Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement and (grief combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy and (controlled or trial or design. We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group, 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group, and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group. Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups. Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1 excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2 stultifying between-study variation, 3 inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4 few published replication studies, and 5 methodological flaws of study design.
Janse, B.; Fabbricotti, I.N.; Huijsman, R.
Background and aim Traditional care is increasingly being replaced by integrated care models, which often implies changes for health professionals involved. However, although literature on integrated care is abundant, the primary focus is rarely on professionals. Consequently, it is not clear if and how they are affected by integrated care interventions. The aim of this study, therefore, is to provide a systematic review of the literature on the effect of integrated care on professionals. Met...
Dusek, Brenda; Pearce, Nancy; Harripaul, Anastasia; Lloyd, Monique
This article reports results from a systematic review used to inform the development of a best practice guideline to assist nurses in understanding their roles and responsibilities in promoting safe and effective client care transitions. A care transition is a set of actions designed to ensure safe and effective coordination and continuity of care as clients experience a change in health status, care needs, health care providers, or location.
Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Skavlan, Nina; Høst, Dorte; Frølich, Anne
INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified.METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in...
Maina, Geoffrey; Mill, Judy; Chaw-Kant, Jean; Caine, Vera
Best practices in HIV care have the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform practice. We conducted a systematic review of best practices in HIV care that were published from 2003 to 2013. Practices that demonstrated success in achieving desired results based on their objectives were included in the review. Two themes emerged from the eight articles reviewed: (a) the importance of linking newly diagnosed people living with HIV to care and (b) the role of integrated and comprehensive service provision in improving patient outcomes. Inconsistencies in reporting and arbitrary use of the term “best practices” were hurdles in this review. PMID:27152102
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more
Stellefson, Michael; Dipnarine, Krishna; Stopka, Christine
Introduction The Chronic Care Model (CCM) uses a systematic approach to restructuring medical care to create partnerships between health systems and communities. The objective of this study was to describe how researchers have applied CCM in US primary care settings to provide care for people who have diabetes and to describe outcomes of CCM implementation. Methods We conducted a literature review by using the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academi...
Nwoko, Oluchi Jessy
This bachelor’s thesis is part of the Research and Development (R&D) project “Empowering path” at Laurea University of Applied Sciences, in collaboration with Tapiola pharmacy and Espoo home care. The aim of this project is to explore strategies by which medication safety can be promoted by nurses in home care nursing. The purpose: this systematic review is to discuss how resent literature describes medication safety in home care nursing. It also described methods used to promote safety i...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge. Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support.DESIGN: Systematic Review.SETTING: Hospital to home.PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults.MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based.RESULTS: Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge. Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support. DESIGN: Systematic Review. SETTING: Hospital to home. PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults. MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based. RESULTS: Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.
Stephanie Giulianne Silva Morelli
Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the associations between burnout syndrome and individual and work-related characteristics among primary care physicians. Methods: a systematic review was performed using the Medline (PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases. In November, 2013, we ran a search based on the descriptors: “professional burnout”, “health personnel”, and “primary care”. We assessed 2,416 titles and 18 studies were selected. Results: the prevalence of burnout was high among primary care physicians. Burnout was associated with physical illnesses, mental disorders, and alcohol and substance abuse. Physicians who had higher levels of emotional exhaustion were more likely to be absent from work, and to change their job. Physicians suffering from burnout were also more likely to increase pharmaceutical expenditure per patient. The work-related characteristics associated with burnout were: length of employment in primary care, number of working hours per week, number of patients attended, type of employment contract, teaching activity, holiday period, and difficulties in dealing with other staff. Conclusion: the high prevalence of burnout among primary care physicians is a major concern for policy makers, since primary care is the cornerstone of health systems, and burnout syndrome can jeopardize the quality of care provided to populations, and the effectiveness of the entire health care system. Understanding the factors associated with burnout allows the development of strategies for intervention and prevention.
Muntingh, A.D.T.; Feltz-Cornelis, C.M. van der; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Spinhoven, P.; van Balkom, A J L M
Background Studies evaluating collaborative care for anxiety disorders are recently emerging. A systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect of collaborative care for adult patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is therefore warranted. Methods A literature search was performed. Data sources: PubMed, Psycinfo, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane library. Study eligibility criteria: Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of collaborative care for adult primary ca...
Vandamme, L; Heyneman, A; Hoeksema, H; Verbelen, J; Monstrey, S
Honey, known for centuries as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds, has recently known a revival in modern wound care. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence and the role of honey in contemporary wound care. The search strategy was developed in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Fifty-five studies of any design, evaluating the use of honey in human burns, ulcers and other wounds, written in English, French, German or Dutch were eligible for inclusion. In all three wound categories honey seems to be a dressing with wound healing stimulating properties. In burns there is also evidence for its antibacterial capacity. In general, honey is also been mentioned to have deodorizing, debridement, anti-inflammatory and wound pain reducing properties, although the evidence for these properties is rather limited. Many of the included studies have methodological problems, and the quality of certain studies is low, making it difficult to formulate conclusive guidelines. This review reveals several gaps in the research of honey in modern wound care, and recommendations are suggested for future research.
Wolff, J; McCrone, P; Koeser, L; Normann, C; Patel, A
Aims. New reimbursement schemes for inpatient mental health care are imminent in the UK and Germany. The shared intention is to reflect cost differences between patients in reimbursement rates. This requires understanding of patient characteristics that influence hospital resource use. The aim of this review was to show which associations between mental health care per diem hospital costs and patient characteristics are supported by current evidence. Methods. A systematic review of the literature published between 1980 and 2012 was carried out. The search strategy included electronic databases and hand-searching. Furthermore, reference lists, citing articles and related publications were screened and experts were contacted. Results. The search found eight studies. Dispersion in per diem costs was moderate, as was the ability to explain it with patient characteristics. Six patient characteristics were identified as the most relevant variables. These were (1) age, (2) major diagnostic group, (3) risk, (4) legal problems, (5) the ability to perform activities of daily living and (6) presence of psychotic or affective symptoms. Two non-patient-related factors were identified. These were (1) day of stay and (2) treatment site. Conclusions. Idiosyncrasies of mental health care complicated the prediction of per diem hospital costs. More research is required in European settings since transferability of results is unlikely.
Antonia S Stang
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the prevalence, preventability, severity and types of adverse events (AE in the Emergency Department (ED. METHODS: We systematically searched major bibliographic databases, relevant journals and conference proceedings, and completed reference reviews of primary articles. Observational studies (cohort and case-control, quasi-experimental (e.g. before/after studies and randomized controlled trials, were considered for inclusion if they examined a broad demographic group reflecting a significant proportion of ED patients and described the proportion of AE. Studies conducted outside of the ED setting, those examining only a subpopulation of patients (e.g. a specific entrance complaint or receiving a specific intervention, or examining only adverse drug events, were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility, completed data extraction, and assessed study quality with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Our search identified 11,624 citations. Ten articles, representing eight observational studies, were included. Methodological quality was low to moderate with weaknesses in study group comparability, follow-up, and outcome ascertainment and reporting. There was substantial variation in the proportion of patients with AE related to ED care, ranging from 0.16% (n = 9308 to 6.0% (n = 399. Similarly, the reported preventability of AE ranged from 36% (n = 250 to 71% (n = 24. The most common types of events were related to management (3 studies, diagnosis (2 studies and medication (2 studies. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in findings and lack of high quality studies on AE in the high risk ED setting highlights the need for research in this area. Further studies with rigorous, standardized outcome assessment and reporting are required.
Heaman, M; Bayrampour, H; Kingston, D; Blondel, B; Gissler, M; Roth, C; Alexander, S; Gagnon, A
Our objectives were to determine whether migrant women in Western industrialized countries have higher odds of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) compared to receiving-country women and to summarize factors that are associated with inadequate PNC among migrant women in these countries. We conducted searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), reference lists, known experts, and an existing database of the Reproductive Outcomes And Migration international research collaboration for articles published between January, 1995 and April, 2010. Title and abstract review and quality appraisal were conducted independently by 2 reviewers using established criteria, with consensus achieved through discussion. In this systematic review of 29 studies, the majority of studies demonstrated that migrant women were more likely to receive inadequate PNC than receiving-country women, with most reporting moderate to large effect sizes. Rates of inadequate PNC among migrant women varied widely by country of birth. Only three studies explored predictors of inadequate PNC among migrant women. These studies found that inadequate PNC among migrant women was associated with being less than 20 years of age, multiparous, single, having poor or fair language proficiency, education less than 5 years, an unplanned pregnancy, and not having health insurance. We concluded that migrant women as a whole were more likely to have inadequate PNC and the magnitude of this risk differed by country of origin. Few studies addressed predictors of PNC utilization in migrant women and this limits our ability to provide effective PNC in this population.
Grill, Eva; Penger, Mathias; Kentala, Erna
Vertigo and dizziness are frequent complaints in primary care that lead to extensive health care utilization. The objective of this systematic review was to examine health care of patients with vertigo and dizziness in primary care settings. Specifically, we wanted to characterize health care utilization, therapeutic and referral behaviour and to examine the outcomes associated with this. A search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was carried out in May 2015 using the search terms 'vertigo' or 'dizziness' or 'vestibular and primary care' to identify suitable studies. We included all studies that were published in the last 10 years in English with the primary diagnoses of vertigo, dizziness and/or vestibular disease. We excluded drug evaluation studies and reports of adverse drug reactions. Data were extracted and appraised by two independent reviewers; 16 studies with a total of 2828 patients were included. Mean age of patients ranged from 45 to 79 with five studies in older adults aged 65 or older. There were considerable variations in diagnostic criteria, referral and therapy while the included studies failed to show significant improvement of patient-reported outcomes. Studies are needed to investigate current practice of care across countries and health systems in a systematic way and to test primary care-based education and training interventions that improve outcomes. PMID:27083883
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic disease management requires input from multiple health professionals, both specialist and primary care providers. This study sought to assess the impact of co-ordinated multidisciplinary care in primary care, represented by the delivery of formal care planning by primary care teams or shared across primary-secondary teams, on outcomes in stroke, relative to usual care. Methods A Systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (all 1990–2006, Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2006, and grey literature from web based searching of web sites listed in the CCOHA Health Technology Assessment List Analysis used narrative analysis of findings of randomised and non-randomised trials, and observational and qualitative studies of patients with completed stroke in the primary care setting where care planning was undertaken by 1 a multi-disciplinary primary care team or 2 through shared care by primary and secondary providers. Results One thousand and forty-five citations were retrieved. Eighteen papers were included for analysis. Most care planning took part in the context of multidisciplinary team care based in hospitals with outreach to community patients. Mortality rates are not impacted by multidisciplinary care planning. Functional outcomes of the studies were inconsistent. It is uncertain whether the active engagement of GPs and other primary care professionals in the multidisciplinary care planning contributed to the outcomes in the studies showing a positive effect. There may be process benefits from multidisciplinary care planning that includes primary care professionals and GPs. Few studies actually described the tasks and roles GPs fulfilled and whether this matched what was presumed to be provided. Conclusion While multidisciplinary care planning may not unequivocally improve the care of patients with completed stroke, there may be process benefits such as improved task allocation between providers. Further study on the impact
Raaij, van, J.M.A.; Schotanus, F.; Valk, van der, L.J.M.
Health care reforms have resulted in the emergence of health care purchasing markets, in which care financers purchase health care from care providers. The purchasing of health care has received extensive scholarly attention, yet not from purchasing and supply management researchers. We conduct a systematic literature review of health care purchasing. Our main objective is to develop a research agenda for both health care management (HCM) and purchasing and supply management (PSM) scholars. W...
Dixon, Josie; Matosevic, Tihana; Knapp, Martin
Background: Advance care planning (ACP), a process of discussion and review concerning future care in the event of losing capacity. Aimed at improving the appropriateness and quality of care, it is also often considered a means of controlling health spending at the end of life. Aim: To review and summarise economic evidence on advance care planning. Design: A systematic review of academic literature. Data sources: We searched for English language peer-reviewed journal articles, 1990 to 201...
Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante
Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. PMID:25953966
Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante
Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development.
van der Zee Jouke; Hutchinson Allen; Boerma Wienke GW; Kringos Dionne S; Groenewegen Peter P
Abstract Background Even though there is general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, to date no efforts have been made to systematically review the scientific evidence supporting this supposition. The aim of this study was to examine the breadth of primary care by identifying its core dimensions and to assess the evidence for their interrelations and their relevance to outcomes at (primary) health system level. Methods A systematic review of the prim...
Piraino, Emily; Heckman, George A; Glenny, Christine; Stolee, Paul
OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge. Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant...
Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of
Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat
Abstract Objective To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization’s regional databases, for studies on “kangaroo mother care” or “kangaroo care” or “skin-to-skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent revie...
Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat
Abstract Objective: To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization’s regional databases, for studies on “kangaroo mother care” or “kangaroo care” or “skin-to-skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent rev...
Abdullah Alkhenizan; Charles Shaw
Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health car...
Full Text Available Introduction: This systematic review seeks to identify the intended components of the role of care coordinator for children with complex care needs and the factors that determine its composition in practice. Theory and methods: The initial search identified 1,157 articles, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. They were quality assessed using the SIGN hierarchy of evidence structure. Results: Core components of the role include: coordination of care needs, planning and assessment, specialist support, emotional support, administration and logistics and continuing professional development. Influencing factors on the role include the external environment (political and socio-economic, the internal environment (organisational structure and funding protocols, the skills, qualifications and experience of the coordinator, the family circumstances and the nature of the interaction between the care coordinator and the family. Discussion: The lack of consistent terminology creates challenges and there is a need for greater consensus on this issue. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to recognise the extent to which contextual factors influence the role of a care coordinator in practice and plan accordingly. Despite evidence that suggests that the role is pivotal in ensuring that care needs are sustained, there remains great variability in the understanding of the role of a care coordinator for this population. Conclusions: As the provision of care increasingly moves closer to home there is a need for greater understanding of the nature and composition of the interaction between care coordinators and families to determine the extent to which appropriate services are being provided. Further work in this area should take into consideration any potential variance in service provision, for example any potential inequity arising due to geographic location. It is also imperative, where appropriate, to seek the views of children with complex care
Bitterman, R; Hussein, K; Leibovici, L; Carmeli, Y; Paul, M
Antibiotic consumption is an easily quantifiable performance measure in hospitals and might be used for monitoring. We conducted a review of published studies and online surveillance reports reporting on antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals between the years 1997 and 2013. A pooled estimate of antibiotic consumption was calculated using a random effects meta-analysis of rates with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed through subgroup analysis and metaregression. Eighty studies, comprising data from 3130 hospitals, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of hospital-wide consumption was 586 (95% confidence interval 540 to 632) defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 hospital days (HD) for all antibacterials. However, consumption rates were highly heterogeneous. Antibacterial consumption was highest in intensive care units, at 1563 DDD/1000 HD (95% confidence interval 1472 to 1653). Hospital-wide antibacterial consumption was higher in Western Europe and in medium-sized, private and university-affiliated hospitals. The methods of data collection were significantly associated with consumption rates, including data sources, dispensing vs. purchase vs. usage data, counting admission and discharge days and inclusion of low-consumption departments. Heterogeneity remained in all subgroup analyses. Major heterogeneity currently precludes defining acceptable antibiotic consumption ranges in acute care hospitals. Guidelines on antibiotic consumption reporting that will account for case mix and a minimal set of hospital characteristics recommending standardized methods for monitoring and reporting are needed. PMID:26899826
McConnell, Tracey; Scott, David; Porter, Sam
Background: Music therapy during palliative and end-of-life care is well established and positive benefits for patients have been reported. Aim: Assess the effectiveness of music therapy versus standard care alone or standard care in combination with other therapies for improving psychological, physiological and social outcomes among adult patients in any palliative care setting. Data sources: In order to update an existing Cochrane systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psyc...
Huang, Yafang; Wei, Xiaoming; Wu, Tao; Rui CHEN; Guo, Aimin
Background Diabetic patients with depression are often inadequately treated within primary care. These comorbid conditions are associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether collaborative care can improve depression and diabetes outcomes in patients with both depression and diabetes. Methods Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and PsyINFO were systematically searched to identify relevant publications. All randomized controlled trials of collaborative car...
Lin, C.; De Haas, M; Maher, C. G.; Machado, L.A.C.; Tulder, van, R.J.M.
Care from a general practitioner (GP) is one of the most frequently utilised healthcare services for people with low back pain and only a small proportion of those with low back pain who seek care from a GP are referred to other services. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on cost-effectiveness of GP care in non-specific low back pain. We searched clinical and economic electronic databases, and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and included studies ...
Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Vanobbergen, J.N.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on oral health care interventions in frail older people and the effect on the incidence of aspiration pneumonia. BACKGROUND: Oral health care seems to play an important role in the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in frail older people. METHODS: P
Sidorenkov, Grigory; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bilo, Henk; Denig, Petra
The authors conducted a systematic literature review to assess whether quality indicators for diabetes care are related to patient outcomes. Twenty-four studies were included that formally tested this relationship. Quality indicators focusing on structure or processes of care were included. Descript
Jones, CH; Howick, J; Roberts, NW; Price, CP; Heneghan, C; Plüddemann, A; Thompson, M.
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care blood tests are becoming increasingly available and could replace current venipuncture and laboratory testing for many commonly used tests. However, at present very few have been implemented in most primary care settings. Understanding the attitudes of primary care clinicians towards these tests may help to identify the barriers and facilitators to their wider adoption. We aimed to systematically review qualitative studies of primary care clinicians' attitudes to poi...
Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Shaw, Charles
Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health care professionals towards accreditation. Health care professionals had a skeptical attitude towards accreditation. Owners of hospitals indicated that accreditation had the potential of being used as a marketing tool. Health care professionals viewed accreditation programs as bureaucratic and demanding. There was consistent concern, especially in developing countries, about the cost of accreditation programs and their impact on the quality of health care services. PMID:22870409
Full Text Available Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health care professionals towards accreditation. Health care professionals had a skeptical attitude towards accreditation. Owners of hospitals indicated that accreditation had the potential of being used as a marketing tool. Health care professionals viewed accreditation programs as bureaucratic and demanding. There was consistent concern, especially in developing countries, about the cost of accreditation programs and their impact on the quality of health care services.
Klausen, Andreas; Röhrig, Rainer; Lipprandt, Myriam
Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care. We carried out a literature research in PubMed. Two independent researchers screened the titles and abstracts. The remaining 8 full-papers were analyzed based on the applicability of eye-trackers. The articles contain topics like training of surgeons, novice vs. experts or the cognitive workload. None of the publications address our goal. The applicability or limitations of the eye-tracker technology were stated incidentally. PMID:27577455
M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); S.M. Rubinstein (Sidney); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); W.C. Peul (Wilco); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)
textabstractObjective: General practitioners refer patients with continued neck pain that do not respond well to conservative care frequently to secondary care for further assessment. Are surgical interventions to the cervical spine effective when compared to conservative care for patients with neck
and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...... with systematic review is used to develop didactic practice end evidence based teaching in different part of the education. Findings: The poster will present how teacher’s training and experiences with systematic review contribute to the nursing education in relation to didactic, research methodology and patient...
Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree
Rationale, aims and objectives Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the...
Grobler, Liesl; Mehtar, Shaheen; Dheda, Keertan; Adams, Shahieda; Babatunde, Sanni; Van der Walt, Martie; Osman, Muhammad
Background In South Africa, workplace acquired tuberculosis (TB) is a significant occupational problem among health care workers. In order to manage the problem effectively it is important to know the burden of TB in health care workers. This systematic review describes the epidemiology of TB in South African health care workers. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases [MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index/Science Citation Index), Cochrane Library (in...
Hesselink, G.J.; Kuis, E.; Pijnenburg, M.A.; Wollersheim, H.C.
OBJECTIVE: To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. STUDY SELECTION: Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring...
Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry
Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers.Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies th...
Kadu, Mudathira K; Stolee, Paul
Background The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a framework developed to redesign care delivery for individuals living with chronic diseases in primary care. The CCM and its various components have been widely adopted and evaluated, however, little is known about different primary care experiences with its implementation, and the factors that influence its successful uptake. The purpose of this review is to synthesize findings of studies that implemented the CCM in primary care, in order to identi...
Conclusion: Weak knowledge, weak attitude, and time shortage .are among the most significant barriers of evidence-based care in Iran. These problems require more accurate planning and more favorable policies on the part of medical science authorities.
Marshall, Gill, E-mail: email@example.com [Chair in Medical Imaging Education, Research Development Lead, School of Medical Imaging Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Sykes, Anne E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Directorate of Radiography School of Health, Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Salford Frederick Road, M6 6PU (United Kingdom)
This paper offers guidance on performing systematic reviews to help up-skill radiographers and other health care professionals. It considers why systematic review is critically important to Radiography. Using a relevant example i.e. to investigate adverse effects related to MRI contrast agents it then examines the features of a systematic review and explains how diagnostic research evidence within a systematic review is evaluated. The paper then discusses the threats to validity of systematic reviews on a step by step basis. Five key steps are considered: Step 1: define the purpose of the review via a well-structured question. Step 2: determine the parameters (eligibility criteria) for a comprehensive systematic literature review that will address the research question. It is the wide range of material reviewed in this way that makes the work a systematic review, rather than an analysis of papers you happen to have. Step 3: Assess the quality of the literature you have found. Generally peer-reviewed papers published on a database such as Medline, which in the example given was established as an eligibility criterion, are considered to be high quality, but the actual impact factor/SCOPUS score of each journal is variable and should be considered. Step 4: Synthesise what the literature has revealed; appropriately extract data and summarise it; identifying any study differences. This requires the use of suitable methods for agreeing and summarising the results. This may involve a meta-analysis to collate the results from several studies. Step 5: interpret the findings to draw inferences from the resulting review and from the results of a meta-analysis if undertaken. This paper then provides a check list for guidance of those involved in writing systematic reviews and finally summarises the paper. A glossary of terms appears at the end of this paper.
Mehlhorn, J.; Freytag, A.; Schmidt, K.; Brunkhorst, F.M.; Graf, J.; Troitzsch, U.; Schlattmann, P.; Wensing, M.J.; Gensichen, J.
OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of ICU patients survive and develop mental, cognitive, or physical impairments. Various interventions support recovery from this postintensive care syndrome. Physicians in charge of post-ICU patients need to know which interventions are effective. DATA SOURCES: System
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Hansen, Marissa C.
Objective: A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing depression treatments in primary care for Latinos is conducted. The authors rate the methodological quality of studies, examine cultural and linguistic adaptations, summarize clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness findings, and draw conclusions for improving…
Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.; Meijer, S.; Groot, J. de; Achterberg, T. van
A gap between guidelines or protocols and clinical practice often exists, which may result in patients not receiving appropriate care. Therefore, the objectives of this systematic review were (1) to give an overview of professionals' adherence to (inter)national guidelines and protocols in the emerg
Peeters, J.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.
We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home
Sadler, Euan; Wolfe, Charles DA; McKevitt, Christopher
Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions.Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative stud...
Phung, Viet-Hai; Windle, Karen; Ortega, Marishona; Essam, Nadya; Barot, Mukesh; Kai, Joe; Johnson, Mark; Siriwardena, Niro
ABSTRACT Background Despite its increasing importance, equity remains an unrealised aspiration in healthcare. People from minority ethnic groups are proportionately less likely to access emergency and hospital services than the majority White population, despite higher levels of need. Our systematic literature review and narrative synthesis aimed to identify the barriers or facilitators to accessing ambulance and paramedic care for minority ethnic patients. In doing so, the review expl...
Virginia Faria Damasio Dutra
Full Text Available Objetivos: Realizar um levantamento da produção científica sobre cuidado em saúde mental; mais precisamente identificar as temáticas mais frequentes; destacar a relação dos temas com a prática assistencial em saúde mental; e discutir o cuidado no campo da saúde mental. Método: Estudo bibliográfico, de natureza qualitativa, nas bases de dados SCIELO (Brasil LILACS E PsycINFO, utilizando os termos saúde mental e cuidado ou mental health e care. Resultados: Foram analisadas 249 publicações. Nas publicações latinas e brasileiras prevalecem os assuntos: estratégias de assistência, políticas para atenção em saúde mental, demanda da população para cuidados em saúde mental, ética e rede de cuidados na comunidade. Na base de dados PsycINFO, de origem norte-americana prevalecem os assuntos: neuroanatomia cerebral, marcadores biológicos nos problemas de saúde, papel do otimismo/pessimismo/afeto na saúde mental, saúde mental de grupos, ocorrência de transtornos mentais em determinados grupos, violência, dependência e comportamento de grupos. Conclusão: Assim fica evidente que a proposta de atenção à saúde mental brasileira está mais próxima do cuidar, enquanto a norte-america está voltada para o tratar, mesmo que as duas se preocupe de modos diferentes com o cuidar e tratar.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being a family carer to a patient nearing the end of their life is a challenging and confronting experience. Studies show that caregiving can have negative consequences on the health of family carers including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety and burnout. One of the goals of palliative care is to provide psychosocial support to patients and families facing terminal illness. A systematic review of interventions for family carers of cancer and palliative care patients conducted at the start of this millennium demonstrated that there was a dearth of rigorous inquiry on this topic and consequently limited knowledge regarding the types of interventions likely to be effective in meeting the complex needs of family carers. We wanted to discern whether or not the evidence base to support family carers has improved. Furthermore, undertaking this review was acknowledged as one of the priorities for the International Palliative Care Family Carer Research Collaboration http://www.centreforpallcare.org. Methods A systematic review was undertaken in order to identify developments in family carer support that have occurred over the last decade. The focus of the review was on interventions that targeted improvements in the psychosocial support of family carers of palliative care patients. Studies were graded to assess their quality. Results A total of fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The focus of interventions included psycho-education, psychosocial support, carer coping, symptom management, sleep promotion and family meetings. Five studies were randomised controlled trials, three of which met the criteria for the highest quality evidence. There were two prospective studies, five pre-test/post-test projects and two qualitative studies. Conclusions The systematic review identified a slight increase in the quality and quantity of psychosocial interventions conducted for family carers in the last decade. More rigorous
Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter
in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...
de São José, José; Barros, Rosanna; Samitca, Sanda; Teixeira, Ana
The topic of social care for older people has gained increasing attention from the part of academics, professionals, policy makers and media. However, we know little about this topic from the perspectives of older persons, which hinders future developments in terms of theory, empirical research, professional practice and social policy. This article presents and discusses a systematic review of relevant qualitative research-based evidence on the older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care published between 1990 and September 2014. This review aimed to obtain answers to the following questions: How is the reception of social care experienced by the older persons? What are the negative and positive aspects of these experiences? What are the factors which influence the experiences? The synthesis of the findings of reviewed papers identified six analytical themes: asking for care as a major challenge; ambivalences; (dis)engagement in decisions concerning care; multiple losses as outcomes of receiving social care; multiple strategies to deal with losses originated by the ageing process; and properties of 'good care'. These themes are discussed from the point of view of their implications for theory, care practice and social policy, and future research.
Full Text Available For the treatment of depressive disorders, the framework of collaborative care has been recommended, which showed improved outcomes in the primary care sector. Yet, an earlier literature review did not find sufficient evidence to draw robust conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care.To systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care, compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care.A systematic literature search in major databases was conducted. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC list. To ensure comparability across studies, cost data were inflated to the year 2012 using country-specific gross domestic product inflation rates, and were adjusted to international dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP.In total, 19 cost-effectiveness analyses were reviewed. The included studies had sample sizes between n = 65 to n = 1,801, and time horizons between six to 24 months. Between 42% and 89% of the CHEC quality criteria were fulfilled, and in only one study no risk of bias was identified. A societal perspective was used by five studies. Incremental costs per depression-free day ranged from dominance to US$PPP 64.89, and incremental costs per QALY from dominance to US$PPP 874,562.Despite our review improved the comparability of study results, cost-effectiveness of collaborative care compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care is ambiguous depending on willingness to pay. A still considerable uncertainty, due to inconsistent methodological quality and results among included studies, suggests further cost-effectiveness analyses using QALYs as effect measures and a time horizon of at least 1 year.
Maria Karanikola; Margarita Giannakopoulou; Meropi Mpouzika; Charis P. Kaite; Georgios Z. Tsiaousis; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.
AbstractOBJECTIVETo systematically review evidence on dysfunctional psychological responses of Intensive Care Units nurses (ICUNs), with focus on anxiety and depressive symptoms and related factors.METHODA literature search was performed in CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus databases, from 1999 to present, along with a critical appraisal and synthesis of all relevant data. The following key words, separately and in combination, were used: "mental status" "depressive symptoms" "anxiety" "ICU nurses" "...
Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.; Meijer, S.; de Groot, J.; van Achterberg, T
A gap between guidelines or protocols and clinical practice often exists, which may result in patients not receiving appropriate care. Therefore, the objectives of this systematic review were (1) to give an overview of professionals' adherence to (inter)national guidelines and protocols in the emergency medical dispatch, prehospital and emergency department (ED) settings, and (2) to explore which factors influencing adherence were described in studies reporting on adherence. PubMed (including...
Breckenridge, Jenna P.; Devaney, John; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline
Background: Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods: Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data ...
Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Rose, Kevin; Kadar, Gena E.
Study Design: Systematic review of the literature. Objective: To evaluate whether an integrated approach that includes different Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies combined or CAM therapies combined with conventional medical care is more effective for the management of low back pain (LBP) than single modalities alone. Summary of Background Data: LBP is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet its optimal management is still unresolved. Methods: The PRISMA Sta...
Pascal Geldsetzer; H Manisha N Yapa; Maria Vaikath; Osondu Ogbuoji; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Till Bärnighausen
Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) pr...
Geldsetzer, Pascal; H Manisha N Yapa; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till
Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) pro...
Lendon, Jessica Penn; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Walling, Anne M.; Lorenz, Karl A.; Oluwatola, Oluwatobi A.; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Quigley, Denise; Teno, Joan M.
Context Increasing interest in end-of-life care has resulted in many tools to measure the quality of care. An important outcome measure of end-of-life care is the family members’ or caregivers’ experiences of care. Objectives To evaluate the instruments currently in use to inform next steps for research and policy in this area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, PsycINFO, and PsycTESTS® for all English-language articles published after 1990 using instruments to measure adult patient, family, or informal caregiver experiences with end-of-life care. Survey items were abstracted and categorized into content areas identified through an iterative method using three independent reviewers. We also abstracted information from the most frequently used surveys about the identification of proxy respondents for after-death surveys, the timing and method of survey administration, and the health care setting being assessed. Results We identified 88 articles containing 51 unique surveys with available content. We characterized 14 content areas variably present across the 51 surveys. Information and care planning, provider care, symptom management, and overall experience were the most frequent areas addressed. There was also considerable variation across the surveys in the identification of proxy respondents, the timing of survey administration, and in the health care settings and services being evaluated. Conclusion This review identified several comprehensive surveys aimed at measuring the experiences of end-of-life care, covering a variety of content areas and practical issues for survey administration. Future work should focus on standardizing surveys and administration methods so that experiences of care can be reliably measured and compared across care settings. PMID:25543110
Wion, Rachel K; Loeb, Susan J
: To conduct a systematic review of the published research literature on end-of-life (EOL) care in prisons in order to determine the current state of the science and suggest implications for nursing practice and areas for future research.Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the following databases: CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts. All databases were searched from the time of their inception through June 2014. All English-language articles that reported on original quantitative and qualitative research involving EOL or palliative care delivered to prisoners were included. We abstracted data, using the matrix method, and independently reviewed and graded the evidence on its level of strength and quality in accordance with the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice rating scales.Nineteen articles, all published between 2002 and 2014, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 53% were published between 2009 and 2014, and 58% reported findings from qualitative research. One article reported on research conducted in the United Kingdom; the remaining 18 reported on research conducted in the United States. Capacity (that is, the number of prisoners requiring EOL care and the ability of the prison to accommodate them) and the site of EOL care delivery varied across studies, as did the criteria for admission to EOL or hospice services. Care was provided by prison health care staff, which variously included numerous professional disciplines, corrections officers, and inmate caregivers. The inmate caregivers, in particular, provided a wide array of services and were viewed positively by both EOL patients and health care staff. There are insufficient data to characterize the patients' and inmate caregivers' perceptions of the EOL care staff and the quality
Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y
Acupuncture and related therapies such as moxibustion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are often used to manage cancer-related symptoms, but their effectiveness and safety are controversial. We conducted this overview to summarise the evidence on acupuncture for palliative care of cancer. Our systematic review synthesised the results from clinical trials of patients with any type of cancer. The methodological quality of the 23 systematic reviews in this overview, assessed using the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Instrument, was found to be satisfactory. There is evidence for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture for the management of cancer-related fatigue, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and leucopenia in patients with cancer. There is conflicting evidence regarding the treatment of cancer-related pain, hot flashes and hiccups, and improving patients' quality of life. The available evidence is currently insufficient to support or refute the potential of acupuncture and related therapies in the management of xerostomia, dyspnea and lymphedema and in the improvement of psychological well-being. No serious adverse effects were reported in any study. Because acupuncture appears to be relatively safe, it could be considered as a complementary form of palliative care for cancer, especially for clinical problems for which conventional care options are limited.
Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y
Acupuncture and related therapies such as moxibustion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are often used to manage cancer-related symptoms, but their effectiveness and safety are controversial. We conducted this overview to summarise the evidence on acupuncture for palliative care of cancer. Our systematic review synthesised the results from clinical trials of patients with any type of cancer. The methodological quality of the 23 systematic reviews in this overview, assessed using the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Instrument, was found to be satisfactory. There is evidence for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture for the management of cancer-related fatigue, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and leucopenia in patients with cancer. There is conflicting evidence regarding the treatment of cancer-related pain, hot flashes and hiccups, and improving patients' quality of life. The available evidence is currently insufficient to support or refute the potential of acupuncture and related therapies in the management of xerostomia, dyspnea and lymphedema and in the improvement of psychological well-being. No serious adverse effects were reported in any study. Because acupuncture appears to be relatively safe, it could be considered as a complementary form of palliative care for cancer, especially for clinical problems for which conventional care options are limited. PMID:26608664
Wetzels, Roland; Zuidema, Sytse; Jansen, Iepke; Verhey, Frans; Koopmans, Raymond
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) occur frequently in residents of long-term care institutions. The aim of this study was to review the literature systematically on the course of NPS in residents with dementia in long-term care institutions. METHODS: A systematic literature search was cond
Kimmel, April D; Martin, Erika G; Galadima, Hadiza; Bono, Rose S; Tehrani, Ali Bonakdar; Cyrus, John W; Henderson, Margaret; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Krist, Alexander H
With over 1 million people living with HIV, the US faces national challenges in HIV care delivery due to an inadequate HIV specialist workforce and the increasing role of non-communicable chronic diseases in driving morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Alternative HIV care delivery models, which include substantial roles for advanced practitioners and/or coordination between specialty and primary care settings in managing HIV-infected patients, may address these needs. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on patient-level HIV-specific and primary care health outcomes for HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient care across HIV care delivery models. We identified randomized trials and observational studies from bibliographic and other databases through March 2016. Eligible studies met pre-specified eligibility criteria including on care delivery models and patient-level health outcomes. We considered all available evidence, including non-experimental studies, and evaluated studies for risk of bias. We identified 3605 studies, of which 13 met eligibility criteria. Of the 13 eligible studies, the majority evaluated specialty-based care (9 studies). Across all studies and care delivery models, eligible studies primarily reported mortality and antiretroviral use, with specialty-based care associated with mortality reductions at the clinician and practice levels and with increased antiretroviral initiation or use at the clinician level but not the practice level. Limited and heterogeneous outcomes were reported for other patient-level HIV-specific outcomes (e.g., viral suppression) as well as for primary care health outcomes across all care delivery models. No studies addressed chronic care outcomes related to aging. Limited evidence was available across geographic settings and key populations. As re-design of care delivery in the US continues to evolve, better understanding of patient-level HIV-related and primary care health outcomes, especially
Sprague, Sheila; Goslings, J Carel; Hogentoren, Celine; de Milliano, Simone; Simunovic, Nicole; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health problem and a leading cause of nonfatal injury in North American females. Prevalence of IPV has ranged from less than 20% to more than 50% across primary care, emergency medicine, and family medicine. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to examine best estimates of IPV prevalence as opportunities for targeted interventions in health care specialties. We included 37 articles in this study. Based on our pooled data, best estimates of the lifetime prevalence of any type of IPV were 38% in family medicine and 40% in emergency medicine. PMID:24476759
Full Text Available As HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence.Technology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence; therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to examine technology-based self-care methods that HIV-positive individuals utilize to improve adherence. Seven electronic databases were searched from 1/1/1980 through 12/31/2010. We included quantitative and qualitative studies. Among quantitative studies, the primary outcomes included ARV adherence, viral load, and CD4+ cell count and secondary outcomes consisted of quality of life, adverse effects, and feasibility/acceptability data. For qualitative/descriptive studies, interview themes, reports of use, and perceptions of use were summarized. Thirty-six publications were included (24 quantitative and 12 qualitative/descriptive. Studies with exclusive utilization of medication reminder devices demonstrated less evidence of enhancing adherence in comparison to multi-component methods.This systematic review offers support for self-care technology-based approaches that may result in improved antiretroviral adherence. There was a clear pattern of results that favored individually-tailored, multi-function technologies, which allowed for periodic communication with health care providers rather than sole reliance on electronic reminder devices.
Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi; Baggs, Judith G; Lyons, Karen S
More than 60 million Americans provide care to a family member; roughly two thirds are women providing care to aging mothers. Despite the protective nature of relationship quality, little attention has been given to its role in mother-daughter care dyads, particularly in mothers without cognitive impairment. A systematic appraisal of peer-reviewed, English language research was conducted. Nineteen articles met criteria. When relationship quality is positive, mother-daughter dyads enjoy rewards and mutuality, even when conflict occurs. Daughters grow more emotionally committed to mothers' over the care trajectory, despite increasing demands. Daughters' commitment deepens as mothers physically decline, and mothers remain engaged, emotional partners. When relationship quality is ambivalent or negative, burden, conflict, and blame conspire, creating a destructive cycle. Avenues for continuing study, including utilizing the dyad as the unit of analysis, troubled dyads, longitudinal assessment, and end of life context, are needed before interventions to improve mother-daughter relationship quality may be successfully implemented.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654. Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively. A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34% was low. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes.
Weathers, Elizabeth; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Cornally, Nicola; Fitzgerald, Carol; Kearns, Tara; Coffey, Alice; Daly, Edel; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGlade, Ciara; Molloy, D William
Advance care planning (ACP), involving discussions between patients, families and healthcare professionals on future healthcare decisions, in advance of anticipated impairment in decision-making capacity, improves satisfaction and end-of-life care while respecting patient autonomy. It usually results in the creation of a written advanced care directive (ACD). This systematic review examines the impact of ACP on several outcomes (including symptom management, quality of care and healthcare utilisation) in older adults (>65years) across all healthcare settings. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searches of the CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 3646 older adults were included (range 72-88 years). Seven studies were conducted with community dwellers and the other two RCTs were conducted in nursing homes. Most studies did not implement a standardised ACD, or measure the impact on quality of end-of-life care or on the death and dying experience. All studies had some risk of bias, with most scoring poorly on the Oxford Quality Scale. While ACP interventions are well received by older adults and generally have positive effects on outcomes, this review highlights the need for well-designed RCTs that examine the economic impact of ACP and its effect on quality of care in nursing homes and other sectors. PMID:27451328
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes in improving quality of care and patient outcomes compared with usual care. Methods: Searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, the Cochrane database, and Current Controlled Trials. Due to the assumed scarcity of high quality evidence, interventional studies in hospital or primary care settings with adequate reporting and comparisons were considered as eligible. Team members met after reviewing the papers. Decisions on inclusion or exclusion of papers were made when all agreed. Two reviewers independently extracted data from included studies. Results: 705 abstracts were considered and thirty full-text papers were ordered and reviewed. Following further review of the extracted data two papers met the inclusion criteria. One was a clustered randomized study of 26 general practices to evaluate the effectiveness of screening for elderly ailments including malnutrition. It concluded nutritional screening did not improve referral to dieticians, detection of nutritional problems, or patients’ quality of life. This study was underpowered for evaluating the effectiveness of nutritional screening. A non-randomized controlled before-after study of four hospital wards concluded that intervention improved weight recording, but not referral to dieticians or care at the mealtime of at risk patients. Discussion: Very few studies assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening with relevant outcomes and acceptable quality. The available evidence does not support systematic application of screening tools to hospital, or general practice patients. Given the current level of interest and political support for nutritional screening, further studies are urgently required.
Piderman, Katherine M; Kung, Simon; Jenkins, Sarah M; Euerle, Terin T; Yoder, Timothy J; Kwete, Gracia M; Lapid, Maria I
Spirituality is among the resources that many turn to as they deal with a diagnosis of advanced cancer. Researchers have made much progress in exploring and understanding spirituality's complex and multifaceted role in the midst of metastatic disease. As a result, spirituality is seen as an important aspect of a holistic and respectful approach to clinical care for patients and their loved ones. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the literature related to the interface between spirituality and metastatic cancer. We included articles published from January 2013 to June 2014. Twenty-two articles were reviewed, consisting of clinical intervention trials, association studies, surveys, qualitative studies, and review articles. The articles discussed efforts to improve patients' spiritual well-being, with relevant measurement scales; the associations of spirituality and end of life treatment practices; and efforts to better understand and meet the spiritual needs of patients and caregivers. PMID:25681038
Gordon Adam L
Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the literature generated from research in care homes is required to support evidence-based commissioning and delivery of healthcare. So far this research has not been compiled or described. We set out to describe the extent of the evidence base derived from randomized controlled trials conducted in care homes. Methods A systematic mapping review was conducted of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs conducted in care homes. Medline was searched for “Nursing Home”, “Residential Facilities” and “Homes for the Aged”; CINAHL for “nursing homes”, “residential facilities” and “skilled nursing facilities”; AMED for “Nursing homes”, “Long term care”, “Residential facilities” and “Randomized controlled trial”; and BNI for “Nursing Homes”, “Residential Care” and “Long-term care”. Articles were classified against a keywording strategy describing: year and country of publication; randomization, stratification and blinding methodology; target of intervention; intervention and control treatments; number of subjects and/or clusters; outcome measures; and results. Results 3226 abstracts were identified and 291 articles reviewed in full. Most were recent (median age 6 years and from the United States. A wide range of targets and interventions were identified. Studies were mostly functional (44 behaviour, 20 prescribing and 20 malnutrition studies rather than disease-based. Over a quarter focussed on mental health. Conclusions This study is the first to collate data from all RCTs conducted in care homes and represents an important resource for those providing and commissioning healthcare for this sector. The evidence-base is rapidly developing. Several areas - influenza, falls, mobility, fractures, osteoporosis – are appropriate for systematic review. For other topics, researchers need to focus on outcome measures that can be compared and collated.
Full Text Available Sonya Brownie, Susan NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Several residential aged-care facilities have replaced the institutional model of care to one that accepts person-centered care as the guiding standard of practice. This culture change is impacting the provision of aged-care services around the world. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for an impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and nursing staff.Methods: We searched Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Proquest, and Expanded Academic ASAP databases for studies published between January 1995 and October 2012, using subject headings and free-text search terms (in UK and US English spelling including person-centered care, patient-centered care, resident-oriented care, Eden Alternative, Green House model, Wellspring model, long-term care, and nursing homes.Results: The search identified 323 potentially relevant articles. Once duplicates were removed, 146 were screened for inclusion in this review; 21 were assessed for methodological quality, resulting in nine articles (seven studies that met our inclusion criteria. There was only one randomized, controlled trial. The majority of studies were quasi-experimental pre-post test designs, with a control group (n = 4. The studies in this review incorporated a range of different outcome measures (ie, dependent variables to evaluate the impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and staff. One person-centered intervention, ie, the Eden Alternative, was associated with significant improvements in residents' levels of boredom and helplessness. In contrast, facility-specific person-centered interventions were found to impact nurses' sense of job satisfaction and their capacity to meet the individual needs of residents in a positive way. Two studies found that person-centered care was actually associated with an
Ebben, Remco H A; Vloet, Lilian C M; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Meijer, Sanne; Mintjes-de Groot, Joke A J; van Achterberg, Theo
A gap between guidelines or protocols and clinical practice often exists, which may result in patients not receiving appropriate care. Therefore, the objectives of this systematic review were (1) to give an overview of professionals' adherence to (inter)national guidelines and protocols in the emergency medical dispatch, prehospital and emergency department (ED) settings, and (2) to explore which factors influencing adherence were described in studies reporting on adherence. PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane database for systematic reviews were systematically searched. Reference lists of included studies were also searched for eligible studies. Identified articles were screened on title, abstract and year of publication (≥1990) and were included when reporting on adherence in the eligible settings. Following the initial selection, articles were screened full text and included if they concerned adherence to a (inter)national guideline or protocol, and if the time interval between data collection and publication date was articles were assessed on reporting quality. Each step was undertaken by two independent researchers. Thirty-five articles met the criteria, none of these addressed the emergency medical dispatch setting or protocols. Median adherence ranged from 7.8-95% in the prehospital setting, and from 0-98% in the ED setting. In the prehospital setting, recommendations on monitoring came with higher median adherence percentages than treatment recommendations. For both settings, cardiology treatment recommendations came with relatively low median adherence percentages. Eight studies identified patient and organisational factors influencing adherence. The results showed that professionals' adherence to (inter)national prehospital and emergency department guidelines shows a wide variation, while adherence in the emergency medical dispatch setting is not reported. As insight in influencing factors for adherence in the emergency care
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of human resources for health (HRH have severely hampered the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Current rollout models are hospital- and physician-intensive. Task shifting, or delegating tasks performed by physicians to staff with lower-level qualifications, is considered a means of expanding rollout in resource-poor or HRH-limited settings. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review. Medline, the Cochrane library, the Social Science Citation Index, and the South African National Health Research Database were searched with the following terms: task shift*, balance of care, non-physician clinicians, substitute health care worker, community care givers, primary healthcare teams, cadres, and nurs* HIV. We mined bibliographies and corresponded with authors for further results. Grey literature was searched online, and conference proceedings searched for abstracts. Results We found 2960 articles, of which 84 were included in the core review. 51 reported outcomes, including research from 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common intervention studied was the delegation of tasks (especially initiating and monitoring HAART from doctors to nurses and other non-physician clinicians. Five studies showed increased access to HAART through expanded clinical capacity; two concluded task shifting is cost effective; 9 showed staff equal or better quality of care; studies on non-physician clinician agreement with physician decisions was mixed, with the majority showing good agreement. Conclusions Task shifting is an effective strategy for addressing shortages of HRH in HIV treatment and care. Task shifting offers high-quality, cost-effective care to more patients than a physician-centered model. The main challenges to implementation include adequate and sustainable training, support and pay for staff in new roles, the integration of new members into healthcare teams, and the compliance of
de Veer Anke JE
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays more and more clinical guidelines for health care professionals are being developed. However, this does not automatically mean that these guidelines are actually implemented. The aim of this meta-review is twofold: firstly, to gain a better understanding of which factors affect the implementation of guidelines, and secondly, to provide insight into the "state-of-the-art" regarding research within this field. Methods A search of five literature databases and one website was performed to find relevant existing systematic reviews or meta-reviews. Subsequently, a two-step inclusion process was conducted: (1 screening on the basis of references and abstracts and (2 screening based on full-text papers. After that, relevant data from the included reviews were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was assessed by using the Quality Assessment Checklist for Reviews. Results Twelve systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. No previous systematic meta-reviews meeting all our inclusion criteria were found. Two of the twelve reviews scored high on the checklist used, indicating only "minimal" or "minor flaws". The other ten reviews scored in the lowest of middle ranges, indicating "extensive" or "major" flaws. A substantial proportion (although not all of the reviews indicates that effective strategies often have multiple components and that the use of one single strategy, such as reminders only or an educational intervention, is less effective. Besides, characteristics of the guidelines themselves affect actual use. For instance, guidelines that are easy to understand, can easily be tried out, and do not require specific resources, have a greater chance of implementation. In addition, characteristics of professionals – e.g., awareness of the existence of the guideline and familiarity with its content – likewise affect implementation. Furthermore, patient characteristics appear to exert influence: for
Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda
Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations’ use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations’ access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. PMID:27190222
van Marwijk Harm WJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of collaborative care for patients with major depressive disorder in primary care has been established. Assessing its cost-effectiveness is important for deciding on implementation. This review therefore evaluates the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for major depressive disorder in primary care. Methods A systematic search on economic evaluations of collaborative care was conducted in Pubmed and PsychInfo. Quality of the studies was measured with the Cochrane checklist and the CHEC-list for economic evaluations. Cost-effectiveness and costs per depression-free days were reported. Results 8 studies were found, involving 4868 patients. The quality of the cost effectiveness studies, according to the CHEC-list, could be improved. Generally, the studies did not include all relevant costs and did not perform sensitivity analysis. Only 4 out of 8 studies reported cost per QALY, 6 out of 8 reported costs per depression-free days. The highest costs per QALY reported were $49,500, the highest costs per depression-free day were $24. Conclusions Although studies did not fulfil all criteria of the CHEC-list, collaborative care is a promising intervention and it may be cost-effective. However, to conclude on the cost-effectiveness, depression research should follow economic guidelines to improve the quality of the economic evaluations.
Full Text Available The aim of our systematic review was to analyse the published literature on the psychosocial dimension of care in family medicine and its relationship with quality of care. We wanted to find out whether there is any evidence on the psychosocial approach in (family medicine. The recommended bio-psycho-social approach, besides the biomedical model of illness, takes into account several co-influencing psychological, sociological and existential factors. An online search of nine different databases used Boolean operators and the following selection criteria: the paper contained information on the holistic approach, quality indicators, family medicine, patient-centred care and/or the bio-psycho-social model of treatment. We retrieved 743 papers, of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Including the psychosocial dimension in patient management has been found to be useful in the prevention and treatment of physical and psychiatric illness, resulting in improved social functioning and patient satisfaction, reduced health care disparities, and reduced annual medical care charges. The themes of patient-centred, behavioural or psychosocial medicine were quite well presented in several papers. We could not find any conclusive evidence of the impact of a holistic biopsycho-social-approach. Weak and variable definitions of psychosocial dimensions, a low number of welldesigned intervention studies, and low numbers of included patients limited our conclusions.
Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1 retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes after birth, (2 transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3 retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion: After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions: Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum.
Watterson, Jessica L; Walsh, Julia; Madeka, Isheeta
Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients', caretakers', or health workers' behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC), postnatal care (PNC), and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n = 8) and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n = 8). All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings. PMID:26380263
Jessica L. Watterson
Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients’, caretakers’, or health workers’ behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC, postnatal care (PNC, and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n=8 and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n=8. All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings.
Watterson, Jessica L; Walsh, Julia; Madeka, Isheeta
Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients', caretakers', or health workers' behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC), postnatal care (PNC), and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n = 8) and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n = 8). All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity is a major concern in primary care. Nevertheless, evidence of prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity, and their determinants, are scarce. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies of the prevalence, patterns and determinants of multimorbidity in primary care. METHODS: Systematic review of literature published between 1961 and 2013 and indexed in Ovid (CINAHL, PsychINFO, Medline and Embase and Web of Knowledge. Studies were selected according to eligibility criteria of addressing prevalence, determinants, and patterns of multimorbidity and using a pretested proforma in primary care. The quality and risk of bias were assessed using STROBE criteria. Two researchers assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion (Kappa= 0.86. RESULTS: We identified 39 eligible publications describing studies that included a total of 70,057,611 patients in 12 countries. The number of health conditions analysed per study ranged from 5 to 335, with multimorbidity prevalence ranging from 12.9% to 95.1%. All studies observed a significant positive association between multimorbidity and age (odds ratio [OR], 1.26 to 227.46, and lower socioeconomic status (OR, 1.20 to 1.91. Positive associations with female gender and mental disorders were also observed. The most frequent patterns of multimorbidity included osteoarthritis together with cardiovascular and/or metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Well-established determinants of multimorbidity include age, lower socioeconomic status and gender. The most prevalent conditions shape the patterns of multimorbidity. However, the limitations of the current evidence base means that further and better designed studies are needed to inform policy, research and clinical practice, with the goal of improving health-related quality of life for patients with multimorbidity. Standardization of the definition and assessment of multimorbidity is essential in order to better understand this
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychostimulants are first line of therapy for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The evidence suggests that up to 30% of those prescribed stimulant medications do not show clinically significant outcomes. In addition, many children and adolescents experience side-effects from these medications. As a result, parents are seeking alternate interventions for their children. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for behavioural disorders such as AD/HD are increasing with as many as 68% of parents having sought help from alternative practitioners, including chiropractors. Objective The review seeks to answer the question of whether chiropractic care can reduce symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. Methods Electronic databases (Cochrane CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from inception until July 2009 for English language studies for chiropractic care and AD/HD. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select studies. All randomised controlled trials were evaluated using the Jadad score and a checklist developed from the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Results The search yielded 58 citations of which 22 were intervention studies. Of these, only three studies were identified for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD cohorts. The methodological quality was poor and none of the studies qualified using inclusion criteria. Conclusions To date there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the efficacy of chiropractic care for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The claim that chiropractic care improves paediatric and adolescent AD/HD, is only supported by low levels of scientific evidence. In the interest of paediatric and adolescent health, if chiropractic care for AD/HD is to continue, more rigorous
Jones, Emma L.; Lees, Nicholas; Martin, Graham; Dixon-Woods, Mary
Abstract Background Quality improvement (QI) approaches are widely used across health care, but how well they are reported in the academic literature is not clear. A systematic review was conducted to assess the completeness of reporting of QI interventions and techniques in the field of perioperative care. Methods Searches were conducted using Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care database, and PubMed. Two independent reviewers used the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist, which identifies 12 features of interventions that studies should describe (for example, How: the interventions were delivered [e.g., face to face, internet]), When and how much: duration, dose, intensity), to assign scores for each included article. Articles were also scored against a small number of additional criteria relevant to QI. Results The search identified 16,103 abstracts from databases and 19 from other sources. Following review, full-text was obtained for 223 articles, 100 of which met the criteria for inclusion. Completeness of reporting of QI in the perioperative care literature was variable. Only one article was judged fully complete against the 11 TIDieR items used. The mean TIDieR score across the 100 included articles was 6.31 (of a maximum 11). More than a third (35%) of the articles scored 5 or lower. Particularly problematic was reporting of fidelity (absent in 74% of articles) and whether any modifications were made to the intervention (absent in 73% of articles). Conclusions The standard of reporting of quality interventions and QI techniques in surgery is often suboptimal, making it difficult to determine whether an intervention can be replicated and used to deliver a positive effect in another setting. This suggests a need to explore how reporting practices could be improved. PMID:27066922
Sleuwen, van Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s
Seitzer, F; Kahrass, H; Neitzke, G; Strech, D
Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. The literature review retrieved 56 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 103 ethical issues in ALS care. The spectrum was structured into six major categories that consist of first and second-order categories of ethical issues. The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care presented in this paper raises awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in ALS care. It also offers a basis for the systematic development of informational and training materials for health professionals, patients and their relatives, and society as a whole. Finally, it supports a rational and fair selection of all those ethical issues that should be addressed in health policies, position papers and clinical practice guidelines. Further research is needed to identify ways to systematically select the most relevant ethical issues not only in the clinical environment, but also for the development of clinical practice guidelines.
Smyth, Michael A; Brace-McDonnell, Samantha J; Perkins, Gavin D
Introduction Sepsis is a common and potentially life-threatening response to an infection. International treatment guidelines for sepsis advocate that treatment be initiated at the earliest possible opportunity. It is not yet clear if very early intervention by ambulance clinicians prior to arrival at hospital leads to improved clinical outcomes among sepsis patients. Methoda We systematically searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PubMed up to June 2015. In addition, subject experts were contacted. We adopted the GRADE (grading recommendations assessment, development and evaluation) methodology to conduct the review and follow PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations to report findings. Results Nine studies met the eligibility criteria – one study was a randomized controlled trial while the remaining studies were observational in nature. There was considerable variation in the methodological approaches adopted and outcome measures reported across the studies. Because of these differences, the studies did not answer a unique research question and meta-analysis was not appropriate. A narrative approach to data synthesis was adopted. Conclusion There is little robust evidence addressing the impact of prehospital interventions on outcomes in sepsis. That which is available is of low quality and indicates that prehospital interventions have limited impact on outcomes in sepsis beyond improving process outcomes and expediting the patient’s passage through the emergency care pathway. Evidence indicating that prehospital antibiotic therapy and fluid resuscitation improve patient outcomes is currently lacking. PMID:27429693
Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip
Objectives To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary–secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Setting International primary–secondary care interface. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CIN...
Comondore, Vikram R; Devereaux, P.J.; Zhou, Qi; Stone, Samuel B.; Busse, Jason W.; Ravindran, Nikila C; Karen E Burns; Haines, Ted; Stringer, Bernadette; Cook, Deborah J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Terrence; Berwanger, Otavio; Bhandari, Mohit; Banglawala, Sarfaraz
Objective To compare quality of care in for-profit and not-for-profit nursing homes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomised controlled trials investigating quality of care in for-profit versus not-for-profit nursing homes. Results A comprehensive search yielded 8827 citations, of which 956 were judged appropriate for full text review. Study characteristics and results of 82 articles that met inclusion criteria were summarised, and results for the fo...
Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVETo systematically review evidence on dysfunctional psychological responses of Intensive Care Units nurses (ICUNs, with focus on anxiety and depressive symptoms and related factors.METHODA literature search was performed in CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus databases, from 1999 to present, along with a critical appraisal and synthesis of all relevant data. The following key words, separately and in combination, were used: "mental status" "depressive symptoms" "anxiety" "ICU nurses" "PTSD" "burnout" "compassion fatigue" "psychological distress".RESULTSThirteen quantitative studies in English and Greek were included. The results suggested increased psychological burden in ICUNs compared to other nursing specialties, as well as to the general population.CONCLUSIONSStudies investigating psychological responses of ICUNs are limited, internationally. Future longitudinal and intervention studies will contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Lee, Edward S.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Kamano, Jemima H.; Kudesia, Preeti; Rajan, Vikram; Engelgau, Michael; Moran, Andrew E.
Background The majority of global cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden falls on people living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In order to reduce preventable CVD mortality and morbidity, LMIC health systems and health care providers need to improve the delivery and quality of CVD care. Objectives As part of the Disease Control Priorities Three (DCP3) Study efforts addressing quality improvement, we reviewed and summarized currently available evidence on interventions to improve quality of clinic-based CVD prevention and management in LMICs. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published comparative clinical trials that evaluated efficacy or effectiveness of clinic-based CVD prevention and management quality improvement interventions in LMICs. Conditions selected a priori included hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, stroke, rheumatic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies were categorized as occurring at the system or patient/provider level and as treating the acute or chronic phase of CVD. Results From 847 articles identified in the electronic search, 49 met full inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Selected studies were performed in 19 different LMICs. There were 10 studies of system level quality improvement interventions, 38 studies of patient/provider interventions, and one study that fit both criteria. At the patient/provider level, regardless of the specific intervention, intensified, team-based care generally led to improved medication adherence and hypertension control. At the system level, studies provided evidence that introduction of universal health insurance coverage improved hypertension and diabetes control. Studies of system and patient/provider level acute coronary syndrome quality improvement interventions yielded inconclusive results. The duration of most studies was less than 12 months. Conclusions The
Körner, Mirjam; Bütof, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Zimmermann, Linda; Becker, Sonja; Bengel, Jürgen
To identify key features of teamwork and interventions for enhancing interprofessional teamwork (IPT) in chronic care and to develop a framework for further research, we conducted a systematic literature review of IPT in chronic care for the years 2002-2014. Database searches yielded 3217 abstracts, 21 of which fulfilled inclusion criteria. We identified two more studies on the topic by scanning the reference lists of included articles, which resulted in a final total of 23 included studies. The key features identified in the articles (e.g., team member characteristics, common task, communication, cooperation, coordination, responsibility, participation, staff satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and efficiency) were structured in line with the input-process-output model, and evaluated interventions, such as tools, workshops, and changes in team structure, were added to the model. The most frequently evaluated team interventions were complex intervention programs. All but one of the 14 evaluation studies resulted in enhancement of teamwork and/or staff-related, patient-related, and organization-related outcome criteria. To date, there is no consensus about the main features of IPT and the most effective team interventions in chronic care. However, the findings may be used to standardize the implementation and evaluation of IPT and team interventions in practice and for further research.
Rhee, Susan M; Valle, M Frances; Wilson, Lisa M; Lazarus, Gerald; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Robinson, Karen A
The use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is increasing in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. We conducted a systematic review on the efficacy and safety of NPWT for the treatment of chronic wounds in the home setting. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, up to June 2014. Two independent reviewers screened search results. Seven studies met our criteria for inclusion. Six of the studies compared NPWT devices to other wound care methods and one study compared two different NPWT technologies. Data were limited by variability in the types of comparator groups, methodological limitations, and poor reporting of outcomes. We were unable to draw conclusions about the efficacy or safety of NPWT for the treatment of chronic wounds in the home setting due to the insufficient evidence. Consensus is needed on the methods of conducting and reporting wound care research so that future studies are able inform decisions about the use of NPWT in the home environment for chronic wounds.
Sudhakar V Nuti
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers systematically identified studies utilizing Google Trends for health care research from MEDLINE and PubMed. Seventy studies met our inclusion criteria. Google Trends publications increased seven-fold from 2009 to 2013. Studies were classified into four topic domains: infectious disease (27% of articles, mental health and substance use (24%, other non-communicable diseases (16%, and general population behavior (33%. By use, 27% of articles utilized Google Trends for casual inference, 39% for description, and 34% for surveillance. Among surveillance studies, 92% were validated against a reference standard data source, and 80% of studies using correlation had a correlation statistic ≥0.70. Overall, 67% of articles provided a rationale for their search input. However, only 7% of articles were reproducible based on complete documentation of search strategy. We present a checklist to facilitate appropriate methodological documentation for future studies. A limitation of the study is the challenge of classifying heterogeneous studies utilizing a novel data source. CONCLUSION: Google Trends is being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains in myriad ways. However, poor documentation of methods precludes the reproducibility of the findings. Such documentation would enable other researchers to determine the consistency of results provided by Google
Motaarefi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali
Introduction Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs), are among the main job-related injuries that health care workers experience. In fact, contraction of hepatitis B or hepatitis C from work-related NSIs is one of the most common occupational hazards among health care workers. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with NSIs in health care occupation. Materials and Methods In this study, a systematic and purposive review with emphasis on the research question was run to retrieve, evaluate and consolidate the required information. The following four key words were used to search for the relevant articles published from January 1998 to May 2015: NSI health care workers, risk factor and factors associated, in Science direct, EBSCO Host, PubMed, ProQuest, SID and Cochrane Library. Several steps of evaluation were taken to select and analyse the full texts of relevant articles. According to the inclusion criteria, we finally selected 11 articles from the 18642 retrieved articles. Results The data of the analysed articles indicated that the highest incidence of NSIs was seen in nurses and that the associated factors were age, level of education, number of shifts per month and history of related training. The highest rate of NSIs was related to instrument preparation followed by injection and recapping of used needles. Findings show that health care workers suffer a high rate of needlestick injuries. Conclusion It was seen that device, location, or action cannot be separately considered as responsible for all types of the NSIs. Rather, each of them has a contribution to the NSIs. Nevertheless, factors with higher frequency should be given a higher priority. PMID:27656466
Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz
Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese method that uses the heat generated by burning herbal preparations containing Artemisia vulgaris to stimulate acupuncture points. Considering moxibustion is closely related to acupuncture, it seems pertinent to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion as a treatment of symptoms of cancer. The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of moxibustion for supportive cancer care. Methods We searched the literature using 11 databases from their inceptions to February 2010, without language restrictions. We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs in which moxibustion was employed as an adjuvant treatment for conventional medicine in patients with any type of cancer. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two reviewers. Results Five RCTs compared the effects of moxibustion with conventional therapy. Four RCTs failed to show favourable effects of moxibustion for response rate compared with chemotherapy (n = 229, RR, 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15, P = 0.43. Two RCTs assessed the occurrence of side effects of chemotherapy and showed favourable effects of moxibustion. A meta-analysis showed significant less frequency of nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy for moxibustion group (n = 80, RR, 0.38, 95% CIs 0.22 to 0.65, P = 0.0005, heterogeneity: χ2 = 0.18, P = 0.67, I2 = 0%. Conclusion The evidence is limited to suggest moxibustion is an effective supportive cancer care in nausea and vomiting. However, all studies have a high risk of bias so effectively there is not enough evidence to draw any conclusion. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of moxibustion for supportive cancer care.
Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.
Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C.; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Klausner, Jeffrey D.
Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27313440
Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail
This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research.
Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27313440
Saleh, Ashraf; Rubenstein, Joel H.
Utilization of monitored anesthesia care (MAC) for gastrointestinal endoscopy has increased markedly over the past decade, leading to significant additional health care expenditures. However, the extent to which certain patient-, provider-, and facility-level factors lead to MAC utilization is unclear. A systematic review of 13 studies evaluating influential factors associated with MAC utilization for colonoscopy and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy was conducted. Multiple studies revealed significant increases in MAC utilization since the early 2000s, with substantial regional variation. The most influential patient-related factors associated with MAC utilization include female sex and diagnostic procedural indication. Other patient-related factors with weaker associations or conflicting evidence include older age, comorbidity, higher patient income, and white/non-Hispanic race. The impact of patient substance use and/or prescription medication use has been minimally studied. The strongest provider- and facility-level factors associated with MAC use are a surgeon endoscopist and nonhospital site of service. Other factors with weaker associations include facility endoscopy volume and endoscopist years of experience. Further qualitative and quantitative health services research is needed to better understand the root cause of the rising trend of MAC utilization and to develop policies for encouraging appropriate use of MAC. PMID:27493596
Juliane Portella Ribeiro
Full Text Available Objective: To identify and analyze the production of knowledge about the strategies that health care institutions have implemented to humanize care of hospitalized children. Method: This is a systematic review conducted in the Virtual Health Library - Nursing and SciELO, using the seven steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. Results: 15 studies were selected, and strategies that involved relationship exchanges were used between the health professional, the hospitalized child and their families, which may be mediated by leisure activities, music and by reading fairy tales. We also include the use of the architecture itself as a way of providing welfare to the child and his/her family, as well as facilitating the development of the work process of health professionals. Conclusion: Investments in research and publications about the topic are necessary, so that, the National Humanization Policy does not disappear and that the identified strategies in this study do not configure as isolated and disjointed actions of health policy.
