscopic analyses. Conjugation of a PEGylated cholesterol derivative to the NP surface (DiO-LCNP-PEG-Chol) facilitated the localization of the dye-loaded NPs to lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane in HEK 293T/17 cell. Analysis of DiO cellular internalization kinetics revealed that when delivered as a LCNP-PEG-Chol NP, the half-life of DiO membrane residence time (30 min) was twice that of free DiO (DiO(free)) (15 min) delivered from bulk solution. Time-resolved laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to visualize the passive efflux of DiO from the LCNP core and its insertion into the plasma membrane bilayer as confirmed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. Finally, the delivery of DiO as a LCNP-PEG-Chol complex resulted in the attenuation of its cytotoxicity; the NP form of DiO exhibited ∼30-40% less toxicity compared to DiO(free). Our data demonstrate the utility of the LCNP platform as an efficient vehicle for the combined membrane-targeted delivery and physicochemical modulation of molecular cargos using lipid raft-mediated tethering.

  3. Project CarGO tram at Dresden; Projekt CarGo Tram in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Eberstein, F.; Franke, M. [Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Next year, the Glassen Volkswagen Factory, which is currently under construction, will commence the production of luxury class automobiles. Already buying a car is meant to be a special event; thus the factory is set in a baroque environment, near the famous Semper Opera and Picture Gallery. This arrangement, hitherto without example, will be accompanied by another, equally remarkable project. The factory, which is situated in a central city area being very sensitive in terms of urban development and traffic installations, will be delivered raw materials and parts using a CarGo Tram. Two bi-directionally operated, 60 metres long five-car trains will transport the parts from the railway cargo hub at Dresden Friedrichstadt to the factory in cycles of 40 minutes. There and at the Glassen Factory in Grosser Garten, separate track terminals will be built. In addition to the historic past and the charming scenery of the Elbe metropolis Dresden and its environs, soon also the CarGo Tram and the Glassen Factory will attract guests from all over the world to visit this innovative and culturally important city in the centre of Europe. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2001 beginnt die Produktion von Automobilen der Oberklasse in der derzeit noch im Bau befindlichen Glaesernen Manufaktur der Volkswagen Automobil-Manufaktur Dresden GmbH. In einem barocken Umfeld, mit raeumlicher Naehe zur Semperoper und Gemaeldegalerie, soll bereits der Verkauf dieser Fahrzeuge zu einem Erlebnis werden. Dieses bisher einmalige Vorhaben wird von einem zweiten, ebenso einzigartigen Vorhaben begleitet. Die Belieferung der in einem staedtebaulich und verkehrlich sensiblen Innenstadtbereich gelegenen Manufaktur erfolgt mit einer Gueterstrassenbahn. Zwei 60 Meter lange, fuenfteilige Zweirichtungsfahrzeuge werden ab Maerz 2001 etwa im 40-Minutentakt die Anlieferung der Zulieferteile aus dem Gueterverkehrszentrum Dresden-Friedrichstadt uebernehmen. Hier und an der Glaesernen Manufaktur im Grossen Garten werden

  4. 49 CFR 392.9 - Inspection of cargo, cargo securement devices and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tire and other equipment used in its operation, and the means of fastening the commercial motor vehicle... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the driver of a truck or truck tractor must— (1)...

  5. Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.

  6. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  7. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model represents technology of joint work of flexible and thrust fastening means of cargo on rolling stock. In particular, on the basis of this model there can be obtained the technology models of joint work of flexible and elastic fastening means of cargo without pads of fastening flexible elements of cargo with pads without thrust bars and also flexible fastening elements of cargo without pads and thrust bars at asymmetrical and/or symmetrical allocation of cargo in the wagon. A specific feature (novelty feature of the proposed dynamic model is inclusion into the model of both cargo pads and thrust bars which are nailed to the wagon floor close to the butt and lateral sides of cargo.

  8. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  9. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  10. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  11. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  12. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  13. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  14. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  16. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with...

  17. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...... resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  18. SPECIFICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM TO PROVIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARGO HAULERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenko, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Specifics of implementation of marketing strategy of cargo haulers are identified. Indicators of their marketing strategies’ efficiency are reviewed. The structure of organizational and functional mechanism of implementation of marketing strategies’ by cargo haulers is suggested.

  19. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-airport and includes facilties upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration,...

  20. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this information... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity...

  1. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... and include facilties upstream ] in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration,...

  2. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

  3. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  4. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a)...

  5. Release of surfactant cargo from interfacially-active halloysite clay nanotubes for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Samantha J; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T

    2014-11-18

    Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes are effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions and can serve as interfacially-active vehicles for delivering oil spill treating agents. Halloysite nanotubes adsorb at the oil-water interface and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that are stable for months. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) imaging of the oil-in-water emulsions shows that these nanotubes assemble in a side-on orientation at the oil-water interface and form networks on the interface through end-to-end linkages. For application in the treatment of marine oil spills, halloysite nanotubes were successfully loaded with surfactants and utilized as an interfacially-active vehicle for the delivery of surfactant cargo. The adsorption of surfactant molecules at the interface serves to lower the interfacial tension while the adsorption of particles provides a steric barrier to drop coalescence. Pendant drop tensiometry was used to characterize the dynamic reduction in interfacial tension resulting from the release of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS) from halloysite nanotubes. At appropriate surfactant compositions and loadings in halloysite nanotubes, the crude oil-saline water interfacial tension is effectively lowered to levels appropriate for the dispersion of oil. This work indicates a novel concept of integrating particle stabilization of emulsions together with the release of chemical surfactants from the particles for the development of an alternative, cheaper, and environmentally-benign technology for oil spill remediation.

  6. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  7. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section 154.708 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  9. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line...

  10. 46 CFR 308.521 - Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. 308.521 Section 308.521 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR... for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. The standard form of application for a War Risk Open Cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  12. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. (a) General requirement. Pursuant to section 343(a), Trade Act of 2002, as amended (19...

  13. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  14. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature... temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's vapor pressure at 46 °C (approx. 115 °F)....

  15. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  16. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  17. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the mammalia

  18. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  19. 49 CFR 1548.9 - Acceptance of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of cargo. 1548.9 Section 1548.9..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.9 Acceptance of... program. (b) Refusal to transport. Each indirect air carrier must refuse to offer for transport on...

  20. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  1. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  2. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  3. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  4. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for... paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, an air cargo manifest need not be filed or retained aboard the... air express or freight shall be manifested as other air express or freight. (e) Accompanied baggage...

  5. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  6. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operated quick closing shutoff valve shall be installed at each cargo hose connection when in use. (3) No... required quick closing shutoff valves shall be such that the valves may be operated from at least two... will cause the quick closing shutoff valves to close in case of fire. Quick closing shutoff...

  7. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  8. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  9. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  10. Design criteria for light high speed desert air cushion vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulnaga, B. E.

    An evaluation is made of the applicability and prospective performance of ACVs in trans-Saharan cargo transport, in view of the unique characteristics of the dry sand environment. The lightweight/high-speed ACV concept envisioned is essentially ground effect aircraftlike, with conventional wheels as a low-speed backup suspension system. A propeller is used in ground effect cruise. Attention is given to the effects on vehicle stability and performance of sandy surface irregularities of the desert topography and of cross-winds from various directions relative to vehicle movement.

  11. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of NASA Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Davis, Susan R.; Askins, Bruce R.; Salyer, Blaine H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ares Projects Office (APO) is continuing to make progress toward the final design of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and V will form the space launch capabilities necessary to fulfill NASA's exploration strategy of sending human beings to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As with all new space vehicles there will be a number of tests to ensure the design can be Human Rated. One of these is the Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) that will be measuring responses of the Ares I as a system. All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique characteristics include items such as mass distribution, frequency and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system like the Ares I launch vehicle behaves under given loading conditions. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured through certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified through testing before the vehicle is Human Rated. The IVGVT is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of Ares I during various phases of operational/flight. This testing includes excitations of the vehicle in lateral, longitudinal, and torsional directions at vehicle configurations representing different trajectory points. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C) analysis models for verifying analyses of Ares I. NASA launch vehicles from Saturn to Shuttle have undergone Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) leading to successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the unmanned Delta III. This vehicle was

  12. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla TURANOV; Elena TIMUKHINA

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model ...

  13. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  14. Automatic control system of the radiometric system for inspection of large-scale vehicles and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic control system (ACS) is intended to control the equipment of the radiometric inspection system in the normal operating modes as well as during the preventive maintenance, maintenance/repair and adjustment works; for acquisition of the data on the status of the equipment, reliable protection of the personnel and equipment, acquisition, storage and processing of the results of operation and to ensure service maintenance.

  15. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Rule On December 4, 2007 (72 FR 68442) (Docket No. NHTSA-2007-0040), NHTSA published a final rule that... problems can be found in the August 31, 2005 notice of proposed rulemaking (70 FR 51707, 51708) (Docket No... can be verified by NHTSA during a compliance test (FMVSS No. 110 paragraphs S9.3.2 and S10.2; FMVSS...

  16. System and method for identifying, validating, weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L.; Batsell, Stephen G.; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; White, Clifford P.

    2007-12-04

    An asset identification and information infrastructure management (AI3M) device having an automated identification technology system (AIT), a Transportation Coordinators' Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II), a weigh-in-motion system (WIM-II), and an Automated Air Load Planning system (AALPS) all in electronic communication for measuring and calculating actual asset characteristics, either statically or in-motion, and further calculating an actual load plan.

  17. 76 FR 13313 - Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477..., PHMSA published a notice (73 FR 916) to solicit comments and information on a set of recommended... Initiative, http://www.saferports.org.uk/spi_1 . \\6\\ Pronovost, Peter, Dale Needham, Sean Berenholtz,...

  18. Variable Structure Control of Catastrophic Course in Airdropping Heavy Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiyuan; Shi Zhongke

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical model of a transport aircraft would be subjected to a sudden change when heavy cargo is dropped off in airdropping, which exerts serious influences upon the safety of the aircraft. A variable structure controller is specially designed for handling the airdrop process. The nonlinear system is linearized by input-output feedback linearization using differential geometry theories. On this basis, an inner loop system for velocity and attitude tracking control is designed by using the exponentially approaching rule of the variable structure theory. The whole flight control system is integrated with the outer loop flight altitude control. Digital simulation evidences the applicability of the system to potentially catastrophic course in airdropping heavy cargo and provides robustness against system parameter perturbation.

  19. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  20. August Passenger and Cargo Numbers Set New Highs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Passenger and cargo numbers set new highs in August, the second consecutive month that both areas of operation at Dragonair posted record figures. The airline flew 444,498 passengers in August to record its third consecutive monthly record. The number was 7.7%higher than in July, with travel in both months driven by holiday traffic. August 15 saw a new daily mark set, with 17,220passengers carried on the day.

  1. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-01-01

    Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors),the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the pos...

  2. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  3. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Wei Wang; Chen Yao; Rui Xie; Xiao-Jie Ju; Zhuang Liu; Liang-Yin Chu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two “legs” for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated “on/off” electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers ...

  4. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  5. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  6. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Yizhar; Gutman, Emiliya

    2015-11-01

    One of the promising applications of robotic microswimmers is towing a cargo for controlled drug delivery, micro-surgery or tumor detection. This capability has been demonstrated by the magnetically-actuated microswimmer of Dreyfus et al. [Nature 2005] in which a red blood cell was attached to a chain of magnetic beads connected by flexible DNA links. A key question is what should be the optimal size of the magnetic tail for towing a given cargo. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer under planar undulations - a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a magnetized rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamics is formulated assuming negligible hydrodynamic interaction and leading-order expressions for the resulting motion are obtained explicitly under small amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement or average speed are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with several reported magnetic microswimmers, and also agree qualitatively with recent results on cargo towing by screw rotation of magnetic helical tails [Walker et al., ACS Nano Letters 2015]. This work is supported by the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF) under Grant No. 567/14.