Nicholas A Medland
Full Text Available Introduction: The cascade of HIV diagnosis, care and treatment (HIV care cascade is increasingly used to direct and evaluate interventions to increase population antiretroviral therapy (ART coverage, a key component of treatment as prevention. The ability to compare cascades over time, sub-population, jurisdiction or country is important. However, differences in data sources and methodology used to construct the HIV care cascade might limit its comparability and ultimately its utility. Our aim was to review systematically the different methods used to estimate and report the HIV care cascade and their comparability. Methods: A search of published and unpublished literature through March 2015 was conducted. Cascades that reported the continuum of care from diagnosis to virological suppression in a demographically definable population were included. Data sources and methods of measurement or estimation were extracted. We defined the most comparable cascade elements as those that directly measured diagnosis or care from a population-based data set. Results and discussions: Thirteen reports were included after screening 1631 records. The undiagnosed HIV-infected population was reported in seven cascades, each of which used different data sets and methods and could not be considered to be comparable. All 13 used mandatory HIV diagnosis notification systems to measure the diagnosed population. Population-based data sets, derived from clinical data or mandatory reporting of CD4 cell counts and viral load tests from all individuals, were used in 6 of 12 cascades reporting linkage, 6 of 13 reporting retention, 3 of 11 reporting ART and 6 of 13 cascades reporting virological suppression. Cascades with access to population-based data sets were able to directly measure cascade elements and are therefore comparable over time, place and sub-population. Other data sources and methods are less comparable. Conclusions: To ensure comparability, countries wishing
Silva, Esther Pereira da; Lima, Roberto Teixeira de; Osório, Mônica Maria
This study aimed to analyze the impact of educational strategies developed in low-risk prenatal care on obstetric outcomes from a systematic literature review. This review consulted databases PubMed, Medline, SciELO and Lilacs, analyzing randomized clinical trials with the following birth outcomes: birth weight, prematurity and breastfeeding, using the following combination of keywords: pre-natal, antenatal visits, education, health education, pregnancy outcomes, birth weight, prematurity, breastfeeding and randomized clinical trial. Nine studies were included following quality evaluation. Actions prove to be more effective when extended to the postpartum period. Most of them occurred during home visits and had a positive impact on breastfeeding and birth weight. The establishment of groups of pregnant women contributed to lower prevalence of prematurity. Breastfeeding was found to be the outcome most sensitive to educational strategies. Educational practices during the prenatal period contributed to favorable obstetric outcomes as they minimized pregnant women concerns and anxiety during the pregnancy process, preparing them for childbirth and postpartum, and should be incorporated into health services' work process.
Mehdi Zanganeh Baygi
Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the main focus of health sector reforms in Iran is the family physician and referral system plan. Fundamental changes in the goals and strategies, has increased the necessity of the need to reform the organizational structure. This study tries to review and summarize all cases about the organizational structure of Iran and its challenges in primary health care system.Methods: This study was a systematic review of published and grey literature. We searched the relevant databases, bibliography of related papers, and laws, using appropriate search strategies and key words. The CASP tool was used by two experts to evaluate the quality of retrieved papers and inconsistencies were resolved by discussion.Results: After removal of duplicate citations, a total of 52 titles were identified through database searching, among which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Considering the research quality criteria, 14 papers were recognized qualified, which were categorized into two groups of: articles and policies. The results showed ineffectiveness of the current organizational structure at different level. The majority of the papers recommend performing reforms in the system because of changes in goals and strategies. Also, some suggest an appropriate information system to be designed in the current structures. Centralization and delegation process are the main discussions for the studies.Conclusion: Because of fundamental changes in goals and strategies, reforms in the organizational structure of primary health system in Iran especially in peripheral levels are highly recommended.
Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas
Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their in...
N. Evans; A. Meñaca; E.V.W. Andrew; J. Koffman; R. Harding; I.J. Higginson; R. Pool; M. Gysels
Context Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. Objectives To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic groups
Full Text Available Access to critical care is a crucial component of healthcare systems. In low-income countries, the burden of critical illness is substantial, but the capacity to provide care for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs is unknown. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature to estimate the current ICU capacity in low-income countries.We searched 11 databases and included studies of any design, published 2004-August 2014, with data on ICU capacity for pediatric and adult patients in 36 low-income countries (as defined by World Bank criteria; population 850 million. Neonatal, temporary, and military ICUs were excluded. We extracted data on ICU bed numbers, capacity for mechanical ventilation, and information about the hospital, including referral population size, public accessibility, and the source of funding. Analyses were descriptive.Of 1,759 citations, 43 studies from 15 low-income countries met inclusion criteria. They described 36 individual ICUs in 31 cities, of which 16 had population greater than 500,000, and 14 were capital cities. The median annual ICU admission rate was 401 (IQR 234-711; 24 ICUs with data and median ICU size was 8 beds (IQR 5-10; 32 ICUs with data. The mean ratio of adult and pediatric ICU beds to hospital beds was 1.5% (SD 0.9%; 15 hospitals with data. Nepal and Uganda, the only countries with national ICU bed data, had 16.7 and 1.0 ICU beds per million population, respectively. National data from other countries were not available.Low-income countries lack ICU beds, and more than 50% of these countries lack any published data on ICU capacity. Most ICUs in low-income countries are located in large referral hospitals in cities. A central database of ICU resources is required to evaluate health system performance, both within and between countries, and may help to develop related health policy.
Taggart, Jane; Williams, Anna; Dennis, Sarah; Newall, Anthony; Shortus, Tim; Zwar, Nicholas; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F
Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian M...
Taggart Jane; Williams Anna; Dennis Sarah; Newall Anthony; Shortus Tim; Zwar Nicholas; Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Harris Mark F
Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Austr...
Siouta, Naouma; Beek, K.; van der Eerden, M. E.; Preston, N.; Hasselaar, J.G.; Hughes, S; GARRALDA, E.; Centeno, C. (Carlos); Csikos, A.; Groot, M. de; Radbruch, L.; Payne, S; Menten, J.
Background Integrated Palliative Care (PC) strategies are often implemented following models, namely standardized designs that provide frameworks for the organization of care for people with a progressive life-threatening illness and/or for their (in)formal caregivers. The aim of this qualitative systematic review is to identify empirically-evaluated models of PC in cancer and chronic disease in Europe. Further, develop a generic framework that will consist of the basis for the design of futu...
Foets Marleen; Devillé Walter; Uiters Ellen; Spreeuwenberg Peter; Groenewegen Peter P
Abstract Background Studies on differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in health care utilization vary with respect to the extent and direction of differences in use. Therefore, our study aimed to provide a systematic overview of the existing research on differences in primary care utilization between immigrant groups and the majority population. Methods For this review PubMed, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sociofile, Web of Science and Current Contents were consulted. Study selection and ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature to date concerning public attitudes towards people with severe mental illness (SMI has focused on negative stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour. However, there also exists a tradition of volunteering with these people, implying a more positive attitude. Groups with positive attitudes and behaviours towards people with SMI have received relatively little attention in research. They merit further attention, as evidence on characteristics and experiences of volunteers may help to promote volunteering. The present paper aims to systematically review the literature reporting characteristics, motivations, experiences, and benefits of volunteers in the care of people with SMI. Methods In November 2010, a systematic electronic search was carried out in BNI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science databases, using a combination of ‘volunteer’, ‘mental health’ and ‘outcome’ search terms. A secondary hand search was performed in relevant psychiatric journals, grey literature and references. Results 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review, with data on a total of 540 volunteers. The results suggest that volunteers are a mostly female, but otherwise heterogeneous group. Motivations for volunteering are a combination of what they can ‘give’ to others and what they can ‘get’ for themselves. Overall volunteers report positive experiences. The main benefit to persons with a psychiatric illness is the gaining of a companion, who is non-stigmatizing and proactive in increasing their social-community involvement. Conclusions The evidence base for volunteers in care of people with SMI is small and inconsistent. However there are potential implications for both current and future volunteering programmes from the data. As the data suggests that there is no ‘typical’ volunteer, volunteering programmes should recruit individuals from a variety of
Sleuwen, van, B.E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W J
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on swaddling to evaluate its possible benefits and disadvantages. In general, swaddled infants arouse less and sleep longer. Preterm infants have shown improved neuromuscular development, less physiolo...
K.M. van Steenbergen-Weijenburg (Kirsten); C.M. van der Feltz-Cornelis (Christina); E.K. Horn (Eva); H.W. van Marwijk (Harm); A.T.F. Beekman (Aartjan); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)
textabstractBackground. The effectiveness of collaborative care for patients with major depressive disorder in primary care has been established. Assessing its cost-effectiveness is important for deciding on implementation. This review therefore evaluates the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care
Blanchette, Marc-André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Borges Da Silva, Roxane; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela; Bussières, André
Background Context Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and among the most common reasons for seeking primary sector care. Chiropractors, physical therapists and general practitioners are among those providers that treat LBP patients, but there is only limited evidence regarding the effectiveness and economic evaluation of care offered by these provider groups. Purpose To estimate the clinical effectiveness and to systematically review the literature of full economic evaluation of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Study Design Systematic reviews of interventions and economic evaluations. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify 1) pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care delivered by other healthcare providers. Studies published between 1990 and 4th June 2015 were considered. Primary outcomes included pain, functional status and global improvement. Study selection, critical quality appraisal and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Data from RCTs with low risk of bias were included in a meta-analysis to determine effect estimates. Cost estimates of full economic evaluations were converted to 2015 USD and results summarized using Slavin’s qualitative best-evidence synthesis. Results Six RCTs and three full economic evaluations were scientifically admissible. Five RCTs with low risk of bias compared chiropractic care to exercise therapy (n = 1), physical therapy (n = 3) and medical care (n = 1). Overall, we found similar effects for chiropractic care and the other types of care and no reports of serious adverse events. Three low to high quality full economic evaluations studies (one cost-effectiveness, one cost-minimization and one cost-benefit) compared chiropractic to medical care. Given the divergent
Full Text Available Aim: To describe parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care (SSC to their newborn infants. Background: SSC care for newborn infants has been reported to have positive physiological and psychological benefits to the infants and their parents. No systematic review regarding parental experiences has been identified. Design: In this first part of a meta-study, the findings of a systematic literature review on parental experience of SSC care are presented. Data sources: Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in a bibliography of the topic. Review methods: After a quality-appraisal process, data from the original articles were extracted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The systematic and manual searches led to the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from nine countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Two themes that characterized the provision of SSC emerged: a restoring experience and an energy-draining experience. Conclusion: This review has added scientific and systematic knowledge about parental experiences of providing SSC. Further research about fathers’ experiences is recommended.
Vincent C H Chung
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Inteprofessional collaboration (IPC between biomedically trained doctors (BMD and traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners (TCAMP is an essential element in the development of successful integrative healthcare (IHC services. This systematic review aims to identify organizational strategies that would facilitate this process. METHODS: We searched 4 international databases for qualitative studies on the theme of BMD-TCAMP IPC, supplemented with a purposive search of 31 health services and TCAM journals. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using published checklist. Results of each included study were synthesized using a framework approach, with reference to the Structuration Model of Collaboration. FINDINGS: Thirty-seven studies of acceptable quality were included. The main driver for developing integrative healthcare was the demand for holistic care from patients. Integration can best be led by those trained in both paradigms. Bridge-building activities, positive promotion of partnership and co-location of practices are also beneficial for creating bonding between team members. In order to empower the participation of TCAMP, the perceived power differentials need to be reduced. Also, resources should be committed to supporting team building, collaborative initiatives and greater patient access. Leadership and funding from central authorities are needed to promote the use of condition-specific referral protocols and shared electronic health records. More mature IHC programs usually formalize their evaluation process around outcomes that are recognized both by BMD and TCAMP. CONCLUSIONS: The major themes emerging from our review suggest that successful collaborative relationships between BMD and TCAMP are similar to those between other health professionals, and interventions which improve the effectiveness of joint working in other healthcare teams with may well be transferable to promote better
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute medical care often demands timely, accurate decisions in complex situations. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs have many features that could help. However, as for any medical intervention, claims that CCDSSs improve care processes and patient outcomes need to be rigorously assessed. The objective of this review was to systematically review the effects of CCDSSs on process of care and patient outcomes for acute medical care. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and others, and the Inspec bibliographic database were searched to January 2010, in all languages, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CCDSSs in all clinical areas. We included RCTs that evaluated the effect on process of care or patient outcomes of a CCDSS used for acute medical care compared with care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-six studies met our inclusion criteria for acute medical care. The CCDSS improved process of care in 63% (22/35 of studies, including 64% (9/14 of medication dosing assistants, 82% (9/11 of management assistants using alerts/reminders, 38% (3/8 of management assistants using guidelines/algorithms, and 67% (2/3 of diagnostic assistants. Twenty studies evaluated patient outcomes, of which three (15% reported improvements, all of which were medication dosing assistants. Conclusion The majority of CCDSSs demonstrated improvements in process of care, but patient outcomes were less likely to be evaluated and far less likely to show positive results.
Muessig, Kathryn E; Nekkanti, Manali; Bauermeister, Jose; Bull, Sheana; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
eHealth, mHealth and "Web 2.0" social media strategies can effectively reach and engage key populations in HIV prevention across the testing, treatment, and care continuum. To assess how these tools are currently being used within the field of HIV prevention and care, we systematically reviewed recent (2013-2014) published literature, conference abstracts, and funded research. Our searches identified 23 published intervention studies and 32 funded projects underway. In this synthesis we describe the technology modes applied and the stages of the HIV care cascade addressed, including both primary and secondary prevention activities. Overall trends include use of new tools including social networking sites, provision of real-time assessment and feedback, gamification and virtual reality. While there has been increasing attention to use of technology to address the care continuum, gaps remain around linkage to care, retention in care, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
Muessig, Kathryn E; Nekkanti, Manali; Bauermeister, Jose; Bull, Sheana; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
eHealth, mHealth and "Web 2.0" social media strategies can effectively reach and engage key populations in HIV prevention across the testing, treatment, and care continuum. To assess how these tools are currently being used within the field of HIV prevention and care, we systematically reviewed recent (2013-2014) published literature, conference abstracts, and funded research. Our searches identified 23 published intervention studies and 32 funded projects underway. In this synthesis we describe the technology modes applied and the stages of the HIV care cascade addressed, including both primary and secondary prevention activities. Overall trends include use of new tools including social networking sites, provision of real-time assessment and feedback, gamification and virtual reality. While there has been increasing attention to use of technology to address the care continuum, gaps remain around linkage to care, retention in care, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25626718
Stout, N L; Weiss, R; Feldman, J L; Stewart, B R; Armer, J M; Cormier, J N; Shih, Y-C T
A project of the American Lymphedema Framework Project (ALFP), this review seeks to examine the policy and economic impact of caring for patients with lymphedema, a common side effect of cancer treatment. This review is the first of its kind undertaken to investigate, coordinate, and streamline lymphedema policy initiatives in the United States with potential applicability worldwide. As part of a large scale literature review aiming to systematically evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed lymphedema literature (2004 to 2011), publications on care delivery models, health policy, and economic impact were retrieved, summarized, and evaluated by a team of investigators and clinical experts. The review substantiates lymphedema education models and clinical models implemented at the community, health care provider, and individual level that improve delivery of care. The review exposes the lack of economic analysis related to lymphedema. Despite a dearth of evidence, efforts towards policy initiatives at the federal and state level are underway. These initiatives and the evidence to support them are examined and recommendations for translating these findings into clinical practice are made. Medical and community-based disease management interventions, taking on a public approach, are effective delivery models for lymphedema care and demonstrate great potential to improve cancer survivorship care. Efforts to create policy at the federal, state, and local level should target implementation of these models. More research is needed to identify costs associated with the treatment of lymphedema and to model the cost outlays and potential cost savings associated with comprehensive management of chronic lymphedema.
Senthil P Kumar
Full Text Available Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract. Results: During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles were on cancer pain. Conclusion: While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model.
H. Vermeulen; S.J. Westerbos; D.T. Ubbink
Nowadays many products are available to combat infections and thus to promote wound healing. Iodine is one of these products, but reports are conflicting as to the effectiveness and adverse effects of iodine in the treatment of wounds. A systematic review was performed of 27 randomised clinical tria
Bonner, Timethia; Foster, Margaret; Spears-Lanoix, Erica
Introduction The purpose of this systematic literature review is to review published studies on foot care knowledge and foot care practice interventions as part of diabetic foot care self-management interventions. Methods Medline, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched. References from the included studies were reviewed to identify any missing studies that could be included. Only foot care knowledge and foot care practice intervention studies that focused on the person living with type 2 diabetes were included in this review. Author, study design, sample, intervention, and results were extracted. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria and were classified according to randomized controlled trial (n=9), survey design (n=13), cohort studies (n=4), cross-sectional studies (n=2), qualitative studies (n=2), and case series (n=1). Improving lower extremity complications associated with type 2 diabetes can be done through effective foot care interventions that include foot care knowledge and foot care practices. Conclusion Preventing these complications, understanding the risk factors, and having the ability to manage complications outside of the clinical encounter is an important part of a diabetes foot self-care management program. Interventions and research studies that aim to reduce lower extremity complications are still lacking. Further research is needed to test foot care interventions across multiple populations and geographic locations. PMID:26899439
Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.
Van Parys, A.S.; Verstraelen, H.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to review current scientific knowledge on the definition of and the indications for maternal/obstetric intensive care (MIC). Methods: We conducted a extensive search in OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL and CEBAM using the keywords: maternal/obstetric intensive care, subacute care, intermediate care, postacute care, critical care, sub intensive care, progressive patient care, postnatal care, perinatal care, obstetrical nurs...
Ana Cristina Castro-Avila; Pamela Serón; Eddy Fan; Mónica Gaete; Sharon Mickan
Background and Aim Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early re...
Claudia Vieira; Anayda Portela; Tina Miller; Ernestina Coast; Tiziana Leone; Cicely Marston
BACKGROUND: Improved access to skilled health personnel for childbirth is a priority strategy to improve maternal health. This study investigates interventions to achieve this where traditional birth attendants were providers of childbirth care and asks what has been done and what has worked? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically reviewed published and unpublished literature, searching 26 databases and contacting experts to find relevant studies. We included references from all time p...
Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques
Objective To analyze the outcomes of increased or decreased intracranial pressure and/or the decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from respiratory physiotherapy on critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Methods Through a systematic review of the literature, clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. The search involved the LILACS, SciELO, MedLine and PEDro databases using the keywords "physical therapy", "physiotherapy", "respiratory ther...
Low, Lee-Fay; Fletcher, Jennifer; Goodenough, Belinda; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; MacAndrew, Margaret; Beattie, Elizabeth
Background We systematically reviewed interventions that attempted to change staff practice to improve long-term care resident outcomes. Methods Studies met criteria if they used a control group, included 6 or more nursing home units and quantitatively assessed staff behavior or resident outcomes. Intervention components were coded as including education material, training, audit and feedback, monitoring, champions, team meetings, policy or procedures and organizational restructure. Results S...
Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah
Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers. PMID:26417920
Bradford Natalie; Armfield Nigel R; Young Jeanine; Smith Anthony C
Abstract Background Over the last decade technology has rapidly changed the ability to provide home telehealth services. At the same time, pediatric palliative care has developed as a small, but distinct speciality. Understanding the experiences of providing home telehealth services in pediatric palliative care is therefore important. Methods A literature review was undertaken to identify and critically appraise published work relevant to the area. Studies were identified by searching the ele...
Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip
Objectives To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary–secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Setting International primary–secondary care interface. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary–secondary care interface from the patients’ perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and ‘relationships and personal value’. Conclusions and implications of key findings Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. Trial registration number
de Graaff Fuusje M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands. The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are
Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo
This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of yoga therapy using an evidence-based approach and investigates the relationship between yoga and the meridian energies based on all available clinical studies in Korea. Sixteen electronic databases will be searched from the inception of the study until January 2016. All clinical evidences that evaluate any type of yoga and any type of control in individuals with any type of condition will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for nonrandomized studies. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and the risk of bias, and then they will extract the data. With its extensive, unbiased search of the Korean literature from various databases without any language restrictions, this systematic review will be useful for both practitioners in the field of yoga research as well as for patients. PMID:27555227
Garcia Quiroga, Manuela; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine
Background: A large number of children are currently living in Alternative Care. The relationship they establish with their temporary caregivers can play a significant role in their development. However, little has been published regarding attachment with temporary Caregivers. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the existing published…
Conclusion: Developing master's education for nurses may improve the current standard of health care and help meet modern challenges. This topic deserves additional attention at the academic and policy level. This review provides an important reference for Chinese nursing educators and policy makers.
Fonteyn, E.M.R.; Keus, S.H.J.; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Schols, L.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de
Many patients with cerebellar ataxia have serious disabilities in daily life, while pharmacological treatment options are absent. Therefore, allied health care is considered to be important in the management of these patients. The goal of this review is to evaluate scientific evidence for allied hea
Webster, David; Celik, Ozkan
In this paper we present a review of the most current avenues of research into Kinect-based elderly care and stroke rehabilitation systems to provide an overview of the state of the art, limitations, and issues of concern as well as suggestions for future work in this direction. The central purpose of this review was to collect all relevant study information into one place in order to support and guide current research as well as inform researchers planning to embark on similar studies or applications. The paper is structured into three main sections, each one presenting a review of the literature for a specific topic. Elderly Care section is comprised of two subsections: Fall detection and Fall risk reduction. Stroke Rehabilitation section contains studies grouped under Evaluation of Kinect's spatial accuracy, and Kinect-based rehabilitation methods. The third section, Serious and exercise games, contains studies that are indirectly related to the first two sections and present a complete system for elderly care or stroke rehabilitation in a Kinect-based game format. Each of the three main sections conclude with a discussion of limitations of Kinect in its respective applications. The paper concludes with overall remarks regarding use of Kinect in elderly care and stroke rehabilitation applications and suggestions for future work. A concise summary with significant findings and subject demographics (when applicable) of each study included in the review is also provided in table format.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade technology has rapidly changed the ability to provide home telehealth services. At the same time, pediatric palliative care has developed as a small, but distinct speciality. Understanding the experiences of providing home telehealth services in pediatric palliative care is therefore important. Methods A literature review was undertaken to identify and critically appraise published work relevant to the area. Studies were identified by searching the electronic databases Medline, CINAHL and Google Scholar. The reference list of each paper was also inspected to identify any further studies. Results There were 33 studies that met the inclusion criteria of which only six were pediatric focussed. Outcome measures included effects on quality of life and anxiety, substitution of home visits, economic factors, barriers, feasibility, acceptability, satisfaction and readiness for telehealth. While studies generally identified benefits of using home telehealth in palliative care, the utilisation of home telehealth programs was limited by numerous challenges. Conclusion Research in this area is challenging; ethical issues and logistical factors such as recruitment and attrition because of patient death make determining effectiveness of telehealth interventions difficult. Future research in home telehealth for the pediatric palliative care population should focus on the factors that influence acceptance of telehealth applications, including goals of care, access to alternative modes of care, perceived need for care, and comfort with using technology.
Mapp, Fiona; Hutchinson, Jane; Estcourt, Claudia
HIV shared care is uncommon in the UK although shared care could be a beneficial model of care. We review the literature on HIV shared care to determine current practice and clinical, economic and patient satisfaction outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, NICE Evidence, Cochrane collaboration, Google and websites of the British HIV Association, Aidsmap, Public Health England, World Health Organization and Terrence Higgins Trust using relevant search terms in August 2014. Studies published after 2000, from healthcare settings comparable to the UK that described links between primary care and specialised HIV services were included and compared using principles of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme and Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance frameworks. Three of the nine included models reported clinical or patient satisfaction outcomes but data collection and analyses were inadequate. None reported economic outcomes although some provided financial costings. Facilitators of shared care included robust clinical protocols, training and timely communication. Few published examples of HIV shared care exist and quality of evidence is poor. There is no consistent association with improved clinical outcomes, cost effectiveness or acceptability. Models are context specific, driven by local need, although some generalisable features could inform novel service delivery. Further evaluative research is needed to determine optimal components of shared HIV care. PMID:25804421
Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L
Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knaﬂ's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research.
Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L
Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knaﬂ's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research. PMID:25979797
Simkiss, D E; Stallard, N; Thorogood, M
Children who enter public care are among the most vulnerable in society. In addition to services for their medical needs, a focus on identifying and intervening with families in need where children are at high risk of entering public care is a public health priority. This paper aims to identify the characteristics of children, their parents or their social circumstances which are associated with children entering public care. The databases searched were CSA Illumina, British Education Index, ChildData, CINAHL, Excerpta Medica, MEDLINE, the Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, NHS Evidence, Social Care Online and TRIP; from start dates to 7 February 2011. A total of 6417 titles were reviewed. After review, 10 papers with cohort or case-control methodologies met the inclusion criteria and the included papers were appraised using questions from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme to guide the critique of case-control and cohort studies. A narrative synthesis is used to describe the research identified. Socio-economic status, maternal age at birth, health risk factors and other factors including learning difficulties, membership of an ethnic minority group and single parenthood are described as risk factors associated with children entering public care. Health risk factors have been explored using databases developed for other purposes such as health insurance or hospital discharge. A number of risk factors for children entering public care are identified from the literature, some were culturally specific and may not generalize. The interaction between different risk factors needs testing in longitudinal data sets. PMID:23210455
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in health care utilization vary with respect to the extent and direction of differences in use. Therefore, our study aimed to provide a systematic overview of the existing research on differences in primary care utilization between immigrant groups and the majority population. Methods For this review PubMed, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sociofile, Web of Science and Current Contents were consulted. Study selection and quality assessment was performed using a predefined protocol by 2 reviewers independently of each other. Only original, quantitative, peer-reviewed papers were taken into account. To account for this hierarchical structure, logistic multilevel analyses were performed to examine the extent to which differences are found across countries and immigrant groups. Differences in primary care use were related to study characteristics, strength of the primary care system and methodological quality. Results A total of 37 studies from 7 countries met all inclusion criteria. Remarkably, studies performed within the US more often reported a significant lower use among immigrant groups as compared to the majority population than the other countries. As studies scored higher on methodological quality, the likelihood of reporting significant differences increased. Adjustment for health status and use of culture-/language-adjusted procedures during the data collection were negatively related to reporting significant differences in the studies. Conclusion Our review underlined the need for careful design in studies of differences in health care use between immigrant groups and the majority population. The results from studies concerning differences between immigrant and the majority population in primary health care use performed within the US might be interpreted as a reflection of a weaker primary care system in the US compared to Europe and Canada.
Adrian S Wagg
Full Text Available Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care.To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care.Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems.A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures.This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and
Catharina J van Oostveen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitals are constantly being challenged to provide high-quality care despite ageing populations, diminishing resources, and budgetary restraints. While the costs of care depend on the patients' needs, it is not clear which patient characteristics are associated with the demand for care and inherent costs. The aim of this study was to ascertain which patient-related characteristics or models can predict the need for medical and nursing care in general hospital settings. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Business Source Premier and CINAHL. Pre-defined eligibility criteria were used to detect studies that explored patient characteristics and health status parameters associated to the use of hospital care services for hospitalized patients. Two reviewers independently assessed study relevance, quality with the STROBE instrument, and performed data analysis. RESULTS: From 2,168 potentially relevant articles, 17 met our eligibility criteria. These showed a large variety of factors associated with the use of hospital care services; models were found in only three studies. Age, gender, medical and nursing diagnoses, severity of illness, patient acuity, comorbidity, and complications were the characteristics found the most. Patient acuity and medical and nursing diagnoses were the most influencing characteristics. Models including medical or nursing diagnoses and patient acuity explain the variance in the use of hospital care services for at least 56.2%, and up to 78.7% when organizational factors were added. CONCLUSIONS: A larger variety of factors were found to be associated with the use of hospital care services. Models that explain the extent to which hospital care services are used should contain patient characteristics, including patient acuity, medical or nursing diagnoses, and organizational and staffing characteristics, e.g., hospital size, organization of care, and the size and skill mix of staff. This would
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of inadequate cancer patient care have given rise to various interventions to support cancer care pathways which, overall, seem poorly studied. Case management (CM is one method that may support a cost-effective, high-quality patient-centred treatment and care. The purpose of this article was to summarise intervention characteristics, outcomes of interest, results, and validity components of the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining CM as a method for optimizing cancer care pathways. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for RCTs published all years up to August 2008. Identified papers were included if they passed the following standards. Inclusion criteria: 1 The intervention should meet the criteria for CM which includes multidisciplinary collaboration, care co-ordination, and it should include in-person meetings between patient and the case manager aimed at supporting, informing and educating the patient. 2 The intervention should focus on cancer patient care. 3 The intervention should aim to improve subjective or objective quality outcomes, and effects should be reported in the paper. Exclusion criteria: Studies centred on cancer screening or palliative cancer care. Data extraction was conducted in order to obtain a descriptive overview of intervention characteristics, outcomes of interest and findings. Elements of CONSORT guidelines and checklists were used to assess aspects of study validity. Results The searches identified 654 unique papers, of which 25 were retrieved for scrutiny. Seven papers were finally included. Intervention characteristics, outcomes studied, findings and methodological aspects were all very diverse. Conclusion Due to the scarcity of papers included (seven, significant heterogeneity in target group, intervention setting, outcomes measured and methodologies applied, no conclusions
Maria Panagioti; Jonathan Stokes; Aneez Esmail; Peter Coventry; Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi; Rahul Alam; Peter Bower
Background Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent and represents a major challenge in primary care. Patients with multimorbidity are potentially more likely to experience safety incidents due to the complexity of their needs and frequency of their interactions with health services. However, rigorous syntheses of the link between patient safety incidents and multimorbidity are not available. This review examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient safety incidents in primary ...
Molema, Claudia C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C Wanda; Pujik, Lisanne;
Introduction: A substantial amount of the western population is inactive according to current physical activity guidelines, which is an important risk factor for chronic conditions and mortality. Financial incentives may encourage people to become more active. The objective of this review...... was to provide insight in the effectiveness of financial incentives used for promoting physical activity in the healthcare setting. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in three databases: Medline, EMBASE and SciSearch. In total, 1395 papers published up until April 2015 were identified. Eleven...... of them were screened on in- and exclusion criteria based on the full-text publication. Results: Three studies were included in the review. Two studies have combined a financial incentive with nutrition classes or motivational interviewing. One of which provided a free membership to a sports facility...
Servel, A-C; Rideau Batista Novais, A
The quality of the environment is an essential point in the care of preterm newborns. The design of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (open-bay, single-patient room, single-family room) directly affects both the preterm newborns and their caregivers (parents, healthcare staff). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of single-family rooms on the preterm newborn, its parents, and the staff. Single-family rooms improve outcome for the preterm newborn, with increasing parental involvement and better control of the environment (fewer inappropriate stimulations such as high levels of noise and illumination). This kind of NICU design also improves parental and staff satisfaction.
Full Text Available Andrew F Long,1 Alison Brettle2 1Health Systems Research, School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Salford, Salford, UK Abstract: In recent years, health care practitioners and researchers have become increasingly interested in finding ways to help persons with long-standing health problems cope and live their everyday lives. This article presents the findings of the first systematic review of empirical research on the self-care strategies that persons with one such condition, Ménière’s disease (MD, find helpful. It aims to provide evidence-informed guidance to persons with MD on self-help/self-care approaches they might pursue. Searches were undertaken on three databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, locating 239 potentially relevant references relating to MD or symptoms associated with the condition. Following a screening and critical appraisal process undertaken by the authors, eight papers were included in the review and were judged to be of high or good quality. The papers were synthesized in a narrative form, with individual papers summarized in evidence tables. No single self-help/self-care strategy or coping mechanism was evident. The review found evidence of the potential of a diverse range of helpful self-care approaches, including a cognitive behavioral therapy–self-help intervention, changes in lifestyle, developing and adopting positive approaches and/or avoidance of precipitating factors, and complementary and alternative medicine. The key message, for persons with MD and their caring health practitioners, is to become aware of the multiplicity of potential strategies and to try with support from others to "find what works, why and how" for themselves in their own psycho-socio-cultural lifeworld. More research is needed to examine people’s search for self-care strategies and obtain insight into how and why these work for them, drawing on notions of
Anne Lise Holm
Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to report a synthesis of older persons’ perceptions of health, ill health, and their community health care needs. The review questions were what characterizes older persons’ perceptions of health and ill health? and what are their community health care needs? Ten studies were identified in a systematic search for relevant qualitative papers published between January 2000 and January 2013 in the following electronic databases: PubMed, EBSCOhost/Academic Search Premier, and CINAHL. Publications were evaluated for quality, and a thematic analysis was performed. Two main themes were interpreted on a higher level: reconciliation with how life has become: and desire to regain their identity and sense of self-worth despite disability. Two themes emerged: creating meaning led to the experience of being valued in health care and society and a mental struggle to regain independence with the help of caregivers. Of special interest is the finding of perceptions related to the fear of becoming dependent on caregivers as well as the sorrow and pain caused by encountering caregivers who did not understand their desire to create meaning in their lives or their struggle for autonomy and independency.
Blackburn, Steven; Brownsell, Simon; Hawley, Mark S
We conducted a systematic review of the applications and technical features of digital interactive television (DITV) in the health and social care fields. The Web of Knowledge and IEEE Xplore databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and March 2010 which related to DITV systems facilitating the communication of information to/from an individual's home with either a health or social care application. Out of 1679 articles retrieved, 42 met the inclusion criteria and were selected for review. An additional 20 articles were obtained from online grey literature sources. Twenty-five DITV systems operating in health and social care were identified, including seven commercial systems. The most common applications were related to health care, such as vital signs monitoring (68% of systems) and health information or advice (56% of systems). The most common technical features of DITV systems were two-way communication (88%), medical peripherals (68%), on-screen messaging (48%) and video communication (36%). Digital interactive television has the potential to deliver health and social care to people in their own homes. However, the requirement for a high-bandwidth communications infrastructure, the usability of the systems, their level of personalisation and the lack of evidence regarding clinical and cost-effectiveness will all need to be addressed if this approach is to flourish.
Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli
Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941
Ana Cristina Castro-Avila
Full Text Available Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data.5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72. There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness.Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to
Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E
Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings.
Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer;
reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential....... The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses....
Graves, Patricia; Gordon, Susan
Background Lymphedema is a debilitating and disfiguring sequela of an overwhelmed lymphatic system. The most common causes of secondary lymphedema are lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne, parasitic disease endemic in 73 tropical countries, and treatment for cancer in developed countries. Lymphedema is incurable and requires life-long care so identification of effective lymphedema management is imperative to improve quality of life, reduce the burden on family resources and benefit the local community. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence for effective lymphedema self-care strategies that might be applicable to management of all types of secondary lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were conducted in Medline, CINAHL and Scopus databases in March 2015. Included studies reported before and after measures of lymphedema status or frequency of acute infections. The methodological quality was assessed using the appropriate Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. Descriptive synthesis and meta-analysis were used to evaluate effectiveness of the outcomes reported. Twenty-eight papers were included; two RCTs were found to have strong methodology, and overall 57% of studies were rated as methodologically weak. Evidence from filariasis-related lymphedema (FR-LE) studies indicated that hygiene-centred self-care reduced the frequency and duration of acute episodes by 54%, and in cancer-related lymphedema (CR-LE) home-based exercise including deep breathing delivered significant volume reductions over standard self-care alone. Intensity of training in self-care practices and frequency of monitoring improved outcomes. Cultural and economic factors and access to health care services influenced the type of intervention delivered and how outcomes were measured. Conclusions/Significance There is evidence to support the adoption of remedial exercises in the management of FR-LE and for a greater emphasis on self-treatment practices for people
Full Text Available Lymphedema is a debilitating and disfiguring sequela of an overwhelmed lymphatic system. The most common causes of secondary lymphedema are lymphatic filariasis (LF, a vector-borne, parasitic disease endemic in 73 tropical countries, and treatment for cancer in developed countries. Lymphedema is incurable and requires life-long care so identification of effective lymphedema management is imperative to improve quality of life, reduce the burden on family resources and benefit the local community. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence for effective lymphedema self-care strategies that might be applicable to management of all types of secondary lymphedema.Searches were conducted in Medline, CINAHL and Scopus databases in March 2015. Included studies reported before and after measures of lymphedema status or frequency of acute infections. The methodological quality was assessed using the appropriate Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. Descriptive synthesis and meta-analysis were used to evaluate effectiveness of the outcomes reported. Twenty-eight papers were included; two RCTs were found to have strong methodology, and overall 57% of studies were rated as methodologically weak. Evidence from filariasis-related lymphedema (FR-LE studies indicated that hygiene-centred self-care reduced the frequency and duration of acute episodes by 54%, and in cancer-related lymphedema (CR-LE home-based exercise including deep breathing delivered significant volume reductions over standard self-care alone. Intensity of training in self-care practices and frequency of monitoring improved outcomes. Cultural and economic factors and access to health care services influenced the type of intervention delivered and how outcomes were measured.There is evidence to support the adoption of remedial exercises in the management of FR-LE and for a greater emphasis on self-treatment practices for people with CR-LE. Empowerment of people with lymphedema to
Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–3 Lawrence Mbuagbaw,2 Daisy Kosa,2,4 Victoria Borg Debono,2,5 Rejane Dillenburg,6 Shiyuan Zhang2, Vincent Fruci,7 Brittany Dennis,2 Monica Bawor,8 Lehana Thabane2,5,91Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, 3Population Genomics Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, 4Department of Nephrology, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, 5Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, 6Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, 7Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, 8McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study (MiNDS Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, 9Centre for Evaluation of Medicines, Hamilton, ON, CanadaBackground: Reporting guidelines have been available for the past 17 years since the inception of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement in 1996. These guidelines were developed to improve the quality of reporting of studies in medical literature. Despite the widespread availability of these guidelines, the quality of reporting of medical literature remained suboptimal. In this study, we assess the current adherence practice to reporting guidelines; determine key factors associated with better adherence to these guidelines; and provide recommendations to enhance adherence to reporting guidelines for future studies.Methods: We undertook a systematic scoping review of systematic reviews of adherence to reporting guidelines across different clinical areas and study designs. We searched four electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline from January 1996 to September 2012. Studies were included if they addressed adherence to one of the following guidelines: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic
Elit, L.; Kennedy, E.B.; Fyles, A.; Metser, U.
Background In 2009, the Program in Evidence-based Care (pebc) of Cancer Care Ontario published a guideline on the follow-up of cervical cancer. In 2014, the pebc undertook an update of the systematic review and clinical practice guideline for women in this target population. Methods The literature from 2007 to August 2014 was searched using medline and embase [extended to 2000 for studies of human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing]. Outcomes of interest were measures of survival, diagnostic accuracy, and quality of life. A working group evaluated the need for changes to the earlier guidelines and incorporated comments and feedback from internal and external reviewers. Results One systematic review and six individual studies were included. The working group concluded that the new evidence did not warrant changes to the 2009 recommendations, although hpv dna testing was added as a potentially more sensitive method of detecting recurrence in patients treated with radiotherapy. Comments from internal and external reviewers were incorporated. Recommendations Summary Follow-up care after primary treatment should be conducted and coordinated by a physician experienced in the surveillance of cancer patients. A reasonable follow-up strategy involves visits every 3–4 months within the first 2 years, and every 6–12 months during years 3–5. Visits should include a patient history and complete physical examination, with elicitation of relevant symptoms. Vaginal vault cytology examination should not be performed more frequently than annually. Combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography, other imaging, and biomarker evaluation are not advocated; hpv dna testing could be useful as a method of detection of recurrence after radiotherapy. General recommendations for follow-up after 5 years are also provided. PMID:27122975
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This systematic review was performed to summarise randomised clinical trials (RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of ginseng in the Korean literature. METHOD: The study involved systematic searches conducted in eight Korean Medical databases. The methodological quality of all of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included all RCTs on any type of ginseng compared to placebo, active treatment or no treatment in healthy individuals or patients regardless of conditions. RESULTS: In total, 1415 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 30 randomised clinical trials were included. Nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng on exercise capacity, cognitive performance, somatic symptoms, quality of life, and sleeping in healthy persons. Six RCTs tested ginseng compared with placebo for erectile dysfunction, while another four studies evaluated the effects of ginseng against no treatment for gastric and colon cancer. Two RCTs compared the effect of red ginseng on diabetes mellitus with no treatment or placebo, and the other nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng compared with placebo or no treatment on various conditions. The methodological caveats of the included trials make their contribution to the current clinical evidence of ginseng somewhat limited. However, the 20 newly added trials (66.7% of the 30 trials may provide useful information for future trials. Ginseng appears to be generally safe, and no serious adverse effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of ginseng have been tested in a wide range of conditions in Korea. Although the quality of RCTs published in the Korean literature was generally poor, this review is useful for researchers to access studies that were originally published in languages that they would otherwise be unable to read and due to the paucity of evidence on this subject.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of knowledge management has been prevalent in the business sector for decades. Only recently has knowledge management been receiving attention by the health care sector, in part due to the ever growing amount of information that health care practitioners must handle. It has become essential to develop a way to manage the information coming in to and going out of a health care organization. The purpose of this paper was to summarize previous studies from the business literature that explored specific knowledge management tools, with the aim of extracting lessons that could be applied in the health domain. Methods We searched seven databases using keywords such as "knowledge management", "organizational knowledge", and "business performance". We included articles published between 2000-2009; we excluded non-English articles. Results 83 articles were reviewed and data were extracted to: (1 uncover reasons for initiating knowledge management strategies, (2 identify potential knowledge management strategies/solutions, and (3 describe facilitators and barriers to knowledge management. Conclusions KM strategies include such things as training sessions, communication technologies, process mapping and communities of practice. Common facilitators and barriers to implementing these strategies are discussed in the business literature, but rigorous studies about the effectiveness of such initiatives are lacking. The health care sector is at a pinnacle place, with incredible opportunities to design, implement (and evaluate knowledge management systems. While more research needs to be done on how best to do this in healthcare, the lessons learned from the business sector can provide a foundation on which to build.
David O Riordan
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid, Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America. Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of
Riordan, David O; Walsh, Kieran A; Galvin, Rose; Sinnott, Carol; Kearney, Patricia M; Byrne, Stephen
Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid), Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America). Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of patients. PMID
Full Text Available An ageing population with multimorbidity is putting pressure on health systems. A popular method of managing this pressure is identification of patients in primary care 'at-risk' of hospitalisation, and delivering case management to improve outcomes and avoid admissions. However, the effectiveness of this model has not been subjected to rigorous quantitative synthesis.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of case management for 'at-risk' patients in primary care. Six bibliographic databases were searched using terms for 'case management', 'primary care', and a methodology filter (Cochrane EPOC group. Effectiveness compared to usual care was measured across a number of relevant outcomes: Health--self-assessed health status, mortality; Cost--total cost of care, healthcare utilisation (primary and non-specialist care and secondary care separately, and; Satisfaction--patient satisfaction. We conducted secondary subgroup analyses to assess whether effectiveness was moderated by the particular model of case management, context, and study design. A total of 15,327 titles and abstracts were screened, 36 unique studies were included. Meta-analyses showed no significant differences in total cost, mortality, utilisation of primary or secondary care. A very small significant effect favouring case management was found for self-reported health status in the short-term (0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.14. A small significant effect favouring case management was found for patient satisfaction in the short- (0.26, 0.16 to 0.36 and long-term (0.35, 0.04 to 0.66. Secondary subgroup analyses suggested the effectiveness of case management may be increased when delivered by a multidisciplinary team, when a social worker was involved, and when delivered in a setting rated as low in initial 'strength' of primary care.This was the first meta-analytic review which examined the effects of case management on a wide range of outcomes and
Al-Janabi, Hareth; Currow, David; Hoefman, Renske; Ratcliffe, Julie
Introduction Despite informal caregivers' integral role in supporting people affected by disease or disability, economic evaluations often ignore the costs and benefits experienced by this group, especially in the palliative setting. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify preference-based instruments for measuring care-related outcomes and provide guidance on the selection of instrument in palliative care economic evaluations. Methods and analysis A comprehensive search of the literature will be conducted from database inception (ASSIA; CINAHL; Cochrane library including DARE, NHS EED, HTA; Econlit; Embase; PsychINFO; PubMed). Published peer-reviewed, English-language articles reporting preference-based instruments for measuring care-related outcomes in any clinical area will be included. One researcher will complete the searches and screen the results for potentially eligible studies. A randomly selected subset of 10% citations will be independently screened by two researchers. Any disagreement will be resolved by consensus among the research team. Subsequently, a supplementary search will identify studies detailing the development, valuation, validation and application of the identified instruments. The degree of suitability of the instruments for palliative economic evaluations will be assessed using criteria in the International Society for Quality of Life Research minimum standards for patient-reported outcome measures, the checklist for reporting valuation studies of multiattribute utility-based instruments and information on the development of the instrument in the palliative setting. A narrative summary of the included studies and instruments will be provided; similarities and differences will be described and possible reasons for variations explored. Recommendations for practice on selection of instruments in palliative care economic analyses will be provided. Ethics and dissemination This is a planned systematic review of published
Zingg, Walter; Holmes, Alison; Dettenkofer, Markus; Goetting, Tim; Secci, Federica; Clack, Lauren; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Magiorakos, Anna-Pelagia; Pittet, Didier
Despite control efforts, the burden of health-care-associated infections in Europe is high and leads to around 37,000 deaths each year. We did a systematic review to identify crucial elements for the organisation of effective infection-prevention programmes in hospitals and key components for implementation of monitoring. 92 studies published from 1996 to 2012 were assessed and ten key components identified: organisation of infection control at the hospital level; bed occupancy, staffing, workload, and employment of pool or agency nurses; availability of and ease of access to materials and equipment and optimum ergonomics; appropriate use of guidelines; education and training; auditing; surveillance and feedback; multimodal and multidisciplinary prevention programmes that include behavioural change; engagement of champions; and positive organisational culture. These components comprise manageable and widely applicable ways to reduce health-care-associated infections and improve patients' safety.
Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Jensen, Martin Bach; Riis, Allan;
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim is to identify, summarise and quality assess the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of implementing low back pain guidelines in primary care. The secondary aim is to assess the transferability of the results to determine whether the identified studies can be...... included in a comparison with a Danish implementation study to establish which strategy procures most value for money. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: The search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Scopus, CINAHL and EconLit. No restrictions were...... comparing implementation strategies, (2) the guideline must concern treatment of low back pain in primary care and (3) the economic evaluation should contain primary data on cost and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The title and abstract were assessed for 308 studies; of these, three studies were found...
Golder, Su; Wright, Kath
Background We performed a systematic review to assess whether we can quantify the underreporting of adverse events (AEs) in the published medical literature documenting the results of clinical trials as compared with other nonpublished sources, and whether we can measure the impact this underreporting has on systematic reviews of adverse events. Methods and Findings Studies were identified from 15 databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) and by handsearching, reference checking, internet searches, and contacting experts. The last database searches were conducted in July 2016. There were 28 methodological evaluations that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 9 studies compared the proportion of trials reporting adverse events by publication status. The median percentage of published documents with adverse events information was 46% compared to 95% in the corresponding unpublished documents. There was a similar pattern with unmatched studies, for which 43% of published studies contained adverse events information compared to 83% of unpublished studies. A total of 11 studies compared the numbers of adverse events in matched published and unpublished documents. The percentage of adverse events that would have been missed had each analysis relied only on the published versions varied between 43% and 100%, with a median of 64%. Within these 11 studies, 24 comparisons of named adverse events such as death, suicide, or respiratory adverse events were undertaken. In 18 of the 24 comparisons, the number of named adverse events was higher in unpublished than published documents. Additionally, 2 other studies demonstrated that there are substantially more types of adverse events reported in matched unpublished than published documents. There were 20 meta-analyses that reported the odds ratios (ORs) and/or risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events with and without unpublished data. Inclusion of unpublished data increased the precision of the pooled estimates (narrower 95
Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y
Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) are often used in managing cancer related symptoms but their effectiveness and safety is controversial. We conducted this overview of meta-analyses to summarize evidence on CHM for cancer palliative care. We included systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses of CHM clinical trials on patients diagnosed with any type of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was assessed with the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Instrument. Fifty-one SRs with meta-analyses were included. They covered patients with lung (20 SRs), gastric (8 SRs), colorectal (6 SRs), liver (6 SRs), breast (2 SRs), cervical (1 SR), esophageal (1 SR), and nasopharyngeal (1 SR) cancers. Six SRs summarized evidence on various types of cancer. Methodological quality of included meta-analyses was not satisfactory. Overall, favorable therapeutic effects in improving quality of life among cancer patients have been reported. Conflicting evidence exists for the effectiveness of CHM in prolonging survival and in reducing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy related toxicities. No serious adverse effects were reported in all included studies. Evidence indicated that CHM could be considered as an option for improving quality of life among patients receiving palliative care. It is unclear if CHM may increase survival, or reduce therapy related toxicities.
Ng, K H; Peh, W C
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to combine the best available scientific evidence with clinical experience and individual judgment of patient needs. In the hierarchy of scientific evidence, systematic reviews (along with meta-analyses) occupy the highest levels in terms of the quality of evidence. A systematic review is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or topic. It is currently considered the best, least biased and most rational way to organise, gather, evaluate and integrate scientific evidence from the rapidly-changing medical and healthcare literature. Systematic reviews could be used to present current concepts or serve as review articles and replace the traditional expert opinion or narrative review. This article explains the structure and content of a systematic review.
MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek
Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but
Ko Henry CH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is a fundamental component of good quality health care. Checklists have been proposed as a method of improving patient safety. This systematic review, asked "In acute hospital settings, would the use of safety checklists applied by medical care teams, compared to not using checklists, improve patient safety?" Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials published in English before September 2009. Studies were selected and appraised by two reviewers independently in consultation with colleagues, using inclusion, exclusion and appraisal criteria established a priori. Results Nine cohort studies with historical controls studies from four hospital care settings were included-intensive care unit, emergency department, surgery, and acute care. The studies used a variety of designs of safety checklists, and implemented them in different ways, however most incorporated an educational component to teach the staff how to use the checklist. The studies assessed outcomes occurring a few weeks to a maximum of 12 months post-implementation, and these outcomes were diverse. The studies were generally of low to moderate quality and of low levels of evidence, with all but one of the studies containing a high risk of bias. The results of these studies suggest some improvements in patient safety arising from use of safety checklists, but these were not consistent across all studies or for all outcomes. Some studies showed no difference in outcomes between checklist use and standard care without a checklist. Due to the variations in setting, checklist design, educational training given, and outcomes measured, it was unfeasible to accurately summarise any trends across all studies. Conclusions The included studies suggest some benefits of using safety checklists to improve protocol adherence and patient safety, but due to the risk of bias in these studies, their results
Small, R.; Roth, C.; Raval, M.; Shafiei, T.; Korfker, D.; Heaman, M.; McCourt, C.; Gagnon, A.
Background Understanding immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care is critical if receiving country care systems are to respond appropriately to increasing global migration. This systematic review aimed to compare what we know about immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity
Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.
Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosi
McCarter, Kristen; Martínez, Úrsula; Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda; Bonevski, Billie; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison; Wratten, Chris; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Halpin, Sean A
Objective To examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in improving cessation rates and smoking related behaviour in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched the following data sources: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2016. A search of reference lists of included studies and Google Scholar (first 200 citations published online between 2000 and February 2016) was also undertaken. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). 2 study authors independently screened and extracted data with disagreements resolved via consensus. Results Of the 5167 studies identified, 3 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of included studies were 2 randomised controlled trials and 1 non-randomised controlled trial. 2 studies received a weak methodological rating and 1 received a moderate methodological rating. The trials examine the impact of the following interventions: (1) nurse delivered cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) via telephone and accompanied by a workbook, combined with pharmacotherapy; (2) nurse and physician brief advice to quit and information booklets combined with pharmacotherapy; and (3) surgeon delivered enhanced advice to quit smoking augmented by booster sessions. Only the trial of the nurse delivered CBT and pharmacotherapy reported significant increases in smoking cessation rates. 1 study measured quit attempts and the other assessed consumption of cigarettes per day and readiness to change. There was no significant improvement in quit attempts or cigarettes smoked per day among patients in the intervention groups, relative to control. Conclusions There are very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions that report results specific to the HNC
Smith, Toby O; Purdy, Rachel; Latham, Sarah K; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Mulley, Graham; Conaghan, Philip G
The aim was to systematically review the literature describing the prevalence, impact and current management of musculoskeletal pain in older people living in care homes. Published literature (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, UK National Research Register Archive) were searched on 1 March 2015. All studies assessing the prevalence, impact and management of musculoskeletal disorders in older people living in care homes were included. Literature was appraised using the CASP cohort and qualitative critical appraisal tools. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical approaches, meta-analysis and meta-ethnography techniques. Twenty-four papers reporting the results of 263,775 care home residents in 12 countries were identified. The evidence base was moderate in quality. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain for people in care homes was 30.2 % (95 % confidence intervals 29.9-30.5 %; n = 105,463). Care home residents reported that musculoskeletal pain had a significant impact on their perceived independence and overall ability to participate in everyday activities of daily living. Three papers which presented data on interventions demonstrated that whilst multi-component assessment and management packages did not significantly change clinical outcomes, these empowered care home staff to feel more confident in managing these patients. Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem in care homes worldwide, and residents report significant impact on their lives. However, there is uncertainty regarding how to assess and manage such pain. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42014009824.
Tam, Ka-Wai; Lai, Jun-Hung; Chen, Hung-Chou; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Ko, Wang-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ling; Huang, Tsai-Wei
Standard skin care procedures for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes and peristomal skin care for colostomy and ileostomy patients are not always sufficient to prevent peristomal skin problems. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare the effectiveness of standard peristomal skin care to adjunctive techniques or barriers (including glycogel dressings, gelatin- and pectin-based skin barriers, glycerin hydrogel wound dressing, Acacia senegal fiber pockets, hydrocolloid powder crusting, and German chamomile) to manage or treat patients with a stoma. Using systematic literature search techniques, all healthcare databases were searched up through September 2014. No language restrictions were applied. Studies were included if they met criteria for published RCTs or quasi-RCTs that evaluated the outcome of standardized peristomal skin care and other adjunctive techniques or barriers used among patients with a stoma or PEG tube. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate a pooled effect size by using random-effect models for the primary (skin irritation/reaction) and secondary (length of pouch wear time) outcomes. Six RCTs comprising 418 total patients were identified. Four evaluated the outcome of colostomy or ileostomy peristomal skin care, and no significant differences were detected in the incidence of skin problems (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.31-1.41). In the two studies that included length of pouch wear time, no significant differences were observed (RR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.03-7.97). No significant differences were seen in the rate of skin irritations of gastrostomy patients (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.20-1.59), but the difference in treatment outcomes of peristomal damage in patients with a colostomy was significant (P = 0.01). The limited number of studies, study quality, heterogeneity of variability in peristomal care strategies and techniques, clinical factors, and nonuniform reporting of clinical parameters
Sauser, Kori; Burke, James F; Reeves, Mathew J; Barsan, William G; Levine, Deborah A
Acute stroke is an important focus of quality improvement efforts. There are many organizations involved in quality measurement for acute stroke, and a complex landscape of quality measures exists. Our objective is to describe and evaluate existing US quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the emergency department (ED) setting. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify the existing quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke. We then convened a panel of experts to appraise how well the measures satisfy the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria for performance measure development (strength of the underlying evidence, clinical importance, magnitude of the relationship between performance and outcome, and cost-effectiveness). We identified 7 quality measures relevant to the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke that fall into 4 main categories: brain imaging, thrombolytic administration, dysphagia screening, and mortality. Three of the 7 measures met all 4 of the ACC/AHA evaluation criteria: brain imaging within 24 hours, thrombolytic therapy within 3 hours of symptom onset, and thrombolytic therapy within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. Measures not satisfying all evaluation criteria were brain imaging report within 45 minutes, consideration for thrombolytic therapy, dysphagia screening, and mortality rate. There remains room for improvement in the development and use of measures that reflect high-quality emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.
Lau, Charlotte H Y; Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Liu, Xin; Hui, Edwin P; Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Wong, Samuel Y S; Lau, Alexander Y L; Sit, Regina S T; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wu, Justin C Y
Available systematic reviews showed uncertainty on the effectiveness of using acupuncture and related therapies for palliative cancer care. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize current best evidence on acupuncture and related therapies for palliative cancer care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture and related therapies with conventional or sham treatments were considered. Primary outcomes included fatigue, paresthesia and dysesthesias, chronic pain, anorexia, insomnia, limb edema, constipation, and health-related quality of life, of which effective conventional interventions are limited. Thirteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional interventions, meta-analysis demonstrated that acupuncture and related therapies significantly reduced pain (2 studies, n = 175, pooled weighted mean difference: -0.76, 95% confidence interval: -0.14 to -0.39) among patients with liver or gastric cancer. Combined use of acupuncture and related therapies and Chinese herbal medicine improved quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal cancer (2 studies, n = 111, pooled standard mean difference: 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-1.13). Acupressure showed significant efficacy in reducing fatigue in lung cancer patients when compared with sham acupressure. Adverse events for acupuncture and related therapies were infrequent and mild. Acupuncture and related therapies are effective in reducing pain, fatigue, and in improving quality of life when compared with conventional intervention alone among cancer patients. Limitations on current evidence body imply that they should be used as a complement, rather than an alternative, to conventional care. Effectiveness of acupuncture and related therapies for managing anorexia, reducing constipation, paresthesia and dysesthesia, insomnia, and limb edema in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting future RCTs in
A. Brédart; J.L. Kop; F. Efficace; A. Beaudeau; T. Brito; S. Dolbeault; N. Aaronson
Background: Cancer care is increasingly provided in the outpatient setting, requiring specific monitoring of care quality. The patients' perspective is an important indicator of care quality and needs to be assessed with well designed, psychometrically sound questionnaires. We performed a systematic
English, Shane W; Turgeon, Alexis F; Owen, Elliott; Doucette, Steve; Pagliarello, Giuseppe; McIntyre, Lauralyn
To examine clinical trials and observational studies that compared use of management protocols (MPs) versus usual care for adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on 6-month neurologic outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) and mortality, major electronic databases were searched from 1950 to April 18, 2011. Abstracts from major international meetings were searched to identify gray literature. A total of 6,151 articles were identified; 488 were reviewed in full and 13 studies were included. Data on patient and MP characteristics, outcomes and methodological quality were extracted. All 13 included studies were observational. A random effects model showed that use of MPs was associated with a favorable neurologic outcome (GOS 4 or 5) at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] and 95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.84 (2.47-5.96)) but not 12 months (OR, 95 % CI 0.87 (0.56-1.36)). Use of MPs was associated with reduced mortality at hospital discharge and 6 months (OR and 95 % CI 0.72 (0.45-1.14) and 0.33 (0.13-0.82) respectively), but not 12 months (OR, 95 % CI 0.79 (0.5-1.24)). Sources of heterogeneity included variation in study design, methodological quality, MP design, MP neurophysiologic endpoints, and type of ICU. MPs for severe TBI were associated with reductions in death and improved neurologic outcome. Although no definitive conclusions about the efficacy of MPs for severe TBI can be drawn from our study, these results should encourage the conduct of randomized controlled trials to more rigorously examine the efficacy of MPs for severe TBI.
Annis, Ann M; Harris, Marcelline; Robinson, Claire H; Krein, Sarah L
Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) evaluations have primarily focused on primary care providers and not on the primary care team. This systematic literature review examined the extent to which access and care coordination measures in PCMH reflect the involvement of associate care providers (ACPs), which include registered and licensed practical nurses, nursing and medical assistants, clerks, pharmacists, social workers, and dietitians. Among 42 studies, few measures specified ACP roles or linked ACP care to outcomes. Increasing attention on team-based care emphasizes a vital need to reframe measures within a team context. PMID:27219827
Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK, USA and the World Health Organization have identified improved patient safety in healthcare as a priority. Medication error has been identified as one of the most frequent forms of medical error and is associated with significant medical harm. Errors are the result of the systems that produce them. In industrial settings, a range of systematic techniques have been designed to reduce error and waste. The first stage of these processes is to map out the whole system and its reliability at each stage. However, to date, studies of medication error and solutions have concentrated on individual parts of the whole system. In this paper we wished to conduct a systematic review of the literature, in order to map out the medication system with its associated errors and failures in quality, to assess the strength of the evidence and to use approaches from quality management to identify ways in which the system could be made safer. Methods We mapped out the medicines management system in primary care in the UK. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to refine our map of the system and to establish the quality of the research and reliability of the system. Results The map demonstrated that the proportion of errors in the management system for medicines in primary care is very high. Several stages of the process had error rates of 50% or more: repeat prescribing reviews, interface prescribing and communication and patient adherence. When including the efficacy of the medicine in the system, the available evidence suggested that only between 4% and 21% of patients achieved the optimum benefit from their medication. Whilst there were some limitations in the evidence base, including the error rate measurement and the sampling strategies employed, there was sufficient information to indicate the ways in which the system could be improved, using management approaches. The first step to improving the overall quality would
Shrewsbury, V A; Baur, L A; Nguyen, B; Steinbeck, K S
Transition in pediatric health care involves the purposeful, planned movement of patients from pediatric to adult services. Following the significant increases in long-term survival of chronic childhood diseases in the 1980s, transition has taken on an increasing importance in the management of these chronic diseases. In Australia, there is a conspicuous lack of programs/guidelines for transitioning adolescents with obesity. The authors sought to determine if this is an international phenomenon that should be addressed. This study aimed to identify what formal transition services or guidelines exist internationally for adolescents with overweight/obesity. Two systematic reviews of the published and 'gray' literature were implemented via searches of relevant databases, search engines and websites. The primary review eligibility criteria were documents published between 1982 and 2012 including any aspect of transitioning adolescents with overweight/obesity from pediatric to adult weight management services. The secondary review included current clinical practice guidelines/statements on pediatric obesity management published between 1992 and 2012, and transition recommendations contained within. Non-English language documents were excluded. Relevant text from eligible documents was systematically identified and extracted, and a qualitative synthesis of the data was prepared. Overall, 2272 unique records were identified from the literature searches. Three eligible articles were identified by the primary review. The secondary review identified 24 eligible guidelines/statements. In total, six of the identified documents contained information on transition in adolescent obesity-the most detailed documents provided only a brief statement recommending that transition from pediatric to adult weight management services should take place. In conclusion, internationally there is an absence of published intervention programs/policies, and brevity of clinical guidance and expert
Systematic reviews are useful to keep abreast of the literature by summarizing large bodies of evidence. By conducting systematic reviews, we can learn how to apply scientific strategies, in ways that limit bias, to the assembly, critical appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies that address a specific question. This systematic review is found to be useful in understanding a concept by careful reviews of several studies and assist to get the confident of the findings. This study re...
Bemelmans, Roger; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Jonker, Pieter; de Witte, Luc
The ongoing development of robotics against the background of a decreasing number of care personnel raises the question which contribution robotics could have to rationalize and maintain, or even improve the quality of care.
Evans, R.W.; Stone, D.; Elwyn, G.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care services have developed mostly in urban areas. Rural areas typically are characterized by the lack of well-organized services, with primary care professionals, specifically GPs and community nurses, having to undertake most of the palliative care. Little is known, however
Edwards, Rachel; Charani, Esmita; Sevdalis, Nick; Alexandrou, Banos; Sibley, Eleanor; Mullett, David; Loveday, Heather P; Drumright, Lydia N; Holmes, Alison
Changes in the behaviour of health-care workers (HCWs) are required to improve adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines. Despite heavy investment in strategies to change behaviour, effectiveness has not been adequately assessed. We did a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to change IPC behaviour and assessed exploratory literature for barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change. 21 studies published from 1999 to 2011 met our inclusion criteria: seven intervention studies and 14 exploratory studies. Of the intervention studies none explicitly incorporated psychological theory and only two contained elements of social marketing in the design, although five addressed sustainability. All elicited behaviour change, reduction in infection risk, or both. The exploratory studies identified social and cultural factors that affect the IPC behaviour of HCWs. To improve the standard of research and broaden the evidence base, we recommend that quality criteria are added to existing systematic review guidelines to enable the inclusion of qualitative research and to ensure robust design, implementation, and reporting of interventions. PMID:22342325
Beattie, Michelle; Lauder, William; Atherton, Iain; Murphy, Douglas J.
Background Improving and sustaining the quality of care in hospitals is an intractable and persistent challenge. The patients’ experience of the quality of hospital care can provide insightful feedback to enable clinical teams to direct quality improvement efforts in areas where they are most needed. Yet, patient experience is often marginalised in favour of aspects of care that are easier to quantify (for example, waiting time). Attempts to measure patient experience have been hindered by a ...
Sibbald Shannon; Hastie Robyn; Hovanec Nina; Kothari Anita
Abstract Background The concept of knowledge management has been prevalent in the business sector for decades. Only recently has knowledge management been receiving attention by the health care sector, in part due to the ever growing amount of information that health care practitioners must handle. It has become essential to develop a way to manage the information coming in to and going out of a health care organization. The purpose of this paper was to summarize previous studies from the bus...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical evidence demonstrates that informal patient payments are an important feature of many health care systems. However, the study of these payments is a challenging task because of their potentially illegal and sensitive nature. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review and analysis of key methodological difficulties in measuring informal patient payments. Methods The systematic review was based on the following eligibility criteria: English language publications that reported on empirical studies measuring informal patient payments. There were no limitations with regard to the year of publication. The content of the publications was analysed qualitatively and the results were organised in the form of tables. Data sources were Econlit, Econpapers, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX. Results Informal payments for health care services are most often investigated in studies involving patients or the general public, but providers and officials are also sample units in some studies. The majority of the studies apply a single mode of data collection that involves either face-to-face interviews or group discussions. One of the main methodological difficulties reported in the publication concerns the inability of some respondents to distinguish between official and unofficial payments. Another complication is associated with the refusal of some respondents to answer questions on informal patient payments. We do not exclude the possibility that we have missed studies that reported in non-English language journals as well as very recent studies that are not yet published. Conclusions Given the recent evidence from research on survey methods, a self-administrated questionnaire during a face-to-face interview could be a suitable mode of collecting sensitive data, such as data on informal patient payments.
Sarah L. Cooper
Conclusion: Factors associated with burnout in health care aides are similar to those reported among nurses, although the level of evidence and low methodological rigor of these studies suggest more robust study designs are warranted. Our findings suggest research focused on this important but largely invisible group of care providers could yield important advances in understanding burnout in this group and yield potential interventions to buffer burnout and its consequences. Without mitigating the effects of burnout on nursing home health care aides, vulnerable older adults in residential care are at risk.