  7. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems.

  8. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  9. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  10. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  11. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  12. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems. PMID:26637019

  13. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  14. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets.

  15. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  16. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  17. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  18. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  19. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  20. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, V.; Van, J.; Osipov, S.; Chakhlov, S.; Temnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a whole and their main components and elements in particular. The number of these main components and elements includes sources of X-ray recording systems and transformation of radiometric information as well as algorithms and software that implements these algorithms for processing, visualization and results interpretation of inspection. Recent developments of X-ray units and betatrons used for inspection of small- and large-sized objects that are made from different materials are deserve special attention. The most effective X-ray detectors are a line and a radiometric detector matrix based on various scintillators. The most promising methods among the algorithms of material identification of testing objects are dual-energy methods. The article describes various models of digital radiography systems applied in Russia and abroad to inspection of baggage, containers, vehicles and large trucks.

  1. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  2. A Framework for Analysis of Security Measures Within On-airport Cargo Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, Carla; Demetsky, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 displayed the shortcomings of aviation security in the United States. Most of the attention on aviation security since that time has focused on airline passengers, their luggage, and their carry-on items, leaving air cargo security on the back burner. The lack of security screening and screening guidelines of cargo traveling by both passenger and all-cargo aircraft is the driving purpose behind this research project: the development of a framework t...

  3. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  4. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  5. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  6. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  7. Forestry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  8. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  9. Scanning of Vehicles for Nuclear Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2014-01-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  10. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  11. Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, Aitor; Rojas, Adriana L.; Rojas, Raul; Murthy, Namita; Effantin, Grégory; Kajava, Andrey V.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.

    2008-01-01

    The retromer complex 1, 2 is required for the sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes 3-7, transcytosis of the polymeric Ig receptor 8, Wnt gradient formation 9, 10, iron transporter recycling 11, and processing of the amyloid precursor protein 12. Human retromer consists of two smaller complexes, the cargo recognition Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 heterotrimer, and a membrane-targeting heterodimer or homodimer of SNX1 and/or SNX2 13. The crystal structure of a Vps29:Vps35 subcomplex shows how the metallophosphoesterase-fold subunit Vps29 14, 15 acts as a scaffold for the C-terminal half of Vps35. Vps35 forms a horseshoe-shaped right-handed α-helical solenoid whose concave face completely covers the metal-binding site of Vps29 and whose convex face exposes a series of hydrophobic interhelical grooves. Electron microscopy shows that the intact Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 complex is a stick-shaped, somewhat flexible, structure, ∼ 21 nm long. A hybrid structural model derived from crystal structures, electron microscopy, interaction studies, and bioinformatics shows that the α-solenoid fold extends the full length of Vps35, and that Vps26 is bound at the opposite end from Vps29. This extended structure presents multiple binding sites for the SNX complex and receptor cargo, and appears capable of flexing to conform to curved vesicular membranes. PMID:17891154

  12. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  13. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  14. Strong Interest In China’s Cargo Market——An interview with Jean-Peter Jansen, chairman of the Executive Board of Lufthansa Cargo AG.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Lufthansa Cargo AG ranks top among European airlines in the flights bound for China. It has 14 weekly flights for Hong Kong to transport 720 tons of cargo and mails, nine weekly services for Shanghai to carry 450 tons and four weekly flights for Beijing to handle 250 tons.The carrier is showing strong interest in the Chinese market, for 11 per cent of its sales in 2003, 2.16 billion euro came from China.

  15. 78 FR 58986 - Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 RIN 1625-AA89 Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes AGENCY... the Great Lakes. The Coast Guard requests public comment on the FEIS. DATES: Comments and related... associated with a proposed final rule to regulate discharges of dry cargo residue in the Great Lakes....

  16. A hopping mechanism for cargo transport by molecular motors in crowded microtubules

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Most models designed to study the bidirectional movement of cargos as they are driven by molecular motors rely on the idea that motors of different polarities can be coordinated by external agents if arranged into a motor-cargo complex to perform the necessary work [gross04]. Although these models have provided us with important insights into these phenomena, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms through which the movement of the complex takes place on crowded microtubules. For example (i) how does cargo-binding affect motor motility? and in connection with that - (ii) how does the presence of other motors (and also other cargos) on the microtubule affect the motility of the motor-cargo complex? We discuss these questions from a different perspective. The movement of a cargo is conceived here as a hopping process resulting from the transference of cargo between neighboring motors. In the light of this, we examine the conditions under which cargo might display bidirectional movemen...

  17. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia;

    2016-01-01

    and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure...

  18. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of... SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel... cargo screening facility, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548 for transport on a...

  19. 46 CFR 308.523 - Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. 308.523 Section 308.523 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY... Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. An application for the revision of an Open...

  20. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. 308.551 Section 308.551 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. The standard form of clearing agency agreement, Form...

  1. 46 CFR 308.548 - Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. 308.548 Section 308.548 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. This form, which may be obtained from the American...

  2. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  3. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-304. 308.524 Section 308.524 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  4. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or... of Cargo Tanks § 180.413 Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks. (a) General. Any repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of a...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-70 - Cargoes requiring inhibition or stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargoes requiring inhibition or stabilization. 151.50-70 Section 151.50-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... requiring inhibition or stabilization. When table 151.05 refers to this section, that cargo must be—...

  6. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  7. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters,...

  8. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding... securities of Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  9. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  10. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  11. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  12. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo required... Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.14 Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure. (a) General requirement. Pursuant to section 343(a), Trade Act of...

  13. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  16. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... Safety Construction Certificate—T/ALL. (a) All tankships on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S....

  17. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  18. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  19. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  20. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  1. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo... LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-3 Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo tanks of pressure vessel configuration (e.g. cylindrical, spherical,...

  2. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air Cargo Data Management System (ACDMS), Cargo Reporting Tool for cargo screening reporting, and evidence of..., abstracted below that we will submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal in...

  3. Simulation of air-supply systems efficiency in refrigerated vehicles to prevent food spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarma, R. A.; Ramos, J. E.; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    An improper air distribution within refrigerated truck chambers is the major cause of inadequate road transport of perishable products under controlled temperature. Inadequate temperature control permits microbial and/or enzymatic deterioration. Experimental results in refrigerated long road vehicles show temperatures differences in the cargo of as much as 12ºC. This paper presents a computational model to predict, and visualize, the temperature conditions (e.g. velocity, temperat...

  4. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  5. A Sensor and Communications System for Containerized-Cargo Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach Jr., R R

    2005-02-10

    A public/private collaboration between federal, state, provincial, and local U.S. and Canadian governmental organizations, called the Canada - United States Cargo Security Project has been formed, with the goal to improve security of containerized cargo moving from overseas locations into eastern Canadian provinces and the Northeastern United States. The current phase of this project has two technical objectives. These are: (1) to build and test a prototype in-container sensor system able to detect unauthorized entry into the container and the presence of radioactive material, to record geographical location and environmental data, and to transmit this information via satellite communications to a remote monitoring facility, and (2) to develop a secure website where data from the in-container sensors and other information will be displayed in real or near-real time and can be made available to law enforcement and emergency response organizations as appropriate. This paper will describe these activities, currently being undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An additional goal of the project's current phase is to integrate multi-jurisdictional training and first-responder exercises while monitoring and tracking container shipments from overseas to the US via Canadian ports-of-entry into North America. This activity is being undertaken by other project partners, which include the National Infrastructure Institute--Center for Infrastructure Expertise (NI2CIE), Transport Canada, Canadian Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, Ports of Halifax and Montreal, U.S. Coast Guard (First Coast Guard District), States of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and New York and the Port of Portland.

  6. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a

  7. Advanced analysis of the transverse bulkhead of the a general cargo ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, T.; Nutu, C.; Stanca, C.; Cupsa, O.; Carp, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the main strength factors stressing the transverse bulkhead of a cargo ship. The transverse bulkhead is one of the main components of the hull for a general cargo vessel. There are presented the role and the importance of the general cargo vessel's type using an original drawing made in NX 8.0 Software from Siemens. Further on, we are presented the importance of the transverse bulkhead of the general cargo ship's hull. Next there are analysed the formability of the transverse bulkhead's material and then we are determining the shear, normal and von Mises stresses in the traverse bulkhead, using the finite element method. Once the stresses are computed, there are also determined the fatigue life, strength safety factor and fatigue safety factor. The analysis of the transverse bulkhead is important for the safety of the general cargo vessel type because if this component of the ship does not resist to the various stresses and high deformations during bad storms on the sea or if the cargo is stored inappropriately, deformations or even breakage of the transverse bulkhead can occur, thus causing damages of the cargo ship, especially under heavy storm.

  8. The Design of Bulk Carrier Cargo Holds State Integrated Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ru-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ship cargo hold Internal uses artificial watch or is unattended. Therefore, it is impossible to know the appropriate information of the cargo holds Internal timely and accurately. Cargo damage and ship accidents occurred frequently. Automation remote processing and monitoring alarm system for the bulk carrier is an important part of the marine automation. The system plays a significant role to guarantee the navigation safety for bulk carriers. The paper introduced the important parts of the integrated monitoring system, structural design, hardware configuration, various modules communication transmission and various data processing software design were included. Based on embedded development, the real time information including the cargo hold internal humidity temperature, oxygen concentration, smoke gas concentration, cold water well level and other data were collected, as well the hatch closed state was detected and the cargo hold internal real time video information was collected. Then the real-time communication between the control display and acquisition modules were assured. By adjusting the corresponding buttons on the bridge according to the monitoring information, so that the cargo hold always in a safe environment, so as to avoid cargo hold accidents.

  9. Mechanisms for exporting large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kota; Katada, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Cargo proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus are typically transported in coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles of 60-90 nm diameter. Several cargo molecules including collagens and chylomicrons form structures that are too large to be accommodated by these vesicles, but their secretion still requires COPII proteins. Here, we first review recent progress on large cargo secretions derived especially from animal models and human diseases, which indicate the importance of COPII proteins. We then discuss the recent isolation of specialized factors that modulate the process of COPII-dependent cargo formation to facilitate the exit of large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on these findings, we propose a model that describes the importance of the GTPase cycle for secretion of oversized cargoes. Next, we summarize reports that describe the structures of COPII proteins and how these results provide insight into the mechanism of assembly of the large cargo carriers. Finally, we discuss what issues remain to be solved in the future.

  10. A Study of a Lifting Body as a Space Station Crew Exigency Return Vehicle (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.

    2000-01-01

    A lifting body is described for use as a return vehicle for crews from a space station. Reentry trajectories, subsystem weights and performance, and costs are included. The baseline vehicle is sized for a crew of eight. An alternate configuration is shown in which only four crew are carried with the extra volume reserved for logistics cargo. A water parachute recovery system is shown as an emergency alternative to a runway landing. Primary reaction control thrusters from the Shuttle program are used for orbital maneuvering while the Shuttle verniers are used for all attitude control maneuvers.

  11. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra...

  12. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  13. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, J. M.; Bressloff, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow movi...

  14. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cargo are carried on board the vessel, they shall be of flexible metal and fabricated of seamless steel pipe and flexible joints of steel or bronze, or of other suitable material resistant to the...