Full Text Available We systematically reviewed interventions that attempted to change staff practice to improve long-term care resident outcomes.Studies met criteria if they used a control group, included 6 or more nursing home units and quantitatively assessed staff behavior or resident outcomes. Intervention components were coded as including education material, training, audit and feedback, monitoring, champions, team meetings, policy or procedures and organizational restructure.Sixty-three unique studies were broadly grouped according to clinical domain-oral health (3 studies, hygiene and infection control (3 studies, nutrition (2 studies, nursing home acquired pneumonia (2 studies, depression (2 studies appropriate prescribing (7 studies, reduction of physical restraints (3 studies, management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (6 studies, falls reduction and prevention (11 studies, quality improvement (9 studies, philosophy of care (10 studies and other (5 studies. No single intervention component, combination of, or increased number of components was associated with greater likelihood of positive outcomes. Studies with positive outcomes for residents also tended to change staff behavior, however changing staff behavior did not necessarily improve resident outcomes. Studies targeting specific care tasks (e.g. oral care, physical restraints were more likely to produce positive outcomes than those requiring global practice changes (e.g. care philosophy. Studies using intervention theories were more likely to be successful. Program logic was rarely articulated, so it was often unclear whether there was a coherent connection between the intervention components and measured outcomes. Many studies reported barriers relating to staff (e.g. turnover, high workload, attitudes or organizational factors (e.g. funding, resources, logistics.Changing staff practice in nursing homes is possible but complex. Interventionists should consider barriers and
Kane, P M; Murtagh, F E M; Ryan, K; Mahon, N G; McAdam, B; McQuillan, R; Ellis-Smith, C; Tracey, C; Howley, C; Raleigh, C; O'Gara, G; Higginson, I J; Daveson, B A
Patient-centred care (PCC) is recommended in policy documents for chronic heart failure (CHF) service provision, yet it lacks an agreed definition. A systematic review was conducted to identify PCC interventions in CHF and to describe the PCC domains and outcomes. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the Cochrane database, clinicaltrials.gov, key journals and citations were searched for original studies on patients with CHF staged II-IV using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Included interventions actively supported patients to play informed, active roles in decision-making about their goals of care. Search terms included 'patient-centred care', 'quality of life' and 'shared decision making'. Of 13,944 screened citations, 15 articles regarding 10 studies were included involving 2540 CHF patients. Three studies were randomised controlled trials, and seven were non-randomised studies. PCC interventions focused on collaborative goal setting between patients and healthcare professionals regarding immediate clinical choices and future care. Core domains included healthcare professional-patient collaboration, identification of patient preferences, patient-identified goals and patient motivation. While the strength of evidence is poor, PCC has been shown to reduce symptom burden, improve health-related quality of life, reduce readmission rates and enhance patient engagement for patients with CHF. There is a small but growing body of evidence, which demonstrates the benefits of a PCC approach to care for CHF patients. Research is needed to identify the key components of effective PCC interventions before being able to deliver on policy recommendations. PMID:26435042
Weening-Verbree, L.; Huisman-de Waal, G.; van Dusseldorp, L.; van Achterberg, T.; Schoonhoven, L.
Objectives: Oral hygiene is necessary to maintain oral health and quality of life. However, the oral hygiene and the oral health care of older people in long term care facilities are poor. This indicates that care is not in compliance with the available guidelines and protocols, and stresses the imp
Wassenaar, A.; Schouten, J.A.; Schoonhoven, L.
BACKGROUND: Feeling safe in the intensive care unit is of great importance while recovering from critical illness. Moreover, feeling unsafe can result in distress. In order to meet the safety needs of intensive care patients as well as to stimulate their recovery and prevent distress, nurses must be
Martinez-Gonzalez, N.A.; Djalali, S.; Tandjung, R.; Huber-Geismann, F.; Markun, S.; Wensing, M.; Rosemann, T.
BACKGROUND: In many countries, substitution of physicians by nurses has become common due to the shortage of physicians and the need for high-quality, affordable care, especially for chronic and multi-morbid patients. We examined the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and care costs of physician
Busetto, L.; Luijkx, K.G.; Elissen, A.M.J.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
Background: Integrated care interventions for chronic conditions can lead to improved outcomes, but it is not clear when and why this is the case. This study aims to answer the following two research questions: First, what are the context, mechanisms and outcomes of integrated care for people with t
Dancet, E.A.; Apers, S.; Kremer, J.A.; Nelen, W.L.; Sermeus, W.; D'Hooghe, T.M.
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a prevalent condition compromising physical and psychosocial health and thus requiring patient-centered care, which is guided by patients' values. This study aimed to find out what the patient's perspective on endometriosis care is and how the patient-centeredness of end
Turner, William; Macdonald, Geraldine
Objective: To assess the impact of treatment foster care (TFC) on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status for children and adolescents who, for reasons of severe medical, social, psychological and behavioural problems, were placed in out-of-home care in restrictive settings or at risk of…
Full Text Available Advance Care Plans (ACPs enable patients to discuss and negotiate their preferences for the future including treatment options at the end of life. Their implementation poses significant challenges.To investigate barriers and facilitators to the implementation of ACPs, focusing on their workability and integration in clinical practice.An explanatory systematic review of qualitative implementation studies.Empirical studies that reported interventions designed to support ACP in healthcare. Web of Knowledge, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index and PubMed databases were searched.Direct content analysis, using Normalization Process Theory, to identify and characterise relevant components of implementation processes.13 papers identified from 166 abstracts were included in the review. Key factors facilitating implementation were: specially prepared staff utilizing a structured approach to interactions around ACPs. Barriers to implementation were competing demands of other work, the emotional and interactional nature of patient-professional interactions around ACPs, problems in sharing decisions and preferences within and between healthcare organizations.This review demonstrates that doing more of the things that facilitate delivery of ACPs will not reduce the effects of those things that undermine them. Structured tools are only likely to be partially effective and the creation of a specialist cadre of ACP facilitators is unlikely to be a sustainable solution. The findings underscore both the challenge and need to find ways to routinely incorporate ACPs in clinical settings where multiple and competing demands impact on practice. Interventions most likely to meet with success are those that make elements of Advance Care Planning workable within complex and time pressured clinical workflows.
Lund, Susi; Richardson, Alison; May, Carl
Context Advance Care Plans (ACPs) enable patients to discuss and negotiate their preferences for the future including treatment options at the end of life. Their implementation poses significant challenges. Objective To investigate barriers and facilitators to the implementation of ACPs, focusing on their workability and integration in clinical practice. Design An explanatory systematic review of qualitative implementation studies. Data sources Empirical studies that reported interventions designed to support ACP in healthcare. Web of Knowledge, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index and PubMed databases were searched. Methods Direct content analysis, using Normalization Process Theory, to identify and characterise relevant components of implementation processes. Results 13 papers identified from 166 abstracts were included in the review. Key factors facilitating implementation were: specially prepared staff utilizing a structured approach to interactions around ACPs. Barriers to implementation were competing demands of other work, the emotional and interactional nature of patient-professional interactions around ACPs, problems in sharing decisions and preferences within and between healthcare organizations. Conclusions This review demonstrates that doing more of the things that facilitate delivery of ACPs will not reduce the effects of those things that undermine them. Structured tools are only likely to be partially effective and the creation of a specialist cadre of ACP facilitators is unlikely to be a sustainable solution. The findings underscore both the challenge and need to find ways to routinely incorporate ACPs in clinical settings where multiple and competing demands impact on practice. Interventions most likely to meet with success are those that make elements of Advance Care Planning workable within complex and time pressured clinical workflows. PMID:25679395
Hunt, D L; Haynes, R B
A systematic review is a carefully planned and conducted study designed to answer a specific focused clinical question. A systematic review differs from the frequently encountered narrative review article. Systematic review must be completed using a prespecified methodology. The reader must ask eight important questions when reading a systematic review: (i) did the review address a focused clinical question (ii) is it likely that important, relevant studies are missed (iii) were the inclusion criteria used to select appropriate articles (iv) was the validity of the included studies assessed (v) were the assessments of studies reproducible (vi) were the results similar from study to study (vii) what were the overall results and how precise are they and (viii) will the results help in caring for patients. The article also provides sources for systematic reviews.
Neill, Sarah; Roland, Damian; Jones, Caroline HD; Thompson, Matthew; Lakhanpaul, Monica
Objective To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. Methods 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal T...
Neill, S; Roland, D; Jones, C.H.; Thompson, M.; Lakhanpaul, M; ASK SNIFF study group
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. METHODS: 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW. Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian Medical Index, Google Scholar, Community of Science and four targeted journals (Patient Education and Counseling, Health Education and Behaviour, American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Study inclusion criteria: Adults over 18 years; undertaken in a primary care setting within an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD country; interventions with at least one measure of health literacy and promoting positive change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or weight; measure at least one outcome associated with health literacy and report a SNAPW outcome; and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, cohort, observational and controlled and non-controlled before and after studies. Papers were assessed and screened by two researchers (JT, AW and uncertain or excluded studies were reviewed by a third researcher (MH. Data were extracted from the included studies by two researchers (JT, AW. Effectiveness studies were quality assessed. A typology of interventions was thematically derived from the studies by grouping the SNAPW interventions into six broad categories: individual motivational interviewing and counseling; group education; multiple interventions (combination of interventions; written materials; telephone coaching or counseling; and computer or web based interventions. Interventions were classified by intensity of contact with the subjects (High ≥ 8 points of contact
Conclusions: PPM is a promising strategy to strengthen global TB care and control, but is affected by contextual characteristics in different areas. The scaling-up of PPM should contain essential commonalities, particularly substantial financial support and continuous material input. Additionally, it is important to improve program governance and training for the health providers involved, through integrated collaborative mechanisms.
Ettema, E.J.; Derksen, L.D.; Leeuwen, E. van
Patients with a life-threatening illness can be confronted with various types of loneliness, one of which is existential loneliness (EL). Since the experience of EL is extremely disruptive, the issue of EL is relevant for the practice of end-of-life care. Still, the literature on EL has generated li
Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida
Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…
Gouweloos, J.; Dückers, M.; Brake, H. te; Kleber, R.; Dorgendijk, A.
Disasters are associated with a substantial psychosocial burden for affected individuals (including first responders) and communities. Knowledge about how to address these risks and problems is valuable for societies worldwide. Decades of research into post-disaster psychosocial care has resulted in
Gouweloos, Juul; Dückers, M.; Te Brake, Hans; Kleber, Rolf; Drogendijk, A.N.
Disasters are associated with a substantial psychosocial burden for affected individuals (including first responders) and communities. Knowledge about how to address these risks and problems is valuable for societies worldwide. Decades of research into post-disaster psychosocial care has resulted in
B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. Vijverberg (Dominique)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outco
Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.; Steijn, A.J.; Vijverberg, D.
Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. Purposes: We conducted a
Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Ende, C.H.M. van den
The objective of this study is to provide a critical overview of available instruments to assess impairments in patients with rheumatic disorders, and to recommend reliable and valid instruments for use in allied health care and rehabilitation medicine. A computer-aided literature search (1982–2004)
Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Ende, van den C.H.M.
The objective of this study is to provide a critical overview of available instruments to assess impairments in patients with rheumatic disorders, and to recommend reliable and valid instruments for use in allied health care and rehabilitation medicine. A computer-aided literature search (1982-2004)
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Do, Mai; Micah, Angela; Brondi, Luciana; Campbell, Harry; Marchant, Tanya; Eisele, Thomas; Munos, Melinda
Background Currently many measures of intervention coverage obtained from household surveys do not measure actual health intervention/service delivery, resulting in a need for linking reports of care–seeking with assessments of the service environment in order to improve measurements. This systematic review aims to identify evidence of different methods used to link household surveys and service provision assessments, with a focus on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care, in low– and middle–income countries. Methods Using pre–defined search terms, articles published in peer–reviewed journals and the grey literature after 1990 were identified, their reference lists scanned and linking methods synthesized. Findings A total of 59 articles and conference presentations were carefully reviewed and categorized into two groups based on the linking method used: 1) indirect/ecological linking that included studies in which health care–seeking behavior was linked to all or the nearest facilities or providers of certain types within a geographical area, and 2) direct linking/exact matching where individuals were linked with the exact provider or facility where they sought care. The former approach was employed in 51 of 59 included studies, and was particularly common among studies that were based on independent sources of household and facility data that were nationally representative. Only eight of the 59 reviewed studies employed direct linking methods, which were typically done at the sub–national level (eg, district level) and often in rural areas, where the number of providers was more limited compared to urban areas. Conclusions Different linking methods have been reported in the literature, each category has its own set of advantages and limitations, in terms of both methodology and practicality for scale–up. Future studies that link household and provider/facility data should also take into account factors such as sources of data, the
Reviewing the literature is a scientific inquiry that needs a clear design to preclude bias. It is a real enterprise if one aims at completeness of the literature on a certain subject. Going through refereed English language journals is not enough. On line databases are helpful, but mainly as a starting point. This article gives examples of systematic reviews on vitamin C and the common cold, pyridoxine against the premenstrual syndrome, homeopathy, and physiotherapy. PMID:7950526
Janet Douglass; Patricia Graves; Susan Gordon
Background Lymphedema is a debilitating and disfiguring sequela of an overwhelmed lymphatic system. The most common causes of secondary lymphedema are lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne, parasitic disease endemic in 73 tropical countries, and treatment for cancer in developed countries. Lymphedema is incurable and requires life-long care so identification of effective lymphedema management is imperative to improve quality of life, reduce the burden on family resources and benefit the l...
Janet Douglass; Patricia Graves; Susan Gordon
Lymphedema is a debilitating and disfiguring sequela of an overwhelmed lymphatic system. The most common causes of secondary lymphedema are lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne, parasitic disease endemic in 73 tropical countries, and treatment for cancer in developed countries. Lymphedema is incurable and requires life-long care so identification of effective lymphedema management is imperative to improve quality of life, reduce the burden on family resources and benefit the local commun...
Gouweloos, J.; Dückers, M.; Brake, H. te; Kleber, R; Dorgendijk, A.
Disasters are associated with a substantial psychosocial burden for affected individuals (including first responders) and communities. Knowledge about how to address these risks and problems is valuable for societies worldwide. Decades of research into post-disaster psychosocial care has resulted in various recommendations and general guidelines. However, as CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) events form a distinctive theme in emergency planning and disaster preparedness, it i...
Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van
Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a
Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is being encouraged to implement multiprofessional, system level, chronic illness management approaches to depression. We undertook this study to identify and assess the quality of RCTs testing system level depression management interventions in primary care and to determine whether these interventions improve recovery. Method Searches of Medline and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials. 'System level' interventions included: multi-professional approach, enhanced inter-professional communication, scheduled patient follow-up, structured management plan. Results 11 trials met all inclusion criteria. 10 were undertaken in the USA. Most focussed on antidepressant compliance. Quality of reporting assessed using CONSORT criteria was poor. Eight trials reported an increase in the proportion of patients recovered in favour of the intervention group, yet did not account for attrition rates ranging from 5 to 50%. Conclusion System level interventions implemented in the USA with patients willing to take anti-depressant medication leads to a modest increase in recovery from depression. The relevance of these interventions to countries with strong primary care systems requires testing in a randomised controlled trial.
Moore, Theresa H M; King, Anna J L; Evans, Maggie A; Sharp, Debbie J; Persad, Rajendra A; Huntley, Alyson L.
Men with prostate cancer are likely to have a long illness and experience psychological distress for which supportive care may be helpful. This systematic review describes the evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of supportive care for men with prostate cancer, taking into account treatment pathway and components of interventions. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Psychinfo were searched from inception––July 2013 for randomized controlled trials and controlled trials. Two aut...
van Mol, Margo M. C.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Benoit, Dominique D.; Bakker, Jan; Nijkamp, Marjan D.
Background Working in the stressful environment of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an emotionally charged challenge that might affect the emotional stability of medical staff. The quality of care for ICU patients and their relatives might be threatened through long-term absenteeism or a brain and skill drain if the healthcare professionals leave their jobs prematurely in order to preserve their own health. Purpose The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature related to emotional distress among healthcare professionals in the ICU, with an emphasis on the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue and the available preventive strategies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted, using Embase, Medline OvidSP, Cinahl, Web-of-science, PsychINFO, PubMed publisher, Cochrane and Google Scholar for articles published between 1992 and June, 2014. Studies reporting the prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals were included, as well as related intervention studies. Results Forty of the 1623 identified publications, which included 14,770 respondents, met the selection criteria. Two studies reported the prevalence of compassion fatigue as 7.3% and 40%; five studies described the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress ranging from 0% to 38.5%. The reported prevalence of burnout in the ICU varied from 0% to 70.1%. A wide range of intervention strategies emerged from the recent literature search, such as different intensivist work schedules, educational programs on coping with emotional distress, improving communication skills, and relaxation methods. Conclusions The true prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals remains open for discussion. A thorough exploration of emotional distress in relation to communication skills, ethical rounds, and mindfulness might provide an appropriate starting
Rape is a heinous crime in modern society. Rape has existed throughout the history of mankind yet it remains a taboo topic that even health care workers are uncomfortable to discuss. Estimates state that up to a third of all women will experience unwanted sexual contact in their lifetimes, with many of these encounters involving violence. Studies have shown that rape takes a heavy toll on its victims’ mental, physical and spiritual health. The cost of rape to society is enormous in terms of...
Jody R. Thomas; Clark, Alexander M
To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995–2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of ...
Irfan, Furqan B; Irfan, Bismah B; Spiegel, David A
Inadequate access to surgical services results in increased morbidity and mortality from a spectrum of conditions in Pakistan. We employed a modification of Andersen's model of health services utilization and developed a 'Healthcare Barrier Model,' to characterize the barriers to accessing health care in developing countries, using surgical care in Pakistan as a case study. We performed a literature search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Global Health Database, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and selected 64 of 3113 references for analysis. Patient-related variables included age (elderly), gender (female), preferential use of alternative health providers (Hakeem, traditional healers, others), personal perceptions regarding disease and potential for treatment, poverty, personal expenses for healthcare, lack of social support, geographic constraints to accessing a health facility, and compromised general health status as it relates to the development of surgical disease. Environmental barriers include deficiencies in governance, the burden of displaced or refugee populations, and aspects of the medicolegal system, which impact treatment and referral. Barriers relating to the health system include deficiencies in capacity (infrastructure, physical resources, human resources) and organization, and inadequate monitoring. Provider-related barriers include deficiencies in knowledge and skills (and ongoing educational opportunities), delays in referral, deficient communication, and deficient numbers of female health providers for female patients. The Healthcare Barrier model addresses this broad spectrum of barriers and is designed to help formulate a framework of healthcare barriers. To overcome these barriers will require a multidisciplinary, multisectoral effort aimed at strengthening the health system. PMID:22079839
Kumar, Senthil P
Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ suppo...
Hutton, Brian; Salanti, Georgia; Caldwell, Deborah M;
The PRISMA statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve the completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have used this guideline worldwide to prepare their reviews for publication. In the past, these reports typically compared 2 treatment alternatives. Wit...
Katharina F Mueller
Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before
Quinn, Alistair D; Dixon, Dorian; Meenan, Brian J
Recent advances in areas such as biomarker discovery and microfluidic device fabrication have allowed clinical testing to be moved ever closer to the site of patient care. The development of a range of point-of-care testing (POCT) devices that seek to provide the clinician with diagnostic test results more rapidly offer the opportunity to enhance the quality of care for the individual patient and the population at large. However, there are indications that, notwithstanding advances in the technologies that underpin the utility of POCT, their clinical uptake and utilization is less than might be expected. Moreover, the nature and relative importance of the barriers identified as being impediments to their more widespread adoption are not well understood. This article reports the findings from a systematic narrative review of published literature sources over the period 2000 to January 2014 to identify and categorize the various barriers to adoption of POCT devices within the clinical environment. Data from a total of six electronic bibliographic databases were accessed and these searches were supplemented by scrutinizing the reference lists within the key articles identified. A set of 49 key articles were assessed in detail and from these four specific categories of barrier to adoption of POCT were identified. Identification and categorization of these barriers, along with an assessment of their significance to clinical practice, is seen as necessary for developing real solutions to ensure appropriate and effective POCT uptake. The most prevalent categories were those associated with the economics of adoption and quality assurance and regulatory issues, each which were reflected in 65% of the literature articles reviewed. Device performance and data management issues were cited in 51% of the publications. Staff and operational issues were found within 35% of articles. The most significant barriers identified concerned higher cost per test of POCT in comparison to
James Tosin Akinlua
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major health risk factor for mortality globally, resulting in about 13% of deaths worldwide. In Nigeria, the high burden of hypertension remains an issue for urgent attention. The control of hypertension, among other factors, is strongly determined by personal beliefs about the illness and recommended treatment.The aim of this review is to systematically synthesize available data from all types of studies on beliefs of the Nigerian populace about hypertension.We searched the following electronic databases; Medline, EMBase, PsycInfo, AMED from their inception till date for all relevant articles. A modified Kleinman's explanatory model for hypertension was used as a framework for extraction of data on beliefs about hypertension.The search yielded a total of 3,794 hits from which 16 relevant studies (2 qualitative, 11 quantitative and 3 mixed methods studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Overall, most health care providers (HCPs believe that stress is a major cause of hypertension. Furthermore, reported cut-off point for uncomplicated hypertension differed widely among HCPs. Lay Health Care Providers such as Patent Medicine Vendors' beliefs about hypertension seem to be relatively similar to health care professionals in areas of risk factors for hypertension, course of hypertension and methods of treatment. Among Lay persons, misconception about hypertension was quite high. Although some Nigerians believed that life style habits such as alcohol intake, exercise levels, cigarette smoking were risk factors for developing hypertension, there was discordance between belief and practice of control of risk factors. However, beliefs across numerous ethnic groups and settings (urban/rural in Nigeria have not been explored.In order to achieve control of hypertension in Nigeria, interventions should be informed, among other factors, by adequate knowledge of beliefs regarding hypertension across the numerous ethnic groups in
A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer
Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th
Völter-Mahlknecht, S; Rieger, M A
Principal goal of rehabilitation arrangements for patients in employable age are the preservation of the ability to work, the rehabilitation of employability and the prompt reintegration into the professional life respectively. In practice, the reintegration is achieving unsatisfactory results.The systematic literature research (acquisition period: 1998-2013) was conducted on the basis of defined search keywords in electronic databases, online archives, relevant German magazines (via manual search), and in bibliographies of selected publications. The definition of research results has taken place in consensus procedures on the tier of abstracts.Reasons for the unsatisfying reintegration quota are current temporary latencies and qualitative deficits of rehabilitation discharge reports, unsatisfying communication and cooperation between rehabilitation and company doctors, insufficient presence of company doctors, and trust issues between rehabilitant and company doctor among other things.The company doctors have an objective role as mediator based on their internal knowledge, competences and opportunities to influence, and they are awarded with a role as connecting piece on setting the course for rehabilitation.Since the currently available data are dissatisfactory concerning the medical interfaces in the rehabilitation process, despite the high thematically relevance, research activities should absolutely be intensified in this field of interest.
Cooke, B.; Ernst, E.
Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using...
Coyte Peter C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since being identified as a concept for understanding knowledge sharing, management, and creation, communities of practice (CoPs have become increasingly popular within the health sector. The CoP concept has been used in the business sector for over 20 years, but the use of CoPs in the health sector has been limited in comparison. Objectives First, we examined how CoPs were defined and used in these two sectors. Second, we evaluated the evidence of effectiveness on the health sector CoPs for improving the uptake of best practices and mentoring new practitioners. Methods We conducted a search of electronic databases in the business, health, and education sectors, and a hand search of key journals for primary studies on CoP groups. Our research synthesis for the first objective focused on three areas: the authors' interpretations of the CoP concept, the key characteristics of CoP groups, and the common elements of CoP groups. To examine the evidence on the effectiveness of CoPs in the health sector, we identified articles that evaluated CoPs for improving health professional performance, health care organizational performance, professional mentoring, and/or patient outcome; and used experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational designs. Results The structure of CoP groups varied greatly, ranging from voluntary informal networks to work-supported formal education sessions, and from apprentice training to multidisciplinary, multi-site project teams. Four characteristics were identified from CoP groups: social interaction among members, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, and identity building; however, these were not consistently present in all CoPs. There was also a lack of clarity in the responsibilities of CoP facilitators and how power dynamics should be handled within a CoP group. We did not find any paper in the health sector that met the eligibility criteria for the quantitative analysis, and so the effectiveness
Full Text Available Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care. However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%. Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%.Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the
Brennan, Sue E; Bosch, Marije; Buchan, Heather; Green, Sally E
Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instr...
Dubayova, Tatiana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Havlikova, Eva; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Middel, Berrie; Groothoff, Johan W.
This systematic review focuses on the role of the intensity of fear in patient's delay in cancer and in myocardial infarction. In a search of literature published between 1990 and June 2009, 161 articles were found. After the use of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles in cancer and 4 artic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the
Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Jensen, Martin Bach; Riis, Allan; Petersen, Karin Dam
Objective The primary aim is to identify, summarise and quality assess the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of implementing low back pain guidelines in primary care. The secondary aim is to assess the transferability of the results to determine whether the identified studies can be included in a comparison with a Danish implementation study to establish which strategy procures most value for money. Design Systematic review. Data sources The search was conducted in Embase, PubMed...
Langer Astrid; Rogowski Wolf
Abstract Background Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin for treating chronic wounds. Metho...
McPartland, John M.; Guy, Geoffrey W.; Vincenzo Di Marzo
BACKGROUND: The "classic" endocannabinoid (eCB) system includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the eCB ligands anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their metabolic enzymes. An emerging literature documents the "eCB deficiency syndrome" as an etiology in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, psychological disorders, and other conditions. We performed a systematic review of clinical interventions that enhance the eCB system--ways to upregulate cannabinoid ...
Gonçalves, J. P. B.; G. Lucchetti; Menezes, P. R.; Vallada, H.
Background. Despite the extensive literature assessing associations between religiosity/spirituality and health, few studies have investigated the clinical applicability of this evidence. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of religious/spiritual interventions (RSI) through randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Method. A systematic review was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration, Embase and SciELO. Through the use o...
Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes
Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-) const
Uitterhoeve, R.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Grol, R.P.; Demulder, P.H.M.; Achterberg, T. van
The objective of this review was to determine whether communication training for healthcare professionals (HCP), including nurses and medical doctors, in cancer care improves patient outcomes. Eligible studies with a focus on patient outcomes and a controlled or single group pretest–posttest design
Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.
Borgstein, Alexander Berend-Jan; Sondaal, Stephanie FV; Grobbee, Diederick E; Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Verwijs, Mirjam; Ansah, Evelyn K; Browne, Joyce L; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face the highest burden of maternal and neonatal deaths. Concurrently, they have the lowest number of physicians. Innovative methods such as the exchange of health-related information using mobile devices (mHealth) may support health care workers in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMICs. Objective We conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of mHealth interventions targeting health care workers to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMIC. Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Library, and Popline were searched using predetermined search and indexing terms. Quality assessment was performed using an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis was performed for each included paper. Results A total of 19 studies were included for this systematic review, 10 intervention and 9 descriptive studies. mHealth interventions were used as communication, data collection, or educational tool by health care providers primarily at the community level in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. Interventions were used to track pregnant women to improve antenatal and delivery care, as well as facilitate referrals. None of the studies directly assessed the effect of mHealth on maternal and neonatal mortality. Challenges of mHealth interventions to assist health care workers consisted mainly of technical problems, such as mobile network coverage, internet access, electricity access, and maintenance of mobile phones. Conclusions mHealth interventions targeting health care workers have the potential to improve maternal and neonatal health services in LMICs. However, there is a gap in the knowledge whether mHealth interventions directly affect maternal and neonatal outcomes and future research should employ experimental designs with relevant outcome measures to
Kogan, Alexis Coulourides; Wilber, Kathleen; Mosqueda, Laura
Person-centered care (PCC) shifts focus away from the traditional biomedical model in favor of embracing personal choice and autonomy for people receiving health services. It has become an important avenue for improving primary care, and older adults remain a priority target for PCC because they are more likely to have complex care needs than younger individuals. Nevertheless, despite a growing body of evidence regarding its use, PCC still lacks an agreed-upon definition. A literature review was conducted to explore extant scholarship on PCC for older adults, assess corresponding definitions of PCC, and identify important elements of quality PCC. Nearly 3,000 articles published between 1990 and 2014 were identified. Excluding search results outside the parameters of this study, the final review comprised 132 nonduplicate sources focused on patient-centered care or PCC in older adults. Fifteen descriptions of PCC were identified, addressing 17 central principles or values. The six most-prominent domains of PCC were holistic or whole-person care, respect and value, choice, dignity, self-determination, and purposeful living. The body of evidence reviewed suggests that PCC is an important area of growing interest. Although multiple definitions and elements of PCC abound-with many commonalities and some overlap-the field would benefit from a consensus definition and list of essential elements to clarify how to operationalize a PCC approach to health care and services for older adults. This work guided the development of a separate American Geriatrics Society expert panel statement presenting a standardized definition and a list of PCC elements for older adults with chronic conditions or functional impairment. PMID:26626408
Full Text Available Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Saravana Kumar1, Nic Vipond2, Gillian Hall21Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 2Accident Compensation Corporation, Wellington, New ZealandBackground: Early identification in primary care settings of individuals with, or at-risk of, developing persistent pain, is important to limit development of disability. There is little information to assist primary care providers to choose or deliver relevant, efficient, and soundly constructed assessment instruments for this purpose.Objective: We recently published the findings of a literature review, which produced a compendium of assessment instruments to identify adults with, or at-risk of developing, persistent pain of noncancer origin. This paper reports on instruments opportunistically identified during this review which may be appropriate to primary health care settings for early identification of such patients.Results: One hundred sixteen potentially useful instruments were initially identified in the review, measuring pain severity, psychological distress, functional capacity, quality of life or multidimensional constructs of persistent pain. Following a series of steps, 45 instruments were shortlisted, with sound clinical utility and strong psychometric properties. Of these, 16 instruments were appropriate to primary health care settings because of simple wording, brief items, short administration time, and ease of scoring.Conclusion: No one assessment instrument captured all constructs of persistent pain. The 16 instruments provide a broad choice for primary care clinicians to assist with early identification of adults at risk of, or with persistent pain.Keywords: adults with persistent pain, primary health care assessment, early identification
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. DATA SOURCES: Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. METHOD: The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. RESULTS: Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological
Middleton, K M Ross; Patidar, S M; Perri, M G
Behavioural weight management interventions consistently produce 8-10% reductions in body weight, yet most participants regain weight after treatment ends. One strategy for extending the effects of behavioural interventions has been the provision of extended care. The current study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the effect of extended care on maintenance of weight loss. Through database searches (using PubMED, PsychInfo and Cochrane Reviews) and manual searches through reference lists of related publications, 463 studies were identified. Of these, 11 were included in the meta-analysis and an additional two were retained for qualitative analysis. The average effect of extended care on weight loss maintenance was g=0.385 (95% confidence interval: 0.281, 0.489; Pmaintenance of an additional 3.2 kg weight loss over 17.6 months post-intervention in participants provided extended care compared with control. There was no significant heterogeneity between studies, Q=5.63, P=0.845, and there was minimal evidence for publication bias. These findings suggest that extended care is a viable and efficacious solution to addressing long-term maintenance of lost weight. Given the chronic disease nature of obesity, extended care may be necessary for long-term health benefits.
Jody R. Thomas
Full Text Available To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995–2010 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.
Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M
To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.
Riordan, David O; Walsh, Kieran A; Galvin, Rose; Sinnott, Carol; Kearney, Patricia M.; Byrne, Stephen
Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid), Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination data...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and timely access to effective and appropriate medication through primary care settings is a major concern for all countries addressing both acute and chronic disease burdens. Legislation for nurses and other professionals allied to medicine to prescribe exists in a minority of countries, with more considering introducing legislation. Although there is variation in the range of medicines permitted to be prescribed, questions remain as to the contribution prescribing by nurses and professionals allied to medicine makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation. Methods A integrative review of literature on non-medical prescribing in primary care was undertaken guided by dimensions of health care quality: effectiveness, acceptability, efficiency and access. Results 19 papers of 17 empirical studies were identified which provided evidence of patient outcome of non medical prescribing in primary care settings. The majority were undertaken in the UK with only one each from the USA, Canada, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Only two studies investigated clinical outcomes of non-medical prescribing. Seven papers reported on qualitative designs and four of these had fewer than ten participants. Most studies reported that non medical prescribing was widely accepted and viewed positively by patients and professionals. Conclusions Primary health care is the setting where timely access to safe and appropriate medicines is most critical for the well-being of any population. The gradual growth over time of legislative authority and in the numbers of non-medical prescribers, particularly nurses, in some countries suggests that the acceptability of non-medical prescribing is based on the perceived value to the health care system as a whole. Our review suggests that there are substantial gaps in the knowledge base to help evidence
Background Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006–2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006–2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement – using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. Conclusions All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in
Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa
The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is well documented in the mental health, medical, and education literature. There is minimal research on the use of mindfulness with social workers. As demonstrated in other professional and helping fields, mindfulness may enhance clinical skills, reduce burnout, and increase job satisfaction among social workers. In the health care field mindfulness appears integral to patient and family relationships and personal resilience. The evolving and expanding role of hospital social workers may lead to increased work stress and greater demands from both the medical system and patients and families. Research with medical providers, such as physicians and nurses, suggests mindfulness may help in reducing stress, enhancing relationships, and fostering the self-reflection required to provide patient-centered care. We systematically reviewed the existing literature to begin understanding both mindfulness qualities and practices and the effectiveness of MBIs among social workers as well as the relationship of mindfulness to patient-centered care. PMID:26745592
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.
Moran Neil F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rigid bronchoscopy is often an indispensable procedure in the therapeutic management of a wide variety of tracheobronchial disorders. However, it is performed at only a few centers in adult patients in India. Herein, we report our initial 1-year experience with this procedure. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study on the indications, outcomes, and safety of various rigid bronchoscopy procedures performed between November 2009 and October 2010. Improvement in dyspnea, cough, and the overall quality of life was recorded on a visual analog scale from 0 to 100 mm. A systematic review of PubMed was performed to identify studies reporting the use of rigid bronchoscopy from India. Results: Thirty-eight rigid bronchoscopies (50 procedures were performed in 19 patients during the study period. The commonest indication was benign tracheal stenosis followed by central airway tumor, and the procedures performed were rigid bronchoplasty, tumor debulking, and stent placement. The median procedure duration was 45 (range, 30-65 min. There was significant improvement in quality of life associated with therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy. Minor procedural complications were encountered in 18 bronchoscopies, and there was no procedural mortality. The systematic review identified 15 studies, all on the role of rigid bronchoscopy in foreign body removal. Conclusions: Rigid bronchoscopy is a safe and effective modality for treatment of a variety of tracheobronchial disorders. There is a dire need of rigid bronchoscopy training at teaching hospitals in India.