  15. Bidirectional transport of motor-driven cargoes in cell: A random walk with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    Motor-driven bidirectional transport inside a cell is an intriguing phenomenon where multiple dyneins and kinesins drag cargoes and deliver them to specific locations. Quite often, both anterograde (plus) and retrograde (minus) directed motors reside simultaneously on the cargo and co-ordinate their activity such that the motion of the cargo looks like spells of plus directed and minus directed segments, with pauses in between. The stochastic tug-of-war model is widely used to analyze this motion, largely studied by computer simulations. Here, we present some analytical results for this model, such as the average durations of plus and minus-run segments and tug-of-war events as well as probabilities of persistence and reversal of directions following a tug-of-war. We show that cargo motion has memory in case of 2 dyneins and 1 kinesin driving together, while it is absent when only a dynein and a kinesin is involved.

  16. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  17. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  18. Oligomerization of a Cargo Receptor Directs Protein Sorting into COPII-coated Transport Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ken; Nakano, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex in vesicles coated with coat protein complex II (COPII). The incorporation of certain transport molecules (cargo) into the COPII vesicles is thought to be mediated by cargo receptors. Here we show that Emp47p, a type-I membrane protein, is specifically required for the transport of an integral membrane protein, Emp46p, from the ER. Exit of Emp46p from the ER was saturable and de...

  19. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  20. Multivalent viral capsids with internal cargo for fibrin imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie C Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is the cause of many cardiovascular syndromes and is a significant contributor to life-threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombus targeted imaging agents have the capability to provide molecular information about pathological clots, potentially improving detection, risk stratification, and therapy of thrombosis-related diseases. Nanocarriers are a promising platform for the development of molecular imaging agents as they can be modified to have external targeting ligands and internal functional cargo. In this work, we report the synthesis and use of chemically functionalized bacteriophage MS2 capsids as biomolecule-based nanoparticles for fibrin imaging. The capsids were modified using an oxidative coupling reaction, conjugating ∼90 copies of a fibrin targeting peptide to the exterior of each protein shell. The ability of the multivalent, targeted capsids to bind fibrin was first demonstrated by determining the impact on thrombin-mediated clot formation. The modified capsids out-performed the free peptides and were shown to inhibit clot formation at effective concentrations over ten-fold lower than the monomeric peptide alone. The installation of near-infrared fluorophores on the interior surface of the capsids enabled optical detection of binding to fibrin clots. The targeted capsids bound to fibrin, exhibiting higher signal-to-background than control, non-targeted MS2-based nanoagents. The in vitro assessment of the capsids suggests that fibrin-targeted MS2 capsids could be used as delivery agents to thrombi for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  1. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  2. The complex network of global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods, and the spread of invasive species. With 90% of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here we use information about the itineraries of 16,363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features which set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified in three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with s...

  3. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  4. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  5. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  6. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  7. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  8. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  9. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  10. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  11. A review of modeling issues and analysis methods for the thermal response of cargoes transported in the Safe Secure Trailer subjected to fire environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses thermal analysis in support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to predict the heating of cargoes shipped in vehicles like the Safe Secure Trailer. Fire environments contribute very significantly to the risk associated with ground transport of special nuclear materials. The tradeoff between thermal model complexity and the affordable number of scenarios used to represent the hazard space is discussed as it impacts PRA. The relevant heat transfer mechanisms are discussed along with the applicability of methods from the literature for analysis of these mechanisms. Many of the subject's real problems remain too complex for affordable and rigorous analysis. Available models are generally restricted to idealizations that are quickly obviated by real effects. Approximate treatment methods, striving to produce conservative, realistic estimates are also discussed

  12. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  13. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  14. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  15. LUCID: A Quantitative Assay of ESCRT-Mediated Cargo Sorting into Multivesicular Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Daniel P; Merz, Alexey J

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes are transportation nodes, mediating selective transport of soluble and transmembrane cargos to and from the Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane and lysosomes. As endosomes mature to become multivesicular bodies (MVBs), Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRTs) selectively incorporate transmembrane cargos into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Luminal vesicles and their cargoes are targeted for destruction when MVBs fuse with lysosomes. Common assays of endosomal luminal targeting, including fluorescence microscopy and monitoring of proteolytic cargo maturation, possess significant limitations. We present a quantitative assay system called LUCID (LUCiferase reporter of Intraluminal Deposition) that monitors exposure of chimeric luciferase-cargo reporters to cytosol. Luciferase-chimera signal increases when sorting to the endosome lumen is disrupted, and silencing of signal from the chimera depends upon luminal delivery of the reporter rather than proteolytic degradation. The system presents several advantages, including rapidity, microscale operation and a high degree of reproducibility that enables detection of subtle phenotypic differences. Luciferase reporters provide linear signal over an extremely broad dynamic range, allowing analysis of reporter traffic even at anemic levels of expression. Furthermore, LUCID reports transport kinetics when applied to inducible trafficking reporters.

  16. The iTRAPs: Guardians of Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval During Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah L; Cousin, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The reformation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed SVs must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional "fail-safe" mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II (sybII) and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that sybII and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other SV cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for sybII) and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1). In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both sybII and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of SV molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs) and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  17. The iTRAPs: guardians of synaptic vesicle cargo retrieval during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Louise Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reformation of synaptic vesicles during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed synaptic vesicles must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional fail-safe mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other synaptic vesicle cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for synaptobrevin II and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1. In this review we summarise current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of synaptic vesicle molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  18. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  19. The control of vehicles used in transport of sensitive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most sensitive nuclear materials are usually shipped in specific vehicles with a reinforced protection; such vehicles are generally escorted, tracked and watched over from a distant control centre. Among the various publications made by the IAEA in relation with the CPPNM, the INFCIRC/225 introduces major recommendations for physical protection of nuclear materials in general and particularly during transport. For instance, the text recommends - for the terrestrial shipment of most sensitive material - the use of vehicles specially designed to resist attack and equipped with a vehicle disabling device. Applying such a recommendation at a state level requires the intervention of a competent authority; the competent authority defines the framework of a validation process starting with the design of the vehicle and ending with the vehicle protection approval. The validation process needs articulating responsibilities between the three major actors who are: the operator in charge of the design, a technical support body in charge of technical evaluation, and the competent authority who is responsible for the final approval of the protection. This paper focuses on the approval process of reinforced protection vehicles in France; it aims at showing how such a process may contribute to the security of nuclear material shipments. The paper notably focuses on the responsibilities of the operators, the competent authority and the technical support organization. This approval process of the protection of a vehicle allows the authority to ensure that the protection setup is effective and operational in order to protect the cargo from a malicious threat. In such a process, the authority defines the threat and the objectives of protection; the authority may choose, in certain case, to recommend protection devices or solutions; the need for recommendation versus objective definition mostly depends on the environment of the vehicle and the constraints induced. The authority may

  20. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  1. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  2. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  3. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley, E-mail: twholmes@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanowire coils of organometallic coordination polymers for controlled cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Ni, Huan; Bao, Suping; Zhu, Fangming; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Qing

    2014-06-12

    Nanowire coils of organometallic coordination polymers have been synthesized for the first time by using the emulsion periphery polymerization technique. An amphiphilic triblock copolymer terminated with inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin and 4,4'-bipyridine self-assembles into oil-in-water emulsion in a toluene/water mixture. Subsequent coordination of bipyridine with Ni(II) in periphery of emulsions results in the formation of coordination polymer nanowire coils. The nanowire coils are composed of nanowires with diameter of 2 nm. Nanowire coils exhibit enhanced thermal stability in contrast to their parent triblock copolymer. Interestingly, nanowire coils are capable of encapsulating organic cargoes. Encapsulated cargoes can be selectively extracted from nanowire coils without damaging nanowire coils. Nanowire coils are potential candidates for encapsulating and controlled release of organic cargoes. PMID:24842771

  5. Microbial influenced corrosion in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, R.T. [Chevron Shipping Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); McFarland, B.L. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgman, R.Z. [Corrpro Companies Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Excessive pitting corrosion in the uncoated bottom platings of cargo oil tanks was detected in newbuilt crude oil tankers only 2 to 5 years old, and was diagnosed as microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) concentrations reached as high as 100,000 to 10,000,000 per milliliter in the settled water at the bottom of the cargo oil tanks. Biocide treatment to control MIC was studied in the laboratory using microbial consortia isolated from cargo oil tank bottoms. Biocide treatment to control MIC was attempted experimentally, but was found to be impractical onboard tankers. A MIC mitigation strategy, employing an enhanced pitting inspection and repair program combined with the coating of the bottom platings, was developed and implemented for existing crude oil tankers. Considerations for improvement of future newbuild crude oil tankers are also presented.

  6. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed. PMID:27339744

  8. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed.

  9. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future. PMID:27493996

  10. Traffic Flow of Interacting Self-Driven Particles: Rails and Trails, Vehicles and Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    One common feature of a vehicle, an ant and a kinesin motor is that they all convert chemical energy, derived from fuel or food, into mechanical energy required for their forward movement; such objects have been modelled in recent years as self-driven particles. Cytoskeletal filaments, e.g., microtubules, form a rail network for intra-cellular transport of vesicular cargo by molecular motors like, for example, kinesins. Similarly, ants move along trails while vehicles move along lanes. Therefore, the traffic of vehicles and organisms as well as that of molecular motors can be modelled as systems of interacting self-driven particles; these are of current interest in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this paper we point out the common features of these model systems and emphasize the crucial differences in their physical properties.

  11. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  12. Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was

  13. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  14. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.

    2016-11-01

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  17. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  18. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C Jeffrey; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L

    2015-03-31

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  19. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  20. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  1. Enabling a Viable Technique for the Optimization of LNG Carrier Cargo Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakoya Rasheed Alaba; T C Nwaoha; M O Okwu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  2. Genetic algorithms approach for containerships fleet management dependent on cargo and their deadlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana; Martins, Paulo; Andrade-Campos, António; Lobo,

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a method to improve the flexibility of short sea shipping and to increase its competitiveness with other means of freight transport. A logistic model and a mathematical model are developed to manage a fleet of two or more vessels which transport cargo to and from several ports, bearing in mind the cargo distribution and delivery deadlines. At each port, the model determines which port to visit next, which containers to embark, disembark and to shift, as well as how to stow ...

  3. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Zhang; Lei Huang; Zhichao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the a...

  4. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with railway-induced ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight lines, with one work package that investigated human response to vibration, including sleep disturbance, community annoyanc...

  5. Automatic air cargo selection and weight balancing: A mixed integer programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Verstichel, Jannes; Tavernier, Karel; Vanden Berghe, Greet

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution introduces a mixed integer linear programming model as a decision support tool for air cargo load planning. The main objective for the model is to find the most profitable selection from a set of cargo to be loaded on an aircraft. The secondary objective is to minimize the deviation between the aircraft’s centre of gravity, and a known target value so as to reduce fuel consumption and improve stability. The model is subject to a large number of constraints that ensure...

  6. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  7. Smart Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Kamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to know how simple ideas can give a whole new dimension to the tracking and navigation industry and smart vehicle tracking system is used for tracking the vehicles. You can optimize driver routes, save petrol or gas and time, reduce theft and control the vehicle functions. Many a times it is not required to track your vehicle or target globally. In majority of cases tracking is more restricted to local purposes only, such as tracking movement of vehicle within city, tracking the raw materials within industrial estate or to know the present position of your daughter or son within city. But unfortunately in the pursuit of making things complex this simple idea is forgotten. This simple yet powerful idea forms the basis of this revolutionary project. All this coupled with a very low cost, a robust design and tremendous market potential makes this model even more attractive.