Grace W Mwai
Full Text Available Introduction: The provision of HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa faces multiple challenges, including weak health systems and attrition of trained health workers. One potential response to overcome these challenges has been to engage community health workers (CHWs. Methodology: A systematic literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies describing the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care between inception and December 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa was performed in the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science, JSTOR, WHOLIS, Google Scholar and SAGE journals online. Bibliographies of included articles were also searched. A narrative synthesis approach was used to analyze common emerging themes on the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Results: In total, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, documenting a range of tasks performed by CHWs. These included patient support (counselling, home-based care, education, adherence support and livelihood support and health service support (screening, referral and health service organization and surveillance. CHWs were reported to enhance the reach, uptake and quality of HIV services, as well as the dignity, quality of life and retention in care of people living with HIV. The presence of CHWs in clinics was reported to reduce waiting times, streamline patient flow and reduce the workload of health workers. Clinical outcomes appeared not to be compromised, with no differences in virologic failure and mortality comparing patients under community-based and those under facility-based care. Despite these benefits, CHWs faced challenges related to lack of recognition, remuneration and involvement in decision making. Conclusions: CHWs can clearly contribute to HIV services delivery and strengthen human resource capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. For their contribution to be sustained, CHWs need to be recognized, remunerated and integrated in wider
Full Text Available Background Innovators have piloted improvements in communication, changed patterns of practice and patient empowerment from online access to electronic health records (EHR. International studies of online services, such as prescription ordering, online appointment booking and secure communications with primary care, show good uptake of email consultations, accessing test results and booking appointments; when technologies and business process are in place. Online access and transactional services are due to be rolled out across England by 2015; this review seeks to explore the impact of online access to health records and other online services on the quality and safety of primary health care.Objective To assess the factors that may affect the provision of online patient access to their EHR and transactional services, and the impact of such access on the quality and safety of health care.Method Two reviewers independently searched 11 international databases during the period 1999–2012. A range of papers including descriptive studies using qualitative or quantitative methods, hypothesis-testing studies and systematic reviews were included. A detailed eligibility criterion will be used to shape study inclusion .A team of experts will review these papers for eligibility, extract data using a customised extraction form and use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE instrument to determine the quality of the evidence and the strengths of any recommendation. Data will then be descriptively summarised and thematically synthesised. Where feasible, we will perform a quantitative meta-analysis.Prospero (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews registration number: crd42012003091.
Barrio, Pablo; Gual, Antoni
Issues Patient-centered care (PCC) is increasingly accepted as an integral component of good health care, including addiction medicine. However, its implementation has been controversial in people with alcohol use disorders. Approach A systematic search strategy was devised to find completed randomized controlled trials enrolling adults (>18 years) with alcohol use disorders. Studies had to use a PCC approach such that they should have been individualized, respectful to the patients’ own goals, and empowering. Studies until September 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and Web of Knowledge. Key findings In total, 40 studies enrolling 16,020 patients met the inclusion criteria. Assessment revealed two main categories of study: psychosocial (n=35 based on motivational interviewing) and pharmacological (n=5 based on an as needed dosing regimen). Psychosocial interventions were further classified according to the presence or absence of an active comparator. When no active comparator was present, studies were classified according to the number of sessions (≥1). Results from single sessions of motivational interviewing showed no clear benefit on alcohol consumption outcomes, with few studies indicating benefit of PCC versus control. Although the results for studies of multiple sessions of counseling were also mixed, many did show a significant benefit of the PCC intervention. By contrast, studies consistently demonstrated a benefit of pharmacologically supported PCC interventions, with most of the differences reaching statistical significance. Implications PCC-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing alcohol consumption in people with alcohol use disorders. PMID:27695301
Full Text Available Health financing reforms in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs over the past decades have focused on achieving equity in financing of health care delivery through universal health coverage. Benefit and financing incidence analyses are two analytical methods for comprehensively evaluating how well health systems perform on these objectives. This systematic review assesses progress towards equity in health care financing in LMICs through the use of BIA and FIA.Key electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Global Health, CinAHL, EconLit and Business Source Premier were searched. We also searched the grey literature, specifically websites of leading organizations supporting health care in LMICs. Only studies using benefit incidence analysis (BIA and/or financing incidence analysis (FIA as explicit methodology were included. A total of 512 records were obtained from the various sources. The full texts of 87 references were assessed against the selection criteria and 24 were judged appropriate for inclusion. Twelve of the 24 studies originated from sub-Saharan Africa, nine from the Asia-Pacific region, two from Latin America and one from the Middle East. The evidence points to a pro-rich distribution of total health care benefits and progressive financing in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the majority of cases, the distribution of benefits at the primary health care level favoured the poor while hospital level services benefit the better-off. A few Asian countries, namely Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, maintained a pro-poor distribution of health care benefits and progressive financing.Studies evaluated in this systematic review indicate that health care financing in LMICs benefits the rich more than the poor but the burden of financing also falls more on the rich. There is some evidence that primary health care is pro-poor suggesting a greater investment in such services and removal of barriers to care can enhance
Parashar, Preeti; Samuel, Asir John; Bansal, Arpna; Aranka, Vencita Priyanka
Yakson is a Korean therapeutic touch given to neonates and infants by caressing their abdomen with one hand while the other hand is placed on the back of the neonate\\infant either to relieve their pain or to calm them down. It was traditionally used by Koreans by caressing the aching body part of their children with a belief that it would relieve their pain. In spite of clinical evidence of its usefulness, there is limited literature available on Yakson touch. A systematic narrative review (SNR) was undertaken on studies that were carried out on the effectiveness of Yakson touch on infants and neonates. Only seven studies were detected from five major electronic databases, searched with the keywords: "Yakson," "Yakson touch," and "Yakson in neonates". One of the studies has been included in two Cochrane reviews by the same group of researchers published in 2011 and 2015, respectively, and also in a literature review. The evidence from these articles suggests that Yakson touch is able to increase the sleep scores of infants, affects their behavioral response, decreases the stress levels, increases maternal attachment, and has calming effects on them. However, the number of studies is limited, and thus the efficacy of this intervention has not been sufficiently established. Hence, there is a definite need for future studies to prove the efficacy of Yakson to include it in the early intervention programs. This SNR is aimed at compiling the studies which determined to prove the efficacy of the intervention of Yakson. PMID:27390459
Full Text Available Abstract Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and vocational rehabilitation. Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users
Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.
Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Montori, Victor M; Ioannidis, John P A; Jaeschke, Roman; Devereaux, P J; Prasad, Kameshwar; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Agoritsas, Thomas; Hatala, Rose; Meade, Maureen O; Wyer, Peter; Cook, Deborah J; Guyatt, Gordon
Clinical decisions should be based on the totality of the best evidence and not the results of individual studies. When clinicians apply the results of a systematic review or meta-analysis to patient care, they should start by evaluating the credibility of the methods of the systematic review, ie, the extent to which these methods have likely protected against misleading results. Credibility depends on whether the review addressed a sensible clinical question; included an exhaustive literature search; demonstrated reproducibility of the selection and assessment of studies; and presented results in a useful manner. For reviews that are sufficiently credible, clinicians must decide on the degree of confidence in the estimates that the evidence warrants (quality of evidence). Confidence depends on the risk of bias in the body of evidence; the precision and consistency of the results; whether the results directly apply to the patient of interest; and the likelihood of reporting bias. Shared decision making requires understanding of the estimates of magnitude of beneficial and harmful effects, and confidence in those estimates.
Full Text Available Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual Neurosciences Institute, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques Agustí Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain Issues: Patient-centered care (PCC is increasingly accepted as an integral component of good health care, including addiction medicine. However, its implementation has been controversial in people with alcohol use disorders. Approach: A systematic search strategy was devised to find completed randomized controlled trials enrolling adults (>18 years with alcohol use disorders. Studies had to use a PCC approach such that they should have been individualized, respectful to the patients’ own goals, and empowering. Studies until September 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and Web of Knowledge. Key findings: In total, 40 studies enrolling 16,020 patients met the inclusion criteria. Assessment revealed two main categories of study: psychosocial (n=35 based on motivational interviewing and pharmacological (n=5 based on an as needed dosing regimen. Psychosocial interventions were further classified according to the presence or absence of an active comparator. When no active comparator was present, studies were classified according to the number of sessions (≥1. Results from single sessions of motivational interviewing showed no clear benefit on alcohol consumption outcomes, with few studies indicating benefit of PCC versus control. Although the results for studies of multiple sessions of counseling were also mixed, many did show a significant benefit of the PCC intervention. By contrast, studies consistently demonstrated a benefit of pharmacologically supported PCC interventions, with most of the differences reaching statistical significance. Implications: PCC-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing alcohol consumption in people with alcohol use disorders. Keywords: psychosocial intervention, pharmacological intervention, motivational interviewing, as-needed
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs
Mohammed Mohammed A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.
Full Text Available Yakson is a Korean therapeutic touch given to neonates and infants by caressing their abdomen with one hand while the other hand is placed on the back of the neonate\\infant either to relieve their pain or to calm them down. It was traditionally used by Koreans by caressing the aching body part of their children with a belief that it would relieve their pain. In spite of clinical evidence of its usefulness, there is limited literature available on Yakson touch. A systematic narrative review (SNR was undertaken on studies that were carried out on the effectiveness of Yakson touch on infants and neonates. Only seven studies were detected from five major electronic databases, searched with the keywords: “Yakson,“ “Yakson touch,” and “Yakson in neonates”. One of the studies has been included in two Cochrane reviews by the same group of researchers published in 2011 and 2015, respectively, and also in a literature review. The evidence from these articles suggests that Yakson touch is able to increase the sleep scores of infants, affects their behavioral response, decreases the stress levels, increases maternal attachment, and has calming effects on them. However, the number of studies is limited, and thus the efficacy of this intervention has not been sufficiently established. Hence, there is a definite need for future studies to prove the efficacy of Yakson to include it in the early intervention programs. This SNR is aimed at compiling the studies which determined to prove the efficacy of the intervention of Yakson.
Full Text Available Purpose. We conducted a systematic search of published literature, to assess (i quality of life (QoL for survivors of a bone tumour compared with the normal population; (ii QoL implications following amputation, successful or failed limb salvage; (iii adaptation of young children to amputation compared with older children or adolescents.
Full Text Available One of the most crucial palliative care challenges is in determining how patients’ needs are defined and assessed. Although physical and psychological needs are commonly documented in patient’s charts, spiritual needs are less frequently reported. The aim of this review was to determine which explicit, longitudinal documentation of spiritual concerns would sufficiently affect clinical care to alleviate spiritual distress or promote spiritual wellbeing. A secondary analysis of a systematic review originally aimed at appraising the effectiveness of complex interventions focused on quality of life in palliative care was conducted. Five databases were searched for articles reporting interventions focused on QoL including at least two or more QoL dimensions. A narrative synthesis was performed to synthesize findings. In total, 10 studies were included. Only three studies included spiritual wellbeing assessment. Spirituality tools used to assess spiritual wellbeing were different between studies: Hospital QoL Index 14; Spiritual Needs Inventory; Missoula-Vitas QoL Index; and the Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease-Cancer. Only one study reported a healthcare professional’s session training in the use of the QoL tool. Two out of three studies showed in participants an improvement in spiritual wellbeing, but changes in spiritual wellbeing scores were not significant. Overall patients receiving interventions focused on QoL assessment experienced both improvements in their QoL and in their spiritual needs. Although spiritual changes were not significant, the results provide evidence that a spiritual need exists and that spiritual care should be appropriately planned and delivered. Spiritual needs assessment precedes spiritual caring. It is essential that interventions focused on QoL assessment in palliative care include training on how to conduct a spiritual assessment and appropriate interventions to be offered to patients to address their
Full Text Available Introduction: Recent years have seen an increasing recognition of the need to improve access and retention in care for people living with HIV/AIDS. This review aims to quantify patients along the continuum of care in sub-Saharan Africa and review possible interventions. Methods: We defined the different steps making up the care pathway and quantified losses at each step between acquisition of HIV infection and retention in care on antiretroviral therapy (ART. We conducted a systematic review of data from studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and published between 2000 and June 2011 for four of these steps and performed a meta-analysis when indicated; existing data syntheses were used for the remaining two steps. Results: The World Health Organization estimates that only 39% of HIV-positive individuals are aware of their status. Among patients who know their HIV-positive status, just 57% (95% CI, 48 to 66% completed assessment of ART eligibility. Of eight studies using an ART eligibility threshold of≤200 cells/µL, 41% of patients (95% CI, 27% to 55% were eligible for treatment, while of six studies using an ART eligibility threshold of≤350 cells/µL, 57% of patients (95% CI, 50 to 63% were eligible. Of those not yet eligible for ART, the median proportion remaining in pre-ART care was 45%. Of eligible individuals, just 66% (95% CI, 58 to 73% started ART and the proportion remaining on therapy after three years has previously been estimated as 65%. However, recent studies highlight that this is not a simple linear pathway, as patients cycle in and out of care. Published studies of interventions have mainly focused on reducing losses at HIV testing and during ART care, whereas few have addressed linkage and retention during the pre-ART period. Conclusions: Losses occur throughout the care pathway, especially prior to ART initiation, and for some patients this is a transient event, as they may re-engage in care at a later time. However, data
Higginbottom Gina M A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1 accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2 the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs, and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence to mental health treatment incurs clinical and economic burdens. The clinician-patient alliance, negotiated through clinical interaction, presents a critical intervention point. Recent medical reviews of communication and adherence behaviour exclude studies with psychiatric samples. The following examines the impact of clinician-patient alliance and communication on adherence in mental health, identifying the specific mechanisms that mobilise patient engagement. Methods In December 2010, a systematic search was conducted in Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase and Cinahl and yielded 6672 titles. A secondary hand search was performed in relevant journals, grey literature and reference. Results 23 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The methodological quality overall was moderate. 17 studies reported positive associations with adherence, only four of which employed intervention designs. 10 studies examined the association between clinician-patient alliance and adherence. Subjective ratings of clinical communication styles and messages were assessed in 12 studies. 1 study examined the association between objectively rated communication and adherence. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity of methods. Findings were presented as a narrative synthesis. Conclusions Clinician-patient alliance and communication are associated with more favourable patient adherence. Further research of observer rated communication would better facilitate the application of findings in clinical practice. Establishing agreement on the tasks of treatment, utilising collaborative styles of communication and discussion of treatment specifics may be important for clinicians in promoting cooperation with regimens. These findings align with those in health communication. However, the benefits of shared decision making for adherence in mental health are less conclusive than in general medicine.
John M McPartland
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "classic" endocannabinoid (eCB system includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the eCB ligands anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, and their metabolic enzymes. An emerging literature documents the "eCB deficiency syndrome" as an etiology in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, psychological disorders, and other conditions. We performed a systematic review of clinical interventions that enhance the eCB system--ways to upregulate cannabinoid receptors, increase ligand synthesis, or inhibit ligand degradation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed for clinical trials, observational studies, and preclinical research. Data synthesis was qualitative. Exclusion criteria limited the results to 184 in vitro studies, 102 in vivo animal studies, and 36 human studies. Evidence indicates that several classes of pharmaceuticals upregulate the eCB system, including analgesics (acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, glucocorticoids, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and anticonvulsants. Clinical interventions characterized as "complementary and alternative medicine" also upregulate the eCB system: massage and manipulation, acupuncture, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines. Lifestyle modification (diet, weight control, exercise, and the use of psychoactive substances--alcohol, tobacco, coffee, cannabis also modulate the eCB system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few clinical trials have assessed interventions that upregulate the eCB system. Many preclinical studies point to other potential approaches; human trials are needed to explore these promising interventions.
Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria
There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers.
Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria
There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers. PMID:26819140
Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were
Vale, C.L.; Burdett, S; Rydzewska, L. H.; Albiges, L; Clarke, N W; Fisher, D; Fizazi, K; Gravis, G.; James, N. D.; Mason, M D; Parmar, M. K.; Sweeney, C. J.; Sydes, M. R.; Tombal, B.; Tierney, J. F.
Summary Background Results from large randomised controlled trials combining docetaxel or bisphosphonates with standard of care in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer have emerged. In order to investigate the effects of these therapies and to respond to emerging evidence, we aimed to systematically review all relevant trials using a framework for adaptive meta-analysis. Methods For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register o...
Full Text Available Communication difficulties persist between patients and physicians. In order to improve care, patients' experiences of this communication must be understood. The main objective of this study is to synthesize qualitative studies exploring patients' experiences in communicating with a primary care physician. A secondary objective is to explore specific factors pertaining to ethnic minority or majority patients and their influence on patients' experiences of communication. Pertinent health and social sciences electronic databases were searched systematically (PubMed, Cinahl, PsychNet, and IBSS. Fifty-seven articles were included in the review on the basis of being qualitative studies targeting patients' experiences of communication with a primary care physician. The meta-ethnography method for qualitative studies was used to interpret data and the COREQ checklist was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Three concepts emerged from analyses: negative experiences, positive experiences, and outcomes of communication. Negative experiences related to being treated with disrespect, experiencing pressure due to time constraints, and feeling helpless due to the dominance of biomedical culture in the medical encounter. Positive experiences are attributed to certain relational skills, technical skills, as well as certain approaches to care privileged by the physician. Outcomes of communication depend on patients' evaluation of the consultation. Four categories of specific factors exerted mainly a negative influence on consultations for ethnic minorities: language barriers, discrimination, differing values, and acculturation. Ethnic majorities also raised specific factors influencing their experience: differing values and discrimination. Findings of this review are limited by the fact that more than half of the studies did not explore cultural aspects relating to this experience. Future research should address these aspects in more detail. In
Rocque, Rhea; Leanza, Yvan
Communication difficulties persist between patients and physicians. In order to improve care, patients' experiences of this communication must be understood. The main objective of this study is to synthesize qualitative studies exploring patients' experiences in communicating with a primary care physician. A secondary objective is to explore specific factors pertaining to ethnic minority or majority patients and their influence on patients' experiences of communication. Pertinent health and social sciences electronic databases were searched systematically (PubMed, Cinahl, PsychNet, and IBSS). Fifty-seven articles were included in the review on the basis of being qualitative studies targeting patients' experiences of communication with a primary care physician. The meta-ethnography method for qualitative studies was used to interpret data and the COREQ checklist was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Three concepts emerged from analyses: negative experiences, positive experiences, and outcomes of communication. Negative experiences related to being treated with disrespect, experiencing pressure due to time constraints, and feeling helpless due to the dominance of biomedical culture in the medical encounter. Positive experiences are attributed to certain relational skills, technical skills, as well as certain approaches to care privileged by the physician. Outcomes of communication depend on patients' evaluation of the consultation. Four categories of specific factors exerted mainly a negative influence on consultations for ethnic minorities: language barriers, discrimination, differing values, and acculturation. Ethnic majorities also raised specific factors influencing their experience: differing values and discrimination. Findings of this review are limited by the fact that more than half of the studies did not explore cultural aspects relating to this experience. Future research should address these aspects in more detail. In conclusion, all
Rocque, Rhea; Leanza, Yvan
Communication difficulties persist between patients and physicians. In order to improve care, patients’ experiences of this communication must be understood. The main objective of this study is to synthesize qualitative studies exploring patients’ experiences in communicating with a primary care physician. A secondary objective is to explore specific factors pertaining to ethnic minority or majority patients and their influence on patients’ experiences of communication. Pertinent health and social sciences electronic databases were searched systematically (PubMed, Cinahl, PsychNet, and IBSS). Fifty-seven articles were included in the review on the basis of being qualitative studies targeting patients’ experiences of communication with a primary care physician. The meta-ethnography method for qualitative studies was used to interpret data and the COREQ checklist was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Three concepts emerged from analyses: negative experiences, positive experiences, and outcomes of communication. Negative experiences related to being treated with disrespect, experiencing pressure due to time constraints, and feeling helpless due to the dominance of biomedical culture in the medical encounter. Positive experiences are attributed to certain relational skills, technical skills, as well as certain approaches to care privileged by the physician. Outcomes of communication depend on patients’ evaluation of the consultation. Four categories of specific factors exerted mainly a negative influence on consultations for ethnic minorities: language barriers, discrimination, differing values, and acculturation. Ethnic majorities also raised specific factors influencing their experience: differing values and discrimination. Findings of this review are limited by the fact that more than half of the studies did not explore cultural aspects relating to this experience. Future research should address these aspects in more detail. In conclusion
Mehnaaz Sultan Khuroo
Full Text Available Point-of-care tests provide a plausible diagnostic strategy for hepatitis C infection in economically impoverished areas. However, their utility depends upon the overall performance of individual tests.A literature search was conducted using the metasearch engine Mettā, a query interface for retrieving articles from five leading medical databases. Studies were included if they employed point-of-care tests to detect antibodies of hepatitis C virus and compared the results with reference tests. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating test accuracy.Thirty studies that had evaluated 30 tests fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The overall pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood-ratio, negative likelihood-ratio and diagnostic odds ratio for all tests were 97.4% (95% CI: 95.9-98.4, 99.5% (99.2-99.7, 80.17 (55.35-116.14, 0.03 (0.02-0.04, and 3032.85 (1595.86-5763.78, respectively. This suggested a high pooled accuracy for all studies. We found substantial heterogeneity between studies, but none of the subgroups investigated could account for the heterogeneity. Genotype diversity of HCV had no or minimal influence on test performance. Of the seven tests evaluated in the meta-regression model, OraQuick had the highest test sensitivity and specificity and showed better performance than a third generation enzyme immunoassay in seroconversion panels. The next highest test sensitivities and specificities were from TriDot and SDBioline, followed by Genedia and Chembio. The Spot and Multiplo tests produced poor test sensitivities but high test specificities. Nine of the remaining 23 tests produced poor test sensitivities and specificities and/or showed poor performances in seroconversion panels, while 14 tests had high test performances with diagnostic odds ratios ranging from 590.70 to 28822.20.Performances varied widely among individual point-of-care tests for diagnosis of hepatitis C virus
Blanchette, Marc-André; Bussières, André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela
Background Chiropractic care is a common treatment for low back pain (LBP). Previous studies have failed to clarify the relative cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care in comparison with other commonly used approaches because previous attempts to synthetize the economic literature has only included partial economic evaluations. The objective of this project is to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches am...
F.M. de Graaff; P. Mistiaen; W.L.J.M. Devillé; A.L. Francke
Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objectiv
Graaff, F.M. de; Mistiaen, P.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.
Background: Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objecti
Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.
Full Text Available Heart failure places a significant burden on patients and health systems in high-income countries. However, information about its burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is scant. We thus set out to review both published and unpublished information on the presentation, causes, management, and outcomes of heart failure in LMICs.Medline, Embase, Global Health Database, and World Health Organization regional databases were searched for studies from LMICs published between 1 January 1995 and 30 March 2014. Additional unpublished data were requested from investigators and international heart failure experts. We identified 42 studies that provided relevant information on acute hospital care (25 LMICs; 232,550 patients and 11 studies on the management of chronic heart failure in primary care or outpatient settings (14 LMICs; 5,358 patients. The mean age of patients studied ranged from 42 y in Cameroon and Ghana to 75 y in Argentina, and mean age in studies largely correlated with the human development index of the country in which they were conducted (r = 0.71, p<0.001. Overall, ischaemic heart disease was the main reported cause of heart failure in all regions except Africa and the Americas, where hypertension was predominant. Taking both those managed acutely in hospital and those in non-acute outpatient or community settings together, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49%-64% of patients were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 34% (95% CI: 28%-41% with beta-blockers, and 32% (95% CI: 25%-39% with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Mean inpatient stay was 10 d, ranging from 3 d in India to 23 d in China. Acute heart failure accounted for 2.2% (range: 0.3%-7.7% of total hospital admissions, and mean in-hospital mortality was 8% (95% CI: 6%-10%. There was substantial variation between studies (p<0.001 across all variables, and most data were from urban tertiary referral centres. Only one population-based study
Althabe, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Cafferata, María Luisa; Gibbons, Luz; Ciapponi, Agustín; Alemán, Alicia; Colantonio, Lisandro; Palacios, Alvaro Rodríguez
There are many systematic reviews of continuing education programmes and educational strategies for quality improvement in health care. Most of the reviewed studies are one-off evaluations rather than impact evaluations with long-term follow-up. There are few systematic reviews of organisational, financial and regulatory interventions, and few high-quality studies. These interventions are probably as or more important than educational strategies, although they are less well evaluated. Few studies have been undertaken in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) or that address maternal and child health (MCH). Thus, the results of the available studies and reviews need to be interpreted cautiously when applied to LMIC. Interactive workshops, reminders and multifaceted interventions can improve professional practice, and they generally have moderate effects. Educational outreach visits consistently improve prescribing but have variable effects on other behaviours. Audit and feedback interventions have variable effects on professional practice, but most often these are small to moderate effects. Mass-media and patient-mediated interventions may change professional practice. Multifaceted interventions that combine several quality-improvement strategies are also effective but may not be more so than single interventions. While all of these strategies are applicable to MCH in LMIC, the applicability of the results to rural settings, in particular, may be limited. Use of these strategies could exacerbate inequalities, and this should be taken into consideration when planning implementation. Scaling up and sustainability may be difficult to achieve in LMIC contexts and need careful consideration. The use of financial interventions has not been well studied; financial incentives and disincentives may be difficult to use effectively and efficiently, although their impact on practice needs to be considered. Organisational interventions are likely to be important, given that
Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Mullins, Mary M
A systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for increasing linkage, retention and re-engagement in HIV care (LRC) for persons living with HIV (PLWH). Our search strategy consisted of automated searches of electronic databases and hand searches of journals, reference lists and listservs. We developed two sets of criteria: evidence-based to identify evidence-based interventions (EBIs) tested with a comparison group and evidence-informed to identify evidence-informed interventions (EIs) tested with a one-group design. Eligible interventions included being published between 1996 and 2014, U.S.-based studies with a comparison or one-group designs with pre-post data, international randomized controlled trials, and having objective measures of LRC-relevant outcomes. We identified 10 best practices: 5 EBIs and 5 EIs. None focused on re-engagement. Providers and prevention planners can use the review findings to identify best practices suitable for their clinics, agencies, or communities to increase engagement in care for PLWH, ultimately leading to viral suppression.
Reed, Jennifer R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Perlman, David C.; Smith, Daniel J; Hagan, Holly
Introduction The diagnosis, management, and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (the “HCV care continuum”) have improved in recent years. People who use drugs (PWUD) have a prevalence of HCV infection from 30 to 70 %, yet rates of testing, engagement in care, and treatment for HCV are disproportionately low compared to other populations. Delineating the progression of PWUD through the steps in the HCV care continuum in the USA is important in informing efforts to improve HCV outco...
van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Dijkman, A.; van Roosmalen, J.; Zeeman, G.; Scherpbier, A.
Background Training of healthcare workers can play an important role in improving quality of care, and reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at improving emergency obstetric care in low-resource environments. Sear
Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie
Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data Sou
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin for treating chronic wounds. Methods On the basis of an extensive explorative search, an appropriate algorithm for a systematic database search was developed. The following databases were searched: BIOSIS Previews, CRD databases, Cochrane Library, EconLit, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. Only completed and published trial- or model-based studies which contained a full economic evaluation of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic wounds were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the assessment of study quality. The relevant studies were assessed by a modified version of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC list and a published checklist for evaluating model-based economic evaluations. Results Eleven health economic evaluations were included. Three biotechnology products were identified for which topical growth factors or bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic leg ulceration were economically assessed: (1 Apligraf®, a bilayered living human skin equivalent indicated for the treatment of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers (five studies; (2 Dermagraft®, a human fibroblast-derived dermal substitute, which is indicated only for use in the treatment of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers (one study; (3 REGRANEX® Gel, a human platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of deep neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers (five studies. The studies considered in this review were of varying and partly low
Farrer, Olivia; Yaxley, Alison; Walton, Karen; Healy, Erin; Miller, Michelle
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to review and evaluate the evidence supporting a liberalized diet for the management of diabetes mellitus in aged care homes and examine the effect of this on glycaemia, nutritional status and diabetes comorbidity risk factors. A 3 step search of eight databases followed by independent data extraction and quality assessment by two authors was undertaken. Studies which compared therapeutic diets to a liberalized diet or observation studies reviewing the effects of therapeutic diets on glycaemia and nutritional status were included. Of the 546 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the studies was rated poor and the majority concluded no statistically significant change in diabetes management outcomes with a liberalized diet, but modest increases in glycaemia were observed. Inadequate data was available to determine effects of diet change on nutritional status or diabetes risk factors. Overall studies were in support of a liberalized diet but due to the low quality of the evidence and a lack of significant findings it may not be appropriate to extrapolate these conclusions to inform dietetic practice.
Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela
Background Oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetes care and is associated with a high level self-care behavior and self-management. However, poor adherence to diabetes treatment is common which causes severe health complications and increased mortality. Barriers to adherence may consist of complex treatment regimens often along with long-term multi-therapies, side effects due to the medication as well as insufficient, incomprehensible or ...
Full Text Available CD4 cell count is an important test in HIV programs for baseline risk assessment, monitoring of ART where viral load is not available, and, in many settings, antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation decisions. However, access to CD4 testing is limited, in part due to the centralized conventional laboratory network. Point of care (POC CD4 testing has the potential to address some of the challenges of centralized CD4 testing and delays in delivery of timely testing and ART initiation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the extent to which POC improves linkages to HIV care and timeliness of ART initiation.We searched two databases and four conference sites between January 2005 and April 2015 for studies reporting test turnaround times, proportion of results returned, and retention associated with the use of point-of-care CD4. Random effects models were used to estimate pooled risk ratios, pooled proportions, and 95% confidence intervals.We identified 30 eligible studies, most of which were completed in Africa. Test turnaround times were reduced with the use of POC CD4. The time from HIV diagnosis to CD4 test was reduced from 10.5 days with conventional laboratory-based testing to 0.1 days with POC CD4 testing. Retention along several steps of the treatment initiation cascade was significantly higher with POC CD4 testing, notably from HIV testing to CD4 testing, receipt of results, and pre-CD4 test retention (all p<0.001. Furthermore, retention between CD4 testing and ART initiation increased with POC CD4 testing compared to conventional laboratory-based testing (p = 0.01. We also carried out a non-systematic review of the literature observing that POC CD4 increased the projected life expectancy, was cost-effective, and acceptable.POC CD4 technologies reduce the time and increase patient retention along the testing and treatment cascade compared to conventional laboratory-based testing. POC CD4 is, therefore, a useful tool
张晓歌; 杨帆; 史宗道; 陈阳平; 张安翔
目的 总结有关口腔卫生护理的Cochrane系统评价证据.方法 计算机检索Cochrane Library(2008年第3期)中有关口腔卫生护理的系统评价,并进行分析.结果 共检索到4篇系统评价,内容涉及:手动与电动牙刷对维护口腔卫生的效果比较,应用牙间隙刷保持固定矫治患者口腔卫生的效果评价,初级口腔卫生护理的复诊间隔的选择,刮舌预防口臭的效果.结论 目前缺乏高强度证据来支持牙间隙刷等口腔卫生护理的疗效.其他口腔护理方法的疗效如漱口水等尚需通过进一步的试验来评估.现有口腔卫生护理的系统评价纳入随机对照试验的方法学质量普遍较低,部分研究存在随机方法描述不清、无隐蔽分组、无样本量计算,以及无意向治疗分析等缺陷.建议推行临床试验透明化,实施临床试验注册制度,按照CONSORT声明规范报道随机对照试验,以便总结口腔卫生护理的临床证据,提高口腔卫生护理临床水平.%Objective To assess the evidence of Cochrane systematic reviews relating to oral hygiene care.Methods Issue 3,2008 of The Cochrane Library was searched for systematic reviews relating to oral hygiene care.Results Four systematic reviews with the forty-five randomized controlled trials(RCTs) were included.The methods of forty-five studies were of lower quality with high risk of various biases.Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to support oral hygiene care.The overall quality of RCTs about oral hygiene care is generally low.Analysis of the included trials shows some trials have no clear description of randomization methods,allocation concealment,sample size calculation,and intention-to-treat analysis.To improve the quality of reporting of RCTs,Clinical Trial Registration and Revised consolidated standards of reporting trial(CONSORT) statement should be introduced as guidelines into the trial design.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Annually over 520,000 newborns die from neonatal sepsis, and 60,000 more from tetanus. Estimates of the effect of clean birth and postnatal care practices are required for evidence-based program planning. Objective To review the evidence for clean birth and postnatal care practices and estimate the effect on neonatal mortality from sepsis and tetanus for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Data were abstracted into standard tables and assessed by GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. For interventions with low quality evidence but a strong GRADE recommendation, a Delphi process was conducted. Results Low quality evidence supports a reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality (19% (95% c.i. 1–34%, cord infection (30% (95% c.i. 20–39% and neonatal tetanus (49% (95% c.i. 35–62% with birth attendant handwashing. Very low quality evidence supports a reduction in neonatal tetanus mortality with a clean birth surface (93% (95% c.i. 77-100% and no relationship between a clean perineum and tetanus. Low quality evidence supports a reduction of neonatal tetanus with facility birth (68% (95% c.i. 47-88%. No relationship was found between birth place and cord infections or sepsis mortality. For postnatal clean practices, all-cause mortality is reduced with chlorhexidine cord applications in the first 24 hours of life (34% (95% c.i. 5–54%, moderate quality evidence and antimicrobial cord applications (63% (95% c.i. 41–86%, low quality evidence. One study of postnatal maternal handwashing reported reductions in all-cause mortality (44% (95% c.i. 18–62% and cord infection ((24% (95% c.i. 5-40%. Given the low quality of evidence, a Delphi expert opinion process was undertaken. Thirty experts reached consensus regarding reduction of neonatal sepsis deaths by clean birth practices at home (15% (IQR 10–20 or in a facility (27% IQR 24–36, and by
Objectives To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. Design A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Method Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred o...