  8. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  9. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  10. Boeing and EGAT Unveil World's First Large Cargo Freighter——Evergreen Aviation Technologies transforms Boeing747-400 for 787 Dreamliner cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation (EGAT), a subsidiary of the Evergreen Group, and The Boeing Company unveiled the first of three Boeing 747-400 Large Cargo Freighters (LCF) modified to exacting specifications to transport giant-sized Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" assemblages.Boeing selected EGAT to perform the specialized aircraft conversions and work began in 2005. The three-aircraft conversion program will be completed in 2007.

  11. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  14. Field Tests of a NaI(Tl)-Based Vehicle Portal Monitor at Border Crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation portal monitors are commonly used at international border crossings to detect illicit transport of radioactive material. Most monitors use plastic scintillators to detect gamma rays, but next-generation monitors may contain NaI(Tl). In order to directly compare the performance of the two types of detectors, a prototype NaI(Tl) monitor was tested at two international border crossings adjacent to a comparable plastic scintillator monitor. The NaI(Tl) monitor housed four large detectors, each 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm x 41 cm. The empirical data set from the two field tests contains approximately 3800 passages with known cargo loads for each vehicle For a small subset of the vehicles, high purity germanium detector spectra were also collected. During the survey period several vehicles containing commercial products with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) passed through the monitor. Typical NORM cargo included pottery, large granite slabs, rock-based floor tiles, construction stone blocks, abrasive material, and fertilizer. Non-NORM sources encountered during the field tests included a large source of 60Co (200,000 GBq) and a shipment of uranium oxide, both items being legally transported. The information obtained during the tests provides a good empirical data set to compare the effectiveness of NaI(Tl) and plastic-scintillator portal monitors. The capability to be sensitive to illicit materials, but not alarm on NORM, is a key figure of merit for portal monitors

  15. Ariane Transfer Vehicle - Logistic support to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Ricaud, C.; Deutscher, N.

    The attractiveness of the Ariane 5 and Ariane transfer vehicle (ATV) is described: it avoids the one-sidedness of the National STS, it increases the lift capacity to meet the demands of the Space Station, and it offers a system independent of, but consistent with, the STS in providing backup contingency capability. The Ariane 5/ATV system is able to launch and transfer any cargo module to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and dispose of it at the end of the mission. Consideration is given to Space Station and SSF logistic support, and ATV operations and design. Diagrams are provided to illustrate the ATV's requirements and capability; an ATV mission toward the SSF; ATV design and components; the ATV's attitude, layout, and the architecture of the main propulsion system and avionic; and the ATV's performance. It is demonstrated that the Ariane 5/ATV system would be an adequate complement to the NSTS for logistic support of the SSF.

  16. Design attributes of long-circulating polymeric drug delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Nicolas, Julien; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Following systemic administration polymeric drug delivery vehicles allow for a controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated medication at the desired site of action. For an elevated and organ specific accumulation of their cargo, nanocarriers need to avoid opsonization, activation of the complement system and uptake by macrophages of the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this respect, camouflaged vehicles revealed a delayed elimination from systemic circulation and an improved target organ deposition. For instance, a steric shielding of the carrier surface by poly(ethylene glycol) substantially decreased interactions with the biological environment. However, recent studies disclosed possible deficits of this approach, where most notably, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified drug delivery vehicles caused significant immune responses. At present, identification of novel potential carrier coating strategies facilitating negligible immune reactions is an emerging field of interest in drug delivery research. Moreover, physical carrier properties including geometry and elasticity seem to be very promising design attributes to surpass numerous biological barriers, in order to improve the efficacy of the delivered medication.

  17. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  18. 46 CFR Table 2 to Part 153 - Cargoes Not Regulated Under Subchapters D or O of This Chapter When Carried in Bulk on Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and mixtures of non-NLS cargoes with Category D NLS cargoes are in 33 CFR part 151. Cargoes Pollution... solution C Sodium sulfate solution III Sorbitol solution III Sulfonated polyacrylate solution III... an oceangoing vessel, see 46 CFR 153.900(c). —A NLS category in brackets indicates that the...

  19. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  20. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview: Space Access Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steve

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch

  1. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 3487) on January 24, 2012, allowing for a 60-day comment... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container...

  2. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None. Abstract: Before the filing of...

  3. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast... cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited... or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard;...

  4. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be tested and inspected? 150.405 Section 150.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Operations § 150.405 How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected? (a) No person may transfer oil... and tested according to this section. (b) The single point mooring (SPM)-CTS must be maintained...

  5. Dragonair- Year-on-Year Rises Continue For Passengers And Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Passenger numbers at Dragonair rose 13.2% while cargo volumes climbed 23.9%in April compared with the same month in 2004. The airline flew 431,860 passengers last month, 50,274 more than one year ago,and 7.3% up on March.

  6. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  7. Supramolecular Controlled Cargo Release via Near Infrared Tunable Cucurbit[7]uril-Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanwei; Yang, Xiran; Liu, Yingzhu; Ai, Qiushuang; Liu, Simin; Sun, Chunyan; Liang, Feng

    2016-02-26

    The near infrared (NIR) absorption and average particle size of gold nanostars (GNSs) can be precisely controlled by varying the molar ratios of cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) and GNSs in aqueous solution. GNSs modified with CB[7] achieved high cargo loading with thermally activated release upon the NIR laser irradiation.

  8. Cargo Revenue Management: Bid-Prices for a 0-1 Multi Knapsack Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRevenue management is the practice of selecting those customers that generate the maximum revenue from a fixed and perishable capacity. Cargo revenue management differs from the well-known passenger revenue management problem by the fact that its capacity constraint is 2-dimensional, i.e

  9. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Form MA-319. 308.549 Section 308.549 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine... by submitting to the Maritime Administrator a letter and Form MA-399, which may be obtained from...

  10. The Targeted Delivery of Multicomponent Cargos to Cancer Cells via Nanoporous Particle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Carlee E.; CARNES, ERIC C.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Padilla, David; Durfee, Paul N.; Brown, Page A.; Hanna, Tracey N.; Liu, Juewen; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B.; Carroll, Nick J.; Jiang, Xingmao; Dunphy, Darren R.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability, and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that ...

  11. Endocytic Trafficking of Membrane-Bound Cargo: A Flotillin Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and highly conserved flotillin proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, have been shown to be involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, signal transduction through receptor tyrosine kinases as well as in cellular trafficking pathways. Due to the fact that flotillins are acylated and form hetero-oligomers, they constitutively associate with cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains. In recent years, such microdomains have been appreciated as platforms that participate in endocytosis and other cellular trafficking steps. This review summarizes the current findings on the role of flotillins in membrane-bound cargo endocytosis and endosomal trafficking events. We will discuss the proposed function of flotillins in endocytosis in the light of recent findings that point towards a role for flotillins in a step that precedes the actual endocytic uptake of cargo molecules. Recent findings have also revealed that flotillins may be important for endosomal sorting and recycling of specific cargo molecules. In addition to these aspects, the cellular trafficking pathway of flotillins themselves as potential cargo in the context of growth factor signaling will be discussed.

  12. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-09-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms—intended to improve the chances of capturing the target—are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau—a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer's disease—coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations.

  13. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  14. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  15. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... published an interim rule at 75 FR 65437 on October 25, 2010, to implement section 3504 of the National..., 247, and 252, which was published at 75 FR 65437 on October 25, 2010, is adopted as a final rule with... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY:...

  16. 49 CFR 1549.101 - Acceptance, screening, and transfer of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved by TSA, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548, an aircraft operator under part 1544, or a... onboard an aircraft of any unauthorized explosives, incendiaries, and other destructive substances or items in cargo onboard an aircraft, as provided in the facility's security program. (b) Screening...

  17. 77 FR 50926 - Security Zones; Certain Dangerous Cargo Vessels, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of... boarding and inspection of the vessel and persons onboard. The security zones would be enforced from 12:01... the vessel and persons onboard. (4) The Coast Guard will provide notice of the regulated areas...

  18. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipp

  19. 78 FR 79071 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Maritime Administration National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity... intended to develop a robust national maritime strategy. Stakeholders were asked to provide their ideas for... important anticipated dates and deadlines: Deadline to register to attend the January 8, 2014....

  20. 23 CFR 658.23 - LCV freeze; cargo-carrying unit freeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... including the truck tractor) whose cargo-carrying units exceed: (i) The maximum combination trailer, semitrailer, or other type of length limitation authorized by State law or regulation of that State on or... units may operate on the NN. (1) Truck tractor-semitrailer-trailer and truck...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  2. 78 FR 64285 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... availability and viability of a U.S. Merchant Marine in the future. The historic strength of the United States... Marine Transportation System stakeholders to participate in a discussion intended to develop a robust...'s cargo opportunities and sealift capacity while ensuring future sustainability. Speaker and...

  3. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  4. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  5. Functional description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, W.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [SAIC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-15

    This Functional Description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) documents the purpose of and requirements for the ICDB in order to ensure a mutual understanding between the development group and the user group of the system. This Functional Description defines ICDB and provides a clear statement of the initial operational capability to be developed.

  6. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms—intended to improve the chances of capturing the target—are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau—a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer's disease—coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations

  7. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  8. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. APPL endosomes are not obligatory endocytic intermediates but act as stable cargo-sorting compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, Inna; Miaczynska, Marta; Brewińska-Olchowik, Marta; Hupalowska, Anna; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis allows cargo to enter a series of specialized endosomal compartments, beginning with early endosomes harboring Rab5 and its effector EEA1. There are, however, additional structures labeled by the Rab5 effector APPL1 whose role in endocytic transport remains unclear. It has been proposed that APPL1 vesicles are transport intermediates that convert into EEA1 endosomes. Here, we tested this model by analyzing the ultrastructural morphology, kinetics of cargo transport, and stability of the APPL1 compartment over time. We found that APPL1 resides on a tubulo-vesicular compartment that is capable of sorting cargo for recycling or degradation and that displays long lifetimes, all features typical of early endosomes. Fitting mathematical models to experimental data rules out maturation of APPL1 vesicles into EEA1 endosomes as a primary mechanism for cargo transport. Our data suggest instead that APPL1 endosomes represent a distinct population of Rab5-positive sorting endosomes, thus providing important insights into the compartmental organization of the early endocytic pathway. PMID:26459602

  10. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On January 27, 2011, PHMSA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) (HM-213D; 76 FR 4847...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids...

  11. A whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in cargo inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Gozani, Tsahi; Ryge, Peter; Sinha, Shrabani; Shaw, Tim; Strellis, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum used in high-energy, high-intensity x-ray cargo inspection systems is attenuated and modified by the materials in the cargo in a Z-dependent way. Therefore, spectroscopy of the detected x rays yields information about the Z of the x-rayed cargo material. It has previously been shown that such ZSpectroscopy (Z-SPEC) is possible under certain circumstances. A statistical approach, Z-SCAN (Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis), has also been shown to be effective, and it can be used either by itself or in conjunction with Z-SPEC when the x-ray count rate is too high for individual x-ray spectroscopy. Both techniques require fast x-ray detectors and fast digitization electronics. It is desirable (and possible) to combine all techniques, including x-ray imaging of the cargo, in a single detector array, to reduce costs, weight, and overall complexity. In this paper, we take a whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in x-ray cargo inspection systems, and show how the various parts interact with one another. Faster detectors and read-out electronics are beneficial for both techniques. A higher duty-factor x-ray source allows lower instantaneous count rates at the same overall x-ray intensity, improving the range of applicability of Z-SPEC in particular. Using an intensity-modulated advanced x-ray source (IMAXS) allows reducing the x-ray count rate for cargoes with higher transmission, and a stacked-detector approach may help material discrimination for the lowest attenuations. Image processing and segmentation allow derivation of results for entire objects, and subtraction of backgrounds. We discuss R&D performed under a number of different programs, showing progress made in each of the interacting subsystems. We discuss results of studies into faster scintillation detectors, including ZnO, BaF2 and PbWO4, as well as suitable photo-detectors, read-out and digitization electronics. We discuss high-duty-factor linear

  12. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  13. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  14. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  15. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  18. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  19. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types.

  20. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  2. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  3. Next generation earth-to-orbit space transportation systems: Unmanned vehicles and liquid/hybrid boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The United States civil space effort when viewed from a launch vehicle perspective tends to categorize into pre-Shuttle and Shuttle eras. The pre-Shuttle era consisted of expendable launch vehicles where a broad set of capabilities were matured in a range of vehicles, followed by a clear reluctance to build on and utilize those systems. The Shuttle era marked the beginning of the U.S. venture into reusable space launch vehicles and the consolidation of launch systems used to this one vehicle. This led to a tremendous capability, but utilized men on a few missions where it was not essential and compromised launch capability resiliency in the long term. Launch vehicle failures, between the period of Aug. 1985 and May 1986, of the Titan 34D, Shuttle Challenger, and the Delta vehicles resulted in a reassessment of U.S. launch vehicle capability. The reassessment resulted in President Reagan issuing a new National Space Policy in 1988 calling for more coordination between Federal agencies, broadening the launch capabilities and preparing for manned flight beyond the Earth into the solar system. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA are jointly assessing the requirements and needs for this nations's future transportation system. Reliability/safety, balanced fleet, and resiliency are the cornerstone to the future. An insight is provided into the current thinking in establishing future unmanned earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation needs and capabilities. A background of previous launch capabilities, future needs, current and proposed near term systems, and system considerations to assure future mission need will be met, are presented. The focus is on propulsion options associated with unmanned cargo vehicles and liquid booster required to assure future mission needs will be met.

  4. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  5. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Selivanov; V. Filenko; А. Bazhynov; E. Budianskaya

    2009-01-01

    The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  7. Status report on the detection of illicit materials in cargo containers by using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers has become a key issue in the fight against terrorism. Indeed, shipping of cargo container between seaports represent today one of the more important way of the international trade. After 9/11, the Cargo Security Initiative started setting standards for the cargo containers inspections in the trading between US and other countries, as the ones in the European Union (E U). US are now aiming at 100% scanning of cargo containers shipped towards the American ports. At present time, controls are mainly based on X- or gamma-ray scanners, which provide mainly the shape and density of the transported goods. Fast neutrons can be additionally employed to deduce information about their elemental composition. Neutrons have been selected mainly thanks to their capability of penetrating materials and the availability of different type of neutron sources. Neutron transmission measurements or the detection of characteristic gamma-rays emitted following neutron induced reactions have been proposed to characterize carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which are major components of explosives or narcotics, with the goal of discriminating illicit from benign materials. Several systems have been validated under laboratory conditions demonstrating that such technologies are capable of providing material specific information and few of them have been fielded. However, the use of neutron based tools depends not only on the intrinsic capability of the method, as explored in laboratory conditions, but also on some major issues: 1) the possibility of solving logistics and licensing problems; 2) the possibility of constructing systems that are operated directly by end-users; 3) the effective integration of the neutron based system in current customs procedures. In this talk, the general capability of neutron sources to be used in a cost effective way to detect illicit materials inside cargo containers will be discussed looking also to the latest technical

  8. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  9. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  10. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  11. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  12. 46 CFR 32.60-10 - Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., living quarters, navigation spaces, general cargo spaces, boiler rooms, and enclosed spaces where sources..., sounding tubes, and similar piping passing through such tanks shall be run in a suitable trunk; or...

  13. 75 FR 3954 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal...

  14. 78 FR 20167 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Aviation... requirement does not apply to non-primary airports covered by the block-grant program. FOR FURTHER...

  15. 76 FR 6178 - Deadline for Notification of Intent to Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent to Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal...

  16. 77 FR 19408 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Aviation... fiscal year 2013. This notification requirement does not apply to non- primary airports covered by...

  17. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public.

  18. On the possibility of the in-cell molecular motors working as cargo moorings only

    CERN Document Server

    Lisowski, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    Although active transport is considered the most efficient way of depositing materials in the appropriate compartments within living cells, free diffusion remains the energetically cheapest and most widespread determinant of the in-cell dynamics. Here we investigate the hypothesis of cargoes - vesicles or organelles - being transported by the means of free diffusion, limited spatially by the molecular motors. Routinely navigating through ever-changing and unsteady environment, utilizing chemical energy (e.g. from hydrolyzing ATP), as the result they transport cell's crucial components, such as neurotransmitters and organelles. In our model the motor, which we identify with kinesin-1 walking along the microtubule, tethers the cargo in the same manner as a mooring rope attached to a bollard holds a ship from drifting toward the open sea. We study the model behavior in the context of optical trap single molecule experiments, mimicking their procedures in our simulations and investigate how the mechanical propert...

  19. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    and effective of the agents tested as it inactivated all pathogens tested at typical in-use concentrations, in addition to having the least corrosive effect. It is also known to breakdown readily in the environment. A usability index combining data from disinfection efficacy assays and corrosion tests provided...... of construction materials (linings) as well as the need for prompt and effective removal, cleaning and disinfection of residue and pathogens from incidental food contact surfaces in the containers. Measures such as instituting and enforcing HACCP based programs for the container handling operations will also......Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...

  20. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  1. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  2. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PORT CARGO FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN ASIAN CONTAINER PORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study discusses the structural changes in port cargo flow distribution in Asia and traffic inequality in Asian container port systems, by conducting an inequality decomposition analysis of the Gini index. Specifically, port systems considered here comprise 229 container ports, which were classified into fifteen port ranges according to their geographic locations and annual port container traffic data from 1980 to 2009. The results confirmed the trend of shrinkin...

  3. AMPA Receptors Commandeer an Ancient Cargo Exporter for Use as an Auxiliary Subunit for Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Harmel; Barbara Cokic; Gerd Zolles; Henrike Berkefeld; Veronika Mauric; Bernd Fakler; Valentin Stein; Nikolaj Klöcker

    2012-01-01

    Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs). AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining alpha-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary beta-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstit...

  4. Technologies and technical tools of combined transportation of cargoes by factors of global logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Миколайович Котенко

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new piggybacks technology has been developed and presented taking into account the problems of global logistics. The technology allows cargo operations (loading and unloading of modules on platforms of varying floor height above rail head level and reload modules between platforms with different values and different ways between rails floor height platforms. The system of differential equations of Kolmogorov have been showed and modeling of combined transportation have been made

  5. Cell-Penetrating Peptides: A Comparative Study on Lipid Affinity and Cargo Delivery Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of natural and/or synthetic peptides with cell membrane penetrating capability have been identified and described in the past years. These molecules have been considered promising tools for delivering bioactive compounds into various cell types. Although the mechanism of uptake is still unclear, it is reasonable to assume that the relative contribute of each proposed mechanism could differ for the same peptide, depending on experimental protocol and cargo molecule composition. In this work we try to connect the capability to interact with model lipid membrane and structural and chemical characteristics of CPPs in order to obtain a biophysical classification that predicts the behavior of CPP-cargo molecules in cell systems. Indeed, the binding with cell membrane is one of the primary step in the interaction of CPPs with cells, and consequently the studies on model membrane could become important for understanding peptide-membrane interaction on a molecular level, explaining how CPPs may translocate a membrane without destroying it and how this interactions come into play in shuttling CPPs via different routes with different efficiency. We analyzed by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies the binding properties of six different CPPs (kFGF, Nle54-Antp and Tat derived peptides, and oligoarginine peptides containing 6, 8 or 10 residues in absence or presence of the same cargo peptide (the 392-401pTyr396 fragment of HS1 protein. The phospholipid binding properties were correlated to the conformational and chemical characteristics of peptides, as well as to the cell penetrating properties of the CPP-cargo conjugates. Results show that even if certain physico-chemical properties (conformation, positive charge govern CPP capability to interact with the model membrane, these cannot fully explain cell-permeability properties.

  6. RESEARCH ACTION: IMPLEMENTATION ZERO BASED BUDGET (ZBB) IN THE PROVIDER SERVICE LEASING EQUIPAMENTS OF CARGO HANDLING.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi Gimenez; Antonio Benedito Silva Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present the implementation of zero-based budgeting in a rental service provider of cargo handling equipment using the action research methodology. The goal was to examine the possibility of concomitant use of this instrument in service providers in need of accurate information that enables targeting at the best result in a setting avid for quick decisions and actions. Action research was used as research method. It was concluded that it is suitable for this branch, con...

  7. RAPID ACQUISITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AFTER ACCIDENTS WITH HAZARDOUS CARGO THROUGH REMOTE SENSING BY UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Longhitano, G. A.; Quintanilh, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present procedures of using remote sensing by UAV to aid in the rapid evaluation and monitoring of environmental impacts caused by accidents involving transport of dangerous cargoes on highways. From the data collected and the UAV model defined, it was developed a methodology of operating a UAV to generate the potential benefits identified in the application. A Mini UAV or Close Range class was considered appropriate. It was created the procedures for imag...

  8. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  9. Amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers for controlled cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Ni, Huan; Bao, Suping; Zhu, Fangming; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Qing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-06-01

    A class of new amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers has been developed for the first time. Poly(2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (CD-PDMAEMA-b-PS) is first synthesized using sequent RAFT polymerization of styrene and 2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate with xanthate modified β-CD as chain transfer agent. The end group of β-CD is allowed to include 4,4'-bipyridine through host-guest inclusion to yield PDMAEMA-b-PS terminated with an inclusion complex of β-CD and bipyridine (bpy-PDMAEMA-b-PS), which is then used as surfactant to prepare emulsion droplets in toluene/water mixture. Upon addition of Ni(II), bipyridine coordinates with Ni(II) to form coordination polymers in the periphery of emulsion droplets, affording amphiphilic capsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers, as confirmed by GPC, (1)H NMR, SEM, TEM, DLS, and so on. The organometallic coordination polymer capsules are capable of encapsulating organic cargoes. Interestingly, encapsulated cargoes can be extracted from the capsules without damaging the capsules. Such capsules are potential candidates for encapsulating and controlled release of organic cargoes. PMID:24828951

  10. AMPA receptors commandeer an ancient cargo exporter for use as an auxiliary subunit for signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Harmel

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs. AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining α-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary β-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstitution experiments, CNIH-2 promotes surface expression of GluAs and modulates their biophysical properties. However, its relevance in native AMPAR physiology remains controversial. Here, we have studied the role of CNIH-2 in GluA processing both in heterologous cells and primary rat neurons. Our data demonstrate that CNIH-2 serves an evolutionarily conserved role as a cargo exporter from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. CNIH-2 cycles continuously between ER and Golgi complex to pick up cargo protein in the ER and then to mediate its preferential export in a coat protein complex (COP II dependent manner. Interaction with GluA subunits breaks with this ancestral role of CNIH-2 confined to the early secretory pathway. While still taking advantage of being exported preferentially from the ER, GluAs recruit CNIH-2 to the cell surface. Thus, mammalian AMPARs commandeer CNIH-2 for use as a bona fide auxiliary subunit that is able to modify receptor signaling.