Thomas G. Poder; Lemieux, Renald
Background: The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on bod...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the private sector provides a substantial proportion of primary health care to low income groups for communicable and non-communicable diseases. These providers are therefore central to improving health outcomes. We need to know how their services compare to those of the public sector to inform policy options. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We summarised reliable research comparing the quality of formal private versus public ambulatory health care in low and middle income countries. We selected studies against inclusion criteria following a comprehensive search, yielding 80 studies. We compared quality under standard categories, converted values to a linear 100% scale, calculated differences between providers within studies, and summarised median values of the differences across studies. As the results for for-profit and not-for-profit providers were similar, we combined them. Overall, median values indicated that many services, irrespective of whether public or private, scored low on infrastructure, clinical competence, and practice. Overall, the private sector performed better in relation to drug supply, responsiveness, and effort. No difference between provider groups was detected for patient satisfaction or competence. Synthesis of qualitative components indicates the private sector is more client centred. CONCLUSIONS: Although data are limited, quality in both provider groups seems poor, with the private sector performing better in drug availability and aspects of delivery of care, including responsiveness and effort, and possibly being more client orientated. Strategies seeking to influence quality in both groups are needed to improve care delivery and outcomes for the poor, including managing the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases.
Mazzarello Moore, Theresa Helen; King, Anna Jyoti Louise; Evans, Maggie; Sharp, Debbie; Persad, Raj; Huntley, Alyson Louise
Men with prostate cancer are likely to have a long illness and experience psychological distress for which supportive care may be helpful. This systematic review describes the evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of supportive care for men with prostate cancer, taking into account treatment pathway and components of interventions. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Psychinfo were searched from inception--July 2013 for randomized controlled trials and controlled trials. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Twenty-six studies were included (2740 participants). Interventions were delivered pre and during (n = 12), short-term (n = 8), and longer term (18 months) (n = 5) after primary treatment. No interventions were delivered beyond this time. Few trials recruited ethnic minorities and none recruited men in same sex relationships. Intervention components included information, education, health professional discussion, homework, peer discussion, buddy support, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive restructuring, psychoeducation, Reiki and relaxation. Most interventions were delivered for 5-10 weeks. Risk of bias of trials was assessed as unclear for most domains due to lack of information. The majority of trials measuring quality of life and depression found no effect. Relatively few trials measured anxiety, coping skills and self-efficacy, and the majority found no effect. No cost data were available. Trials of supportive care for men with prostate cancer cover a range of interventions but are limited by population diversity, inconsistent measurement and reporting of outcomes, and inability to assess risk of bias. Recommendations on design and conduct of future trials are presented. PMID:25828811
Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Jensen, Martin Bach; Petersen, Karin Dam
Objective The primary aim is to identify, summarise and quality assess the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of implementing low back pain guidelines in primary care. The secondary aim is to assess the transferability of the results to determine whether the identified studies can be included in a comparison with a Danish implementation study to establish which strategy procures most value for money. Design Systematic review. Data sources The search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Scopus, CINAHL and EconLit. No restrictions were made concerning language, year of publication or publication type. The bibliographies of the included studies were searched for any studies not captured in the literature search. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies To be included, a study must be: (1) based on a randomised controlled trial comparing implementation strategies, (2) the guideline must concern treatment of low back pain in primary care and (3) the economic evaluation should contain primary data on cost and cost-effectiveness. Results The title and abstract were assessed for 308 studies; of these, three studies were found eligible for inclusion. The Consensus Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list showed that the 3 studies were of moderate methodological quality while application of Welte's model showed that cost results from two studies could, with adjustments, be transferred to a Danish setting. It was questionable whether the associated effects could be transferred. Conclusions Despite the resemblance of the implementation strategies, the 3 studies report conflicting results on cost-effectiveness. This review showed that transferring the results from the identified studies is not straightforward and underlines the importance of transparent reporting. Future research should focus on transferability of effects, for example, development of a supplement to Welte's model. PMID:27267108
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile health interventions could have beneficial effects on health care delivery processes. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of controlled trials of mobile technology interventions to improve health care delivery processes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for all controlled trials of mobile technology based health interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, UK NHS HTA (Jan 1990-Sept 2010. Two authors independently extracted data on allocation concealment, allocation sequence, blinding, completeness of follow-up, and measures of effect. We calculated effect estimates and we used random effects meta-analysis to give pooled estimates. We identified 42 trials. None of the trials had low risk of bias. Seven trials of health care provider support reported 25 outcomes regarding appropriate disease management, of which 11 showed statistically significant benefits. One trial reported a statistically significant improvement in nurse/surgeon communication using mobile phones. Two trials reported statistically significant reductions in correct diagnoses using mobile technology photos compared to gold standard. The pooled effect on appointment attendance using text message (short message service or SMS reminders versus no reminder was increased, with a relative risk (RR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07, I(2 = 6%. The pooled effects on the number of cancelled appointments was not significantly increased RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.89-1.30. There was no difference in attendance using SMS reminders versus other reminders (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.02, respectively. To address the limitation of the older search, we also reviewed more recent literature. CONCLUSIONS: The results for health care provider support interventions on diagnosis and management outcomes are generally consistent with modest benefits. Trials using mobile technology-based photos reported reductions in correct diagnoses when compared to
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile technologies could be a powerful media for providing individual level support to health care consumers. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions delivered to health care consumers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for all controlled trials of mobile technology-based health interventions delivered to health care consumers using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, UK NHS HTA (Jan 1990-Sept 2010. Two authors extracted data on allocation concealment, allocation sequence, blinding, completeness of follow-up, and measures of effect. We calculated effect estimates and used random effects meta-analysis. We identified 75 trials. Fifty-nine trials investigated the use of mobile technologies to improve disease management and 26 trials investigated their use to change health behaviours. Nearly all trials were conducted in high-income countries. Four trials had a low risk of bias. Two trials of disease management had low risk of bias; in one, antiretroviral (ART adherence, use of text messages reduced high viral load (>400 copies, with a relative risk (RR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.72-0.99, but no statistically significant benefit on mortality (RR 0.79 [95% CI 0.47-1.32]. In a second, a PDA based intervention increased scores for perceived self care agency in lung transplant patients. Two trials of health behaviour management had low risk of bias. The pooled effect of text messaging smoking cessation support on biochemically verified smoking cessation was (RR 2.16 [95% CI 1.77-2.62]. Interventions for other conditions showed suggestive benefits in some cases, but the results were not consistent. No evidence of publication bias was demonstrated on visual or statistical examination of the funnel plots for either disease management or health behaviours. To address the limitation of the older search, we also reviewed more recent literature. CONCLUSIONS: Text
Zegers, Marieke; Hesselink, Gijs; Geense, Wytske; Vincent, Charles; Wollersheim, Hub
Objective To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. Study selection English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed each study's quality and extracted data on the study population, study design, intervention characteristics and adverse patient outcomes. Results Sixty systematic reviews with moderate to high quality were included. Statistically significant pooled effect sizes were found for 14 types of interventions, including: (1) multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium; (2) rapid response teams to reduce cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality rates; (3) pharmacist interventions to reduce adverse drug events; (4) exercises and multicomponent interventions to prevent falls; and (5) care bundle interventions, checklists and reminders to reduce infections. Most (82%) of the significant effect sizes were based on 5 or fewer primary studies with an experimental study design. Conclusions The evidence for patient-safety interventions implemented in hospitals worldwide is weak. The findings address the need to invest in high-quality research standards in order to identify interventions that have a real impact on patient safety. Interventions to prevent delirium, cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality, adverse drug events, infections and falls are most effective and should therefore be prioritised by clinicians. PMID:27687901
Conclusions The potential of EMR systems to transform medical care practice has been recognised over the past decades, including the enhancement of healthcare delivery and facilitation of decisionmaking processes. Some benefits of an EMR system include accurate medication lists, legible notes and prescriptions and immediately available charts. In spite of challenges facing the developing world such as lack of human expertise and financial resource, most studies have shown how feasible it could be with support from developed nations to design and implement an EMR system that fits into this environment.
Moorhead, S Anne; Diane E. Hazlett; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for...
Mant, J; McManus, RJ; Oakes, RA; Delaney, BC; Barton, PM; Deeks, Jj; Hammersley, L; Davies, RC; Davies, MK; Hobbs, FD
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the value of a range of methods - including clinical features, resting and exercise electrocardiography, and rapid access chest pain clinics (RACPCs) - used in the diagnosis and early management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), suspected acute myocardial infarction (MI), and exertional angina. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and electronic abstracts of recent cardiological conferences. REVIEW METHODS: Searches identified studies that consi...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adults it is well documented that there are substantial losses to the programme between HIV testing and start of antiretroviral therapy (ART. The magnitude and reasons for loss to follow-up and death between HIV diagnosis and start of ART in children are not well defined. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies on children followed between HIV diagnosis and start of ART in low-income settings. We examined the proportion of children with a CD4 cell count/percentage after after being diagnosed with HIV infection, the number of treatment-eligible children starting ART and predictors of loss to programme. Data were extracted in duplicate. RESULTS: Eight studies from sub-Saharan Africa and two studies from Asia with a total of 10,741 children were included. Median age ranged from 2.2 to 6.5 years. Between 78.0 and 97.0% of HIV-infected children subsequently had a CD4 cell count/percentage measured, 63.2 to 90.7% of children with an eligibility assessment met the eligibility criteria for the particular setting and time and 39.5 to 99.4% of the eligible children started ART. Three studies reported an association between low CD4 count/percentage and ART initiation while no association was reported for gender. Only two studies reported on pre-ART mortality and found rates of 13 and 6 per 100 person-years. CONCLUSION: Most children who presented for HIV care met eligibility criteria for ART. There is an urgent need for strategies to improve the access to and retention to care of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.
Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J
Sometimes systematic reviews seem overprevalent, and some systematic reviews can be "inconclusive," which does not improve clinical decision making. On the other hand, systematic reviews can make a positive impact on patient outcomes by summarizing clinically relevant literature for arthroscopic surgeons and related researchers.
Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W;
through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality......BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...
Corredor, C; Wasowicz, M; Karkouti, K; Sharma, V
This systematic review and meta-analysis appraises the utility of point-of-care platelet function tests for predicting blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgical patients, and analyses whether their use within a transfusion management algorithm is associated with improved patient outcomes. We included 30 observational studies incorporating 3044 patients in the qualitative assessment, and nine randomised controlled trials including 1057 patients in the meta-analysis. Platelet function tests demonstrated significant variability in their ability to predict blood loss and transfusion requirements. Their use within a blood transfusion algorithm demonstrated a reduction in blood loss at longest follow-up (mean difference -102.9 ml (95% CI -149.9 to -56.1 ml), p < 0.001), and transfusion of packed red cells (RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.94), p = 0.001) and fresh frozen plasma (RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.30-0.59), p < 0.001). Viscoelastic methods used in combination with other platelet function tests achieved greater reduction in blood loss (mean difference -111.8 ml (95% CI -174.9 to -49.1 ml), p = 0.0005) compared with their use alone (mean difference -90.6 ml (95% CI 166.1-15.0 ml), p = 0.02). We conclude that incorporation of point-of-care platelet function tests into transfusion management algorithms is associated with a reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery patients. PMID:25916344
Curto, Martina; Girardi, Nicoletta; Lionetto, Luana; Ciavarella, Giuseppino M; Ferracuti, Stefano; Baldessarini, Ross J
Clozapine is exceptionally effective in psychotic disorders and can reduce suicidal risk. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to potentially life-threatening adverse effects, including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Given their clinical importance, we systematically reviewed research on adverse cardiac effects of clozapine, aiming to improve estimates of their incidence, summarize features supporting their diagnosis, and evaluate proposed monitoring procedures. Incidence of early (≤2 months) myocarditis ranges from ECG changes, elevated indices of myocardial damage, cardiac MRI findings, and importantly, echocardiographic evidence of developing ventricular failure. Treatment involves stopping clozapine and empirical applications of steroids, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antiangiotensin agents. Mortality averages approximately 25 %. Safety of clozapine reuse remains uncertain. Systematic studies are needed to improve knowledge of the epidemiology, avoidance, early identification, and treatment of these adverse effects, with effective and practicable monitoring protocols. PMID:27222142
Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070
Stephanie Felicie Victoria Sondaal
Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Availability and use of mobile phones is increasing rapidly with 90% of persons in developing countries having a mobile-cellular subscription. Mobile health (mHealth interventions have been proposed as effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal health. This systematic review assessed the effect of mHealth interventions that support pregnant women during the antenatal, birth and postnatal period in LMIC.The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42014010292. Six databases were searched from June 2014-April 2015, accompanied by grey literature search using pre-defined search terms linked to pregnant women in LMIC and mHealth. Quality of articles was assessed with an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Because of heterogeneity in outcomes, settings and study designs a narrative synthesis of quantitative results of intervention studies on maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes, service utilization, and healthy pregnancy education was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized with a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.In total, 3777 articles were found, of which 27 studies were included: twelve intervention studies and fifteen descriptive studies. mHealth interventions targeted at pregnant women increased maternal and neonatal service utilization shown through increased antenatal care attendance, facility-service utilization, skilled attendance at birth, and vaccination rates. Few articles assessed the effect on maternal or neonatal health outcomes, with inconsistent results.mHealth interventions may be effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal service utilization. Further studies assessing mHealth's impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes are recommended. The emerging trend of strong experimental research designs with randomized controlled trials, combined with feasibility research
Fiona Yan-Yee Ho; Wing-Fai Yeung; Tommy Ho-Yee Ng; Chan, Christian S.
Stepped care is an increasingly popular treatment model for common mental health disorders, given the large discrepancy between the demand and supply of healthcare service available. In this review, we aim to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of stepped care prevention and treatment with care-as-usual (CAU) or waiting-list control for depressive and/or anxiety disorders. 5 databases were utilized from its earliest available records up until April 2015. 10 randomized controlled trial...
Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian
The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075
Jose Antonio Garbino
Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.
Appels, Bregje A.; Scherder, Erik
Early screening for dementia is crucial for identifying reversible causes as well as managing, counseling, and other therapeutic interventions. Many reviews have compared the suitability of very brief screening instruments for use in primary care, but reviews on more extensive instruments in seconda
Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Chan, Christian S
Stepped care is an increasingly popular treatment model for common mental health disorders, given the large discrepancy between the demand and supply of healthcare service available. In this review, we aim to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of stepped care prevention and treatment with care-as-usual (CAU) or waiting-list control for depressive and/or anxiety disorders. 5 databases were utilized from its earliest available records up until April 2015. 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review, of which 6 examined stepped care prevention and 4 examined stepped care treatment, specifically including ones regarding depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Only trials with self-help as a treatment component were included. Results showed stepped care treatment revealed a significantly better performance than CAU in reducing anxiety symptoms, and the treatment response rate of anxiety disorders was significantly higher in stepped care treatment than in CAU. No significant difference was found between stepped care prevention/treatment and CAU in preventing anxiety and/or depressive disorders and improving depressive symptoms. In conclusion, stepped care model appeared to be better than CAU in treating anxiety disorders. The model has the potential to reduce the burden on existing resources in mental health and increase the reach and availability of service. PMID:27377429
Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.
Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…
Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R
Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.
Meurk, Carla; Leung, Janni; Hall, Wayne; Brian W. Head; Whiteford, Harvey
Background Growing evidence attests to the efficacy of e-mental health services. There is less evidence on how to facilitate the safe, effective, and sustainable implementation of these services. Objective We conducted a systematic review on e-mental health service use for depressive and anxiety disorders to inform policy development and identify policy-relevant gaps in the evidence base. Methods Following the PRISMA protocol, we identified research (1) conducted in Australia, (2) on e-mental...
Legemaat, Monique M; Jongerden, IP; van Rens, Roland M F P T; Zielman, Marjanne; van den Hoogen, Agnes
OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of a vascular access team on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web-of-Science and the Cochrane Library were searched until December 2013. STUDY
Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.
Hussain, Mohammed; Moussavi, Mohammad; Korya, Daniel; Mehta, Siddhart; Brar, Jaskiran; Chahal, Harina; Qureshi, Ihtesham; Mehta, Tapan; Ahmad, Javaad; Zaidat, Osama O.; Kirmani, Jawad F.
Background Recent advances in the treatment of ischemic stroke have focused on revascularization and led to better clinical and functional outcomes. A systematic review and pooled analyses of 6 recent multicentered prospective randomized controlled trials (MPRCT) were performed to compare intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) and endovascular therapy (intervention) with IV tPA alone (control) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Objectives Six MPRCTs (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND IA, SWIFT PRIME, REVASCAT and THERAPY) incorporating image-based LVO AIS were selected for assessing the following: (1) prespecified primary clinical outcomes of AIS patients in intervention and control arms: good outcomes were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days; (2) secondary clinical outcomes were: (a) revascularization rates [favorable outcomes defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale (mTICI) score of 2b/3]; (b) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rates and mortality; (c) derivation of number needed to harm (NNH), number needed to treat (NNT), and relative percent difference (RPD) between intervention and control groups, and (d) random effects model to determine overall significance (forest and funnel plots). Results A total of 1,386 patients were included. Good outcomes at 90 days were seen in 46% of patients in the intervention (p < 0.00001) and in 27% of patients in the control groups (p < 0.00002). An mTICI score of 2b/3 was achieved in 70.2% of patients in the intervention arm. The sICH and mortality in the intervention arm compared with the control arm were 4.7 and 14.3% versus 7.9 and 17.8%, respectively. The NNT and NNH in the intervention and control groups were 5.3 and 9.1, respectively. Patients in the intervention arm had a 50.1% (RPD) better chance of achieving a good 90-day outcome as compared to controls. Conclusions Endovascular therapy combined with IV t
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. Discussion The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. Conclusions The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it.
Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias
OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565
Delaney, Anthony; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Ferland, Andre; Manns, Braden; Laupland, Kevin B; Doig, Christopher J
Introduction Meta-analyses have been suggested to be the highest form of evidence available to clinicians to guide clinical practice in critical care. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of meta-analyses that address topics pertinent to critical care. Methods To identify potentially eligible meta-analyses for inclusion, a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken, using broad search terms relevant to in...
Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida Maria da Silva
Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage. PMID:27143536
Mariana Cabral Schveitzer
Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.
Luís Carlos Machado Júnior
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.
Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela
Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health. PMID:27654836
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju
As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.
Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
was to systematically review evidence from epidemiologic studies on adverse health outcomes of the offspring in relation to exposure to maternal fever during pregnancy. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were performed by using Medical Subject Headings, Boolean operators...
Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius
. However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions...
Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...
Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine;
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies......-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research....
Jasmine B. MacDonald; Anthony J. Saliba; Gene Hodgins; Linda A. Ovington
The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010), which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journali...
Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine
The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user.
Full Text Available Elizabeth Befekadu,1 Claudia Onofrei,1 Gene L Colice1,2 1MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA Introduction: The objective of this paper is to systematically review the existing evidence of the effectiveness and safety profile of a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist as add-on therapy in patients with asthma that is uncontrolled despite inhaled corticosteroid (ICS use. Methods: With the assistance of two experienced research librarians, we searched Ovid MEDLINE/PubMed (1946 to September 12, 2013, the Cochrane Library review, and the TRIP database. The key search terms were “tiotropium and asthma.” The search was limited to human data published in English. Included in the systematic review were all randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of tiotropium in patients with asthma. The clinical trials had to be at least 4 weeks in duration and to provide adequate information on clinically appropriate end points in asthma care (eg, change in lung function, exacerbation rates, and/or ICS dosing. Data on patient characteristics, study design, outcome measures, concomitant asthma medication, and adverse events were extracted from the full text of each included individual study. Marked heterogeneity of study design precluded statistical pooling of results for a meta-analysis. Consequently, only descriptive summaries of outcomes are provided. Results: Our database search retrieved 149 citations. We found five randomized controlled trials in humans that met our criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. We also found two open-label uncontrolled trials that were considered in the discussion. Each of the five included studies met the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria for a well-designed randomized trial. Discussion: The five clinical studies included in this systematic review focused on evaluating
Hermida, Patricia Madalena Vieira
This study has reviewed the national literature regarding nursing assistance systematization (NAS), with the aim of identifying the difficulties implementing this practice and the factors that interfere with and harm its implementation. The MEDLINE, LILACS, and BDENF databases have been utilized and six studies published in nursing periodicals in the last five years have been surveyed. The results indicate several difficulties implementing the NAS and several factors that interfere negatively with its implementation. Considering the importance of this assistance methodology for valuing professional nursing, it is necessary to reflect on/discuss its practical difficulties so that we can overcome them, making it a pleasurable activity capable of providing nurses with autonomy and providing patients with quality assistance.
COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A
Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las
Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa
The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…
Karthikeyan, I.; Shrikar R. Desai; Singh, Rika
Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ≤10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ≤7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ≤7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was cond...
Full Text Available Wendy H Ducat,1,3 Saravana Kumar2 1Cunningham Centre, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Rural Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Introduction: In regional, rural, and remote settings, allied health professional supervision is one organizational mechanism designed to support and retain the workforce, provide clinical governance, and enhance service delivery. A systematic approach to evaluating the evidence of the experience and effects of professional supervision for non-metropolitan allied health practitioners and their service delivery is needed. Methods: Studies investigating the experience and effects of professional supervision across 17 allied health disciplines in non-metropolitan health services were systematically searched for using standardized keywords across seven databases. The initial search identified 1,574 references. Of these studies, five met inclusion criteria and were subject to full methodological appraisal by both reviewers. Two studies were primarily qualitative with three studies primarily quantitative in their approach. Studies were appraised using McMaster critical appraisal tools and data were extracted and synthesized. Results: Studies reported the context specific benefits and challenges of supervision in non-metropolitan areas and the importance of supervision in enhancing satisfaction and support in these areas. Comparison of findings between metropolitan and non-metropolitan settings within one study suggested that allied health in non-metropolitan settings were more satisfied with supervision though less likely to access it and preferred supervision with other non-metropolitan practitioners over access to more experienced supervisors. One study in a regional health service identified the lack
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup
Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Stead, Martine; Gordon, Ross; Angus, Kathryn; McDermott, Laura
Purpose: To review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy-level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve health and society. Methodology/Approach: Review of systematic reviews and primary studies using pre-specif...
Taylor, T.L.; Killaspy, H.; Wright, C.; Turton, P.; White, S.; Kallert, T.W.; Schuster, M.; Cervilla, J.A.; Brangier, P.; Raboch, J.; Kalisova, L.; Onchev, G.; Dimitrov, H.; Mezzina, R.; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, D.; Visser, E.; Kiejna, A.; Piotrowski, P.; Ploumpidis, D.; Gonidakis, F.; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.; Cardoso, G.; King, M.B.
Background: A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to ident
Full Text Available Haematospermia (or haemospermia is a distressing symptom in sexually active men. In most cases, it is caused by non-specific inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In a small percentage of men, however, it may be a manifestation of genito-urinary or systemic malignancy, in particular prostate cancer. The purpose of this review is to explain the causes and management of patients with haematospermia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews summarize all pertinent evidence on a defined health question. They help clinical scientists to direct their research and clinicians to keep updated. Our objective was to determine the extent to which systematic reviews are clustered in a large collection of clinical journals and whether review type (narrative or systematic affects citation counts. Methods We used hand searches of 170 clinical journals in the fields of general internal medicine, primary medical care, nursing, and mental health to identify review articles (year 2000. We defined 'review' as any full text article that was bannered as a review, overview, or meta-analysis in the title or in a section heading, or that indicated in the text that the intention of the authors was to review or summarize the literature on a particular topic. We obtained citation counts for review articles in the five journals that published the most systematic reviews. Results 11% of the journals concentrated 80% of all systematic reviews. Impact factors were weakly correlated with the publication of systematic reviews (R2 = 0.075, P = 0.0035. There were more citations for systematic reviews (median 26.5, IQR 12 – 56.5 than for narrative reviews (8, 20, P Conclusions A few clinical journals published most systematic reviews. Authors cited systematic reviews more often than narrative reviews, an indirect endorsement of the 'hierarchy of evidence'.
Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica
Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct. PMID:25715288
Renato Santos de Almeida
Full Text Available Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct.
Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D
The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth. PMID:25831713
Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D
The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth.
Full Text Available Camilla Buch Gudde,1,2 Turid Møller Olsø,4 Richard Whittington,1,5,6 Solfrid Vatne,3 1Forensic Department Brøset, Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, 2Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, 3Institute of Health and Social Sciences, Molde University College, Molde, 4Norwegian Resource Centre for Community Mental Health, NTNU Social Research AS, 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Background: Aggressive situations occurring within mental health services can harm service users, staff, and the therapeutic environment. There is a consensus that the aggression phenomenon is multidimensional, but the picture is still unclear concerning the complex interplay of causal variables and their respective impact. To date, only a small number of empirical studies include users’ views of relevant factors. The main objective of this review is to identify and synthesize evidence relating to service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health settings. Methods: We included qualitative studies of any design reporting on service users’ own experiences of conditions contributing to aggressive situations in mental health care and their views on preventative strategies. Eligible articles were identified through an electronic database search (PsycINFO, PubMed, Ovid Nursing Database, Embase, and CINAHL, hand search, and cross-referencing. Extracted data were combined and interpreted using aspects of thematic synthesis. Results: We reviewed 5,566 records and included 13 studies (ten qualitative and three mixed methods. Service users recognized that both their own mental state and negative aspects of the treatment environment affected the development of aggressive situations
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of
Palmer, Karen S.; Thomas Agoritsas; Danielle Martin; Taryn Scott; Sohail M Mulla; Ashley P Miller; Arnav Agarwal; Andrew Bresnahan; Afeez Abiola Hazzan; Jeffery, Rebecca A.; Arnaud Merglen; Ahmed Negm; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Neera Bhatnagar; Dhalla, Irfan A
Background: Activity-based funding (ABF) of hospitals is a policy intervention intended to re-shape incentives across health systems through the use of diagnosis-related groups. Many countries are adopting or actively promoting ABF. We assessed the effect of ABF on key measures potentially affecting patients and health care systems: mortality (acute and post-acute care); readmission rates; discharge rate to post-acute care following hospitalization; severity of illness; volume of care. ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Several approaches have been taken to reduce pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART losses between HIV testing and ART initiation in low- and middle-income countries, but a systematic assessment of the evidence has not yet been undertaken. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the potential for interventions to improve or facilitate linkage to or retention in pre-ART care and initiation of ART in low- and middle-income settings. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on Medline, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science and conference databases to identify studies describing interventions aimed at improving linkage to or retention in pre-ART care or initiation of ART. Additional searches were conducted to identify on-going trials on this topic, and experts in the field were contacted. An assessment of the risk of bias was conducted. Interventions were categorized according to key domains in the existing literature. Results: A total of 11,129 potentially relevant citations were identified, of which 24 were eligible for inclusion, with the majority (n=21 from sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, 15 on-going trials were identified. The most common interventions described under key domains included: health system interventions (i.e. integration in the setting of antenatal care; patient convenience and accessibility (i.e. point-of-care CD4 count (POC testing with immediate results, home-based ART initiation; behaviour interventions and peer support (i.e. improved communication, patient referral and education and incentives (i.e. food support. Several interventions showed favourable outcomes: integration of care and peer supporters increased enrolment into HIV care, medical incentives increased pre-ART retention, POC CD4 testing and food incentives increased completion of ART eligibility screening and ART initiation. Most studies focused on the general adult patient population or pregnant women. The majority of published studies were
Abstract Background Stratifying patients with a sore throat into the probability of having an underlying bacterial or viral cause may be helpful in targeting antibiotic treatment. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and validate a clinical prediction rule (CPR), the Centor score, for predicting group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis in adults (> 14 years of age) presenting with sore throat symptoms. Methods A systematic literature search was performed up to July 2010. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and\\/or validated the Centor score were included. For the analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and the Centor score, studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model, while for the calibration analysis of the Centor score, a random effects model was used. Results A total of 21 studies incorporating 4,839 patients were included in the meta-analysis on diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms. The results were heterogeneous and suggest that individual signs and symptoms generate only small shifts in post-test probability (range positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 1.45-2.33, -LR 0.54-0.72). As a decision rule for considering antibiotic prescribing (score ≥ 3), the Centor score has reasonable specificity (0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and a post-test probability of 12% to 40% based on a prior prevalence of 5% to 20%. Pooled calibration shows no significant difference between the numbers of patients predicted and observed to have GABHS pharyngitis across strata of Centor score (0-1 risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.06; 2-3 RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.17; 4 RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.37). Conclusions Individual signs and symptoms are not powerful enough to discriminate GABHS pharyngitis from other types of sore throat. The Centor score is a well calibrated CPR for estimating the probability of GABHS pharyngitis. The Centor score can enhance appropriate
Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin
INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane data
Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.
Gotch, Chad M.; French, Brian F.
This work systematically reviews teacher assessment literacy measures within the context of contemporary teacher evaluation policy. In this study, the researchers collected objective tests of assessment knowledge, teacher self-reports, and rubrics to evaluate teachers' work in assessment literacy studies from 1991 to 2012. Then they evaluated…
Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.
To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted t
F. van Dam; W.A. van Gool
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is supposed to be one of the modifiable risk factors that, if treated, may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relation between serum homocysteine (Hcy) and vitamin levels during AD and its preclinical phase was systematically reviewed. Searches through large
Thombs, Brett D.; Arthurs, Erin; Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Leavens, Allison; Levis, Brooke; Azoulay, Laurent; Smith, Cheri; Ciofani, Luisa; Coyne, James C.; Feeley, Nancy; Gilbody, Simon; Schinazi, Joy; Stewart, Donna E.; Zelkowitz, Phyllis
Objective: Clinical practice guidelines disagree on whether health care professionals should screen women for depression during pregnancy or postpartum. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether depression screening improves depression outcomes among women during pregnancy or
Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine; Bossuyt, Patrick M M
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research.
effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation, especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as mobilization, standard medical care, and acupuncture. Conclusion: There is an emerging body of evidence, albeit small, that supports the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain in the short term. Due to common methodological flaws in the primary research, which informed the systematic reviews, recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution. Keywords: massage therapy, systematic review, evidence-based practice, complementary and alternative medicine
Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
S.T.M. Peek, E.J.M. Wouters, J. van Hoof, K.G. Luijkx, H.R. Boeije, H.J.M. Vrijhoef (2014) Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(4):235-248 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.20
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...
Lizhou Liu; Margot Skinner; Suzanne McDonough; Leon Mabire; George David Baxter
Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were ge...
Soleymanifard, Fateme; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohamad; Nouri, Jamile Mokhtari
Objective: Tonsillectomy is the most common surgery in the field of ENT. Pain is the most common post tonsillectomy complaint. Considering the importance of nursing cares in relieving post-surgery pain in general and post-tonsillectomy pain in particular, this study is conducted with the aim of presenting nursing process in post tonsillectomy pain diagnosis for decreasing loss of appropriate opportunities in nursing cares and achieving appropriate results in taking care of the patients. Methods: This study is a targeted systematic review focusing on “effective nursing measures in relieving children’s post tonsillectomy pain”. The main stages of searching strategy included searching in electronic sources of Latin databases; Pub Med, Science Direct, and EMBASE and Persian databases; SID, Iran medex, ISC to find published articles from 2009 to 2014. In the end, final synthesis was done on eight articles in English. Findings: Effective nursing measurements for relieving post tonsillectomy pain include: decreasing children’s anxiety through children and their families’ psychological preparation by nurses and other caregivers, using cold compress to reduce neck and jaw pain, presenting distraction techniques, offering fluids and cold foods immediately in the period after surgery, creating a comfortable environment for the children, avoiding too much of talking and adequate sleep. Conclusion: It is recommended to the nursing managers and nurses to perform cares achieved from this systematic review to achieve appropriate results in relieving post tonsillectomy pain. PMID:25560345
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Flavio Fernando Demarco; Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira; Marco Aurelio Peres
OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking t...
Sara Mota Borges Bottino; Cássio M.C. Bottino; Caroline Gomez Regina; Aline Villa Lobo Correia; Wagner Silva Ribeiro
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrator...
Schmid, Gabriele; Henningsen, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sattel, Heribert; Lahmann, Claas
Abstract Background: About 30-50% of complex dizziness disorders are organically not sufficiently explained or related to a psychiatric disorder. Of patients with such dizziness disorders, 80% are severely impaired by dizziness in their daily lives; nevertheless, they are often not diagnosed and treated adequately. Objectives: This review aims to give a systematic overview of psychotherapeutic approaches and their efficacy regarding the treatment of dizziness that is medically ...
Dugdill, L.; Brettle, A; Hulme, C.; McCluskey, Serena; Long, A F
Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommended...
Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE
INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...
The aim of this article was to examine the research articles regarding biological and mechanical properties of cryopreserved teeth for potential use in tooth transplantation. A systematic review of literatures was performed by Pubmed searching with assigned key words from January 1, 1990 to June 8, 2009. All articles were examined for inclusion criteria. Secondary search was conducted by hand-search through references of included articles from primary search. A total of 24 articles were obtai...
Fung-Kee-Fung, M.; Kennedy, E.B.; Biagi, J.; Colgan, T.; D’Souza, D.; Elit, L.M.; Hunter, A.; Irish, J.; McLeod, R.; Rosen, B.
Background A system-level organizational guideline for gynecologic oncology was identified by a provincial cancer agency as a key priority based on input from stakeholders, data showing more limited availability of multidisciplinary or specialist care in lower-volume than in higher-volume hospitals in the relevant jurisdiction, and variable rates of staging for ovarian and endometrial cancer patients. Methods A systematic review assessed the relationship of the organization of gynecologic oncology services with patient survival and surgical outcomes. The electronic databases medline and embase (ovid: 1996 through 9 January 2015) were searched using terms related to gynecologic malignancies combined with organization of services, patterns of care, and various facility and physician characteristics. Outcomes of interest included overall or disease-specific survival, short-term survival, adequate staging, and degree of cytoreduction or optimal cytoreduction (or both) for ovarian cancer patients by hospital or physician type, and rate of discrepancy in initial diagnoses and intraoperative consultation between non-specialist pathologists and gyne-oncology–specialist pathologists. Results One systematic review and sixteen additional primary studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence base as a whole was judged to be of lower quality; however, a trend toward improved outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology was found, particularly with respect to the gynecologic oncology care of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Conclusions Improvements in outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology services can be attributed to a number of factors, including access to specialist care and multidisciplinary team management. Findings of this systematic review should be used with caution because of the limitations of the evidence base; however, an expert consensus process made it possible to create recommendations for implementation. PMID:26300679
Érico de M. Silveira Jr.; Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna
Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD).Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review...
Truppel, Thiago Christel; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Calixto, Riciana do Carmo; Peruzzo, Simone Aparecida; Crozeta, Karla
This is a methodological research, which aimed at organizing the systematization of nursing assistance in a critical care unit. The following steps were carried out: description of the nursing practice; transcription of nursing diagnoses; elaboration of a protocol for nursing diagnosis based in International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP); determination of nursing prescriptions and the elaboration of guidelines for care and procedures. The nursing practice and care complexity in ICU were characterized. Thus, systematization of nursing assistance is understood as a valuable tool for nursing practice.
Thompson, M.; Van den Bruel, A.; Verbakel, J.; Lakhanpaul, M.; Haj-Hassan, T.; Stevens, R.; Moll, HA; Buntinx, F.; Berger, M.; Aertgeerts, B.; Oostenbrink, R.; Mant, D.
Background: Although the vast majority of children with acute infections are managed at home, this is one of the most common problems encountered in children attending emergency departments (EDs) and primary care. Distinguishing children with serious infection from those with minor or self-limiting
I.J. Higginson; C.J. Evans; G. Grande; N. Preston; M. Morgan; P. MCrone; P. Lewis; P. Fayers; R. Harding; M. Hotopf; S.A. Murray; H. Benalia; M. Gysels; M. Farquhar; C. Todd
Background Despite being a core business of medicine, end of life care (EoLC) is neglected. It is hampered by research that is difficult to conduct with no common standards. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidance on the best methods for the design and conduct of research on EoLC to further know
Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Borgstein, Alexander Berend-Jan; Sondaal, Stephanie F V; Grobbee, Diederick E; Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Verwijs, Mirjam; Ansah, Evelyn K; Browne, Joyce L; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face the highest burden of maternal and neonatal deaths. Concurrently, they have the lowest number of physicians. Innovative methods such as the exchange of health-related information using mobile devices (mHealth) may support health care workers
OBJECTIVE. A systematic search and critical appraisal of interdisciplinary literature was conducted to evaluate the evidence for practicing mindfulness to treat job burnout and to explore implications for occupational therapy practitioners. METHOD. Eight articles met inclusion criteria. Each study was assessed for quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. We used the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines to determine strength of evidence. RESULTS. Of the studies reviewed, participants included health care professionals and teachers; no studies included occupational therapy practitioners. Six of the 8 studies demonstrated statistically significant decreases in job burnout after mindfulness training. Seven of the studies were of fair to good quality. CONCLUSION. There is strong evidence for the use of mindfulness practice to reduce job burnout among health care professionals and teachers. Research is needed to fill the gap on whether mindfulness is effective for treating burnout in occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:26943107
Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone
: Systematic reviews require straightforward questions, search strategy definition, establishment of study inclusion and exclusion criteria and careful analysis of the selected literature. The development process for reviews of this type includes characterization of each selected study, evaluation of their quality, identification of important concepts, comparison of statistical analyses used and conclusions regarding what the literature tells us about a specific intervention. Such reviews also suggest problems/questions that need further investigation. Systematic review studies follow the structure of original articles. CONCLUSION: Good systematic reviews are important resources, in the light of the accelerated growth of scientific information. These studies help in producing syntheses of the evidence available in the literature on specific interventions, and may help clinicians and researchers in their work process.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 2400.20... SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.20 Systematic review for declassification. (a) Permanent records. Systematic review is applicable only to those classified records, and presidential...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13... REPRESENTATIVE Declassification and Downgrading § 2008.13 Systematic review guidelines. Within 180 days after the..., issue and maintain guidelines for systematic review of classified information originated by the...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for... years old. (2) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will...
Jasmine B. MacDonald
Full Text Available The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010, which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journalism experience, working in small circulation newspapers. Editors and reporters seem to experience higher levels of burnout than those in other roles, as do journalists in non-management positions. The thorough and structured process adopted in this review provides the ability to assert with some degree of certainty what areas within the burnout and journalism literature require further consideration. This review emphasises and problematises the large focus on male reporters in newspaper settings, settings that are becoming less significant over time. Studies have tended to focus on reporters, without providing a convincing a priori rationale. What is lacking is consideration of other role groups central to broadcast news, such as camera-operators. A range of methodological and theoretical issues and future areas of research are discussed.
do Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane; Backes, Dirce Stein; Koerich, Magda Santos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini
This study is the result of an extended project, named: The systematization of nursing care in the perspective of complex thinking. The objective of this qualitative study is to better comprehend the meaning of the systematization of nursing care among healthcare professionals. The Data-Based Theory was used as a methodological reference. Data were collected by interviewing three sample groups, in a total of fifteen healthcare professionals. Data codification and analysis led us to the central theme: Viewing the Systematization of Nursing Care (SNC) as an Interactive and Complex Phenomenon. This theme is complemented by two phenomena. In this article, we discuss the phenomenon: Verifying the necessity of on interactive, complementary, and multi-professional process. The Systematization of Nursing Care is part of a process that has been developing over time by nurses committed to improve the care given to the patient, since they view the necessity for interactive, complementary, and multi-professional care.
Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M
The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. PMID:25772195
Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M
The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.
Conclusion Although there is validation that CDSS has the potential to produce statistically significant improvement in outcomes, there is much variability among the types and methods of CDSS implementation and resulting effectiveness. As CDSS will likely continue to be at the forefront of the march toward effective standards-based care, more work needs to be done to determine effective implementation strategies for the use of CDSS across multiple settings and patient populations.
Yu. V. Lukina
Full Text Available Methods that allow to systematize the accumulated information on specifically formulated questions, analyze it and make reliable findings are of great interest and popularity with the emergence of a huge number of studies and publications in various fields of medicine, a significant increase in information, failure to identify weak effects in the individual studies. The use of systematic reviews and high-quality meta-analysis is an analytical basis of evidence-based medicine, it is a very valuable tool for decision-making at the level of practitioner, health care leaders and experts in the preparation of guidelines and legislation concerning the use of the most effective and safe treatments, when planning future research, in the development of rational health policy. Features of methods of systematic review and meta-analysis and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed in the article. The authors present the historical facts of occurrence of the Cochrane Collaboration, whose main task is to systematize and analyze accumulated information from a variety of medical research. The contribution of Russian researchers into this field of medical science is also assessed.
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.
Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M
Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting. PMID:27287621
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals.A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories 'Anesthesiology', 'Critical Care Medicine' and 'Respiratory System' as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1 population: small laboratory mammals; 2 intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3 comparison: not specified; 4 primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5 study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article.The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3% and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2% per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1% and 38/732 (5.2% interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1% and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4% was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%, transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%, carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%, decapitation (22/501, 5%, exsanguination (23/501, 5%, other (25/501, 5% and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively.The present systematic review revealed insufficient reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia
Full Text Available Background: The practice of low vs. high sedation dosing strategy may impact the cognitive and mental health function in the intensive care unit (ICU. We aim to demonstrate that high sedation strategy will result in change of mental health function in ICU patients. Methods: We performed a systemic search and meta-analysis of medical databases in MEDLINE(from 1966 to March 2013 and EMBASE (from 1980 to March 2013, as well as the Cochrane Library using the MESH terms "Intensive Care Unit," and "Mental Health, for assessing the impact of sedation on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD or anxiety/depression and deliriumin the mix ICU setting including cardiac surgery patients. A total of 1216 patients were includedin the final analysis.Results: We included 11 studies in the final analysis and concluded that high dose sedationstrategy resulted in higher incidence of cognitive dysfunction with P value of 0.009. Theresult for subgroup of delirium showed P = 0.11 and PTSD/depression or anxiety of P = 0.001,Heterogeneity I2 was 64%. Overall analysis was statistically significant with a P value of 0.002.Conclusion: High sedation dosing strategy will negatively affect cognitive function in criticallyill patients. Large randomized trials are needed to address cognitive dysfunction in subgroup of patients with delirium.
Jacob Isaac Jason
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on various physiotherapy management for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Methods: A search of the literature was conducted using Clinical Key, ProQuest and PEDro databases up to September 2015. Search limits included the English language and human studies. Search terms included adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, Physical therapy, Physiotherapy etc. Inclusion criteria: Systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs in English language were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (a patients with adhesive capsulitis were included, (b results on pain and function were reported, and (c a study period of at least two weeks was reported. Articles were assessed using the Jadad (1 scale and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale. ‘High-quality’ was defined as a “yes” score of 50% in Jadad scale and a PEDro rating of 5 out of 10. Totally 17 studies were selected for this systematic review. Conclusion: This study has found sufficient level of evidence for physiotherapy in the treatment of adhesive capsulitis the shoulder. In particular, manual treatment must be combined with commonly indicated exercise or conventional physiotherapy, as it remains the standard care.
Full Text Available Medication Errors (MEs are a common cause for iatrogenic adverse events. A systematic review of MEs in prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administration and documentation in adults and children was done. We included all types of studies that reported the incidence of medication errors or identified the causes of MEs, either in adults or children. All healthcare professionals have a responsibility in identifying contributing factors to medication errors and to use that information to further reduce their occurrence. Developing countries urgently need to introduce professional programmes to improve prescribing skills and knowledge of prescribers, and to encourage nurses to improve their quality of drug administration.
Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren;
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...
Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela
Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares
This study is a research that has as objective analyze the bibliographical production about the Systematization of Nursing Care in order to discuss concepts associated to the subject. Were analyzed books and national articles published in the database of the Virtual Library in Health, Medline, Lilacs and Scielo, in the period of January of 2000 to January of 2008. Were analyzed 11 articles, having been identified three distinct kind of thought to define concepts associated to Systematization of Nursing Care. Such fact aims for the difficulty of theoretical and pratical articulation, evidenced by the conflicts existing in the literature.
Malucelli, Andreia; Otemaier, Kelly Rafaela; Bonnet, Marcel; Cubas, Marcia Regina; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro
It is an unquestionable fact, the importance, relevance and necessity of implementing the Nursing Care Systematization in the different environments of professional practice. Considering it as a principle, emerged the motivation for the development of an information system to support the Nursing Care Systematization, based on Nursing Process steps and Human Needs, using the diagnoses language, nursing interventions and outcomes for professional practice documentation. This paper describes the methodological steps and results of the information system development - requirements elicitation, modeling, object-relational mapping, implementation and system validation.
Backes, Dirce Stein; Koerich, Magda Santos; Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane do; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini
This study aimed to understand the meaning of Nursing Care Systematization (NCS) for multiprofessional health team professionals based on the relationships, interactions and associations of Complex thought. This qualitative study uses Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data were obtained through interviews with three sample groups, totaling 15 professionals from different institutions. Simultaneous data codification and analysis identified the central theme: 'Glimpsing nursing care systematization as an interactive and multidimensional phenomenon' and the respective reference model. NCS appoints, in addition to interactivity and professional complementarity, the importance of dialog and connection between the academy, health practices and regulatory offices, based on new reference frameworks for the organization of health practices.
Full Text Available Objective ‐ Within the health care field it becomes ever more critical to conduct systematic reviews of the research literature to guide programmatic activities, policy‐making decisions, and future research. Conducting systematic reviews requires a comprehensive search of behavioural, social, and policy research to identify relevant literature. As a result, the validity of the systematic review findings and recommendations is partly a function of the quality of the systematic search of the literature. Therefore, a carefully thought out and organized plan for developing and testing a comprehensive search strategy should be followed. This paper uses the HIV/AIDS prevention literature to provide a framework for developing, testing, and conducting a comprehensive search strategy looking beyond RCTs.Methods ‐ Comprehensive search strategies, including automated and manual search techniques, were developed, tested, and implemented to locate published and unpublished citations in order to build a database of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD literature. The search incorporated various automated and manual search methods to decrease the chance of missing pertinent information. The automated search was implemented in MEDLINE, EMBASE,PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and AIDSLINE. These searches utilized both index terms as well as keywords including truncation, proximity, and phrases. The manual search method includes physically examining journals (hand searching, reference list checks, and researching key authors.Results ‐ Using automated and manual search components, the search strategy retrieved 17,493 articles about prevention of HIV/AIDS and STDs for the years 1988‐2005. The automated search found 91%, and the manual search contributed 9% of the articles reporting on HIV/AIDS or STD interventions with behavioural/biologic outcomes. Among the citations located with automated searches, 48% were found in only one database (20
Full Text Available Background: School Nursing embraces the pupil communities and school life in many a country across the world. This article focuses onGreek reality and analyses the Nurses’ role in emergency health care-related issues from a legal perspective in the last thirty years (1982-2011. Presented are the evolution of School Nursing in Greece, Legal Provisions pertaining to it, Professional Duties, and the work ofSchool Nurses, keeping abreast of existing legal bibliography including the latest Act, which introduces the description of duties vis-à-visemergency health care.Aim: This study links Greek School Nurses with Emergency Health Care in the School Environment. It is aimed at updating and raisingawareness about further legal regulation of emergency care procedures at Schools and constructing a model to be compared to the currentlegislation and practice in other countries.Methods: Systematic review of laws and review of articles published in the last 30 years (1982-2011 in scientific journals,academic databases included in HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED,PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCOPUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms of Greeklanguage «Σχολική Νοσηλευτική», (“School Nursing” [MeSH], «Ειδική Αγωγή» (“Special Education” [MeSH],«Επείγουσα Φροντίδα» (“Emergency Care” [MeSH], «Νοσηλευτική Νομοθεσία» (“Law and Nursing Ethics” [MeSH],«Άτομα με Ειδικές Ανάγκες» (“Children with Special Needs” [MeSH], «Πρώτες Βοήθεις» («First Aid» [MeSH].Discussion: School Nursing in Greece is only limited to Special Education whereas health care procedures are rather unclear from a legalpoint of view. Further clinical training, wider roles for nurses in emergency care, and the introduction of School Nurses in all Schools and ofa legal framework supporting them may be some of the
Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; de Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida; Penido, Norma de Oliveira
Tinnitus is considered a multi-factorial symptom. Arterial hypertension has been cited as a tinnitus etiological factor. To assess the scientific evidence on the associations between arterial hypertension and tinnitus. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, ISI Web, Lilacs and SciELO scientific databases. This review included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English correlating tinnitus with hypertension. Letters to editors and case reports were excluded. A total of 424 articles were identified, of which only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Studies that analyzed the incidence of hypertension in tinnitus patients tended to show an association, while those that evaluated the incidence of tinnitus in hypertensive patients did not. There is evidence of an association between tinnitus and hypertension, although a cause and effect relationship is uncertain. Changes in the cochlear microcirculation, resulting in hearing loss, may be an adjuvant factor in tinnitus pathophysiology.
Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.
Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Chen, Yen-Fu; Moher, David; Sutcliffe, Paul; McCarthy, Noel
Healthcare consumers, researchers, patients and policy makers increasingly use systematic reviews (SRs) to aid their decision-making process. However, the conduct of SRs can be a time-consuming and resource-intensive task. Often, clinical practice guideline developers or other decision-makers need to make informed decisions in a timely fashion (e.g. outbreaks of infection, hospital-based health technology assessments). Possible approaches to address the issue of timeliness in the production of SRs are to (a) implement process parallelisation, (b) adapt and apply innovative technologies, and/or (c) modify SR processes (e.g. study eligibility criteria, search sources, data extraction or quality assessment). Highly parallelised systematic reviewing requires substantial resources to support a team of experienced information specialists, reviewers and methodologists working alongside with clinical content experts to minimise the time for completing individual review steps while maximising the parallel progression of multiple steps. Effective coordination and management within the team and across external stakeholders are essential elements of this process. Emerging innovative technologies have a great potential for reducing workload and improving efficiency of SR production. The most promising areas of application would be to allow automation of specific SR tasks, in particular if these tasks are time consuming and resource intensive (e.g. language translation, study selection, data extraction). Modification of SR processes involves restricting, truncating and/or bypassing one or more SR steps, which may risk introducing bias to the review findings. Although the growing experiences in producing various types of rapid reviews (RR) and the accumulation of empirical studies exploring potential bias associated with specific SR tasks have contributed to the methodological development for expediting SR production, there is still a dearth of research examining the actual
Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.;
structured approach to support EPIs selection is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made in order to identify, classify and systematize the existing EPIs based on the systematic literature review. From the review, 261 EPIs were identified, classified, and then systematized in a digital database...
Full Text Available Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods: Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results: Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. Keywords: floorball, unihockey, review
Heena Akbar; Debra Anderson; Danielle Gallegos
Purpose: To systematically review the Theory of Planned Behaviour studies predicting self-care intentions and behaviours in populations with and at-risk of diabetes. Methods: A systematic review using six electronic databases was conducted in 2013. A standardised protocol was used for appraisal. Studies eligibility included a measure of behaviour for healthy eating, physical activity, glucose monitoring, medication use (ii) the TPB variables (iii) the TPB tested in populations with diabete...
Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E.; Beck, Charles R; Gayle P Dolan; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.
Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently....
Corso, Nair Assunta Antônia; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Dalmeida, Patrícia Chagas Rocha; Albuquerque, Maria Girlene de Freitas
An experience report of nurses in the implementation of care systematization in ambulatory care in an interdisciplinary care center for patients with multiple sclerosis of a public hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. This implementation is based on the NANDA International, Inc., Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcomes Classifications. One of the results concerns systemized nursing care, which has enabled the identification and understanding of the responses of MS patients to potential and current health problems. Systematization entails expanding knowledge through a practice based on approach and encourage further research scientific evidence, in addition to promoting the role of the nurse in acomprehensive approachand encourage further research.
Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela
Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.
Robert D McGuigan
Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.
Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.
The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. T
A. Downie (Aron); C.M. Williams (Christopher); N. Henschke (Nicholas); M.J. Hancock (Mark J.); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond); H.C.W. de Vet (Henrica); P. MacAskill (Petra); L. Irwig (Les); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); B.W. Koes (Bart); C. Maher (Chris)
markdownabstractAbstract Objective To review the evidence on diagnostic accuracy of red flag signs and symptoms to screen for fracture or malignancy in patients presenting with low back pain to primary, secondary, or tertiary care. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline, OldMedline, Emba
Wells Cherie; Kolt Gregory S; Marshall Paul; Hill Bridget; Bialocerkowski Andrea
Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of...
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L
Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.
Érico de M. Silveira Jr.
Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD.Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review articles were excluded. Seventeen articles were ultimately analyzed and included in the review.Results:Rumination is present in all BD phases, is a stable interepisodic symptom, is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania, and may occur in response to both positive and negative affect. There is no research on rumination and neurobiological findings in patients with BD.Conclusions:Rumination seems to be independent of mood state, but shows close relationship with it. It is possible that rumination has a negative impact on cognitive and executive functions, particularly inhibitory control. Finally, rumination is an important symptom in both phases of BD, and, therefore, may be a useful target for further exploration as a dimensional domain and a transdiagnostic phenomenon in Research Domain Criteria (RDoC projects.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.
Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit
In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.
Full Text Available Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63% had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA, speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.
Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad
Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63%) had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA), speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.
Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara
Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.
Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... patients) were included. Only low-quality evidence is available, and the literature consists of case reports and case series. Studies represent the initial experience of surgeons/centres. No precise indication for TaTME is yet specified other than the presence of mid and low rectal tumours, although...... the potential advantages seem to be related to a bulky mesorectum in the male pelvis. The preliminary results are encouraging and the most serious complication is urethral injury. The oncological results are acceptable, although the follow-up is short. CONCLUSION: TaTME is a feasible approach for mid and low...
Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop;
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...
Alessandra da Silva Pereira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar estudos longitudinais que permitam inferir sobre a influência da creche no estado nutricional de crianças pré-escolares. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão sistemática de trabalhos científicos publicados entre janeiro de 1990 e dezembro de 2008. Buscaram-se os estudos nas seguintes bases de dados: Lilacs, Scielo e PubMed. Realizou-se também pesquisa manual dos artigos referenciados. A busca ocorreu no período de março de 2008 a junho de 2009, e os descritores utilizados foram: "creche", "estado nutricional", "antropometria", "consumo alimentar", "anemia" e "alimentação escolar". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Na primeira etapa do estudo, obtiveram-se 78 artigos, mas somente sete puderam ser incluídos. Os outros 71 não apresentaram dados para contribuir com o objetivo específico deste estudo. Entre os artigos pesquisados na literatura, existem poucos que permitem inferir sobre a influência que a creche pode ter em relação ao estado nutricional de pré-escolares. Contudo, estudos longitudinais têm mostrado a relação causal entre a presença frequente da criança na creche e a melhoria do estado nutricional. CONCLUSÕES: Existe uma relação positiva entre a frequência da criança na creche e a melhoria do estado nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare longitudinal studies on how daycare centers influence preschoolers' nutritional status. DATA SOURCE: Systematic review of scientific papers published from January 1990 to December 2008. Studies were retrieved from the following databases: Lilacs, Scielo and PubMed. Manual search of papers was carried out as well. The review occurred between March 2008 and June 2009, and the searched terms were: "child day care center", "nutritional status", "anthropometry", "food consumption", "anemia" and "food program". DATA SYNTHESIS: In the first stage 78 papers were obtained, but only seven of them could be used. The other 71 did not have data to contribute with the specific
Gholami-Kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel
Background: The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full s...
Jumah, Naana Afua
The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Twenty-two articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Descriptive studies document high rates of smoking, marijuana, and polysubstance use among rural, substance-using pregnant women compared to their urban counterparts. Management of substance use disorders is limited by access to and acceptability of treatment modalities. Several innovative, integrated addiction and prenatal care programs have been developed, which may serve as models for management of substance use during pregnancy in rural settings. PMID:27375357
Wade, Victoria A; Karnon, Jonathan; Elshaug, Adam G.; Hiller, Janet E
Background Telehealth is the delivery of health care at a distance, using information and communication technology. The major rationales for its introduction have been to decrease costs, improve efficiency and increase access in health care delivery. This systematic review assesses the economic value of one type of telehealth delivery - synchronous or real time video communication - rather than examining a heterogeneous range of delivery modes as has been the case with previous reviews in thi...
Full Text Available Maria Crema, Chiara Verbano Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy Purpose: The need to respond to accreditation institutes' and patients' requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results: A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion: This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health
Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.
Full Text Available Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture’s effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.14–1.44. The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89. Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation.
Broekman, Marike L; Carrière, Michelle E; Bredenoord, Annelien L
The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation.Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges.To answer the question "What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?", we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers.We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure.We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health care system might
Broekman, Marike L; Carrière, Michelle E; Bredenoord, Annelien L
The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation.Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges.To answer the question "What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?", we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers.We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure.We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health care system might
Pihlainen, Vuokko; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach - A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings - The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value - The authors' evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original.
Rachel M Lee
Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu
Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S
Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S
Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535
Full Text Available Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE. Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3 was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD and mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199.
Brain, Oliver; Rajaguru, Chandima; Warren, Bryan; Booth, Jonathan; Travis, Simon
Collagenous gastritis is a rare disorder first described in 1989. After encountering two cases, we decided to review the literature and evaluate the collagen band. A systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed. Twenty-eight cases have been previously described and two patterns of presentations are identifiable: children or young adults (median age 12 years, range 2-22 years) presenting with symptoms attributable to the gastritis (anaemia and pain); and older adults (median age 52 years, range 35-77 years) presenting with loose stools, often associated with collagenous colitis or coeliac disease. Our two cases (one child and one adult) matched this pattern. Immunostaining of the collagen band for collagens II, III, IV and VI, and tenascin showed that the band in our cases was predominantly tenascin. In conclusion, collagenous gastritis is a rare entity whose presentation depends on the age of the patient. An autoimmune aetiology seems possible given its associations. Treatment is empirical. The 30 cases now reported show that the disorder can relapse or persist for years. PMID:19730387
Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak
The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085
Systematization of regional maternal and child health care is discussed. At present regional maternal and child health care is mainly carried out by public health nurses, midwives, and maternal/child health promotor volunteers. Administrative measures taken so far in connection with maternal and child care are: early notification of pregnancy, issuance of mother/child health memo book, frequent check-ups during pregnancy, expectant mothers' education, baby check-ups, inoculation, and a special care of premature babies. 2 models for the systematization are proposed. According to the 1st model, a public health nurse starts to function whenever one or more of the following occurs. Birth registration and request for counseling from a nursing mother have been filed at the public health office. The notice of release of a nursing mother and request for home visiting from the medical institution arrive. Maternal and child health promotors advise guidance through home visiting. Midwives will play an important role among the patients with postpartum complications. Another model emphasizes the importance of the patient's continuing relationship with the medical institution where the birth took place. A midwife and a public health nurse interested in regional maternal and child care will be placed in the medical institution to engage in home visiting after the release of the patients. In addition to the usual 1 month baby check-up, one at 2 weeks is given for the benefit of nursing mothers. Regional public health nurses concentrate on the care of high risk patients, premarital pregnancy, and family planning. As systematization progresses, it becomes necessary to have a liason department of obstetrics and an information exchange system to achieve better communication between medical institutions and an administrative body.
... for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Health Assessments--February 2013... out literature-based health assessments that incorporates systematic review methodology. Systematic... a framework for incorporating systematic review and evidence integration into NTP...
Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cupping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials with cupping as concomitant treatment together with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials were also excluded if pain was not a central symptom of the condition. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < .01 and analgesia (P < .001. Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < .05 and trigeminal neuralgia (P < .01 compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics, respectively. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = .03 or heat pad (P < .001. The other RCT failed to show superior effects of cupping on pain in herpes zoster compared with anti-viral medication (P = .065. Currently there are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of cupping in the management of pain. Most of the existing trials are of poor quality. Therefore, more rigorous studies are required before the effectiveness of cupping for the treatment of pain can be determined.
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical
Cohen, A M; Hersh, W R; Peterson, K; Yen, Po-Yin
Objective: To determine whether automated classification of document citations can be useful in reducing the time spent by experts reviewing journal articles for inclusion in updating systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for treatment of disease.
Haddaway, Neal R; Watson, Maggie J
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are widely accepted as the best means to synthesise quantitative or qualitative scientific evidence. Many scientific fields have embraced these more rigorous review techniques as a means to bring together large and complex bodies of literature and their data. Unfortunately, due to perceived difficulties and unfamiliarity with processes, other fields are not using these options to review their literature. One way to provide guidance for a specific field is to examine critically recent reviews and meta-analyses and to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the various review techniques. In this paper, we examine review papers in the emerging field of wildlife parasitology and compare five different literature review types-configurative narrative review, aggregative scoping review, aggregative literature review, aggregative meta-analysis, and aggregative systematic review. We found that most literature reviews did not adequately explain the methodology used to find the literature under review. We also found that most literature reviews were not comprehensive nor did they critically appraise the literature under review. Such a lack severely reduces the reliability of the reviews. We encourage all authors to consider using systematic reviews in the future, and for authors and peer-reviewers to be aware of the limitations of non-systematic reviews. PMID:27617203
M. Jason Highsmith, PhD, DPT, CP, FAAOP
Full Text Available Considering transtibial amputation (TTA rehabilitation costs and complexity, high-quality literature should inform clinical practice. Systematic reviews (SRs suggest this is not the case. This article's purpose was to review the highest-quality evidence available to guide clinical practice for TTA regarding five prosthetic intervention areas. Six databases were searched for high-quality SRs and prospective clinical trials (randomized clinical trials [RCTs]. Reviewers screened, sorted, rated (i.e., methodologic quality, bias risk, and extracted article data. Meta-analyses were conducted when possible. Thirty-one references were included (25 RCTs and 6 SRs. Five topical areas emerged (alignment, feet and ankles, interface, postoperative care, pylons. Twenty-three evidence statements were supported by level 2 evidence and eight by level 1 evidence. All RCTs reported randomization and reasonable data presentation. Concealed allocation and blinding were not widely used. Mean attrition was 11%. SRs included no meta-analyses. Functional level was poorly reported. Grouping feet and ankle components by functional classification enabled meta-analyses, though variance was considerable given the small sample sizes. Prosthetic interventions are generally safe for TTAs. High-quality literature enabled formulation of evidence statements to support select clinical practice areas, though quantity was lacking. Thus, numerous topics related to TTA care lack rigorous evidence. Although blinding in prosthetic research requires increased funding and effort, it could greatly improve the methodologic quality of prosthetic research.
Wider, Barbara; Boddy, Kate
Systematic reviews (SRs) are considered the best tools for summarizing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of health care interventions. The principles and methods of SRs apply equally to both, mainstream and complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). Certain challenges are, however, more commonly encountered in CAM or even specific to it; this article is aimed at raising awareness of these among systematic reviewers. When searching for literature, specific issues relating to specialist databases, indexing, access, foreign language studies, and certain forms of publication bias need to be considered. Researchers also need to be aware of the difficulties of comparing CAM studies and address the variability between studies. CAM modalities are highly diversified and great variations exist in the standardization of herbal products and other dietary supplements. Individualization of treatment as well as different classifications of disease and different diagnostic methods need to be addressed. Expectation bias is high in CAM, and finding appropriate controls and blinding are often challenging. It is important that these issues are taken into account early on in the planning stages of an SR so that proper consideration can be given to the search strategies, inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods of analysis with the overall aim of reducing bias. PMID:19942632
Full Text Available Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1–3, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,4, Farhad Fazel2,3, Peyman Roomizadeh1,4, Masoud Etemadifar5, Keivan Jenab2,3, Mojtaba Akbari11Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 3Isfahan Eye Research Center (IERC, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 4Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Neurology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranBackground and purpose: Topiramate (TPM is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue.Methods: For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance.Results: A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma. A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results.Discussion: Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM
Health care practitioners and researchers commonly call for greater reliance on evidence as a means to achieve improvement in quality of care. Systematic reviews provide a means to accelerate the use of evidence-based clinical interventions and public health practices. The extent to which these time- and resource-intensive systematic reviews currently address critical maternal health priorities in the intrapartum period is unclear. This analysis summarises key maternal health and research priorities, maps these priorities to existing reviews, identifies gaps in the literature that can be addressed with systematic reviews, and highlights key methodological concerns in conducting systematic reviews. The analysis draws on published data on maternal morbidities and an overview of 108 systematic reviews in Medline in the past 5 years using the MeSH terms 'Delivery, Obstetric,' to draw the links between health priorities, research priorities, existing evidence and missing evidence. Key causes of morbidity during labour and delivery in the United States include haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, obstetric trauma and infection. Analyses of maternal morbidity and mortality suggest that key concerns include racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes and the prevention of adverse events. Systematic reviews, however, generally tend to focus on the reduction of harms associated with interventions, are frequently limited to randomised designs, and do not address issues of health disparities. The results suggest that advances in evidence-based care in maternal health require that systematic reviews address issues of prevention of adverse events, include a larger variety of study designs when necessary and pay closer attention to health disparities.
Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon
Al-Amleh, B; Lyons, K; Swain, M
Zirconia is unique in its polymorphic crystalline makeup, reported to be sensitive to manufacturing and handling processes, and there is debate about which processing method is least harmful to the final product. Currently, zirconia restorations are manufactured by either soft or hard-milling processes, with the manufacturer of each claiming advantages over the other. Chipping of the veneering porcelain is reported as a common problem and has been labelled as its main clinical setback. The objective of this systematic review is to report on the clinical success of zirconia-based restorations fabricated by both milling processes, in regard to framework fractures and veneering porcelain chipping. A comprehensive review of the literature was completed for in vivo trials on zirconia restorations in MEDLINE and PubMed between 1950 and 2009. A manual hand search of relevant dental journals was also completed. Seventeen clinical trials involving zirconia-based restorations were found, 13 were conducted on fixed partial dentures, two on single crowns and two on zirconia implant abutments, of which 11 were based on soft-milled zirconia and six on hard-milled zirconia. Chipping of the veneering porcelain was a common occurrence, and framework fracture was only observed in soft-milled zirconia. Based on the limited number of short-term in vivo studies, zirconia appears to be suitable for the fabrication of single crowns, and fixed partial dentures and implant abutments providing strict protocols during the manufacturing and delivery process are adhered to. Further long-term prospective studies are necessary to establish the best manufacturing process for zirconia-based restorations. PMID:20406352
Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D
Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack
Oliver, K.; R. Rees; Brady, L. M.; Kavanagh, J; Oliver, S; Thomas, J.
Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies.
Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S
The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26371438
Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.