  11. Cargo identification algorithms facilitating unmanned/unattended inspection at high throughput portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alex

    2007-10-01

    A simple model is presented of a possible inspection regimen applied to each leg of a cargo containers' journey between its point of origin and destination. Several candidate modalities are proposed to be used at multiple remote locations to act as a pre-screen inspection as the target approaches a perimeter and as the primary inspection modality at the portal. Information from multiple data sets are fused to optimize the costs and performance of a network of such inspection systems. A series of image processing algorithms are presented that automatically process X-ray images of containerized cargo. The goal of this processing is to locate the container in a real time stream of traffic traversing a portal without impeding the flow of commerce. Such processing may facilitate the inclusion of unmanned/unattended inspection systems in such a network. Several samples of the processing applied to data collected from deployed systems are included. Simulated data from a notional cargo inspection system with multiple sensor modalities and advanced data fusion algorithms are also included to show the potential increased detection and throughput performance of such a configuration.

  12. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.

  13. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  14. Reliability analysis of the bulk cargo loading system including dependent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokus-Roszkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an innovative approach to the reliability analysis of multistate series-parallel systems assuming their components' dependency is presented. The reliability function of a multistate series system with components dependent according to the local load sharing rule is determined. Linking these results for series systems with results for parallel systems with independent components, we obtain the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system assuming dependence of components' departures from the reliability states subsets in series subsystem and assuming independence between these subsystems. As a particular case, the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system composed of dependent components having exponential reliability functions is fixed. Theoretical results are applied practically to the reliability evaluation of a bulk cargo transportation system, which main area is to load bulk cargo on board the ships. The reliability function and other reliability characteristics of the loading system are determined in case its components have exponential reliability functions with interdependent departures rates from the subsets of their reliability states. Finally, the obtained results are compared with results for the bulk cargo transportation system composed of independent components.

  15. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product gamma rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in inter modal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 6-8 MeV neutrons and fission events are identified between beam pulses by their β-delayed neutron emission or β -delayed high-energy γ-radiation. The high-energy γ-ray signature is being employed for the first time. Fission product γ-rays above 3 MeV are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. High-energy γ-radiation is nearly 10X more abundant than the delayed neutrons and penetrates even thick cargo's readily. The concept employs two large (8x20 ft) arrays of liquid scintillation detectors that have high efficiency for the detection of both delayed neutrons and delayed γ-radiation. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. This information, together with predicted signature strength, has been applied to the estimation of detection probability for the nuclear material and estimation of false alarm rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  16. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  17. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications. PMID:26839407

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  20. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  1. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  2. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  3. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  4. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  5. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  7. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  8. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  9. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  10. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  11. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  12. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Topalidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  13. Methane-Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid methane is beginning to become an energy alternative to expensive oil as a power source for automotive vehicles. Methane is the principal component of natural gas, costs less than half as much as gasoline, and its emissions are a lot cleaner than from gasoline or diesel engines. Beech Aircraft Corporation's Boulder Division has designed and is producing a system for converting cars and trucks to liquid methane operation. Liquid methane (LM) is a cryogenic fuel which must be stored at a temperature of 260 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The LM system includes an 18 gallon fuel tank in the trunk and simple "under the hood" carburetor conversion equipment. Optional twin-fuel system allows operator to use either LM or gasoline fuel. Boulder Division has started deliveries for 25 vehicle conversions and is furnishing a liquid methane refueling station. Beech is providing instruction for Northwest Natural Gas, for conversion of methane to liquid state.

  14. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  15. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  16. EL VÍNCULO INDIVIDUO-COLECTIVO EN EL SISTEMA DE CARGOS EN UNA COMUNIDAD RURAL DEL SUR DE TLAXCALA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Salas Quintanal; Iñigo González de la Fuente

    2013-01-01

    This paper exposes the authors reflections about their last investigations into  community organization concept. The research took place in several countries in Mexico from 2008 to 2012. It is an anthropological analysis about cargo system, which includes native and no-native communities. In such a way, the authors recognize the importance of heterogeneous institution into cargo system concept. So that, they suggest, as the main hypothesis, that cargo system creates several mechanisms, which ...

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Vehicle-Pavement Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Khavassefat, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of vehicle-pavement interaction have been studied and discussed in this thesis. Initially the pavement response is studied through a quasi-static and a dynamic computationally efficient framework under moving traffic loads. Subsequently, a non-stationary stochastic solution has been developed in order to account for the effect of pavement surface deterioration on pavement service life.The quasi-static procedure is based on a superposition principle and is computationally favou...

  19. Towards urban driverless vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson, Rodrigo; Petti, Stéphane; Fraichard, Thierry; Parent, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of autonomous navigation of a car-like robot evolving in an urban environment. Such an environment exhibits an heterogeneous geometry and is cluttered with moving obstacles. Furthermore, in this context, motion safety is a critical issue. The proposed approach to the problem lies in the design of perception and planning modules that consider explicitely the dynamic nature of the vehicle and the environment while enforcing the safety constraint. The main contrib...

  20. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  1. Melt-rock interaction near the Moho: Evidence from crystal cargo in lavas from near-ridge seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Jason P.; Stix, John; Clague, David A.; Minarik, William G.; Layne, Graham D.

    2016-10-01

    The Taney Seamounts are a NW-SE trending linear, near mid-ocean ridge chain consisting of five volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Taney Seamount-A, the largest and oldest in the chain, is defined by four well-exposed calderas, which expose previously infilled lavas. The calderas can be differentiated in time by their cross-cutting relationships, creating a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were sampled systematically by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples, a unique aspect of this study. The geochemistry of the seamount varies from more differentiated to more primitive with time (6.2-8.6 wt.% MgO), suggesting that the sub-caldera reservoir is open and undergoes periodic collapse, replenishment, crystallization, and eruption. The youngest and least differentiated lavas entrained a crystal cargo of plagioclase (An80-90) with melt inclusion volatile saturation pressures indicating entrapment in the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle (6-12 km, with 45% between 8 and 10 km below the sea floor). Melt inclusions exhibit high Al2O3, low SiO2, positive Sr and Eu anomalies and negative Zr and Nb anomalies when normalized to typical Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). In comparison, the host lavas exhibit positive Sr anomalies, but no concurrent Zr, and Nb anomalies. Based on thermodynamic modeling using alphaMELTS, we develop a melt-rock interaction model defined by melting and assimilation of plagioclase-rich cumulates by hot, primitive mantle-derived melts. Significantly, the variability of the negative Zr and Nb anomalies cannot be explained by either cumulate melting or AFC alone. We propose that the melt inclusions record the interaction between cumulate partial melts and the assimilating melt, demonstrating the importance of cumulate melting during the assimilation process. Later percolating melts underwent diffusive interaction with, and

  2. Evaluation of a flag-based explosives detection algorithm based on active neutron interrogation for use in sea land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly explosive materials smuggled in sea land cargo containers are a security concern. An algorithm based on neutron and photon measurements during active neutron interrogation with 14.1 MeV neutrons was developed. The detection algorithm has now been evaluated for effectiveness over a wide range of explosive sizes, positions, and cargo configurations. Various sources of uncertainty were also studied. An estimate of the false positive and false negative rates was completed for various measurement conditions. Results showed that, although minimum detectable mass depends on the surrounding cargo, explosive position, and cargo configuration, 200 kg RDX could be reliably detected. (author)

  3. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  4. Cost of ownership for military cargo aircraft using a common versus disparate display configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Most, Marvin C.

    2010-04-01

    A 2009 paper considered possibilities for applying a common display suite to various front-line bubble canopy fighters, whereas further research suggests the cost savings, post Milestone C production/deployment, might not be advantageous. The situation for military cargo and tanker aircraft, may offer a different paradigm. The primary objective of Defense acquisition is to acquire quality products that satisfy user needs with measurable improvements to mission capability and operational support, in a timely manner, and at a fair and reasonable price. DODD 5000.01 specifies that all participants in the acquisition system shall recognize the reality of fiscal constraints, viewing cost as an independent variable. DoD Components must therefore plan programs based on realistic projections of the dollars and manpower likely to be available in future years and also identify the total costs of ownership, as well as the major drivers of total ownership costs. In theory, therefore, this has already been done for existing cargo/tanker aircraft programs accommodating independent, disparate display suites. This paper goes beyond that stage by exploring total costs of ownership for a hypothetical common approach to cargo/tanker display avionics, bounded by looking at a limited number of such aircraft, e.g., C-5, C-17, C-130H (variants), and C-130J. It is the purpose of this paper to reveal whether there are total cost of ownership advantages for a common approach over and above the existing disparate approach. Aside from cost issues, other considerations, i.e., availability and supportability, may also be analyzed.

  5. Opposing microtubule motors control motility, morphology and cargo segregation during ER-to-Golgi transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that dynein and kinesin motors drive multiple aspects of endosomal function in mammalian cells. These functions include driving motility, maintaining morphology (notably through providing longitudinal tension to support vesicle fission, and driving cargo sorting. Microtubule motors drive bidirectional motility during traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi. Here, we have examined the role of microtubule motors in transport carrier motility, morphology, and domain organization during ER-to-Golgi transport. We show that, consistent with our findings for endosomal dynamics, microtubule motor function during ER-to-Golgi transport of secretory cargo is required for motility, morphology, and cargo sorting within vesicular tubular carriers en route to the Golgi. Our data are consistent with previous findings that defined roles for dynein-1, kinesin-1 (KIF5B and kinesin-2 in this trafficking step. Our high resolution tracking data identify some intriguing aspects. Depletion of kinesin-1 reduces the number of motile structures seen, which is in line with other findings relating to the role of kinesin-1 in ER export. However, those transport carriers that were produced had a much greater run length suggesting that this motor can act as a brake on anterograde motility. Kinesin-2 depletion did not significantly reduce the number of motile transport carriers but did cause a similar increase in run length. These data suggest that kinesins act as negative regulators of ER-to-Golgi transport. Depletion of dynein not only reduced the number of motile carriers formed but also caused tubulation of carriers similar to that seen for sorting nexin-coated early endosomes. Our data indicated that the previously observed anterograde–retrograde polarity of transport carriers in transit to the Golgi from the ER is maintained by microtubule motor function.

  6. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Erin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Timothy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jarman, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Sean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Seattle, WA (United States); Wittman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  7. El acceso a los cargos de gobierno de la audiencia de Quito (1701-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Tapia, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Study oft the designations of the posts of government (“presidencias”, “gobiernos”, ”alcaldías Mayores” y “corregimientos” in the “Audiencia” of Quito and its connection with the way to get them (by a service given, by a merit, by money…. The appointments were effected from Madrid during the first half of the 18th century. Analysis in detail of the posts and of the amounts of money that were paid as a benefit in order to get the post as well as some references to the same circumstances in the High Court at the end of the rign of Carlos II (1674-1700. Location of the designated personages, information about the dedication to their work and about their social standing. In conclusion: Two in three offices were got by money; the number of creoles in the Spanish - American governments increased in relation to the previous stage.

    Estudio de las provisiones de cargos de gobierno (presidencias audienciales, gobernaciones, alcaldías mayores y corregimientos de la audiencia de Quito efectuadas desde Madrid en relación con su modo de acceso (por méritos, por dinero, etc., durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII. Análisis detallado de los cargos, cuantías abonadas por concepto de “beneficio”, y referencias a las mismas circunstancias de la audiencia en la etapa final de Carlos II (1674-1700. Localización de los personajes provistos y referencias sobre dedicación y categoría social. Conclusiones: 2 de cada 3 oficios se consiguieron mediante donativo pecuniario; hay un aumento del número de criollos en los cargos de gobierno indianos analizados en relación con la etapa precedente.

  8. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Esta propuesta analítica va a estar estructurada en tres bloques. En primer lugar, se ubican los fenómenos estudiados en torno al sistema de cargos en un continuum de comportamientos tendentes al individualismo y a lo colectivo en sus dos polos. En segundo lugar, se explicita el concepto de comunidad como elemento básico para el estudio de los sistemas de cargos; por último, se propone la idea del proyecto comunitario como denominador común en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere en el área mesoamericana.

  9. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  10. The Emp24 complex recruits a specific cargo molecule into endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, M.; Nuoffer, C; Hauri, H P; Riezman, H

    2000-01-01

    Members of the yeast p24 family, including Emp24p and Erv25p, form a heteromeric complex re- quired for the efficient transport of selected proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi ap- paratus. The specific functions and sites of action of this complex are unknown. We show that Emp24p is di- rectly required for efficient packaging of a lumenal cargo protein, Gas1p, into ER-derived vesicles. Emp24p and Erv25p can be directly cross-linked to Gas...

  11. Economic Feasibility of an Air Cargo Handling Facility at Fargo, North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Golz, Theresa K.; Golz, Joel T.; Koo, Won W.

    1992-01-01

    Exports to Taiwan in 1990 via air freight were approximately $2.9 billion, and imports via air freight to the united States were $3.1 billion. Total U.S. exports/imports to/from Taiwan in 1990 were $11.5 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. China Airlines operates three air cargo hubs in the united States: New York, Los Angeles, and Dallas. The real per capita Gross National Product (GNP) in Taiwan for 1989 was $7,512, up from $3,297 in 1985. This implies that the Taiwanese economy is one...

  12. How efficient is towing a cargo by a micro-swimmer?

    CERN Document Server

    Raz, Oren

    2008-01-01

    We study the properties of arbitrary micro-swimmers towing a passive load through a viscous liquid. The simple close-form expression for the dragging efficiency of a general micro-swimmer dragging a distant load is found, and the leading order approximation for finite mutual separation is derived. We show that, while swimmer can be arbitrarily efficient, dragging efficiency is always bounded from above. It is also demonstrated, that opposite to Purcell's assumption, the hydrodynamic coupling can ''help" the swimmer to drag the load. We support our conclusions by rigorous numerical calculations for the "necklace-shaped" swimmer, towing a spherical cargo positioned at a finite distance.

  13. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  14. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  15. Unruly Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Incidents of unruliness, defiance, and even violence on the school bus are escalating. Many school districts find that a behavior-management focus in their bus-driver training pays off in fewer serious discipline incidents and more job satisfaction among drivers. (MLF)

  16. NASA/USRA advanced space design program: The laser powered interorbital vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design is presented for a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an earth space station and a lunar base. The LPIV receives its power from two iodide laser stations, one orbiting the earth and the other located on the surface of the moon. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring 8 days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional 9 days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box beam truss, a payload module, and fuel tanks. The total mass of the vehicle fully loaded is 63300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables which allow the vehicle to thrust tangentially to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of the 23 m diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18000 kg of cargo. The module is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks which allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing and tracking system which can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. Additionally an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  17. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple....... The central element of the architecture is the ‘global database’ that serves several purposes, such as storing system parameters, making signals available for data logging and inter-process communication. Standard software components are used to a large extent, OS-9 as real-time operating system, a custom...

  18. Vehicle WiFi

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Contreras, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    El projecte presenta el disseny d'un vehicle a motor elèctric construït sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 amb comunicacions sense fils via xarxes WiFi i detecció d'obstacles per sonar. El proyecto presenta el diseño de un vehículo a motor eléctrico construido sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 con comunicaciones inalámbricas vía redes WiFi y detección de obstáculos para sonar.

  19. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  20. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  1. Anomalous transport of subdiffusing cargos by single kinesin motors: the role of mechanochemical coupling and anharmonicity of tether

    CERN Document Server

    Goychuk, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Here we generalize our previous model of molecular motors trafficking subdiffusing cargos in viscoelastic cytosol by (i) including mechanochemical coupling between cyclic conformational fluctuations of the motor protein driven by the reaction of ATP hydrolysis and its translational motion within the simplest two-state model of hand-over-hand motion of kinesin, and also (ii) by taking into account the anharmonicity of the tether between the motor and cargo (its maximally possible extension length). It is shown that the major earlier results such as occurrence of normal versus anomalous transport depending on the amplitude of binding potential, cargo size and the motor turnover frequency not only survive in this more realistic model, but the results also look very similar for the correspondingly adjusted parameters. However, this more realistic model displays a substantially larger thermodynamic efficiency due to a bidirectional mechanochemical coupling. For realistic parameters, the maximal thermodynamic effic...

  2. Microtubule-binding protein doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) guides kinesin-3-mediated cargo transport to dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Joanna; Kapitein, Lukas C; Jaworski, Jacek; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2016-02-01

    In neurons, the polarized distribution of vesicles and other cellular materials is established through molecular motors that steer selective transport between axons and dendrites. It is currently unclear whether interactions between kinesin motors and microtubule-binding proteins can steer polarized transport. By screening all 45 kinesin family members, we systematically addressed which kinesin motors can translocate cargo in living cells and drive polarized transport in hippocampal neurons. While the majority of kinesin motors transport cargo selectively into axons, we identified five members of the kinesin-3 (KIF1) and kinesin-4 (KIF21) subfamily that can also target dendrites. We found that microtubule-binding protein doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) labels a subset of dendritic microtubules and is required for KIF1-dependent dense-core vesicles (DCVs) trafficking into dendrites and dendrite development. Our study demonstrates that microtubule-binding proteins can provide local signals for specific kinesin motors to drive polarized cargo transport. PMID:26758546

  3. La confiabilidad en los sistemas eléctricos competitivos y el modelo colombiano de cargo por confiabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez Luis Guillermo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer un análisis de la seguridad en el suministro de electricidad en Colombia, considerando el nuevo esquema del Cargo por Confiabilidad, modelo adoptado en Colombia para garantizar las inversiones en generación. Para esto se analiza la diferencia entre escenarios de demanda y de oferta de electricidad. La oferta para las plantas nuevas considera las OEF adquiridas con el cargo; y para las plantas existentes se realizan simulaciones bajo diversos escenarios de ocurrencia del fenómeno de “El Niño”. La demanda fue tomada de las proyecciones de la UPME. Las simulaciones realizadas muestran una apropiada dimensión del tamaño del Cargo por Confiabilidad.

  4. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Birch, Ditlev; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    -penetrating peptides (CPPs) constitute a promising tool and have shown applications for peptide and protein delivery into cells as well as across various epithelia and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). CPP-mediated delivery of peptides and proteins may be pursued via covalent conjugation of the CPP to the cargo peptide...... or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific...... barrier and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate...

  5. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  6. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Radiation-Induced Activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma- Based Cargo Inspection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberger, B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Goldberg, M B; Kaufmann, F; Mor, I; Nolte, R; Schmiedel, M; Tittelmeier, K; Vartsky, D; Wershofen, H

    2012-01-01

    An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron and gamma radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. T...

  7. A novel imaging method for quantitative Golgi localization reveals differential intra-Golgi trafficking of secretory cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Hieng Chiong; Mahajan, Divyanshu; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Li; VanDongen, Antonius M. J.; Lu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Cellular functions of the Golgi are determined by the unique distribution of its resident proteins. Currently, electron microscopy is required for the localization of a Golgi protein at the sub-Golgi level. We developed a quantitative sub-Golgi localization method based on centers of fluorescence masses of nocodazole-induced Golgi ministacks under conventional optical microscopy. Our method is rapid, convenient, and quantitative, and it yields a practical localization resolution of ∼30 nm. The method was validated by the previous electron microscopy data. We quantitatively studied the intra-Golgi trafficking of synchronized secretory membrane cargoes and directly demonstrated the cisternal progression of cargoes from the cis- to the trans-Golgi. Our data suggest that the constitutive efflux of secretory cargoes could be restricted at the Golgi stack, and the entry of the trans-Golgi network in secretory pathway could be signal dependent. PMID:26764092

  8. Vehicle Classification by Lane Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of vehicles from video is used for analysis of traffic, self-driving systems or security systems. This analysis is based on shape, size, velocity and track of vehicles. These features characterize vehicle in background subtraction and feature extraction methods. Extraction is done by active contours and morphological operations. Extracted vehicles are classified by applying various classification techniques. The combination of features and classification techniques varies with the application. Proposed system, Uses combination of K Nearest Neighbor (KNN and Decision Tree techniques to overcome constraints. These constraints are instances of an object, overlapping of objects, and scaling factor. KNN is utilized to classify vehicle by size and lane. Decision tree manipulates the combination of these two features to classify accurately which results increased performance. This system classifies objects into three classes. These classes are four wheeler, bikers and heavy duty vehicle extracted from video.

  9. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  10. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  11. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLES RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    PAWE£ SMOLNIK

    2014-01-01

    Fast development of automotive industry in Poland in recent years involves the need for rational waste management from the destruction and exploitation of vehicles. Rising number of new cars in Poland and existing age structure of the domestic park of vehicles will contribute to the increase number cars withdrawn from use. The way to solve the growing problem of waste recycling is the development of vehicles recycling system which contributes to the economic management of natural resources an...

  13. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  14. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. Whe...

  15. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Chelsi J; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Paschal, Bryce M

    2013-05-13

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria.

  16. The targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells by nanoporous particle-supported lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carlee E.; Carnes, Eric C.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Padilla, David; Durfee, Paul N.; Brown, Page A.; Hanna, Tracey N.; Liu, Juewen; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B.; Carroll, Nick J.; Jiang, Xingmao; Dunphy, Darren R.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Petsev, Dimiter N.; Evans, Deborah G.; Parikh, Atul N.; Chackerian, Bryce; Wharton, Walker; Peabody, David S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that synergistically combine properties of liposomes and nanoporous particles. Protocells modified with a targeting peptide that binds to human hepatocellular carcinoma exhibit a 10,000-fold greater affinity for human hepatocellular carcinoma than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells or immune cells. Furthermore, protocells can be loaded with combinations of therapeutic (drugs, small interfering RNA and toxins) and diagnostic (quantum dots) agents and modified to promote endosomal escape and nuclear accumulation of selected cargos. The enormous capacity of the high-surface-area nanoporous core combined with the enhanced targeting efficacy enabled by the fluid supported lipid bilayer enable a single protocell loaded with a drug cocktail to kill a drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell, representing a 106-fold improvement over comparable liposomes.

  17. The Complete Exosome Workflow Solution: From Isolation to Characterization of RNA Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoffrey Schageman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small (30–150 nm vesicles containing unique RNA and protein cargo, secreted by all cell types in culture. They are also found in abundance in body fluids including blood, saliva, and urine. At the moment, the mechanism of exosome formation, the makeup of the cargo, biological pathways, and resulting functions are incompletely understood. One of their most intriguing roles is intercellular communication—exosomes function as the messengers, delivering various effector or signaling macromolecules between specific cells. There is an exponentially growing need to dissect structure and the function of exosomes and utilize them for development of minimally invasive diagnostics and therapeutics. Critical to further our understanding of exosomes is the development of reagents, tools, and protocols for their isolation, characterization, and analysis of their RNA and protein contents. Here we describe a complete exosome workflow solution, starting from fast and efficient extraction of exosomes from cell culture media and serum to isolation of RNA followed by characterization of exosomal RNA content using qRT-PCR and next-generation sequencing techniques. Effectiveness of this workflow is exemplified by analysis of the RNA content of exosomes derived from HeLa cell culture media and human serum, using Ion Torrent PGM as a sequencing platform.

  18. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING ALGORITHM FOR CONTROL OF SEA CARGO CONTAINERS BY 'TAGGED' NEUTRON METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays in Russia and abroad there are several groups of scientists, engaged in development of systems based on 'tagged' neutron method (API method) and intended for detection of dangerous materials, including high explosives (HE). Particular attention is paid to possibility of detection of dangerous objects inside a sea cargo container. Energy gamma-spectrum, registered from object under inspection is used for determination of oxygen/carbon and nitrogen/carbon chemical ratios, according to which dangerous object is distinguished from not dangerous one. Material of filled container, however, gives rise to additional effects of rescattering and moderation of 14 MeV primary neutrons of generator, attenuation of secondary gamma-radiation from reactions of inelastic neutron scattering on objects under inspection. These effects lead to distortion of energy gamma-response from examined object and therefore prevent correct recognition of chemical ratios. These difficulties are taken into account in analytical method, presented in the paper. Method has been validated against experimental data, obtained by the system for HE detection in sea cargo, based on API method and developed in VNIIA. Influence of shielding materials on results of HE detection and identification is considered. Wood and iron were used as shielding materials. Results of method application for analysis of experimental data on HE simulator measurement (tetryl, trotyl, hexogen) are presented.

  20. Mesoporous silica-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) for DNA cargo delivery to the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Ellen C; Liu, Juewen; Kerwin, Audra; Torres, Sergio; Olcott, Clara M; Bowman, Brandi N; Armijo, Leisha; Gentry, Katherine; Wilkerson, Jenny; Wallace, James; Jiang, Xingmao; Carnes, Eric C; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Milligan, Erin D

    2013-06-10

    Amorphous mesoporous silica nanoparticles ('protocells') that support surface lipid bilayers recently characterized in vitro as carrier constructs for small drug and DNA delivery are reported here as highly biocompatible both in vitro and in vivo, involving the brain and spinal cord following spinal delivery into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space (intrathecal; i.t.). Specifically, positively charged, 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane (DOTAP)-cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) liposome-formulated protocells revealed stable in vitro cargo release kinetics and cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) transgene transfection. Recent approaches using synthetic non-viral vector platforms to deliver the pain-suppressive therapeutic transgene, IL-10, to the spinal subarachnoid space have yielded promising results in animal models of peripheral neuropathy, a condition involving aberrant neuronal communication within sensory pathways in the nervous system. Non-viral drug and gene delivery protocell platforms offer potential flexibility because cargo release-rates can be pH-dependent. We report here that i.t. delivery of protocells, with modified chemistry supporting a surface coating of DOTAP:Chol liposomes and containing the IL-10 transgene, results in functional suppression of pain-related behavior in rats for extended periods. This study is the first demonstration that protocell vectors offer amenable and enduring in vivo biological characteristics that can be applied to spinal gene delivery. PMID:23517784

  1. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  2. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.

  3. Innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles for high-speed cargo vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been about four decades since nuclear powered cargo ships were seriously discussed in the naval architecture community. Recent developments in commercial shipping include faster, bigger, and more powerful ships. In addition, several initiatives in advanced reactor design include smaller, safer and more efficient reactors. The development of advanced ships and advanced reactors opens an opportunity for nuclear propulsion. Although the goals of the INPRO and GIF Projects are not related to nuclear propulsion, these are analyzed for such potential case, considering the contribution to energy sustainability. These projects would help to select nuclear propulsion plant and fuel cycle concepts based on user requirements. Current technology trends point out at IPWRs and GT-MHRs, preferably the latter for overall advanced ship competitiveness. Core residual heat removal and other factors recommend the use of a hybrid power plant, with an auxiliary fossil fuel plant. This article illustrates future trends in high-performance cargo vessels, and the benefits of nuclear propulsion in such ships. Two advanced ship proposals are discussed for nuclear power, based on data availability and market opportunities. The economic viability of hybrid propulsion plants is anticipated, even with conservative reactor cost figures. The most important restriction is the reactor cost, so that these projects are opportune. (author)

  4. Effect of catch bonding on transport of cellular cargo by dynein motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anil; Chandel, Sameep; Mitra, Mithun K.; Muhuri, Sudipto; Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2016-09-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that dynein motors exhibit catch bonding behavior, in which the unbinding rate of a single dynein decreases with increasing force, for a certain range of force. Motivated by these experiments, we study the effect of catch bonding on unidirectional transport properties of cellular cargo carried by multiple dynein motors. We introduce a threshold force bond deformation (TFBD) model, consistent with the experiments, wherein catch bonding sets in beyond a critical applied load force. We find catch bonding can result in dramatic changes in the transport properties, which are in sharp contrast to kinesin-driven unidirectional transport, where catch bonding is absent. We predict that under certain conditions, the average velocity of the cellular cargo can actually increase as applied load is increased. We characterize the transport properties in terms of a velocity profile plot in the parameter space of the catch bond strength and the stall force of the motor. This plot yields predictions that may be experimentally accessed by suitable modifications of motor transport and binding properties.

  5. PERANCANGAN KAPAL GENERAL CARGO 1500 DWT RUTE PELAYARAN JAKARTA-SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlindungan Manik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kapal general cargo  adalah kapal yang mengangkut bermacam-macam muatan berupa barang.Barang yang diangkut biasanya merupakan barang yang sudah dikemas.Kapal general cargo dilengkapi dengan crane pengangkut barang untuk memudahkan bongkar-muat muatan. Pada penelitian ini direncanakan desain lambung kapal. Ukuran utama kapal didapatkan dengan menggunakan metode regresi yang didasarkan pada data 5 kapal pembanding. Dari ukuran utama yang didapat kemudian dilakukan pembuatan rencana garis, rencana umum, analisa hidrostatik, analisa stabilitas dan analisa olah gerak kapal yang sesuai dengan standar IMO. Setelah dilakukan analisa dengan menggunakan metode regresi yang didasarkan pada data 5 kapal pembanding yang diambil dari Register Of Ship2002-03LR (Lloyd’s Register dihasilkan alternatif ukuran utama kapal, yaitu dengan panjang kapal keseluruhan (Loa = 62,46 m, panjang kapal (Lpp = 57,95 m, lebar kapal (B = 12,26 m, tinggi kapal (H = 6,49 m, sarat kapal (T = 3,85 m, dan kecepatan kapal (Vd = 11 knot. Pada kecepatan maksimal 11 knot hambatan yang di terima sebesar = 66,76 KN dan power sebesar 506,3667 Hp. Nilai GZ  maksimum kapal = 3,369 m.deg dan nilai GM awal = 4,021 m.Gerakan heaving maksimum = 1,086 m, gerakan rolling maksimum =14,15°, dan gerakan pitching maksimum = 3,02°

  6. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more  related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.

  7. A survey of propulsion options for cargo and piloted missions to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, K; Cassady, L; Kodys, A D; Choueiri, E Y

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, high-power electric propulsion options are surveyed in the context of cargo and piloted missions to Mars. A low-thrust trajectory optimization program (raptor) is utilized to analyze this mission. Candidate thrusters are chosen based upon demonstrated performance in the laboratory. Hall, self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPDT), self-field lithium Lorentz force accelerator (LiLFA), arcjet, and applied-field LiLFA systems are considered for this mission. In this first phase of the study, all thrusters are assumed to operate at a single power level (regardless of the efficiency-power curve), and the thruster specific mass and power plant specific mass are taken to be the same for all systems. Under these assumptions, for a 7.5 MW, 60 mT payload, piloted mission, the self-field LiLFA results in the shortest trip time (340 days) with a reasonable propellant mass fraction of 57% (129 mT). For a 150 kW, 9 mT payload, cargo mission, both the applied-field LiLFA and the Hall thruster seem reasonable choices with propellant mass fractions of 42 to 45%(7 to 8 mT). The Hall thrusters provide better trip times (530-570 days) compared to the applied-field LiLFA (710 days) for the relatively less demanding mission. PMID:15220162

  8. Harnessing a high cargo-capacity transposon for genetic applications in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Balciunas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses and transposons are efficient tools for permanently delivering foreign DNA into vertebrate genomes but exhibit diminished activity when cargo exceeds 8 kilobases (kb. This size restriction limits their molecular genetic and biotechnological utility, such as numerous therapeutically relevant genes that exceed 8 kb in size. Furthermore, a greater payload capacity vector would accommodate more sophisticated cis cargo designs to modulate the expression and mutagenic risk of these molecular therapeutics. We show that the Tol2 transposon can efficiently integrate DNA sequences larger than 10 kb into human cells. We characterize minimal sequences necessary for transposition (miniTol2 in vivo in zebrafish and in vitro in human cells. Both the 8.5-kb Tol2 transposon and 5.8-kb miniTol2 engineered elements readily function to revert the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase in an animal model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Together, Tol2 provides a novel nonviral vector for the delivery of large genetic payloads for gene therapy and other transgenic applications.

  9. The influence of direct motor–motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares much in common with others recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as nonlinear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for noninteracting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and also cause a notable decrease of the run length. These effects are mainly due to traffic-like phenomena in the microtubule. The consideration of several parallel tracks for motors reduces such effects. However, we find that for realistic values of the number of motors and the number of tracks, the influence of interactions on the global parameters of transport of cargo are far from being negligible. Our studies also provide an analysis of the relevance of motor back steps on the modeling, and of the influence of different assumptions for the detachment rates. In particular, we discuss these two aspects in connection with the possibility of observing processive back motion of cargo at large load forces

  10. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  11. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  12. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  14. Evaluación de Riesgos Psicosociales en conductores de Altos Cargos de la Junta de Andalucía.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Zorzano, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto tiene por título “Evaluación de Riesgos Psicosociales en conductores de Altos cargos de la Junta de Andalucía”. Se trata de identificar los factores de riesgo y los niveles de riesgos asociados a estos, como puedan ser el estrés y los problemas asociados a éste, en los conductores de altos cargos de la Junta de Andalucía, para tratar de eliminarlos y poder establecer un programa de actuaciones, propuestas y medidas preventivas y/o correctivas para aquellos que no hayan podido el...

  15. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    OpenAIRE

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los...

  16. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai

    2002-01-01

    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  17. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  18. Vehicle Position Awareness in Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The roadside-to-vehicle communication system is an infrastructure network to be deployed along the roads, which is an important part of the vehicular Ad Hoc networks for future intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle position estimation is a key technology for roadside-to-vehicle communication. In this study, a roadside-to-vehicle communication system is proposed where a camera is fixed on the roadside infrastructure for taking snapshoot of the target vehicle. Then target detecting and pixels counting is performed through certain image processing technology. After that, the function relationship between the vehicular pixels and the distance between the vehicle and the infrastructure is obtained by using the machine learning method, whose training data comes from our field trial. The vehicle position information acquired will be used for the parameters selection of OFDM transmission. The simulation results show that in the vehicular wireless fading channel model, the roadside-to-vehicle system which has position awareness can effectively implement adaptive modulation and coding scheme and, thereby, achieve greater throughput over a fixed modulation and coding scheme.

  19. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  20. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing...