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Sample records for care study ovis

  1. The population-based oncological health care study OVIS – recruitment of the patients and analysis of the non-participants

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    Raspe Heiner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the population is expected to bring an enormous growth in demand for oncological health care. In order to anticipate and respond to future trends, cancer care needs to be critically evaluated. The present study explores the possibility of conducting representative and population-based research on cancer care on the basis of data drawn from the Cancer Registry. Methods A population-based state-wide cohort study (OVIS has been carried out in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. All patients with malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer were identified in the Cancer Registry. Epidemiological data were obtained for all the patients and screened for study eligibility. A postal questionnaire requesting information on diagnosis, therapy, QoL and aftercare was sent to eligible patients. Results A total of 11,489 persons diagnosed with the cancer types of interest in the period from January 2002 to July 2004 were registered in the Cancer Registry. Of the 5,354 (47% patients who gave consent for research, 4,285 (80% of consenters completed the questionnaire. In terms of relevant epidemiological variables, participants with melanoma were not found to be different from non-participants with the same diagnosis. However, participants with breast or prostate cancer were slightly younger and had smaller tumours than patients who did not participate in our study. Conclusion Population-based cancer registry data proved to be an invaluable resource for both patient recruitment and non-participant analysis. It can help improve our understanding of the strength and nature of differences between participants and non-respondents. Despite minor differences observed in breast and prostate cancer, the OVIS-sample seems to represent the source population adequately.

  2. Fluorescence Spectroscopic Studies on Ovis Lactoperoxidase

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    P. V. Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovis lactoperoxidase (sLP, on excitation at 280 nm shows fluorescence emission of a single broad maximum at 332 nm. The conformational stability was measured by unfolding studies in urea and guanidine hydrochloride. The fluorescence intensity gradually decreased with increase in urea concentrations. The decline might have been caused by partial unfolding, affecting some of the tryptophan residues. In 5 M GuHCl concentrations, a red shift in emission maximum to 356 nm was observed. It indicates that tryptophan is buried in the interior of the hydrophobic environment in native folded state and inaccessible to solvent water but on unfolding all get exposed to aqueous environment. Acrylamide is an efficient quencher and the quenching process is essentially homogenous with all tryptophan being accessible. A little quenching is observed for KI is interpreted as sLP has tryptophan residues that are buried inside the core of the protein.

  3. Theileria ovis discovered in China.

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    Li, Youquan; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 989/990 primers was conducted to identify a newly isolated Theileria sp. in Xinjiang Province of China. The target DNA fragments of the complete 18S rRNA gene were cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic relationship of newly isolated Theileria spp. was inferred based on the 18S rRNA gene. The results showed that the new Theileria sp. belonged to the cluster of Theileria ovis. Moreover, the findings were confirmed by T. ovis species-specific PCR. An expected 520 bp fragment of T. ovis DNA was obtained from 25 out of 320 (8%) field blood samples, and blood of an experimental sheep infested by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected in Xinjiang. The infection rate of T. ovis was 78% (25/32) in Xinjiang province. The investigation did not find T. ovis positive samples from the field samples collected from the other twelve provinces. This study indicates that T. ovis is prevalent in Xinjiang province of China and its transmission vector is H. anatolicum anatolicum.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

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    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  5. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis in Lohi Sheep at Livestock Experiment Station (LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

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    Waseem Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.

  6. Oestrus ovis as a cause of red eye in Aljabal Algharbi, Libya

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    Manal Z.M Abdellatif

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : External ophthalmomyiasis caused by Oestrus ovis can cause red eye in patients from Aljabal Algharbi, Libya and requires careful examination to ensure early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. Taenia ovis recombinant vaccine--'quo vadit'.

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    Rickard, M D; Harrison, G B; Heath, D D; Lightowlers, M W

    1995-01-01

    Several years have elapsed since the publication by Johnson et al. (1989) of the cloning of a recombinant antigen from the cestode parasite Taenia ovis which stimulated high levels of protective immunity in sheep. A great deal of subsequent research and development was necessary to bring the fledgling vaccine to the point of being a registered commercial product. The results of these subsequent studies are dealt with briefly in this paper, including the results of field trials. The T. ovis vaccine was registered by the New Zealand Animal Remedies Board in February 1994. Where then is the commercial product? This paper gives a background to market problems which have emerged through the politics (and realities) of the NZ T. ovis control campaign. It serves as notice that the best science dedicated to producing vaccines or products for parasitic, or other, diseases often faces significant hurdles in the real world of commerce and politics.

  8. Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts in a Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

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    2014-02-18

    extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries) model." 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...carotid arteries in sheep . Methods: Three crossbred sheep were anesthetized, instrumented, and had 10 cm interposition grafts placed in both carotid... surgery , two animals had uncomplicated courses without clinical evidence of thrombosis or wound complication. The third animal succumbed from graft failure

  9. Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae e Capra hircus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae parasitados por Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae no Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. The Oestrosis is an obligatory and cavitary myiasis of sheep and goat, wild and domestic, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Linnaeus fly. This study records the presence of O. ovis in the West Central region of Brazil as parasites of goats and sheep. We obtained six larvae from sheep and goats with suspects of oestrosis in Brasília (Brazil originate two females adult of O. ovis, after 20 and 23 days respectively of pupation. This finding is probably associated with expansion and diversification of farming in the Cerrado of the Brazilian central plateau.

  10. Identification of Brucella ovis exclusive genes in field isolates from Argentina.

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    Alvarez, Lucía Paula; García-Effrón, Guillermo; Robles, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is one of the most important infectious diseases of sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes both inside and outside the specific B. ovis pathogenicity island 1 (BOPI-1) in a large collection of field isolates of B. ovis and other Brucella spp. from Argentina. The BOV_A0500 gene from B. ovis BOPI-1 was identified in all 104 B. ovis isolates studied. The BOPI-1 complete sequence was found to be conserved in 10 B. ovis strains from the collection, for which whole genome sequencing was performed. The BOV_0198 gene, which is outside BOPI-1 and considered exclusive to B. ovis, showed 90-100% identity with genomic regions of B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis, B. microti, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. The results demonstrate that BOPI-1 is the only exclusive genetic region of B. ovis and marine Brucella spp. and that it is highly conserved in B. ovis field isolates from Argentina.

  11. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

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    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  12. Generation, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis

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    Kenyon Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by Psoroptes ovis and is arguably the most important ectoparasitic disease affecting sheep in the UK. The disease is highly contagious and causes and considerable pruritis and irritation and is therefore a major welfare concern. Current methods of treatment are unsustainable and in order to elucidate novel methods of disease control a more comprehensive understanding of the parasite is required. To date, no full genomic DNA sequence or large scale transcript datasets are available and prior to this study only 484 P. ovis expressed sequence tags (ESTs were accessible in public databases. Results In order to further expand upon the transcriptomic coverage of P. ovis thus facilitating novel insights into the mite biology we undertook a larger scale EST approach, incorporating newly generated and previously described P. ovis transcript data and representing the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs to date. We sequenced 1,574 ESTs and assembled these along with 484 previously generated P. ovis ESTs, which resulted in the identification of 1,545 unique P. ovis sequences. BLASTX searches identified 961 ESTs with significant hits (E-value P. ovis ESTs. Gene Ontology (GO analysis allowed the functional annotation of 880 ESTs and included predictions of signal peptide and transmembrane domains; allowing the identification of potential P. ovis excreted/secreted factors, and mapping of metabolic pathways. Conclusions This dataset currently represents the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs, all of which are publicly available in the GenBank EST database (dbEST (accession numbers FR748230 - FR749648. Functional analysis of this dataset identified important homologues, including house dust mite allergens and tick salivary factors. These findings offer new insights into the underlying biology of P. ovis, facilitating further investigations into mite biology and the identification of novel methods of intervention.

  13. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

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    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  14. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis).

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    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Plowright, Raina K; Hudson, Peter J

    2014-12-22

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

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    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor (Nematoda: Trichuridae).

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    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yan; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Ye, Yong-Gang; Li, Jia-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-12-01

    For many years, whipworms (Trichuris spp.) have been described with a relatively narrow range of both morphological and biometrical features. Moreover, there has been insufficient discrimination between congeners (or closely related species). In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor, compared them and then tested the hypothesis that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species by phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the mt protein-coding genes. The complete mt genomes of T. ovis and T. discolor were 13,946 bp and 13,904 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes are circular, and consist of 37 genes, including 13 genes coding for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of human and pig whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis. Taken together, these analyses showed genetic distinctiveness and strongly supported the recent proposal that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species using nuclear ribosomal DNA and a portion of the mtDNA sequence dataset. The availability of the complete mtDNA sequences of T. ovis and T. discolor provides novel genetic markers for studying the population genetics, diagnostics and molecular epidemiology of T. ovis and T. discolor.

  17. First molecular isolation of Mycoplasma ovis from small ruminants in North Africa

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    Mohamed R. Rjeibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eperythrozoonosis is a small ruminant disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma ovis (formerly known as Eperythrozoon ovis. Whilst acute infection in sheep may result in an anaemia and ill thrift syndrome, most animals do not develop clinical signs. Molecular methods were used to compare and evaluate the prevalence of infection with M. ovis in sheep and goats in Tunisia. A total of 739 whole blood samples from 573 sheep and 166 goats were tested for the M. ovis 16S rRNA gene using PCR. The overall prevalence was 6.28% ± 0.019 (36/573. Only sheep were infected with M. ovis (p < 0.001, and the prevalence was significantly higher in central Tunisia (29.2% compared with other regions (p < 0.05. The prevalence revealed significant differences according to breed and bioclimatic zones (p < 0.001. Furthermore, the prevalence in young sheep (35/330; 10.6% was higher than in adults (1/243; 0.41% (p < 0.001. Only sheep of the Barbarine breed were infected, with a prevalence of 11.8% (p < 0.001. This is the first molecular study and genetic characterisation of M. ovis in North African sheep breeds.

  18. Oestrus ovis ophthalmomyiasis with keratitis

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    Sreejith R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented with complaints of redness, swelling around the eyelids, watering, and irritation in the right eye. At presentation his best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 partial in the right eye. The tarsal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid showed injection with pseudomembrane. Underneath the pseudomembrane we noticed four motile larvae. The cornea showed an irregular cobweb-like mucous plaque adherent to the epithelium, with a clear stroma. The pseudomembrane was easily peeled-off under topical anaesthesia. The organisms were removed and identified as Oestrus ovis. Three days later the patient was comfortable and his visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye.

  19. Oestrus ovis ophthalmomyiasis with keratitis.

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    Sreejith, R S; Reddy, A K; Ganeshpuri, S S; Garg, P

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient presented with complaints of redness, swelling around the eyelids, watering, and irritation in the right eye. At presentation his best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 partial in the right eye. The tarsal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid showed injection with pseudomembrane. Underneath the pseudomembrane we noticed four motile larvae. The cornea showed an irregular cobweb-like mucous plaque adherent to the epithelium, with a clear stroma. The pseudomembrane was easily peeled-off under topical anaesthesia. The organisms were removed and identified as Oestrus ovis. Three days later the patient was comfortable and his visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye.

  20. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

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    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  1. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an OVI-galaxy cross-correlation study at $z < 1$

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    Finn, Charles W; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H M; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L P; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and OVI absorbers in a $\\sim 18~\\textrm{Gpc}^3$ comoving volume at $z < 1$. We use a sample of 51,296 galaxies and 140 OVI absorbers in the column density range $13 \\lesssim \\log N \\lesssim 15$ to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line-of-sight $\\xi(r_{\\perp}, r_{\\parallel})$. We furthermore infer the corresponding 'real-space' correlation functions, $\\xi(r)$, by projecting $\\xi(r_{\\perp}, r_{\\parallel})$ along $r_{\\parallel}$, and assuming a power-law form, $\\xi(r) = (r / r_0)^{-\\gamma}$. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{ag}}$, the galaxy auto-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{gg}}$, and the absorber auto-correlation function, $\\xi_{\\textrm{aa}}$, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star-formation activity. We also compare these ...

  2. [Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy].

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    Paolicchi, Fernando A; Nuñez, Marta; Fiorentino, María A; Malena, Rosana C; Trangoni, Marcos; Cravero, Silvio; Estein, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    Ovine brucellosis by Brucella ovis is a highly prevalent disease in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of B. ovis and the serological response in ewes during late pregnancy and in their offspring. Six adult ewes were distributed in two groupsG1 (pregnant females, n = 4) and G2 (nonpregnant females, n = 2). Three pregnant ewes at 15 days prepartum and one nonpregnant eve were inoculated with B. ovis. Sera of sheep and their offspring were analyzed by different serological tests. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus, placenta and milk were studied by bacteriology. A Brucella genus-specific PCR assay was carried out in placenta and milk samples. Placenta samples were hystopathologically processed. g1 females gave birth to live lambs, but one died hours postpartum. Serological techniques employed detected antibodies in serum of inoculated pregnant animal 5 days postchallenge. sera of female controls G1 and G2 remained negative throughout the study. Cervicovaginal mucus of infected ewes in G1 and G2 yielded negative results to bacteriology, but B. ovis was isolated from milk. The PCR assay was positive for the placenta and milk from inoculated pregnant ewes. Histopathology revealed necrotic suppurative placentitis in one placenta. However, although results demonstrated that B. ovis can invade the placenta and mammary gland, this bacterium did not cause abortion when it was inoculated intravenously at 15 days prepartum. B. ovis infection induced an early humoral response in pregnant ewes, but their lambs remained seronegative, indicating that there was no transfer of antibodies in infancy. Placenta colonization and milk excretion of B. ovis involves a potential source of infection for lambs, which could play a role as latent carriers of infection.

  3. Can Anaplasma ovis in small ruminants be neglected any longer?

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    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Salih, D E A; Karagenç, T; Bilgiç, H; Torina, A; Oliva, A G; Campos, J; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens transmitted by ticks with an impact on human and animal health. Anaplasma ovis infects sheep and goats in many regions of the world, and it can be diagnosed by different methods like Giemsa staining, PCR or competitive ELISA. In this study, a PCR based on the gene coding for major surface protein 4 (MSP-4) was used to examine field samples collected from sheep in different countries. Altogether, 1161 blood samples from Turkey (n = 830), Iraq (n = 195), Sudan (n = 96) and Portugal (n = 40) were examined, of which 31.4%, 66.6% 41.6% and 82.5%, respectively, were positive. This indicates high prevalence of A. ovis in the countries under investigation, and it can be assumed that the situation in other areas of the world might be similar. Thus, A. ovis should be considered as an important constraint of livestock production, and further efforts are needed to better understand the epidemiology and to implement suitable control measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis

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    Gupta V

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A case Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis in a 10 year old boy is reported. Fifteen larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed from the conjunctiva wish the help of cotton swab sticks Human Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by oestrus ovis is rare in India.

  5. First molecular detection of Theileria ovis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in Iran

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    Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Babamahmoudi Farhang; Mohtarami Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern Iran. Methods:About 425 domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr city in northern Iran were inspected for tick infestations. Twenty tick specimens (13 females and 7 males) of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus), the most common tick in the study area, were tested by PCR amplification against 18s rRNA genome of Theileria spp using specie specific primers and then the PCR products were sequenced for species identification by comparison with data base available in GenBank. Results:About 323 ticks were collected from 102 animals (88 sheep, 12 goats and 2 cattle). The prevalence of ticks infesting animals was R. sanguineus (82.35%), Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) (0.3%), Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) (15.2%), Boophilus annulatus (B. annulatus) (1.2%), Haemaphysalis punctata (H. punctata) (0.3%) and Haemaphysalis numidiana (H. numidiana) (0.6%). Eleven (55%) tick specimens were PCR positive against genome of Theileria ovis (T. ovis). Sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed presence of T. ovis in one R. sanguinus. Conclusions:This is the first report of tick infection to T. ovis in Iran. Due to dominant prevalence of R. sanguineus as well as its infection to T. ovis, it is postulated this tick is the main vector of ovine theileriosis in northern Iran.

  6. Characterization of possible correlates of protective response against Brucella ovis infection in rams immunized with the B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.

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    Galindo, Ruth C; Muñoz, Pilar M; de Miguel, María J; Marin, Clara M; Blasco, José M; Gortazar, Christian; Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José

    2009-05-18

    Vaccination with the live attenuated Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine is used to control ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis in sheep. The objective of this study was to identify possible correlates of protective response to B. ovis infection through the characterization by microarray hybridization and real-time RT-PCR of inflammatory and immune response genes differentially expressed in rams previously immunized with B. melitensis Rev 1 and experimentally challenged with B. ovis. Gene expression profiles were compared before and after challenge with B. ovis between rams protected and those vaccinated but found infected after challenge. The TLR10, Bak and ANXI genes were expressed at higher levels in vaccinated and protected rams. These genes provide possible correlates of protective response to B. ovis infection in rams immunized with the B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.

  7. Kinetics of Oestrus ovis infection and activity of adult flies

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    Gracia M.J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Oestrus Ovis is a common sheep parasite in the Mediterranean region. This study was carried out in the Ebro River Valley near Zaragoza (northeast Spain using tracer animals to describe the seasons when infestation is more likely. Based on that information and an analysis of the evolution of the parasite within the host, we suggest the most appropriate time for treatment. Adult instars appeared in May until November and there was a diapause beginning in October-November and as least until February, so it is suggested than sheep be treated with larvicide in December.

  8. Highly sensitive method for diagnosis of subclinical B. ovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Sara; Barreto, Maria C; Pepe, Ana; Campos, Joana; Oliva, Abel

    2014-10-01

    Babesia ovis is a tick-transmitted protozoa parasite that infects small ruminants causing fever, anaemia, hemoglobinuria, anorexia and, in acute cases, death. Common in tropical and sub-tropical areas, the presence of this parasite in sheep herds has an economic impact on industry and therefore sensitive methods for the diagnosis and disease eradication are required. To achieve this goal, a semi-nested PCR for B. ovis specific identification was developed and consequent reaction conditions and enzymes were optimized and tested with field samples. 300 blood samples from small ruminants and 39 ticks from Rhipicephalus genus were collected from different regions of Portugal. Afterwards, DNA extraction was performed and conventional and semi-nested PCR were accomplished for all samples. The results obtained from both methodologies were compared and the sensitivity was evaluated. Employing the semi-nested PCR it was possible to identify a higher number of positive cases among the evaluated samples than using the conventional PCR, namely 38/300 blood samples and 7/39 ticks. However, fragment amplification was only observed in 5 out of 300 blood samples and in none of the 39 ticks when a conventional PCR was employed. The validation of the results was achieved by sequencing the DNA fragments corresponding to the hypervariable v4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and performing an alignment with sequences already published on GenBank(®). The ticks collected in this study belong to the Rhipicephalus genus, although other species could be involved as a vector in the Babesia spread. The diagnostic assay here described is presently the most effective and sensitive method for detection of B. ovis in field blood samples and ticks, enabling the detection up to 1 parasite into 10(9) erythrocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Respuesta humoral y consecuencias reproductivas en ovejas desafiadas con Brucella ovis al final de la gestación Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy

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    Fernando A Paolicchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis ovina por Brucella ovis es una enfermedad de prevalencia alta en Argentina. Para evaluar la patogenicidad de B. ovis y la respuesta serológica durante el último mes de gestación, 6 ovejas se distribuyeron en dos grupos: G1, ovejas preñadas, n = 4 y G2, ovejas no preñadas, n = 2. Tres ovejas del G1 (15 días preparto y una del G2 fueron inoculadas con B. ovis. Se analizaron muestras de suero mediante diferentes pruebas serológicas. Se realizó aislamiento y PCR a partir de mucus cérvico-vaginal (mcv, placenta y leche. En las muestras de placenta se realizó histopatología. Las hembras del G1 parieron corderos vivos; se detectaron anticuerpos en las ovejas desafiadas del G1 a partir de los 5 días posinoculación. El mcv de las ovejas desafiadas resultó negativo al aislamiento en ambos grupos. Las muestras de leche del G1 fueron positivas por cultivo y PCR a B. ovis. La técnica de PCR resultó positiva en las placentas de las ovejas desafiadas del G1. La histopatología reveló una placentitis necrótica supurativa en una de las ovejas desafiadas. El desafío con B. ovis preparto resultó en la invasión de la placenta y de la glándula mamaria, con la consecuente excreción de la bacteria por leche. La infección con B. ovis indujo una respuesta humoral temprana en las ovejas. La colonización de la placenta por B. ovis y la excreción de la bacteria por la leche sugieren un potencial riesgo de infección activa para los corderos y la posibilidad de que estos se comporten como portadores latentes de la infección.Ovine brucellosis by Brucella ovis is a highly prevalent disease in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of B. ovis and the serological response in ewes during late pregnancy and in their offspring. Six adult ewes were distributed in two groupsGI (pregnant females, n = 4 and G2 (nonpregnant females, n = 2. Three pregnant ewes at 15 days prepartum and one nonpregnant eve were inoculated with B

  10. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  11. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Ock, Younsung; Kim, Taeil; Choi, Donghag

    2016-01-01

    We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB), Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8–100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds. PMID:27244561

  12. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  13. NIHAO VIII: Circum-galactic medium and outflows - The puzzles of HI and OVI gas distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutcke, Thales A.; Stinson, Greg S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.

    2016-10-01

    We study the hot and cold circum-galactic medium (CGM) of 86 galaxies of the cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation suite NIHAO. NIHAO allows a study of how the z = 0 CGM varies across 5 orders of magnitude of stellar mass using OVI and HI as proxies for hot and cold gas. The cool HI covering fraction and column density profiles match observations well, particularly in the inner CGM. OVI shows increasing column densities with mass, a trend seemingly echoed in the observations. As in multiple previous simulations, the OVI column densities in simulations are lower than observed and optically thick HI does not extend as far out as in observations. We take a look at the collisional ionisation fraction of OVI as a function of halo mass. We make observable predictions of the bipolarity of outflows and their effect on the general shape of the CGM. Bipolar outflows can be seen out to around 40 kpc in intermediate and low mass halos (MHalo < 1011 M⊙), but outside that radius, the CGM is too well mixed to detect an elongated shape. Larger halos have extended gas discs beyond the stellar disc that dominate the shape of the inner CGM. The simulated CGM is remarkably spherical even in low mass simulations. The chemical enrichment of both halo and disc gas follow expected increasing trends as a function of halo mass that are well fit with power laws. These relations can be used in non-hydrodynamic models, such as semi-analytic models.

  14. Hemotropic Mycoplasma ovis infection in goats with concurrent gastrointestinal parasitism in Malaysia

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    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemotropic Mycoplasmosis is common in sheep and goats worldwide, which leads to huge economic losses. In this study, ten goats each were sampled from five herds belonging to the Ladang Angkat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM for the assessment of Mycoplasma ovis infection and concomitant intestinal parasites burden. Giemsa stain and Modified McMaster techniques were used to study the hemotropic mycoplasmosis and gastrointestinal parasite burden, respectively. Questionnaires were equally administered to each farmer and a fly trap was used to trap biting flies around the goat herds. Out of 50 samples analyzed, 94.0% (n=47/50 were positive for M. ovis infection. Among the positive samples, 93.6% (n=44/47 were mild infection while 6.4% (n=3/47 were moderate infection, with highest infection rate of 38.5% parasitemia. There was a significant association (P<0.05 between infection status and parasites burden. However, there was a weak positive correlation (r=0.107, P=0.460 between M. ovis infection rates and parasitic burden. Though a high occurrence rate of M. ovis was observed among the infected goats, the levels of parasitemia were generally mild.

  15. Development of a cDNA microarray for the measurement of gene expression in the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis

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    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis which initiates a profound cutaneous inflammatory response, leading to the development of the skin lesions which are characteristic of the disease. Existing control strategies rely upon injectable endectocides and acaricidal dips but concerns over residues, eco-toxicity and the development of acaricide resistance limit the sustainability of this approach. In order to identify alternative means of disease control, a deeper understanding of both the parasite and its interaction with the host are required. Methods Herein we describe the development and utilisation of an annotated P. ovis cDNA microarray containing 3,456 elements for the measurement of gene expression in this economically important ectoparasite. The array consists of 981 P. ovis EST sequences printed in triplicate along with 513 control elements. Array performance was validated through the analysis of gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. Results Sequences represented on the array include homologues of major house dust mite allergens and tick salivary proteins, along with factors potentially involved in mite reproduction and xenobiotic metabolism. In order to validate the performance of this unique resource under biological conditions we used the array to analyse gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. These analyses identified a number of house dust mite allergen homologues up-regulated in fed mites and P. ovis transcripts involved in stress responses, autophagy and chemosensory perception up-regulated in starved mites. Conclusion The P. ovis cDNA microarray described here has been shown to be both robust and reproducible and will enable future studies to analyse gene expression in this important ectoparasite.

  16. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Anaplasma ovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Q; Liu, Z; Li, Y; Yang, J; Chen, Z; Yue, C; Luo, J; Yin, H

    2013-11-01

    Anaplasma ovis is a tick-borne intra-erythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. Real-time PCR possesses merits of rapidity, accuracy, reliability, automation and ease of standardization, but has not been used for detection of A. ovis, to the best of our knowledge. In this study, a real-time PCR assay was developed for detection and quantification of A. ovis. Species-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed based on the gltA gene. No cross-reactions were observed with Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., Chlamydia psittaci, Mycoplasma mycoides, Theileria luwenshuni and Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolate. Analytic sensitivity results revealed that real-time PCR could detect as few as 10 copies of the gltA gene. The performance of real-time PCR was assessed by testing 254 blood samples from goats and comparing with the results from conventional PCR. This demonstrated that the real-time PCR assay was significantly more sensitive than conventional PCR. Our results indicated that real-time PCR is a useful approach for detecting A. ovis infections and has potential as an alternative tool for ecological and epidemiological surveillance of ovine anaplasmosis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China.

  18. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

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    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  19. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-10-26

    The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were 94% and 91% respectively with the 1% formulation and 78% and 84% respectively with the 2% formulation. TTO treatment also appeared to reduce wool damage in infested sheep. Laboratory studies indicated that tea tree oil 'stripped' from solution with a progressive reduction in concentration as well as volume as more wool was dipped, indicating that reinforcement of active ingredient would be required to maintain effectiveness when large numbers of sheep are treated. The results of these studies suggest significant potential for the development of ovine lousicides incorporating TTO.

  20. Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity in two related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Frances Cassirer, E; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2009-02-02

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in both bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). Under experimental conditions, co-pasturing of BHS and DS results in fatal pneumonia in BHS. It is conceivable that certain serotypes of M. haemolytica carried by DS are non-pathogenic to them, but lethal for BHS. M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 are carried by DS in the nasopharynx. However, it is the serotype A2 that predominantly causes pneumonia in DS. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity to BHS and DS, and to determine whether leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by this organism is its primary virulence factor. Three groups each of BHS and DS were intra-tracheally administered either 1 x 10(9)cfu of serotype A1 wild-type (lktA-Wt group), Lkt-deletion mutant of serotype A1-(lktA-Mt group), or saline (control group), respectively. In the lktA-Wt groups, all four BHS died within 48h while none of the DS died during the 2-week study period. In the lktA-Mt groups, none of the BHS or DS died. In the control groups, one DS died due to an unrelated cause. Necropsy and histopathological findings revealed that death of BHS in the lktA-Wt group was due to bilateral, fibrinohemorrhagic pneumonia. Although the A1-Mt-inoculated BHS were clinically normal, on necropsy, lungs of two BHS showed varying degrees of mild chronic pneumonia. These results indicate that M. haemolytica serotype A1 is non-pathogenic to DS, but highly lethal to BHS, and that Lkt is the primary virulence factor of M. haemolytica.

  1. Aspectos inmunológicos en el diagnóstico y control de la Epidemitis contagiosa del carnero por Brucella ovis Imunological aspects inthe diagnosis and control of contagious epidymitis of rams by Brucella ovis

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    S.M. ESTEIN

    1999-01-01

    de vacunas subcelulares que no presenten las desventajas de Rev. 1. Con ese objetivo se han desarrollado ensayos de inmunización pasiva con mezclas de anticuerpos monoclonales anti-proteínas de la membrana externa y anti-lipopolisacárido rugoso que han otorgado protección en el ratón contra B. ovisBrucella ovis is the aethiological agent of ram contagious epididymitis, an infectious disease causing reproductive failure in sheep. Control measures include elimination of rams found positive in serological tests and/or bacteriological culture of semen, and vaccination when the prevalence is high. The principal vaccine used against ovine brucellosis is B. melitensis Rev. 1, a live attenuated strain of B. melitensis. However Rev. 1 evokes antibodies interfering with the interpretation of serological tests used to diagnose infection by B. ovis and B. melitensis. B. ovis is a natural rough species so lacks O polisaccharide chain. The outer membrane proteins of B.ovis have been studied by several groups searching for antigens useful for diagnosis and protection. A hot saline extract fron B. ovis contains rough lipopolysaccharide and several proteins, including abundant group 3 outer membrane proteins The most efficient and widely used tests for serodiagnosis of B. ovis infection are double gel diffusion, complement fixation test and ELISA. Hot saline extract has provided best diagnostic results in all tests. However some cross-reactivity in these tests can be seen with sera of sheep naturally infected with B. melitensis or after B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination. Less information is available on internal B. ovis antigens. Recently, an indirect ELISA using BP26 (periplasmic protein has been developed for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated rams. The identification of B. ovis antigens able to elicit a protective immune response is of great interest for the development of subcellular vaccines avoiding the drawbacks of living attenuated vaccine. In the mouse model

  2. Hemotropic Mycoplasma ovis infection in goats with concurrent gastrointestinal parasitism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Nurul Hafizah Bt Abu Jazid; Konto Mohammed; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Eric Lim Teik Chung; Yusuf Abba; Muhammad Abubakar Sadiq; Abdul Aziz Saharee

    2015-01-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasmosis is common in sheep and goats worldwide, which leads to huge economic losses. In this study, ten goats each were sampled from five herds belonging to the Ladang Angkat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) for the assessment of Mycoplasma ovis infection and concomitant intestinal parasites burden. Giemsa stain and Modified McMaster techniques were used to study the hemotropic mycoplasmosis and gastrointestinal parasite burden, respectively. Questionnaires were equally ...

  3. Morphological characterization of Haemonchus contortus in goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wahab A; Abd Hamid, Suhaila

    2007-06-01

    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). This paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of H. contortus adults from the two hosts. There were more ridges in H. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. Total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.

  4. Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma Ovis in Iran

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    A Gharabaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasito­logical changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis.Method: Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml hepari­nized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inocu­lums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasito­logical and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infec­tion.Result: Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentra­tion were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature.Conclusion: Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the develop­ment of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis.

  5. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

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    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  6. Halo Mass Dependence of HI and OVI Absorption: Evidence for Differential Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Nigel L; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Nielsen, Nikole M; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Charlton, Jane; Muzahid, Sowgat

    2014-01-01

    We studied a sample of 14 galaxies (0.1 < z < 0.7) using HST/WFPC2 imaging and high-resolution HST/COS or HST/STIS quasar spectroscopy of Lya, Lyb, OVI1031, and OVI1037 absorption. The galaxies, having 10.8 < log(M/M_solar) < 12.2, lie within D = 300 kpc of quasar sightlines, probing out to D/R_vir = 3. When the full range of galaxy virial masses and D/R_vir of the sample are examined, 40% of the HI absorbing clouds can be inferred to be escaping their host halo. The fraction of bound clouds decreases as D/R_vir increases such that the escaping fraction is around 15% for D/R_vir < 1, around 45% for 1 < D/R_vir < 2, and around 90% for 2 < D/R_vir < 3. Adopting the median mass log(M/M_solar) = 11.5 to divide the sample into "higher" and "lower" mass galaxies, we find mass dependency for the hot CGM kinematics. To our survey limits, OVI absorption is found in only 40% of the HI clouds in and around lower mass halos as compared to 85% around higher mass halos. For D/R < 1, lower mass...

  7. FUSE Observations of the Cygnus Loop OVI Emission from a Nonradiative Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.

    2001-01-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of a Balmer filament in the northeast region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. The data consist of one spectrum obtained through the 30"x30" (LWRS) aperture and three spectra at adjacent positions obtained through the 4"x20" (MDRS) aperture. The nonradiative shocks in the region giving rise to these faint optical filaments produce strong OVI 1032,1038 emission, which is detected in all the spectra. The OVI emission is resolved by FUSE into a strong component centered at 0 km/s, and weaker components centered at +/- 140 km/s. The MDRS spectra allow us to study the variation of OVI emission in the post-shock structure. We find that the zero velocity emission is associated directly with the Balmer filament shock, while the high velocity emission comes from a more uniformly distributed component elsewhere along the line of sight. We also find that the shocks producing the emission at +/- 140 km/s have velocities between 180 km/s and 220 km/...

  8. The Effects of Babesiosis on Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Anatolian Black Goats Naturally Infected with Babesia ovis.

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    Ismail Kucukkurt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate produced during an inflammatory response is the important part of host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite. However, it is not well known whether these intermediates cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in goats infected with Babesia ovis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of babesiosis on basal levels of DNA damage and oxidative status of goats naturally infected with B.ovis.DNA damage and antioxidant parameters were determined in B. ovis infected goats. Ten infected Anatolian Black Goats with B. ovis diagnosed via clinical signs and microscopic findings and ten healthy were used in the study.The Babesia infection increased the levels of DNA damage, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl content (PCO and plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx, and decreased total antioxidant activities (AOA and reduced glutathione (GSH. A significant positive correlation between DNA damage, MDA, PCO, and NOx concentrations was found in the infected goats. DNA damage showed a negative association with AOA and GSH concentrations in the infected goats.The Babesia infection increases oxidative stress markers and DNA damage and decreases AOA in goats. These results suggest that the increases in the production of free radicals due to Babesia infection not only contribute to host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite but also induce oxidative damage in other cells.

  9. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

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    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  10. The virB-encoded type IV secretion system is critical for establishment of infection and persistence of Brucella ovis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Joicy C; Silva, Teane M A; Costa, Erica A; Silva, Ana P C; Tsolis, Renée M; Paixão, Tatiane A; Carvalho Neta, Alcina V; Santos, Renato L

    2012-09-14

    Brucella spp. are gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause chronic infections. Brucella virulence factors include a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which are essential for persistence. However, the role of the virB-encoded T4SS has not been investigated in naturally rough Brucella species such as Brucella ovis. In this study, male 6-week old BALBc mice were infected with B. ovis, Brucella abortus, and their respective ΔvirB2 mutant strains. During early infection, B. ovis and B. abortus wild type strains were similarly recovered from spleen. Interestingly, in contrast to ΔvirB2 B. abortus that was recovered at similar levels when compared to the wild type strain, the ΔvirB2 B. ovis was markedly attenuated as early as 24h post infection (hpi). The ΔvirB2 B. ovis was unable to survive and multiply in murine peritoneal macrophages and extracellularly within the peritoneal cavity at 12 and 24 hpi with lower splenic colonization than the parental strain at 6, 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, wild type B. abortus and ΔvirB2 B. abortus had a similar kinetics of infection in this model. As expected, the T4SS was essential for intracellular replication of smooth and rough strains in RAW macrophages at 48 hpi. These results suggest that T4SS is important for survival of B. ovis in murine model, and that a T4SS deficient B. ovis strain is cleared at earlier stages of infection when compared to a similar B. abortus mutant.

  11. OVIS 3.2 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Houf, Catherine A.; Thompson, David C.; Roe, Diana C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-10-01

    This document describes how to obtain, install, use, and enjoy a better life with OVIS version 3.2. The OVIS project targets scalable, real-time analysis of very large data sets. We characterize the behaviors of elements and aggregations of elements (e.g., across space and time) in data sets in order to detect meaningful conditions and anomalous behaviors. We are particularly interested in determining anomalous behaviors that can be used as advance indicators of significant events of which notification can be made or upon which action can be taken or invoked. The OVIS open source tool (BSD license) is available for download at ovis.ca.sandia.gov. While we intend for it to support a variety of application domains, the OVIS tool was initially developed for, and continues to be primarily tuned for, the investigation of High Performance Compute (HPC) cluster system health. In this application it is intended to be both a system administrator tool for monitoring and a system engineer tool for exploring the system state in depth. OVIS 3.2 provides a variety of statistical tools for examining the behavior of elements in a cluster (e.g., nodes, racks) and associated resources (e.g., storage appliances and network switches). It provides an interactive 3-D physical view in which the cluster elements can be colored by raw or derived element values (e.g., temperatures, memory errors). The visual display allows the user to easily determine abnormal or outlier behaviors. Additionally, it provides search capabilities for certain scheduler logs. The OVIS capabilities were designed to be highly interactive - for example, the job search may drive an analysis which in turn may drive the user generation of a derived value which would then be examined on the physical display. The OVIS project envisions the capabilities of its tools applied to compute cluster monitoring. In the future, integration with the scheduler or resource manager will be included in a release to enable intelligent

  12. A genome-wide scan study identifies a single nucleotide substitution in ASIP associated with white versus non-white coat-colour variation in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M-H; Tiirikka, T; Kantanen, J

    2014-02-01

    In sheep, coat colour (and pattern) is one of the important traits of great biological, economic and social importance. However, the genetics of sheep coat colour has not yet been fully clarified. We conducted a genome-wide association study of sheep coat colours by genotyping 47 303 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Finnsheep population in Finland. We identified 35 SNPs associated with all the coat colours studied, which cover genomic regions encompassing three known pigmentation genes (TYRP1, ASIP and MITF) in sheep. Eighteen of these associations were confirmed in further tests between white versus non-white individuals, but none of the 35 associations were significant in the analysis of only non-white colours. Across the tests, the s66432.1 in ASIP showed significant association (P=4.2 × 10(-11) for all the colours; P=2.3 × 10(-11) for white versus non-white colours) with the variation in coat colours and strong linkage disequilibrium with other significant variants surrounding the ASIP gene. The signals detected around the ASIP gene were explained by differences in white versus non-white alleles. Further, a genome scan for selection for white coat pigmentation identified a strong and striking selection signal spanning ASIP. Our study identified the main candidate gene for the coat colour variation between white and non-white as ASIP, an autosomal gene that has been directly implicated in the pathway regulating melanogenesis. Together with ASIP, the two other newly identified genes (TYRP1 and MITF) in the Finnsheep, bordering associated SNPs, represent a new resource for enriching sheep coat-colour genetics and breeding.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction studies and morphometric analysis of rudimental tooth primordia in the upper incisor region of the sheep (Ovis aries, Ruminantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Kirsti; Matulová, Petra; Mísek, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The functional dentition of the domestic sheep lacks all upper incisors and the upper canines. Nevertheless, occurrence of a dental lamina and rudimental tooth primordia had been described in the upper incisor region of the sheep. The aim of this study was to describe temporo-spatial pattern of origin and regression of these rudimental tooth primordia by light microscopy, computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry of the dental epithelium. Transient existence of a dental lamina in the upper incisor region of the sheep and three epithelial thickenings on its deep mesenchymal margin has been observed at day of ontogeny (DO) 48-53. They could not been identified as full-value tooth primordia, because they did not induce differentiation of tooth mesenchyme, but they could represent last remnants of functional upper incisors in early ancestors of ruminants. Additionally, a large rudimental upper canine primordium near the sutura maxilloincisiva occurred at DO43, reached early cap stage at DO52 and started to regress at DO53. Thus, our findings showed a discrepancy between the embryonic and adult dental pattern in the sheep. Similar molecular mechanisms as described for diastemal tooth rudiments in rodents could be involved during regression of rudimental tooth primordia in the upper incisor region of the sheep.

  14. Brucella ovis: invasion, traffic, virulence factors and immune responseBrucella ovis: invasão, tráfego, fatores de virulência e resposta imune

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    João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains an economic problem in animals and public health. Worldwide ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is considered a major cause of infertility in sheep. The factors responsible for persistence of the agent in these locations are not known, as well as the mechanisms involved in immune defense and possibly the persistence of the agent. Brucella spp. induces moderate inflammatory response. The nature of the intracellular agent stimulates immune response of the type 1 helper T lymphocytes. Studies of the pathogenesis of ovine brucellosis are scarce. Recent developments have shown that the inflammatory response induced by moderate brucelas represent probably the result of an attempt to escape the immune response and suppression of host immune response. Were reviewed by the mechanisms described by brucelas and Brucella ovis for penetration into the host, escape of the immune response and the immune response generated by the infection. A brucelose permanece como problema econômico em animais e de saúde pública. Em todo o mundo a brucelose ovina ocasionada pela Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de infertilidade em ovinos. Os fatores responsáveis pela persistência do agente nestes locais não são conhecidos, bem como os mecanismos imunes envolvidos na defesa e eventualmente na persistência do agente. Brucella spp. induz resposta inflamatória moderada. A natureza intracelular do agente estimula resposta imune celular do tipo linfócito T helper 1. Os estudos de patogenia da brucelose ovina são escassos. Recentes avanços demonstraram que a resposta inflamatória moderada induzida pelas brucelas representam provavelmente o resultado de tentativa de escape da resposta imune e supressão da resposta imune hospedeira. Foram revisados os mecanismos descritos pelas brucelas e pela Brucella ovis para penetração no hospedeiro, escape da resposta imune, bem como a resposta imunológica gerada pela infecção.

  15. The First Mitogenome of the Cyprus Mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion): New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Genus Ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daria; Barbato, Mario; Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Cossu, Piero; Decandia, Luca; Trova, Sandro; Pirastru, Monica; Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe; Naitana, Salvatore; Francalacci, Paolo; Masala, Bruno; Manca, Laura; Mereu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are thought to have been one of the first livestock to be domesticated in the Near East, thus playing an important role in human history. The current whole mitochondrial genome phylogeny for the genus Ovis is based on: the five main domestic haplogroups occurring among sheep (O. aries), along with molecular data from two wild European mouflons, three urials, and one argali. With the aim to shed some further light on the phylogenetic relationship within this genus, the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Cypriot mouflon (O. gmelini ophion) is here reported. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using a dataset of whole Ovis mitogenomes as well as D-loop sequences. The concatenated sequence of 28 mitochondrial genes of one Cypriot mouflon, and the D-loop sequence of three Cypriot mouflons were compared to sequences obtained from samples representatives of the five domestic sheep haplogroups along with samples of the extant wild and feral sheep. The sample included also individuals from the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica hosting remnants of the first wave of domestication that likely went then back to feral life. The divergence time between branches in the phylogenetic tree has been calculated using seven different calibration points by means of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood inferences. Results suggest that urial (O. vignei) and argali (O. ammon) diverged from domestic sheep about 0.89 and 1.11 million years ago (MYA), respectively; and dates the earliest radiation of domestic sheep common ancestor at around 0.3 MYA. Additionally, our data suggest that the rise of the modern sheep haplogroups happened in the span of time between six and 32 thousand years ago (KYA). A close phylogenetic relationship between the Cypriot and the Anatolian mouflon carrying the X haplotype was detected. The genetic distance between this group and the other ovine haplogroups supports the hypothesis that it may be a new haplogroup never described before

  16. The First Mitogenome of the Cyprus Mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion: New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Genus Ovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    Full Text Available Sheep are thought to have been one of the first livestock to be domesticated in the Near East, thus playing an important role in human history. The current whole mitochondrial genome phylogeny for the genus Ovis is based on: the five main domestic haplogroups occurring among sheep (O. aries, along with molecular data from two wild European mouflons, three urials, and one argali. With the aim to shed some further light on the phylogenetic relationship within this genus, the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Cypriot mouflon (O. gmelini ophion is here reported. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using a dataset of whole Ovis mitogenomes as well as D-loop sequences. The concatenated sequence of 28 mitochondrial genes of one Cypriot mouflon, and the D-loop sequence of three Cypriot mouflons were compared to sequences obtained from samples representatives of the five domestic sheep haplogroups along with samples of the extant wild and feral sheep. The sample included also individuals from the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica hosting remnants of the first wave of domestication that likely went then back to feral life. The divergence time between branches in the phylogenetic tree has been calculated using seven different calibration points by means of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood inferences. Results suggest that urial (O. vignei and argali (O. ammon diverged from domestic sheep about 0.89 and 1.11 million years ago (MYA, respectively; and dates the earliest radiation of domestic sheep common ancestor at around 0.3 MYA. Additionally, our data suggest that the rise of the modern sheep haplogroups happened in the span of time between six and 32 thousand years ago (KYA. A close phylogenetic relationship between the Cypriot and the Anatolian mouflon carrying the X haplotype was detected. The genetic distance between this group and the other ovine haplogroups supports the hypothesis that it may be a new haplogroup never

  17. The First Mitogenome of the Cyprus Mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion): New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Genus Ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daria; Barbato, Mario; Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Cossu, Piero; Decandia, Luca; Trova, Sandro; Pirastru, Monica; Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe; Naitana, Salvatore; Francalacci, Paolo; Masala, Bruno; Manca, Laura; Mereu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are thought to have been one of the first livestock to be domesticated in the Near East, thus playing an important role in human history. The current whole mitochondrial genome phylogeny for the genus Ovis is based on: the five main domestic haplogroups occurring among sheep (O. aries), along with molecular data from two wild European mouflons, three urials, and one argali. With the aim to shed some further light on the phylogenetic relationship within this genus, the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Cypriot mouflon (O. gmelini ophion) is here reported. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using a dataset of whole Ovis mitogenomes as well as D-loop sequences. The concatenated sequence of 28 mitochondrial genes of one Cypriot mouflon, and the D-loop sequence of three Cypriot mouflons were compared to sequences obtained from samples representatives of the five domestic sheep haplogroups along with samples of the extant wild and feral sheep. The sample included also individuals from the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica hosting remnants of the first wave of domestication that likely went then back to feral life. The divergence time between branches in the phylogenetic tree has been calculated using seven different calibration points by means of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood inferences. Results suggest that urial (O. vignei) and argali (O. ammon) diverged from domestic sheep about 0.89 and 1.11 million years ago (MYA), respectively; and dates the earliest radiation of domestic sheep common ancestor at around 0.3 MYA. Additionally, our data suggest that the rise of the modern sheep haplogroups happened in the span of time between six and 32 thousand years ago (KYA). A close phylogenetic relationship between the Cypriot and the Anatolian mouflon carrying the X haplotype was detected. The genetic distance between this group and the other ovine haplogroups supports the hypothesis that it may be a new haplogroup never described before

  18. Conjunctival ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J A; Shoukrey, N M; al-Garni, A A

    1991-09-15

    Three patients had conjunctival ophthalmomyiasis caused by the ovine nasal botfly. All patients had a sudden onset of redness, tearing, and foreign-body sensation of the affected eye. One to nine Oestrus ovis first-instar larvae were removed from the bulbar or palpebral conjunctiva of each patient. Symptoms and clinical signs resolved after mechanical removal of the larvae. Specific taxonomic diagnosis of O. ovis larvae was determined on the basis of characteristic conformation of the terminal end of the larval caudal segment as seen by use of light microscopy.

  19. Ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de tendinite em ratos (Rattus norvegicus Anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipidic fraction associated to therapeutic ultrasound in an experimental model of tendinitis in rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Martins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstram o efeito benéfico da aplicação tópica de ácidos graxos como agentes cicatrizantes. A fração lipídica do Ovis aries apresenta uma ação anti-inflamatória que acelera o processo de cicatrização. O ultrassom aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo bem como a extensibilidade das estruturas de colágeno e tendões. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico (UST pulsado e à fricção em modelo de tendinite induzida. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: controle, gel Ovis aries - uso tópico - UST pulsátil + loção estéril (oil free, UST pulsátil + gel Ovis aries, loção estéril (oil free - uso tópico. Para induzir a tendinite, utilizou-se uma injeção intratendínea de 10µL de colagenase no tendão do calcâneo direito. O tratamento consistiu em aplicações diárias de ultrassom, com os seguintes parâmetros: modo pulsado 10%, frequência de 1 MHz, pulsátil a 10% com intensidade de 0,5W/cm², durante sete ou 14 dias. RESULTADOS: A variação do número de células inflamatórias, para os animais tratados por 14 dias, com relação aos grupos controle, UST + oil free e UST + Ovis aries, apresentou resultados significativos pBACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of topical application of fatty acids as healing agents. The lipid fraction of Ovis aries have an anti-inflammatory action that accelerates the healing process. Ultrasound increases blood flow and the extensibility of collagen structures and tendons. OBJECTIVES: To assess the anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipid fraction associated to pulsed therapeutic ultrasound and friction in an induced tendinitis model. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control that consisted of Ovis aries gel for topical use; pulsed ultrasound plus oil free sterile lotion; pulsed ultrasound plus Ovis

  20. Alzheimer's disease markers in the aged sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Suzanne J; Mckean, Natasha E; Henty, Kristen; Portelius, Erik; Blennow, Kaj; Rudiger, Skye R; Bawden, C Simon; Handley, Renee R; Verma, Paul J; Faull, Richard L M; Waldvogel, Henry J; Zetterberg, Henrik; Snell, Russell G

    2017-10-01

    This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human. The presence of neurofibrillary tangles in aged sheep brain has previously been established; here, we report for the first time that plaques, the other pathologic hallmark of AD, are also present in the aged sheep brain. In summary, the biological machinery to generate the key neuropathologic features of AD is conserved between the human and sheep, making the sheep a good candidate for future genetic manipulation to accelerate the condition for use in pathophysiological discovery and therapeutic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  2. Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Bijan Esmaeilnejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.

  3. Antigenic Cross-reactivity among Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis of Goat

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    Ruma JAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross antigenicity is the major problem in developing a reliable tool for immunodiagnosis and immunoprophylaxis of parasitic diseases. Mixed infection due to different types of gastrointestinal parasites is more common than single species infection under field condition.Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect antigenic cross-reactivity among Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis of goats by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis using hyperimmune sera (HIS rose in rabbit separately against the antigens of the three nematode species.Results: Thirteen, 16 and 14 polypeptides in crude somatic antigen (CSAg of H. contortus (CSAg-Hc, O. columbianum (CSAg-Oc and T. ovis (CSAg-To, respectively, were resolved in SDS PAGE analyses. It was revealed that 54 kDa peptide was shared by H.contortus and O. columbianum, whereas 47 kDa peptide was shared by O. columbianum and T. ovis. Western blot analyses revealed that three immunogenic polypeptides (MW 54, 49 and 42 kDa in CSAg-Hc, five in CSAg-Oc (54, 47, 44, 38 and 35.5 kDa and CSAg-To and five polypeptides (90, 51, 47, 39.5 and 31 kDa in CSAg-To cross-reacted with the heterologous HIS. Four species-specific immunoreactive polypeptides (92, 85, 65 and 39 kDa of H. contortus and two (72 & 26 kDa in O. columbianum were also identified in the study. Conclusion: The shared polypeptides and species-specific polypeptides might be evaluated as protective antigen and subsequently exploitation for developing immunodiagnostic and for immunoprophylactic tools of for these common nematode species. 

  4. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Razmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulatain sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total, followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7% and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%. From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1% were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0% for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher

  5. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Yaghfoori, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR) was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7%) and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%). From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1%) were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0%) for T. lestoquardi or T.annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher prevalence than T. lestoquardi, and that R

  6. External Ophthalmomyiasis which was Caused by Sheep Botfly (Oestrus ovis) Larva: A Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Sucilathangam; A, Meenakshisundaram; S, Hariramasubramanian; D, Anandhi; N, Palaniappan; T, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of the tissues and organs of animals or man by fly larvae. Ophthalmic myiasis has been reported from various world regions. In this study, we are presenting the clinical manifestations of external ophthalmomyiasis which was caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, in 10 patients in the Tirunelveli and the Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu state India. All the patients were farmers, who worked in close contact with sheep and goats. All the patients presented with severe conjunctivitis. The larvae were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva and following their removal, the symptom of eye inflammation improved in a few hours.

  7. Histomorphometry of Deldoid Muscle (Musculus Deltoideus at the Hybrids of Mouflon (Ovis Ammon Musimon Pal. and Domestic Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Nedeljkovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish production performances upon slaughter in the hybrids obtained by crossbreeding of the mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and domestic sheep. The morphological and histomorphometric study was carried out on fragments deltoid muscles (Musculus deltoideus sampled from seven MM x FT hybrids and seven MT x FM hybrids, respectively. To do so, muscle fragments were fixed in a 10% formalin solution and histological preparations were stained through the Mallory trichromic method. Histomorphometric analysis reveals that the MM x FT hybrids have thicker muscular fibbers and smaller amounts of inter-fibrillar connective tissue than the MT x FM hybrids (p0.05. Results of our study show that using mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and local Tigaie sheep in the development of new genotypes could be a good solution for both the conservation of these threatened species and production of high quality mutton.

  8. Conséquences de la chasse et des contraintes environnementales sur la démographie des populations d'ongulés. L'exemple du mouflon méditerranéen (Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.) en France et de l'élan (Alces alces) en Norvège.

    OpenAIRE

    Garel, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    Several vertebrate populations have to face indirect and direct human pressures. Our aim here is to show how these pressures influence ungulate population dynamics beyond environmental factors commonly accounted for, such as habitat quality or climate. We present two case studies : Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.) in France and moose (Alces alces) in Norway. We analyzed a long term study (30 years) of a mouflon population located in southern France (Hérault). Our study on ...

  9. Perioperative Ruminal pH Changes in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Housed in a Biomedical Research Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin, Bambi H; Boston, Ray C.; Modesto, Rolf B.; Schaer, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is available on normal ruminal pH values for domestic sheep (Ovis aries) housed in a research setting and fed a complete pelleted ration. Sheep maintained on pelleted diets undergoing surgical procedures often present with postoperative anorexia and rumen atony. To determine the relationship between diet and postoperative rumen acidosis and associated atony, we studied dietary effects on ruminal pH in an ovine surgical model. Sheep undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures ...

  10. Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland's Age Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehusmaa, Sari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Helenius, Hans; Rissanen, Pekka

    2013-08-15

    To formulate sustainable long-term care policies, it is critical first to understand the relationship between informal care and formal care expenditure. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent informal care reduces public expenditure on elderly care. Data from a geriatric rehabilitation program conducted in Finland (Age Study, n = 732) were used to estimate the annual public care expenditure on elderly care. We first constructed hierarchical multilevel regression models to determine the factors associated with elderly care expenditure. Second, we calculated the adjusted mean costs of care in four care patterns: 1) informal care only for elderly living alone; 2) informal care only from a co-resident family member; 3) a combination of formal and informal care; and 4) formal care only. We included functional independence and health-related quality of life (15D score) measures into our models. This method standardizes the care needs of a heterogeneous subject group and enabled us to compare expenditure among various care categories even when differences were observed in the subjects' physical health. Elder care that consisted of formal care only had the highest expenditure at 25,300 Euros annually. The combination of formal and informal care had an annual expenditure of 22,300 Euros. If a person received mainly informal care from a co-resident family member, then the annual expenditure was only 4,900 Euros and just 6,000 Euros for a person living alone and receiving informal care. Our analysis of a frail elderly Finnish population shows that the availability of informal care considerably reduces public care expenditure. Therefore, informal care should be taken into account when formulating policies for long-term care. The process whereby families choose to provide care for their elderly relatives has a significant impact on long-term care expenditure.

  11. Oestrus ovis larval myiasis among goats in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Batainah, Tharwat; Abuharfeil, Nizar; Torgerson, P R

    2003-05-30

    From December 1998 to December 1999, heads of 520 local goats slaughtered at the Irbid, Ramtha and Howarra Abattoirs (northern Jordan) were examined for the three larval instars (L(1)-L(3)) of Oestrus ovis. Of 520 heads, 126 (24%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. All three larval instars were observed in both sexes; all age groups were infested in each month of the year. The mean age of the goats sampled was 1.5 years. The numbers of parasites infesting hosts showed a significant (P<0.05) correlation with sheep age (r(sp)=0.31-0.42) for all three larval instars. The numbers of larvae in each host followed an overdispersed distribution, which fit a negative-binomial model (but not a Poisson distribution). There were more parasites recorded in the presence of purulent discharge or laryngitis, fewer in the presence of catarrhal discharge and no association with pharyngitis sinusitis, or rhinitis.

  12. Oestrus ovis infection of grazing sheep during summer in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hidalgo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Oestrus ovis is a botfly whose larvae cause nasal myiasis, an environmental-dependent disease in small ruminants, generating acute and chronic injuries in the cranial cavities of sheep. Chile is a country of the southernmost worldwide distribution of this parasite, and there is few information about. Whence, the objective of this study was to approximate the epidemiological situation of O. ovis infection in Chilean sheep. From December 2009 to March 2010, a total of 87 samples were obtained by necropsy for skull inspection. The larvae were collected, and microscopically identified. The prevalence in the sampled sheep was 60.9%. From those that were infected, 85.7% (18/21 of sheep were 1 to 3 years old, constituting the stratum with the highest prevalence. The difference of infection in females and males was not significant. The high risk of infection seems to be dependent upon the environmental conditions of this southern region, especially during summer when the first larval stage (L1 could be found as the evidence. Therefore, the disease should be considered as a significant problem for this kind of livestock production.

  13. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

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    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  14. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  15. Effect of passage of Babesia ovis in the gerbil (Acomys cahirinus) on the course of infection in splenectomized lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Hadani, A; Galker, F

    1996-10-15

    Splenectomized gerbils (Acomys cahirinus) have been found to be susceptible to Babesia ovis applied via blood inoculation, whereas intact gerbils were not infected. Blood from splenectomized latently infected gerbils caused infection in a splenectomized lamb. Intact Acomys cahirinus gerbils did not become infected by B. ovis, and all captured rodents in an enzootic area, intact and splenectomized, were found to be negative for B. ovis. It can thus be concluded that Acomys cahirinus does not serve as a natural reservoir for B. ovis.

  16. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  17. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  18. Genome degradation in Brucella ovis corresponds with narrowing of its host range and tissue tropism.

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    Renee M Tsolis

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a veterinary pathogen associated with epididymitis in sheep. Despite its genetic similarity to the zoonotic pathogens B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis, B. ovis does not cause zoonotic disease. Genomic analysis of the type strain ATCC25840 revealed a high percentage of pseudogenes and increased numbers of transposable elements compared to the zoonotic Brucella species, suggesting that genome degradation has occurred concomitant with narrowing of the host range of B. ovis. The absence of genomic island 2, encoding functions required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, as well as inactivation of genes encoding urease, nutrient uptake and utilization, and outer membrane proteins may be factors contributing to the avirulence of B. ovis for humans. A 26.5 kb region of B. ovis ATCC25840 Chromosome II was absent from all the sequenced human pathogenic Brucella genomes, but was present in all of 17 B. ovis isolates tested and in three B. ceti isolates, suggesting that this DNA region may be of use for differentiating B. ovis from other Brucella spp. This is the first genomic analysis of a non-zoonotic Brucella species. The results suggest that inactivation of genes involved in nutrient acquisition and utilization, cell envelope structure and urease may have played a role in narrowing of the tissue tropism and host range of B. ovis.

  19. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

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    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  20. Absorption signatures of warm-hot gas at low redshift: OVI

    CERN Document Server

    Tepper-Garcia, Thorsten; Schaye, Joop; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P C

    2010-01-01

    [abridged] We investigate the origin and physical properties of OVI absorbers at low redshift (z = 0.25) using a subset of cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project. Intervening OVI absorbers are believed to trace shock-heated gas in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) and may thus play a key role in the search for the missing baryons in the present-day Universe. When compared to observations, the predicted distributions of the different OVI line parameters (column density, Doppler parameter, rest equivalent width) from our simulations exhibit a lack of strong OVI absorbers, a discrepancy that has also been found by Oppenheimer & Dave (2009b). This suggests that physical processes on sub-grid scales (e.g. turbulence) may strongly influence the observed properties of OVI systems. We find that the intervening OVI absorption arises in highly metal-enriched (10^{-1} < 10^2 and temperatures T =10^{5.3\\pm0.5} K. While the OVI resides in a similar ...

  1. Comparison of pulmonary defense mechanisms in Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J; Taylor, S M; Laegreid, W W; Liggitt, H D; Leid, R W

    1989-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages were obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and domestic sheep for the purpose of comparing pulmonary host defense mechanisms in the two species. Specific variables studied included (1) characterization of the cell types present in the lung, (2) alveolar macrophage phagocytic and bactericidal functions, (3) measurement of protein levels in lavage fluid, and (4) measurement of cortisol levels in lavage fluid. While phagocytic cell populations were similar between bighorn and domestic sheep, a significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes were present in bighorns than domestics (20% in bighorn versus 6% in domestic sheep). Significant differences were not observed in the phagocytic or bactericidal functions of macrophages between the two species. Significant differences were not observed in either lavage fluid protein levels or in cortisol levels.

  2. Pharyngeal Myiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae Larva, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran: A Case Report

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    Teimour Hazratian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is caused by the larvae of flies infesting animal or human tissues and organs. This report aims to present a case of pharyngeal myiasis caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae. A 55-yr old drug addict living in the Shahindeje village of Western Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran was referred to the Emam Reza Hospi­tal in Tabriz, having a medical history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and hospitalized due to respiratory distress, 20 days ago. He was intubated with a mechanical ventilator (MV because of his respiratory distress condition. There was an evidence of the presence of pulmonary nodules in his lungs following diagnosis, and a CT scan revealed a cavity in his lung. During the nasogastric intubation procedure, a larva was seen emerging from the patient’s mouth by one of the staff of the intensive care unit of the hospital. A laboratory diagnosis was per­formed in the Entomology Department of the School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Interest­ingly, larvae of O. ovis were identified and confirmed following the laboratory proceedings.

  3. ANTI-Lentivirus, Brucella abortus AND B. ovis ANTIBODIES IN SMALL RUMINANTS RAISED IN PERNAMBUCO AND BAHIA

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    RODOLFO DE MORAES PEIXOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat and sheep production in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil has shown great economic potential. However, health problems can compromise the productivity of these animals. Given the scarcity of studies about the occurrence of these diseases, the aim of the present study was to analyze the serological diagnosis of anti-Brucella and anti-lentivirus antibodies among small ruminants in municipalities located in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Pernambuco. The samples were collected from local slaughterhouses and dairy farms. In total, 997 serum samples from animals in slaughterhouses and dairy herds were collected. In order to diagnose the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV, the samples underwent agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID testing. The buffered acidified antigen test (goats and agarose gel immunodiffusion test (sheep were used to detect anti-Brucella abortus and B. ovis antibodies following the methodology recommended by the Institute of Technology of Paraná (TECPAR. With anti-CAEV antibodies, seropositivity rates of 4.1% and 2.2% were recorded for animals from the slaughterhouses and dairy farms, respectively. None of the animals (goats or sheep were positive for anti-B. abortus antibodies. With B. ovis, a seropositivity rate of 6.5% (n = 13 was recorded among the 199 sheep serum samples. Results of the present study confirmed the presence of the CAE virus in the meat and dairy herds studied, although the prevalence was low. Natural infection by B. abortus did not occur in the goat and sheep herds assessed. Seropositivity for B. ovis was confirmed, although prevalence was low. Direct tests are required to diagnose ovine brucellosis.

  4. Validación operacional de un ELISA comercial para Brucella ovis, Chile Operational validation of a commercial ELISA for Brucella ovis, Chile

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    J F Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica se estiman para una población de referencia, estas difieren de la interpretación operacional o de terreno. El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar operacionalmente un ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay comercial para Brucella ovis en la población ovina de Magallanes. Se emplearon 82 sueros de carneros con aislamiento de B. ovis en semen y 421 sueros de animales con cultivo microbiológico de semen negativo e inmunodifusión en agar gel con resultado negativo. Se estableció un punto de corte de 58,15% de densidad óptica, estimado con el método receiver-operating characteristic; se estimó una sensibilidad de 82,9% y una especificidad de 91,4%; la baja sensibilidad obtenida indica la incapacidad del ELISA para detectar un número considerable de positivos, por lo que en erradicación se deberá utilizar una técnica diagnóstica adicional; el bajo valor predictivo positivo fue influenciado en su mayoría por la baja prevalencia. Los parámetros estimados deberán utilizarse en la interpretación de los futuros análisis diagnósticos y se deberá realizar una validación operacional cuando se adopte una nueva técnica diagnóstica, estableciendo los parámetros con los cuales trabajará el laboratorio y de esta forma minimizar los errores de diagnósticoSensitivity and specificity are usually estimated for a reference population, and these differ from the operational interpretation. The aim of this study was to carry out an operational validation of a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for Brucella ovis in the sheep population of Magallanes Region. The assay was validated using sera from 82 rams with bacterial isolation and 421 sera from rams with culture-negative semen and not reacting to agar gel immunodiffusion test. The cut-off point was 58.15% optical density, estimated by using the receiver-operating characteristic method; with 82.9% of sensibility and 91.4% of

  5. Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae Induced Nasal Myiasis in a Dog from Northern Italy

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    Sergio A. Zanzani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A companion dog from Milan province (northern Italy, presenting with frequent and violent sneezing, underwent rhinoscopy, laryngoscopy, and tracheoscopy procedures. During rhinoscopy, a dipteran larva was isolated from the dog and identified as first instar larval stage of O. ovis by morphological features. Reports of O. ovis in domestic carnivores are sporadic and nevertheless this infestion should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis of rhinitis in domestic carnivores living in contaminated areas by the fly as consequence of the presence of sheep and goats. This report described a case of autochthonous infestion in a dog from an area where O. ovis was not historically present but it could be affected by a possible expansion of the fly as a consequence of climate change. This is the first record of Oestrus ovis infestion in a dog in Italy and, at the same time, the most northerly finding of larvae of sheep bot fly in the country.

  6. A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Alroy, Karen Ann; Ticona, Daniel Santiago; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly) is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused by O. ovis in a llama (Lama glama) in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

  7. A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in a llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta

    Full Text Available Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused byO. ovis in a llama (Lama glama in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

  8. Comparative curative and preventive efficacies of ivermectin and closantel on Oestrus ovis (Linné 1758) in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, P; Alzieu, J P; Cadiergues, M C

    1997-10-01

    A field trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of each of two formulations of ivermectin and of closantel in prevention and treatment of Oestrus ovis in a naturally infected flock grazing on the foothills of the Pyrenees mountains, in south-western France. Within the flock, 875 sheep were randomly divided into four groups, and treated twice during the fly season, with an interval of 60 days between treatments. Group 1 sheep were treated with albendazole (ABZ) at a dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg to maintain control of trichostrongylid parasites without affecting O. ovis; Group 2 received closantel at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg because of its known persistent activity against O. Ovis; Groups 3 and 4 received ivermectin at a dose rate of 200 mcg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection (Isc) and orally (Io), respectively. All sheep were managed as a single group throughout the study. In order to assess the prophylactic effect of each product, immediately prior to the scheduled second treatment on Day 60 (D60), five sheep from each group were chosen at random and necropsied. Similarly, to assess the therapeutic effect, another five sheep from each group were selected on D70 and necropsied for parasite counts. During the 120 days of the trial, a significant number of animals from each group were regularly individually examined to assess their clinical status with regard to O. Ovis infection. Clinical signs of infection had significantly declined in Groups 2, 3 and 4 by 10 days after treatment reaching their lowest level at D30. In the control group during this period, clinical signs increased. Ten days after the second treatment, (D70), there was also evidence of a significant response to treatment. Finally the between-treatment differences in clinical scores of the closantel and ivermectin groups were small, although scores in Group 1 sheep was suggestive of a higher challenge in the second half of the study. On the basis of the postmortem counts and arithmetic means

  9. [Survival of the larvae of the ship botfly Oestrus ovis L. depending on the function of the immune system of the host's body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V A; Marchenko, V P

    1989-01-01

    In the experiments on artificial infection the survival of larvae of Oestrus ovis L. in sheep with depressed, normal and stimulated immune system was studied. The maximum number of larvae survived in immune depressed animals (62.9%), the minimum number survived in immune stimulated animals (0.4%). For the estimation of specific immune response the reaction of indirect hemagglutination (IHA), the reaction of diffused precipitation (RDP) and the immune ferment analysis (ELISA) were used.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Taenia ovis metacestodes by high performance liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-03-15

    Taenia ovis metacestodes reside in the muscle of sheep and goats, and may cause great economic loss due to condemnation of carcasses if not effectively controlled. Although advances have been made in the control of T. ovis infection, our knowledge of T. ovis biology is limited. Herein the protein profiling of T. ovis metacestodes was determined by liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 966 proteins were identified and 25.1% (188/748) were annotated to be associated with metabolic pathways. Consistently, GO analysis returned a metabolic process (16.27%) as one of two main biological process terms. Moreover, it was found that 24 proteins, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, enolase, paramyosin and endophilin B1, were abundant in T. ovis metacestodes. These proteins may be associated with motility, metabolism, signaling, stress, drug resistance and immune responses. Furthermore, comparative analysis of 5 cestodes revealed the presence of Taenia-specific enolases. These data provide clues for better understanding of T. ovis biology, which is informative for effective control of infection.

  11. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Survey of OVI Absorption in the Disk of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Tripp, T M; Sembach, K R; Savage, B D; Moos, H W; Oegerle, W R; Friedman, S D; Gry, C; Kruk, J W; Murphy, E; Sankrit, R; Shull, J M; Sonneborn, G; York, D G

    2007-01-01

    To probe the distribution and physical characteristics of interstellar gas at temperatures T ~ 3e5 K in the disk of the Milky Way, we have used the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) to observe absorption lines of OVI toward 148 early-type stars situated at distances 1 kpc. After subtracting off a mild excess of OVI arising from the Local Bubble, combining our new results with earlier surveys of OVI, and eliminating stars that show conspicuous localized X-ray emission, we find an average OVI mid-plane density n_0 = 1.3e-8 cm^-3. The density decreases away from the plane of the Galaxy in a way that is consistent with an exponential scale height of 3.2 kpc at negative latitudes or 4.6 kpc at positive latitudes. Average volume densities of OVI along different sight lines exhibit a dispersion of about 0.26 dex, irrespective of the distances to the target stars. This indicates that OVI does not arise in randomly situated clouds of a fixed size and density, but instead is distributed in regions that have...

  12. Association of Maedi Visna virus with Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Preziuso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maedi Visna Virus (MVV is the etiological agent of a systemic disease of sheep, which causes lesions in lungs, the central nervous system, joints, and mammary glands. It has been speculated that the association with Brucella ovis may lead to the venereal shedding of the virus. In this work, samples of epididymis from ten rams positive for MVV and infected experimentally with Brucella ovis, were subjected to liquid- phase PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC and in situ PCR tests, aimed at identifying the pathogens in a tissue context. IHC was carried out using a monoclonal antibody raised against p28 MVV protein and a polyclonal antibody to B. ovis. Liquid phase- and in situ PCR were designed to amplify a portion of MVV proviral DNA Pol sequence. In the animals showing B. ovis-related histopathological changes, IHC clearly demonstrated a positivity for B. ovis and MVV in interstitial and epithelial ductal cells. In situ PCR assessed the presence of MVV proviral DNA in macrophages and elements inside the epithelium. The unaffected and reagent control samples constantly gave negative results. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MVV may affect ovine epididymis, apparently taking advantage of the concurrent infection by B. ovis. The tropism of MVV for the epididymal epithelial cells, may be responsible for its excretion with the semen.

  13. The Azimuthal Dependence of Outflows and Accretion Detected Using OVI Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, Glenn G; Churchill, Christopher W; Nielsen, Nikole M; Charlton, Jane C

    2015-01-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle ($\\Phi$) distribution of gas around galaxies traced by OVI absorption. We present the mean $\\Phi$ probability distribution function of 29 HST-imaged OVI absorbing (EW>0.1A) and 24~non-absorbing (EW<0.1A) isolated galaxies (0.08OVI covering fraction decreases from 80% within 50kpc to 33% at 200kpc. The presence of OVI absorption is azimuthally dependent and occurs between $\\pm10-20^{\\circ}$ of the galaxy projected major axis and within $\\pm30^{\\circ}$ of the projected minor axis. We find higher EWs along the projected minor axis with weaker EWs along the project major axis. Highly inclined galaxies have the lowest covering fractions due to minimized outflow/inflow cross-section geometry. Absorbing galaxies also have bluer colors while non-absorbers have redder colors, suggesting that star-formation is a key driver in the OVI detection rate. OVI surrou...

  14. OVI Emission From the Supernovae-regulated Interstellar Medium in Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Miao; Ostriker, Jeremiah p

    2016-01-01

    The OVI $\\lambda\\lambda$1032, 1038\\AA\\ doublet emission traces collisionally ionized gas with $T\\approx 10^{5.5}$ K, where the cooling curve peaks for metal-enriched plasma. This warm-hot phase is usually not well-resolved in numerical simulations of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), but can be responsible for a significant fraction of the emitted energy. Comparing simulated OVI emission to observations is therefore a valuable test of whether simulations predict reasonable cooling rates from this phase. We calculate OVI $\\lambda$1032\\AA\\ emission, assuming collisional ionization equilibrium, for our small-box simulations of the stratified ISM regulated by supernovae. We find that the agreement is very good for our solar neighborhood model, both in terms of emission flux and mean OVI density seen in absorption. We explore runs with higher surface densities and find that, in our simulations, the OVI emission from the disk scales roughly linearly with the star formation rate. Observations of OVI emission...

  15. Galactic and Circumgalactic OVI and its Impact on the Cosmological Metal and Baryon Budgets at 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Nicolas; Fox, Andrew J; Howk, J Christopher; Prochaska, J Xavier; Burns, Vincent; Armstrong, Ashley A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from our NASA KODIAQ survey, which aims to characterize the properties of the highly ionized gas associated with absorbers that are optically thick at the Lyman limit at 2 17 and both transitions of the OVI doublet have little contamination. We found 20 absorbers that satisfy these rules, the sample being divided in 7 Lyman limit systems (LLSs, here with 17.7 20.3). The OVI detection rate in this sample is 100% for the DLAs, 71% for the LLSs, and 63% for the SLLSs. When OVI is detected, we find log=14.9+/-0.3, which is much larger and with a smaller dispersion than in blind OVI surveys. Strong OVI absorption is therefore nearly ubiquitous in the CGM of z~2-3 galaxies. The total velocity widths of the OVI profiles are also large (200< Delta v(OVI)<400 km/s). These properties strongly suggest these OVI absorbers probe gas associated with outflows of star-forming galaxies at 2OVI absorption have properties consistent with those seen in c...

  16. The Trauma Collaborative Care Study (TCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Stephen T; Pollak, Andrew N; Frey, Katherine P; Hymes, Robert A; Archer, Kristin R; Jones, Clifford B; Seymour, Rachel B; OʼToole, Robert V; Castillo, Renan C; Huang, Yanjie; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the care provided to trauma patients could be improved by including early screening and management of emotional distress and psychological comorbidity. The Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program, which is based on the principles of well-established models of collaborative care, was designed to address this gap in trauma center care. This article describes the TCC program and the design of a multicenter study to evaluate its effectiveness for improving patient outcomes after major, high-energy orthopaedic trauma at level 1 trauma centers. The TCC program was evaluated by comparing outcomes of patients treated at 6 intervention sites (n = 481) with 6 trauma centers where care was delivered as usual (control sites, n = 419). Compared with standard treatment alone, it is hypothesized that access to the TCC program plus standard treatment will result in lower rates of poor patient-reported function, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Coprological Assessment of Enteric Parasites in Argali Sheep ( Ovis ammon , Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica , and Domestic Sheep and Goats at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kenny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009 (April/May the Denver Zoological Foundation in collaboration with the Mongolian Academy of Sciences conducted a fi eld coprological assessment feasibility study at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia. Our initial effort was directed at fi nding simple methodologies that would work consistently in the fi eld for identifying some of the enteric parasites for argali sheep ( Ovis ammon and Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica , and then to compare these to samples from local nomad domestic fat-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries and cashmere goats ( Capra hircus . Direct fecal examination yielded less eggs than the fl otation techniques, but was still felt to be useful as a quick screening tool. From the fl otation techniques we settled on using sugar because it appeared to yield the most eggs and sugar is readily available in Mongolia. We successfully recovered Entamoeba sp., Eimeria spp., trichostrongyles, large trichostrongyle species, Trichuris ovis and Strongyloides papillosus . We are using the digital images we captured to create a fi eld guide for common enteric parasites found in wildlife and domestics ungulates found in the reserve. In the future, we plan to use the fi eld guide and the quantitative modi fi ed McMaster technique to compare parasite egg-type numbers in both wild and domestic ungulates during different seasons.

  18. Probing the IGM/Galaxy Connection V: On the Origin of Lya and OVI Absorption at z<0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Chen, H -W; Mulchaey, J S; Cooksey, K L

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the association of galaxies to Lya and OVI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions in the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z_em = 0.06-0.57. Confirming previous studies, we observe a high covering fraction for Lya absorption to impact parameter rho = 300kpc: 33/37 of our L>0.01L* galaxies show Lya equivalent width W_Lya>50mA. Galaxies of all luminosity L>0.01L* and spectral type are surrounded by a diffuse and ionized circumgalactic medium (CGM), whose baryonic mass is estimated at ~10^(10.5 +/- 0.3) Msun for a constant N_H. The virialized halos and extended CGM of present-day galaxies are responsible for most strong Lya absorbers (W_Lya > 300mA) but cannot reproduce the majority of observed lines in the Lya forest. We conclude that the majority of Lya absorption with W_Lya=30-300mA occurs in the cosmic web predicted by cosmological simulations and estimate a characteristic width for these filaments of ~400kpc. Regarding OVI, we observe a near unity cove...

  19. Transovarial Transmission of Babesia Ovis by Rhipicephalus Sanguineus and Hyalomma Marginatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nouroozi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalomma marginatum are the most common spe­cies in sheep herds in Northeast of Iran. There is preliminary evidence that these species may be the vectors of Babesia ovis in Iran. We carried out two experiments in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi Province to determine whether B. ovis could be transovarially transmitted by R. san­guineus and H. marginatum.Methods: In experiment 1, adults of laboratory reared H. marginatum and R.sanguineus were infected with B. ovis isolated from naturally infected sheep in Mashhad area by feeding the ticks on the sheep inoculated intravenously by infected blood samples. The inoculated sheep showed clinical signs with parasitaemia while the adult ticks were engorging on them. The engorged fe­males were collected and kept at 28°C and 85% relative humidity in incubator. Then, larval, nym­phal and adult stages derived from engorged females were used to infest the clean sheep. In experiment 2, two splenectomized sheep were infested only with the same adult ticks of two spe­cies.Results: Examination of smears and PCR of blood samples to detect of B. ovis in infested sheep in two experiments were negative.Conclusion: It seems that R. sanguineus and H. marginatum can not transovarially transmit B. ovis in sheep.

  20. Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Nakada Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

  1. Innovations In Diabetes Care Around the World: Case Studies Of Care Transformation Through Accountable Care Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoumi, Andrea; Udayakumar, Krishna; Drobnick, Elizabeth; Taylor, Andrea; McClellan, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The rising prevalence, health burden, and cost of chronic diseases such as diabetes have accelerated global interest in innovative care models that use approaches such as community-based care and information technology to improve or transform disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Although evidence on the effectiveness of innovative care models is emerging, scaling up or extending these models beyond their original setting has been difficult. We developed a framework to highlight policy barriers-institutional, regulatory, and financial-to the diffusion of transformative innovations in diabetes care. The framework builds on accountable care principles that support higher-value care, or better patient-level outcomes at lower cost. We applied this framework to three case studies from the United States, Mexico, and India to describe how innovators and policy leaders have addressed barriers, with a focus on important financing barriers to provider and consumer payment. The lessons have implications for policy reform to promote innovation through new funding approaches, institutional reforms, and performance measures with the goal of addressing the growing burdens of diabetes and other chronic diseases.

  2. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  3. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  4. Cellular and humoral local immune responses in sheep experimentally infected with Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Guillaume; Lacroux, Caroline; Andreoletti, Olivier; Bergeaud, Jean Paul; Hailu-Tolosa, Yacob; Hoste, Hervé; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Dorchies, Philippe; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Cellular and humoral local responses were investigated following repetitive artificial Oestrus ovis infections in lambs. The presence of larvae induced a huge local recruitment of either leucocytes (T and B lymphocytes, macrophages) or granulocytes (eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes). This cellular response was more pronounced in the ethmoid and sinus (development sites of second and third instar larvae) than in the septum or turbinates where first instar larvae migrate. Infected lambs produced Oestrus ovis specific IgG and IgA antibodies in their mucus. This local humoral response was mainly directed against larval salivary gland antigens and not against larval digestive tract antigens. Compared to the control animals, the sinusal mucosa of infected animals was extremely thickened and the epithelium exhibited hyperplasia, metaplasia and eosinophilic exocytosis. The possible roles of these local immune responses in the regulation of O. ovis larvae populations in sheep are discussed.

  5. Mycoplasma bovoculi infection increases ocular colonization by Moraxella ovis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, R F; Ostle, A G

    1986-06-01

    To determine whether infection with Mycoplasma bovoculi increases ocular colonization of cattle eyes with Moraxella bovis and other bacteria, colonization of ocular gram-negative bacteria were measured in eyes of cattle infected with Mycoplasma bovoculi. Strains of Moraxella ovis were chosen because these are among the most commonly isolated species of gram-negative bacteria from cattle eyes. Five strains of M ovis were characterized biochemically and by pilus structure, permitting the recognition of 2 biotypes. All strains were tested in a mouse corneal pathogenicity model. One strain of each biotype was selected for testing in calves. All 5 strains were apathogenic for mice, and the 2 strains tested in cattle did not induce keratitis. Infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovoculi increased the amount and persistence of colonization with the strains of M ovis.

  6. Multiplex PCR for diagnosis of Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria luwenshuni, and Theileria ovis in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Chen, Ze; Guan, Guiquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Aihong; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Li, Youquan

    2014-02-01

    Infections with Theileria sp. may cause significant economic losses to the sheep industry. Species identification based on microscopic examination is difficult, and more suitable methods are required for the rapid detection and identification of Theileria sp, in clinical specimens. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to simultaneously identify three individual Theileria species in small ruminants. Three pairs of specific, sensitive primers were designed on the basis of the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene (Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria ovis) and the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (Theileria uilenbergi) to generate target products of 303, 884, and 530 bp, respectively. Standard DNA for each of the three species was extracted from blood recovered from infected sheep, and a preliminary study was conducted on 56 sheep to verify the reliability of the system. Optimal PCR conditions, including primer concentration, annealing time, and the number of amplification cycles, were established. The assay sensitivity under these conditions was 10(-3) % parasitemia, and its specificity was 100 %. The results of the study suggest that mPCR represents a simple, efficient test method as a practical alternative for the rapid detection and identification of Theileria species in small ruminants.

  7. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  8. Establishment of pregnancy after the transfer of nuclear transfer embryos produced from the fusion of argali (Ovis ammon) nuclei into domestic sheep (Ovis aries) enucleated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K L; Bunch, T D; Mitalipov, S; Reed, W A

    1999-01-01

    Cloning mammalian species from cell lines of adult animals has been demonstrated. Aside from its importance for cloning multiple copies of genetically valuable livestock, cloning now has the potential to salvage endangered or even extinct species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bovine and domestic (Ovis aries) ovine oocyte cytoplasm on the nucleus of an established cell line from an endangered argali wild sheep (Ovis ammon) after nuclear transplantation. A fibroblast cell line was established from skin biopsies from an adult argali ram from the People's Republic of China. Early karyotype analysis of cells between 3-6 passages revealed a normal diploid chromosome number of 56. The argali karyotype consisted of 2 pairs of biarmed and 25 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large acrocentric and minute biarmed Y. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir, oocytes aspirated, and immediately placed in maturation medium consisting of M-199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 microg/mL streptomycin, 0.5 microg/mL follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 5.0 microg/mL luetinizing hormone (LH) and 1.0 microg/mL estradiol. Ovine (O. aries) oocytes were collected at surgery 25 hours postonset of estrus from the oviducts of superovulated donor animals. All cultures were carried out at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and air. In vitro matured MII bovine oocytes were enucleated 16-20 hours after onset of maturation and ovine oocytes within 2-3 hours after collection. Enucleation was confirmed using Hoechst 33342 and UV light. The donor argali cells were synchronized in G0-G1 phase by culturing in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 0.5% fetal bovine serum for 5-10 days. Fusion of nuclear donor cell to an enucleated oocyte (cytoplast) to produce nuclear transfer (NT) embryos was induced by 2 electric pulses of 1.4 kV/cm for 30 microsc. Fused NT embryos were activated after 24 hours of maturation

  9. Bioactivity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-07-06

    Tea tree oil (TTO) from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia has wide ranging bio-active properties, including insecticidal and repellent activity against arthropods. Furthermore, composition of commercially available Australian TTO is specified under an International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 4730), reducing the potential for variable effects often noted with botanical pesticides. The effect of TTO, meeting the ISO standard for terpinen-4-ol chemotype, was tested against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in a series of laboratory studies. Immersion of wool for 60s in formulations containing concentrations of 1% TTO and above caused 100% mortality of adult lice and eggs. Exposure to vapours from TTO, delivered as droplets in fumigation chambers and when applied to wool also caused high mortality in both lice and eggs. The main active component of TTO in the fumigant tests was terpinen-4-ol. Treated surface assays and tests with wool where the formulation was allowed to dry before exposure of lice indicated low persistence. These studies demonstrate that TTO is highly toxic to sheep lice and active at concentrations that suggest potential for the development of TTO-based ovine lousicides.

  10. Three cases of ophthalmomyiasis externa by sheep botfly Oestrus ovis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, Mariella; Bertonati, Maria Rosa; Poggi, Roberto; Teneggi, Elena; Maddalo, Francesco; Via, Fabrizio; Orlandi, Rita; Maroli, Michele; Roncella, Silvio; Fedeli, Franco; Battolla, Enrico

    2005-10-01

    Human infection with the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis is sporadic and is often the consequence of an accidental deposit of the larvae by an adult botfly in the eye. This infestation results in external ophthalmomyiasis that, although a very rare condition, is more common among people living close to farming communities. We report three cases of O. ovis infestation which occurred in Italy in a limited area of La Spezia province (Le Cinque Terre), Italy during summer 2004. None of the patients had contact with wild or farm animals.

  11. OVIS 2.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Thompson, David C.; Roe, Diana C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-04-01

    This document describes how to obtain, install, use, and enjoy a better life with OVIS version 2.0. The OVIS project targets scalable, real-time analysis of very large data sets. We characterize the behaviors of elements and aggregations of elements (e.g., across space and time) in data sets in order to detect anomalous behaviors. We are particularly interested in determining anomalous behaviors that can be used as advance indicators of significant events of which notification can be made or upon which action can be taken or invoked. The OVIS open source tool (BSD license) is available for download at ovis.ca.sandia.gov. While we intend for it to support a variety of application domains, the OVIS tool was initially developed for, and continues to be primarily tuned for, the investigation of High Performance Compute (HPC) cluster system health. In this application it is intended to be both a system administrator tool for monitoring and a system engineer tool for exploring the system state in depth. OVIS 2.0 provides a variety of statistical tools for examining the behavior of elements in a cluster (e.g., nodes, racks) and associated resources (e.g., storage appliances and network switches). It calculates and reports model values and outliers relative to those models. Additionally, it provides an interactive 3D physical view in which the cluster elements can be colored by raw element values (e.g., temperatures, memory errors) or by the comparison of those values to a given model. The analysis tools and the visual display allow the user to easily determine abnormal or outlier behaviors. The OVIS project envisions the OVIS tool, when applied to compute cluster monitoring, to be used in conjunction with the scheduler or resource manager in order to enable intelligent resource utilization. For example, nodes that are deemed less healthy, that is, nodes that exhibit outlier behavior in some variable, or set of variables, that has shown to be correlated with future failure

  12. Phylogenetic Position of a Copper Age Sheep (Ovis aries) Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350 - 5,100 years before present). Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNAPhe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene) was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. Conclusions/Significance A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440) which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations. PMID:22457789

  13. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of <10%, 13 adult female bighorn sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  14. Development of interspecies nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with argali (Ovis ammon) somatic cells and sheep ooplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yanli; Guo, Zhiqin; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Interspecies nuclear transfer has already achieved success in several species, which shows great potential in recovery and conservation of endangered animals. The study was conducted to establish an efficient system for in vitro argali (Ovis ammon)-sheep embryo reconstruction via interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). The competence of domestic sheep cytoplasts to reprogram the adult argali fibroblast nuclei was evaluated, and the effects of enucleation methods and donor cell passage and cell state on the in vitro development of argali-sheep cloned embryos were also examined. Sheep oocytes could support argali and sheep fibroblast cell nuclei transfer and develop to blastocysts in vitro. Oocytes matured for 21–23 h and enucleated by chemically assisted enucleation (CAE) had a higher enucleation rate than blind enucleation (BE), but the development rate of iSCNTembryos was the same (P>0.05). Moreover, passage numbers of fibroblast cells cell cycle stages did not affect the development rate of iSCNT reconstructed embryos. Thus sheep cytoplasm successfully supports argali nucleus development to blastocyst stage after optimising the nuclear transfer procedure, which indicates that iSCNT can be used to conserve endangered argali in the near future.

  15. The Nature of the Warm/Hot Intergalactic Medium I. Numerical Methods, Convergence, and OVI Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Britton D; Shull, J Michael; O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the warm/hot intergalactic medium. The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z ~ 0.5, declining to 35-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic OVI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10^13 cm^-2 = 10^14 cm^-2). The distribution...

  16. Phylogenetic position of a copper age sheep (Ovis aries mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Olivieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep (Ovis aries were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present. Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNA(Phe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440 which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations.

  17. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  18. Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra hircus), Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) and european Mouflon (Ovis musimon)

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen TC; Bunch TD

    1980-01-01

    Data presented in this report are concerned with the results of blood typing of 7 aoudad (Ammotragus lervia), 20 european mouflons (Ovis musimon) and 260 domestic goats (Capra hircus). The blood samples were tested with 31 different sheep blood typing reagents to see if sheep-like blood-group antigens existed in the red cells of the three species. The polymorphism of serum transferrin and hemoglobin was analyzed by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Evidence is presented for the ...

  19. Caring Teaching as a Moral Practice: An Exploratory Study on Perceived Dimensions of Caring Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caring teaching is a conceptual framework used to gain an insight into the moral aspect of teaching. Using a quantitative research approach, we studied 556 teachers in order to explore their perceived dimensions of caring teaching. Drawing on existing literature, we found that caring teaching has been elaborated in line with two broad concepts: personal care and academic care. Considering these concepts, we developed the Caring Teaching Scale with which we identified four dimensions of caring teaching: the nurturing of a student's character, didactical bias, awareness, and respectful didactics. A meta-analysis reflection suggests that the nurturing of students' characters and awareness represent personal care while didactical bias and respectful didactics call for academic care. Further analysis showed that these teachers attached more pedagogical value to personal care. Controlling for two demographic variables, we found statistically significant differences with regard to gender and caring teaching.

  20. Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Atef; Leulmi, Hamza; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5.8%) blood of sheep and (2/120, 1.7%) goats. Theileria ovis was detected in (50/147, 34%) R. bursa and (3/22, 13.6%) R. turanicus and in (64/120, 53.3%) blood of sheep and (25/120, 20.8%) goats. Babesia ovis was screened positive in (23/147, 15.6%) R. bursa and (7/48, 14.6%) R. turanicus. Our findings expand knowledge about the repertoire of tick-borne microorganisms present in ectoparasites and/or the blood of small ruminants in Algeria.

  1. Status and distribution of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in Ladakh, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2009-01-01

    The Near Threatened Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni is distributed across the Tibetan Plateau and its peripheral mountains. Within India it occurs in Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir) and Sikkim, and the population was estimated to be c. 200 in the early 1990s. Hunting of the species was banned in Jammu

  2. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-01-01

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus...

  3. Development of a Taenia ovis transmission model and an assessment of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Bradley D; Poljak, Zvonimir; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Menzies, Paula I

    2013-11-15

    The metacestode stage of the tapeworm, Taenia ovis, causes cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep, which can result in the condemnation of the entire carcass. In recent years, Canadian farms have seen a marked increase in the number of condemnations due to T. ovis. Mathematical transmission models provide a useful tool for predicting parasite transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of potential control options. To date, no model has been developed exclusively for T. ovis. In the work described here, a compartmental, deterministic transmission model was developed to better understand the transmission dynamics of T. ovis on Canadian sheep farms. The model was intended to be practical, and represent the transmission of infection burdens in lambs that result in carcass condemnation, or transmission to canids. All transmission parameters were obtained from the literature or, when unavailable, expert opinion. The model incorporated each stage of the parasite lifecycle using the most probable transmission route on Canadian sheep farms; including definitive host (guard dogs), intermediate host (pastured lambs), and environment. Based on literature, the model performed as expected, and provided a reasonable estimate of parasite prevalence in lambs. In addition, modeling allowed the efficacy of potential control options to be evaluated and compared. Model simulations suggested that infection risk in market lambs could be eliminated through the regular treatment of guardian dogs every fifth week with an appropriate cestocide, or through eliminating carcass consumption by guardian dogs.

  4. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-03-23

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland.

  5. Expression and characterisation of a Psoroptes ovis glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison J; Huntley, John; Van den Broek, Adri; Coates, David; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2002-04-19

    The astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab, a highly contagious parasitic disease of sheep. Infection causes severe allergic dermatitis, resulting in damage to the fleece and hide, loss of condition and occasional mortality. Interest in the P. ovis allergens led us to characterise a glutathione S-transferase (GST) which displays homology to GST allergens isolated from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and the cockroach, Blatella germanica. A cDNA encoding a mu-class GST from P. ovis was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified for biochemical analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the purified product was homogeneous and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. The recombinant GST (rGST) is active towards the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), whereas 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) is a poor substrate. The recombinant protein was also tested for recognition by IgE and IgG antibodies in serum from P. ovis naïve and P. ovis infested sheep. Neither IgE nor IgG antibodies were detected to the rGST. Prausnitz--Küstner testing with rGST did not provoke a characteristic weal and flare response. Biopsies collected at the PK test sites were stained for eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells and basophils. Neutrophil, mast cell and basophil counts were not significantly different to the controls. Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher than controls, but were not due to an IgE response.

  6. Catalog of Completed Health Care and Dental Care Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Webster University, MEN RSHIP: Nominee: American College of Health Care Executives Member: American Hospital Association Hospital Management System...the needs of the Army, Mil itiry Police Journal, 12-13. 31 Georgoulakis, James M. (1984). The AWOL offender: new findings on an old subject, 26th...Yuille, D., Telepak, R.J., Lamibrecht, R.W., & McAuley, R.J. (1978). Radionuclide nurshmal low swallow for evaluation of dysphagia . Journal of

  7. Polymorphism of the CSN1S1 casein gene in position 663 in national sheep breeds and European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Niżnikowski; Grzegorz Czub; Krzysztof Głowacz; Marcin Świątek; Magdalena Ślęzak

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out on the material of 1802 sheeps (1175♀ and 627♂) coming from European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), its hybrids with Polish heat sheep, four sheep breeds that are characterised by a mixed wool, as well as Polish merino. All animals were subjected to the identification of the alpha-S1 casein gene – CSN1S1. On the basis of the research two alleles (C and T) were identified and three genotypes (CC, CT and TT). A balanced frequency of alleles C and T in ...

  8. Polymorphism of the PrP prion protein gene in national sheep breeds with mixed wool, polish merino and european mouflon (Ovis aries musimon)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Niżnikowski; Krzysztof Głowacz; Grzegorz Czub; Magdalena Ślęzak; Marcin Świątek

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out on the material of 1787 sheep (1169♀ i 618♂) originating from European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), its hybrids with Polish heat sheep and four sheep breeds with mixed wool, compared to Polish merino. All animals were subjected to the identification of the PrP prion protein gene. Based on performed research work it has been identified from two alleles in European mouflon and mouflon – Polish heat sheep to six alleles in Polish colour mountain sheep...

  9. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep in Botucatu, State of São Paulo Epidemiologia de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos em Botucatu, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal factors that influence Oestrus ovis infestation in sheep were determined in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Southwestern Brazil, from April 2008 to March 2011. Two tracer lambs were monthly exposed to natural infestation by O. ovis larvae for 28 consecutive days, by grazing with a sheep flock. Tracer animals were then euthanized and the larvae of O. ovis recovered from nasal and sinus cavities. Of the 72 tracer lambs, 50% were infested with O. ovis larvae and the mean intensity of infestation per head infested was 16.8 larvae, with an average of 7.8 L1, 5.3 L2 and 3.7 L3. O. ovis larvae were present during the four seasons of the year, but the mean larval burden was significantly higher during the spring and summer months, compared to winter (P Os fatores sazonais que influenciam a infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis, foram determinados no período de abril de 2008 a março de 2011, em ovinos criados em Botucatu, São Paulo, região Sudeste do Brasil. Mensalmente, dois cordeiros traçadores permaneceram em pastejo com um rebanho ovino durante 28 dias consecutivos, expostos à infestação natural por larvas de O. ovis. Em seguida, os cordeiros foram sacrificados, e as larvas de O. ovis recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais. Dos 72 cordeiros traçadores, 50% estavam infestados por larvas de O. ovis, com intensidade média de infestação de 16,8 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média de 7,8 L1, 5,3 L2 e 3,7 L3. As larvas de O. ovis foram recuperadas durante as quatro estações do ano, mas o número médio de larvas foi significativamente superior durante os meses de primavera e verão comparado aos meses de inverno (P < 0,05. A maior taxa de recuperação larval coincidiu com temperaturas médias entre 20 °C e 25 °C e umidade relativa do ar por volta de 70%. Os resultados sugerem que a evolução e desenvolvimento de O. ovis ocorre praticamente durante o ano inteiro, mas a infestação é mais frequente nos meses de

  10. Perceptions of parents on satisfaction with care in the pediatric intensive care unit: the EMPATHIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Latour (Jos); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N.A.M. van Dam (Nicolette); E. Dullaart (Eugenie); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); E.M. van Vught (Elise); M. van Heerde (Marc); J.A. Hazelzet (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: PURPOSE: To identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction items within the framework of developing a Dutch pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) satisfaction instrument. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in tertiary PICUs at seven university

  11. Olematu olemine. Kulešovi efektist seoses Eisensteini juubeliga / Lauri Kärk ; tõlkinud Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    1998-01-01

    Kieli "Cinachea" festivali raames peetud filmiajaloo seminari (22. aprill 1998) teeside põhjal; lisa : Lev Kulešovi elulugu ja filmograafia, tõlge Ephraim Katzi raamatust "The Film Encyclopedia". New York, 1998

  12. Olematu olemine. Kulešovi efektist seoses Eisensteini juubeliga / Lauri Kärk ; tõlkinud Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    1998-01-01

    Kieli "Cinachea" festivali raames peetud filmiajaloo seminari (22. aprill 1998) teeside põhjal; lisa : Lev Kulešovi elulugu ja filmograafia, tõlge Ephraim Katzi raamatust "The Film Encyclopedia". New York, 1998

  13. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of

  14. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis infection of sheep in Argentina's western Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends and effects of Oestrus ovis in naturally infected sheep were studied over 13 months, in the Western of the Pampeana region. At weaning, 140 growing lambs were randomly allocated to two groups: UG, untreated group and TG treated every 4 weeks with closantel (10 mg/kg. Successive Oestrus free tracer lambs (TL by previous treatment (n = 65 were slaughtered after 20-30 exposition days for larval counts. Likewise, other group PL of 117 permanent untreated lambs was slaughtered from four to 17 months of age. Weighing and assessment of health signs of UG and TG and blood samples were monthly carried out. The prevalence of infection in permanent group varied from 33 % to 100 %. Mean number of larvae in PL was 6.1 with 3 L1, 1.4 L2 and 1.6 L3 during spring-summer and 17.9 with 16.9 L1, 0.5 L2 and 0.4 L3 during autumn-winter months. In PL the proportions of larvae in each of the different larval stages was similar during spring and summer, but a significant (P < 0.01 increase of L1 was detected during autumn and winter. The prevalence in tracer lambs was 100 % during summer time and larvae were absent from 25-May to 25-October. Mean larval burdens of positive TL varied from 6.4 to one Oestrus and a significant peak (P < 0.05 of larvae was seen from December to March. Since March to November only L1 was recovered from TL. TG group showed a reduction in nasal discharge and in antibody ELISA levels, but no difference was observed in live weight gain between TG and UG. These results show a high prevalence during summer and that the perpetuation of Oestrus is ensured by an autumn period of arrested development and the over wintering larvae in the sheep heads.

  15. Control of the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis in vivo and in vitro using fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, S; Thind, B; Jackson, V; Luke, B; Moore, D; Wall, R; Taylor, M A

    2007-09-30

    As part of a research programme designed to identify biological agents for the control of sheep scab, the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to Psoroptes mites in the presence of sheepskin and wool was examined in the laboratory. No inhibitory effects of skin and wool were observed and high levels of infection were recorded. Subsequently the pathogenicity of formulations of both M. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to Psoroptes ovis was studied in vivo. For this, 36 batches of 20 adult female Psoroptes mites were confined in 25 mm diameter chambers which were attached to the backs of 6 scab-naive sheep. In some treatments, mites were exposed to the fungal pathogens for 48 h in vitro prior to being placed on the host, while other treatments involved mites with no prior exposure placed directly onto the skin of a host treated with a fungal pathogen. After 48 h on the host, mites were removed, incubated individually and all fungal infections were recorded. Fungal infection was observed in all treatments, except untreated controls. However, B. bassiana infected a significantly greater number of mites than M. anisopliae with all the formulations examined. Infection rates were highest when mites were exposed to dry conidia (>90%) and lowest with M. anisopliae in diatomaceous earth. Overall, the infection rate was not affected by whether or not the mites were given prior exposure to the conidia, before being placed on the sheep. The results demonstrate that Psoroptes mites can become infected by entomopathogenic fungi on the skin of sheep and provides a first demonstration of the potential of this technology for the control of sheep scab.

  16. Ovis aries CR4 is involved in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Dassanayake, Rohana P

    2010-06-15

    Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease of domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) and cattle (BO). M. haemolytica is a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract in ruminants, but during stress and viral infection it breaches the host innate mucosal defense and descents into lungs causing fibrinous pleuropneumonia. Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by M. haemolytica is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes. Earlier, we and others have shown that DS and BO LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) can mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis. It is not clear whether CR4 (CD11c/CD18), which is involved in chemotaxis, phagocytosis and regulates host immune response can also mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis in ruminants. The host innate immune response to M. haemolytica is poorly understood and the involvement of CR4 in M. haemolytica pathogenesis is one of the most understudied. This problem is further compounded by the lack of cd11c genes from any ruminant species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to clone cd11c and determine whether CR4 can serve as a receptor for Lkt. In this direction we cloned two alleles of cd11c gene from leukocytes isolated from DS blood by RT-PCR. Transfectants developed expressing functional DS CR4 were found to be cytotoxic to Lkt from four different isolates of M. haemolytica. This is the first report confirming the ability of a recombinant ovine CR4 to bind to M. haemolytica Lkt and mediate concentration-dependent lysis of host cells, thus, confirming their role in M. haemolytica pathogenesis. This is a critical step in understanding host innate immunity and the management of pneumonia in sheep. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Views of cancer care reviews in primary care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eike; Boulton, Mary; Rose, Peter; Lund, Susi; Richardson, Alison; Wilson, Sue; Watson, Eila

    2011-01-01

    Background The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) provides an incentive for practices to establish a cancer register and conduct a review with cancer patients within 6 months of diagnosis, but implementation is unknown. Aim To describe: (1) implementation of the QOF cancer care review; (2) patients' experiences of primary care over the first 3 years following a cancer diagnosis; (3) patients' views on optimal care; and (4) the views of primary care professionals regarding their cancer care. Design of study Qualitative study using thematic analysis and a framework approach. Setting Six general practices in the Thames Valley area. Method Semi-structured interviews with cancer patients and focus groups with primary care teams. Results Thirty-eight adults with 12 different cancer types were interviewed. Seventy-one primary care team members took part in focus groups. Most cancer care reviews are conducted opportunistically. Thirty-five patients had had a review; only two could recall this. Patients saw acknowledgement of their diagnosis and provision of general support as important and not always adequately provided. An active approach and specific review appointment would legitimise the raising of concerns. Primary care teams considered cancer care to be part of their role. GPs emphasised the importance of being able to respond to individual patients' needs and closer links with secondary care to facilitate a more involved role. Conclusion Patients and primary care teams believe primary care has an important role to play in cancer care. Cancer care reviews in their current format are not helpful, with considerable scope for improving practice in this area. An invitation to attend a specific appointment at the end of active treatment may aid transition from secondary care and improve satisfaction with follow-up in primary care. PMID:21439175

  18. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus and Brucella ovis (B. ovis was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.

  19. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY FOR BRUCELLA OVIS DISSEMINATION AMONG GOATS (Capra aegagrus hircus

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    Atanas ARNAUDOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By complement fixation test 230 blood samples from goats and he goats were examined for presence of antibodies against Brucella ovis. 134 blood samples were from goats (23 of them were from slipping goats and 96- from he goats. The animals come from private farms in the Plovdiv and Pazardzhik regions (Southern Bulgaria. 10.87% of all tested blood samples contain antibodies against Brucella ovis. Differences in the percentage of the positive reagents of different goat categories were found. The highest percentage was among slipping goats (39.13% towards to 11.71% among the healthy goats and 3.13% among he goats. It can be concluded that goats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The greatest risk is slipping goats bred together with sheep flocks.

  20. Bilateral ocular myiasis interna caused by botfly (Oestrus ovis): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vatsal; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Vaijayanthi, K; Das, Debmalya; Raval, Vishal

    2011-12-01

    The sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis is the commonest of several species of dipteran fly whose larvae are obligatory parasites in the nasal cavities and frontal sinuses of sheep but may cause infestation (myiasis) in man, commonly as external infestations and rarely, involves inner coat of the eye (Ocular myiasis interna). We report an imported case of Bilateral Ocular myiasis interna in an Indian boy.

  1. External Ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus Ovis: A Case Report from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhassan, Abdelhameed A.

    2010-01-01

    Human myiasis has been reported from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly oestrus ovis from Wadi Alhawasna, North Batina, Oman. A 9-years-old boy presented with symptoms of acute conjunctivitis. Five larvae were removed from his eye and sent for identification. The patient recovered completely after removal of the larvae. PMID:28845217

  2. Physiological Response in Ovis Aries Resulting from Electrical Stimuli Delivered by an Implantable Vision Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    EIVEPs were qualitatively compared with a visual evoked potential ( VEP ) induced by stroboscopic light. II. METHODS A. Animal Model The Ovis aries...correspondingly large VEP , a relatively large concentric electrode was utilized. Fig. 1 shows the electrode utilized in this experimentation. The...dimensions are in millimeters. Dashed line passes through the medial canthi. The VEP and EIVEP were measured using a similar technique to

  3. A New Method of Argali ( Ovis ammon Captur e using Horsemen and Drive- nets

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    Rob Roy Ramey II

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ar gali sheep ( Ovis ammon were live captured for radio-collaring using horsemen as the primary means to herd them into drive nets. Two adult ar gali ewes, one ar gali lamb, and one adult ibex ewe were captured by drive-netting in five days ef fort in Ikh Nartiin Chuluu Nature Reserve, Mongolia, in September 2002. This represents the first use of this low tech, ef ficient, and low cost method for live capture of argali.

  4. A case of ophthalmomyiasis in man by Oestrus ovis Linncacus in Tehran ( Insecta Diptcra, Oestridae

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    B. janbakhsh

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Five first-stage-larvae were removed by soft and pointed blottingpaper from the left eye of a woman and they were identified as oestrus ovis. She was infected in Tehran and this is the first true case of ophrhalmomyiasis due to sheep nasal bot fly in Iran. Reports indicate that case of ophrhalmomyiasis are more frequent in Iranian villages with different degree of .severity. Methods for prevention and treatments are also discussed.

  5. A case of ophthalmomyiasis in man by Oestrus ovis Linncacus in Tehran ( Insecta Diptcra, Oestridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. janbakhsh

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Five first-stage-larvae were removed by soft and pointed blottingpaper from the left eye of a woman and they were identified as oestrus ovis. She was infected in Tehran and this is the first true case of ophrhalmomyiasis due to sheep nasal bot fly in Iran. Reports indicate that case of ophrhalmomyiasis are more frequent in Iranian villages with different degree of .severity. Methods for prevention and treatments are also discussed.

  6. The sequence and phylogenesis of the ?-globin genes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), goat (Capra hircus), European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) and Cyprus mouflon (Ovis aries ophion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastru, Monica; Multineddu, Chiara; Mereu, Paolo; Sannai, Mara; El Sherbini, El Said; Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Nàhlik, Andràs; Franceschi, Paul; Manca, Laura; Masala, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate the polymorphism of ?-globin chain of hemoglobin amongst caprines, the linked (I)? and (II)? globin genes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), goat (Capra hircus), European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), and Cyprus mouflon (Ovis aries ophion) were completely sequenced, including the 5? and 3? untranslated regions. European and Cyprus mouflons, which do not show polymorphic ? globin chains, had almost identical ? globin genes, whereas Barbary sheep exhibit two different chains encoded by two nonallelic genes. Four different ? genes were observed and sequenced in goat, validating previous observations of the existence of allelic and nonallelic polymorphism. As in other vertebrates, interchromosomal gene conversion appears to be responsible for such polymorphism. Evaluation of nucleotide sequences at the level of molecular evolution of the (I)?-globin gene family in the caprine taxa suggests a closer relationship between the genus Ammotragus and Capra. Molecular clock estimates suggest sheep-mouflon, goat-aoudad, and ancestor-caprine divergences of 2.8, 5.7, and 7.1 MYBP, respectively.

  7. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  8. Evaluation Study of Day-Care Centers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korazim, Malka; Trachtenberg, Silvia

    In recent years, day-care centers for the elderly have been playing an increasingly important role in the community service system for the elderly in Israel. ESHEL, one of the leading agencies in developing day-care services in Israel initiated a comprehensive evaluation study of day-care centers to identify variations among different types of…

  9. Palliative care in a coronary care unit: a qualitative study of physicians' and nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Olsson, Henny

    2004-02-01

    Earlier research has shown that physicians and nurses are motivated to provide good palliative care, but several factors prevail that prevent the best care for dying patients. To provide good palliative care it is vital that the relationship between nurses and physicians is one based on trust, respect and sound communication. However, in settings such as a coronary care unit, disagreement sometimes occurs between different professional groups regarding care of dying patients. The aim of this study was to describe and understand physicians' and nurses' perceptions on their working relationship with one another and on palliative care in a coronary care unit setting. Using a convenience sample, professional caregivers were interviewed at their work in a coronary care unit in Sweden. Data collection and analysis were done concurrently using a qualitative approach. From the interviews, a specific pattern of concepts was identified. The concepts were associated with a dignified death, prerequisites for providing good palliative care and obstacles that prevented such care. Caregivers who work in a coronary care unit are highly motivated to provide the best possible care and to ensure a dignified death for their patients. Nevertheless, they sometimes fail in their intentions because of several obstacles that prevent good quality care from being fully realized. To improve practice, more attention should be paid to increasing dying patients' well-being and participation in care, improving strategic decision-making processes, offering support to patients and their relatives, and improving communication and interaction among caregivers working in a coronary care unit. Caregivers will be able to support patients and relatives better if there are good working relations in the work team and through better communication among the various professional caregivers.

  10. Introducing Pharmaceutical Care to Primary Care in Iceland—An Action Research Study

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    Anna Bryndis Blondal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though pharmaceutical care is not a new concept in pharmacy, its introduction and development has proved to be challenging. In Iceland, general practitioners are not familiar with pharmaceutical care and additionally no such service is offered in pharmacies or primary care settings. Introducing pharmaceutical care in primary care in Iceland is making great efforts to follow other countries, which are bringing the pharmacist more into patient care. General practitioners are key stakeholders in this endeavor. The aim of this study was to introduce pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care into primary care clinics in Iceland in collaboration with general practitioners by presenting different setting structures. Action research provided the framework for this research. Data was collected from pharmaceutical care interventions, whereby the pharmaceutical care practitioner ensures that each of a patient’s medications is assessed to determine if it is appropriate, effective, safe, and that the patient can take medicine as expected. Sources of data included pharmaceutical care notes on patients, researcher’s notes, meetings, and interviews with general practitioners over the period of the study. The study ran from September 2013 to October 2015. Three separate semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with five general practitioners from one primary health care clinic in Iceland at different time points throughout the study. Pharmaceutical care was provided to elderly patients (n = 125 before and between general practitioners’ interviews. The study setting was a primary care clinic in the Reykjavik area and the patients’ homes. Results showed that the GPs’ knowledge about pharmacist competencies as healthcare providers and their potential in patient care increased. GPs would now like to have access to a pharmacist on a daily basis. Direct contact between the pharmacist and GPs is better when working in the same physical space

  11. Prevalence of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep from the São Paulo Central region, Brazil Prevalência de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos da região Central de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Bruna Fernanda da Silva

    Full Text Available The heads of 139 slaughtered sheep were examined with the aim of determining Oestrus ovis prevalence and infestation intensity in the central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Heads from slaughtered sheep were examined and the first (L1, second (L2 and third (L3 O. ovis larval instars were recovered from the nasal and sinus cavities. O. ovis larvae were detected in 13.7% of the sheep analyzed. The monthly mean intensity of infestation ranged from 1 to 10.2 larvae per infested head, with general mean intensity of 4.5 larvae/infested head. Of the total of 85 larvae, 21.2% were L1, 37.6% L2 and 41.2% L3. In conclusion, all different O. ovis larvae instars were recovered from slaughtered animals, which demonstrates the existence of favorable climatic conditions for the fly activity and larval development of O. ovis in sheep raised in the Central region of the State of São Paulo.Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência e intensidade de infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis na região Central do Estado de São Paulo, 139 cabeças de ovinos obtidas de um abatedouro foram examinadas. As larvas O. ovis foram recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais, identificadas de acordo com o estádio larval e quantificadas. As larvas de O. ovis foram detectadas em 13,7% das cabeças examinadas e a intensidade média mensal de infestação variou entre 1 a 10,2 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média geral de 4,5 larvas/cabeça infestada. Do total de 85 larvas recuperadas, 21,2% eram larvas de primeiro estádio (L1, 37,6% de segundo (L2 e 41,2% de terceiro (L3. Em conclusão, todos os diferentes instares larvais de O. ovis foram recuperados de animais abatidos, o que demonstra a existência de condições climáticas favoráveis para a atividade da mosca bem como o desenvolvimento larval em ovinos criados na região Central do Estado de São Paulo.

  12. Advancing LGBT Health Care Policies and Clinical Care Within a Large Academic Health Care System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.

  13. Aeromedical Evacuation Enroute Critical Care Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    percentile TP, suggesting that TPs assumed complex postures to accomplish patient care tasks. The findings suggest that ergonomic specifications...critical care, and (2) Current medical interiors contributed to crewmember fatigue and back injuries. This is a plausible concern, as posture been...long spine board 6530-01-490-2487 GoPro® Hero3 cameras The GoPro® Hero3 cameras provided a small form factor combined with a wide field-of

  14. Outcome measures of spiritual care in palliative home care: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermandere, M.; Lepeleire, J. De; Mechelen, W. van; Warmenhoven, F.C.; Thoonsen, B.A.; Aertgeerts, B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key outcome measures of spiritual care in palliative home care. A qualitative study was conducted with experts from 3 stakeholder groups (physicians, professional spiritual caregivers, and researchers) representing 2 countries (Belgium and The Netherlands).

  15. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

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    Franx Gerdien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT. Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring, were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method, and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT

  16. Estimating the population density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries in a Mediterranean forest environment

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    Rita Tinoco Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To manage and conserve wild populations effectively, a good understating of population density is critical. During 2010, the density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries were estimated.Area of study: The area is situated in Muela de Cortes Game Reservation (Spain, a Mediterranean forest plateau, after a mange Sarcoptes scabiei outbreak that affected both species. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, sex ratio and productivity of the Iberian wild goat and mouflon. Field work was conducted during spring (after parturition and autumn (during rut by walking along itineraries, using a Distance Sampling approach. Main results: Based on DS, the best relative fit of model and adjustment term for Iberian wild goat was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density for Iberian wild goat was 4 km-2 (95% CI: 2,3 – 6,9 (after parturition and 3,6 km-2 (95% CI: 2 – 6.6 (during rut. Average estimation was 1,422 goats (95% CI: 813 – 2,487 after parturition and 1,308 during rut (95% CI: 725 – 2,362. Mouflon best relative fit of model and adjustment term was uniform cosine after parturition, based on the lowest AIC score. The best relative fit of model and adjustment term for mouflon was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density was 6.8 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4.7 – 9,9 after parturition and 7,4 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4,4 – 12,5 during rut. Average estimation was 2,440 mouflon after parturition (95% CI: 1,673 – 3,558 and 2,678 during rut (95% CI: 1,589 – 4,515. Research highlights: The area represents one of the largest continental free-living populations of mouflon in Europe and a relevant area for Iberian wild goat, where it has survived for centuries and spread into the East Iberia. This study suggests that the survey methods used are suitable and sustainable with available field personnel for quantifying changes in wild goat and mouflon populations

  17. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  18. Perceptions of parents on satisfaction with care in the pediatric intensive care unit : the EMPATHIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, Jos M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; van Heerde, Marc; Hazelzet, Jan A.

    2009-01-01

    To identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction items within the framework of developing a Dutch pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) satisfaction instrument. Prospective cohort study in tertiary PICUs at seven university medical centers in The Netherlands. Parents

  19. Perceptions of parents on satisfaction with care in the pediatric intensive care unit: the EMPATHIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Latour (Jos); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N.A.M. van Dam (Nicolette); E. Dullaart (Eugenie); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); E.M. van Vught (Elise); M. van Heerde (Marc); J.A. Hazelzet (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: PURPOSE: To identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction items within the framework of developing a Dutch pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) satisfaction instrument. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in tertiary PICUs at seven university med

  20. Improving Diabetes Care in the Military Primary Care Clinic: Case Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    required application of innovative and creative strategies to improve self- management . The cases are representative of some common themes within the patient with type 2 diabetes in a military primary care clinic....enabled patients to engage in self- management . Moreover, this study seeks to better understand how applying the ADA Standards of Care in a military

  1. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

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    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  2. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  3. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  4. Why Aren't More Primary Care Residents Going into Primary Care? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Theodore; Chaiyachati, Krisda; Bosu, Olatunde; Sircar, Sohini; Richards, Bradley; Garg, Megha; McGarry, Kelly; Solomon, Sonja; Berman, Rebecca; Curry, Leslie; Moriarty, John; Huot, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Workforce projections indicate a potential shortage of up to 31,000 adult primary care providers by the year 2025. Approximately 80 % of internal medicine residents and nearly two-thirds of primary care internal medicine residents do not plan to have a career in primary care or general internal medicine. We aimed to explore contextual and programmatic factors within primary care residency training environments that may influence career choices. This was a qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-person interviews. Three primary care internal medicine residency programs were purposefully selected to represent a diversity of training environments. Second and third year residents were interviewed. We used a survey guide developed from pilot interviews and existing literature. Three members of the research team independently coded the transcripts and developed the code structure based on the constant comparative method. The research team identified emerging themes and refined codes. ATLAS.ti was used for the analysis. We completed 24 interviews (12 second-year residents, and 12 third-year residents). The age range was 27-39 years. Four recurrent themes characterized contextual and programmatic factors contributing to residents' decision-making: resident expectations of a career in primary care, navigation of the boundary between social needs and medical needs, mentorship and perceptions of primary care, and structural features of the training program. Addressing aspects of training that may discourage residents from careers in primary care such as lack of diversity in outpatient experiences and resident frustration with their inability to address social needs of patients, and strengthening aspects of training that may encourage interests in careers in primary care such as mentorship and protected time away from inpatient responsibilities during primary care rotations, may increase the proportion of residents enrolled in primary care training programs who pursue

  5. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Introduction: Studying Health and Health Care in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Krause, K.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction delineates and discusses the field of social, cultural, and historical studies of health and health care in Ghana. Health and health care are viewed as significant nexuses of social and cultural processes. This overview of studies, mainly from Anglophone medical anthropology, focus

  7. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations.

  8. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations.

  9. Perioperative ruminal pH changes in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) housed in a biomedical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Bambi H; Boston, Ray C; Modesto, Rolf B; Schaer, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Little information is available on normal ruminal pH values for domestic sheep (Ovis aries) housed in a research setting and fed a complete pelleted ration. Sheep maintained on pelleted diets undergoing surgical procedures often present with postoperative anorexia and rumen atony. To determine the relationship between diet and postoperative rumen acidosis and associated atony, we studied dietary effects on ruminal pH in an ovine surgical model. Sheep undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures were randomized into 2 diet groups. Group 1 (n = 6) was fed complete pelleted diet during the pre- and postoperative period, and group 2 (n = 6) was fed timothy grass hay exclusively throughout the study. Measures included ruminal pH, ruminal motility, and rate of feed refusal, which was monitored throughout the pre- and postoperative periods. The 2 groups did not differ significantly before surgery, and the ruminal parameters remained largely within normal limits. However, a downward trend in the strength and frequency of rumen contractions was observed in pellet-fed sheep. After surgery, the pellet-fed group showed clinical signs consistent with ruminal acidosis, supported by decreased ruminal motility, anorexia, putrid-smelling ruminal material, and death of ruminal protozoa. Intervention by transfaunation in clinically affected sheep resulted in resolution of signs. Our findings suggest that sheep fed grass hay appear to have a more stable ruminal pH, are less likely to experience anorexia and rumen atony, and thereby exhibit fewer postoperative gastrointestinal complications than do sheep on a pellet diet.

  10. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  11. Transition from specialist to primary diabetes care: A qualitative study of perspectives of primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liddy Clare

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing prevalence of diabetes and heightened awareness of the benefits of early and intensive disease management have increased service demands and expectations not only of primary care physicians but also of diabetes specialists. While research has addressed issues related to referral into specialist care, much less has been published about the transition from diabetes specialists back to primary care. Understanding the concerns of family physicians related to discharge of diabetes care from specialist centers can support the development of strategies that facilitate this transition and result in broader access to limited specialist services. This study was undertaken to explore primary care physician (PCP perspectives and concerns related to reassuming responsibility for diabetes care after referral to a specialized diabetes center. Methods Qualitative data were collected through three focus groups. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and sorted with themes identified using a constant comparison method. The study was undertaken through the regional academic referral center for adult diabetes care in Ottawa, Canada. Participants included 22 primary care physicians representing a variety of referral frequencies, practice types and settings. Results Participants described facilitators and barriers to successful transition of diabetes care at the provider, patient and systems level. Major facilitators included clear communication of a detailed, structured plan of care, ongoing access to specialist services for advice or re-referral, continuing education and mentoring for PCPs. Identified provider barriers were gaps in PCP knowledge and confidence related to diabetes treatment, excessive workload and competing time demands. Systems deterrents included reimbursement policies for health professionals and inadequate funding for diabetes medications and supplies. At the PCP-patient interface

  12. Assessment of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of an indirect ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praud Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella ovis causes an infectious disease responsible for infertility and subsequent economic losses in sheep production. The standard serological test to detect B. ovis infection in rams is the complement fixation test (CFT, which has imperfect sensitivity and specificity in addition to technical drawbacks. Other available tests include the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISA but no I-ELISA kit has been fully evaluated. The study aimed to compare an I-ELISA kit and the standard CFT. Our study was carried out on serum samples from 4599 rams from the South of France where the disease is enzootic. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate tests characteristics (diagnostic sensitivity, Se and diagnostic specificity, Sp. The tests were then studied together in order to optimise testing strategies to detect B. ovis. Results After optimising the cut-off values in order to avoid doubtful results without deteriorating the concordance between the results of the two tests, the I-ELISA appeared to be slightly more sensitive than CFT (Se I-ELISA = 0.917 [0.822; 0.992], 95% Credibility Interval (CrI compared to Se CFT = 0.860 [0.740; 0.967], 95% CrI. However, CFT was slightly more specific than I-ELISA (Sp CFT = 0.988 [0.947; 1.0], 95% CrI compared to Sp I-ELISA =0.952 [0.901; 1.0], 95% CrI. The tests were then associated with two different interpretation schemes. The series association increased the specificity of screening and could be used for pre-movement testing in rams from uninfected flocks. The parallel association increased sequence sensitivity, thus appearing more suitable for eradicating the disease in infected flocks. Conclusions The high sensitivity and acceptable specificity of this I-ELISA kit support its potential interest to avoid the limitations of CFT. The two tests could also be used together or combined with other diagnostic methods such as semen culture to improve the testing strategy

  13. Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae and Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae in the ears of goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae e Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae nos condutos auditivos de caprinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz H. Faccini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ear cannals of 145 domestic goats including the breeds Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native and crossbred goats from 10 smallholder farms were examined by flushing for the presence of ear mites. Prevalence of Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 was much more higher than Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 in the studied area, respectively 62% ( 90/145 and 4% ( 6/145. The youngest animal parasitized was eight months old and the oldest was 10 years old. Subclinical otitis is a common feature of infestation by both species but increase of wax and the presence of pus were detected in the flushed material in approximately 10% of the goats examined.Os condutos auditivos de 145 caprinos das raças Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native e mestiços provenientes de 10 pequenos criadores foram examinados pela técnica de lavagem para diagnosticar a infestação por ácaros. A prevalência de Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 foi muito mais alta do que Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 - 62% (90/145 e 4% (6/145, respectivamente. O animal parasitado mais jovem tinha oito meses de idade e o mais velho 10 anos. Otite subclínica é comum nas infestações por ambas espécies mas aumento de cerume e presença de pus foram diagnosticados no material da lavagem em aproximadamente 10% dos caprinos examinados.

  14. Unilateral acute conjunctivitis due to Oestrus ovis in a veterinary doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalekshmi, Sujatha; Shukla, Harsha

    2013-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues and organs of animals or man by fly larvae. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time in a veterinary doctor. A 25-year-old veterinary doctor presented with severe symptoms of conjunctivitis. The larvae, 3 in number, were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva and the symptoms of the eye improved within a few hours of their removal. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of larval conjunctivitis as a significant possibility in the veterinary fraternity especially during the summer season. PMID:23633869

  15. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Oestrus ovis: A Rare Case Report from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ashish K.; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time from Meerut city in Western Uttar Pradesh, India. A 25-year-old farmer presented with severe symptoms of conjunctivitis. The larvae, 3 in number, were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva, and following removal the symptoms of eye inflammation improved within a few hours. PMID:19290093

  16. Hematologic, serum chemistry and serologic values of Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Smith, T C; Evermann, J F; Heimer, W E

    1983-04-01

    In June 1979, 73 Dall's sheep were captured near Tok, Alaska to determine selected hematologic and serum metabolite parameters and to determine the presence of antibodies to selected pathogens. Hematology and serum metabolite values were compared with values for domestic sheep and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Antibodies were detected against Brucella sp. (4%), Campylobacter feti (30%), contagious ecthyma virus (23%) and bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (1%). Antibodies were not detected against Anaplasma sp., Leptospira sp., bovine virus diarrhea virus, bluetongue virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, ovine progressive pneumonia, and Toxoplasma sp.

  17. [Detection of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. Pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calero, Miguel Ángel; Julià-Mora, Joana María; Prieto-Alomar, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Previous to wider prevalence studies, we designed the present pilot study to assess concordance and time invested in patient evaluations using a palliative care needs assessment tool. We also sought to estimate the prevalence of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. A cross-sectional study was carried out, 4 researchers (2 doctors and 2 nurses) independently assessed all inpatients in an acute care hospital unit in Manacor Hospital, Mallorca (Spain), using the validated tool NECPAL CCOMS-ICO©, measuring time invested in every case. Another researcher revised clinical recordings to analise the sample profile. Every researcher assessed 29 patients, 15 men and 14 women, mean age 74,03 ± 10.25 years. 4-observer concordance was moderate (Kappa 0,5043), tuning out to be higher between nurses. Mean time per patient evaluation was 1.9 to 7.72 minutes, depending on researcher. Prevalence of palliative care needs was 23,28%. Moderate concordance lean us towards multidisciplinary shared assessments as a method for future research. Avarage of time invested in evaluations was less than 8 minutes, no previous publications were identified regarding this variable. More than 20% of inpatients of the acute care unit were in need of palliative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan – a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite attempts from the government to improve ante- and perinatal care, Afghanistan has once again been labeled “the worst country in which to be a mom” in Save the Children’s World’s Mothers’ Report. This study investigated how pregnant women and health care providers experience the existing antenatal and obstetric health care situation in Afghanistan. Methods Data were obtained through one-to-one semi-structured interviews of 27 individuals, including 12 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, seven doctors, five midwives, and three traditional birth attendants. The interviews were carried out in Kabul and the village of Ramak in Ghazni Province. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis. Results Antenatal care was reported to be underused, even when available. Several obstacles were identified, including a lack of knowledge regarding the importance of antenatal care among the women and their families, financial difficulties, and transportation problems. The women also reported significant dissatisfaction with the attitudes and behavior of health personnel, which included instances of verbal and physical abuse. According to the health professionals, poor working conditions, low salaries, and high stress levels contributed to this matter. Personal contacts inside the hospital were considered necessary for receiving high quality care, and bribery was customary. Despite these serious concerns, the women expressed gratitude for having even limited access to health care, especially treatment provided by a female doctor. Health professionals were proud of their work and enjoyed the opportunity to help their community. Conclusion This study identified several obstacles which must be addressed to improve reproductive health in Afghanistan. There was limited understanding of the importance of antenatal care and a lack of family support. Financial and

  19. Helminthes and Coccidia Infection of Wild Sheep (Ovis Ammon Orintalis in Kabodan Island of National Park of Urmia Lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Khoshvaghti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild sheep (Ovis ammon orintalis from Kabodan Island of National Park of UrmiaLake (North-West of Iran, were examined during a period of six months from October 2002 toMarch 2003, for helminthes and coccidian infection. The numbers of oocyst and eggs per gram offaeces (OPG & EPG were determined by the centrifuge flotation technique using saturated sugarsolution. The rate of infection for Strongylid form, Marshalagia, Trichuris eggs, and lung wormlarvae were 8 (19.5%, 12 (29.5%, 17 (41.5% and 14 (34.1%, respectively. Thirty-three(80.48% of the examined wild animals were infected to one or more Eimeria species including E.parva, E. ahsata, E. ovinoidalis and E. faurei. This study suggested that the rate of parasiticinfection in wild sheep were very low but it would seem that in unsuitable condition such asdrought and starvation, parasitic infection can be cause a serious problem in wild sheep population.

  20. 'Pink eye' or 'zere oogjes' or keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO). Clinical efficacy of a number of antimicrobial therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, C D

    1983-07-01

    In a comparative study the clinical efficacy of five different treatments of keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO) were tested, namely an intramuscular injection of chloramphenicol base (dosage 15 mg/kg), spiramycin base (Suanovil dosages 10 to 25 mg/kg), oxytetracycline (Engemycine Forte, Terramycin LA, dosages respectively 5 and 10 mg/kg), tiamulin (Dynamutulin, dosage 10 mg/kg) and subcutaneous injection of procaine penicillin G, benzathine penicillin G. and dihydrostreptomycin in the lower eyelid. It appeared from these field trials that spiramycin base, oxytetracycline and tiamulin had a clearly positive effect on the clinical course of 'pink eye', although with tiamulin there was only a temporary effect (high percentage of relapses). In view of the field data the following dosage schemes are, for the time being, advised: spiramycin base (Suanovil), and oxytetracycline (formulation with a good biological availability) both 20 to 30 mg/kg and, if necessary, to be repeated on days 5 and 10 after the first intramuscular injection. The dosage scheme advised for tiamulin is 20-30 mg/kg to be repeated on day 3 and if necessary on days 6 and 9 after the intramuscular injection. In mild cases it is sufficient to rub the eyes with for example oxytetracycline eye-ointment, a few times a day.

  1. Opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders about integration of maternity care: a qualitative study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Jans, S.; Verhoeven, C.; Henneman, L.; Wiegers, T.; Mol, B.W.; Schellevis, F.; Jonge, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to give insight into the opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders on the integration of midwife-led care and obstetrician-led care and on the facilitating and inhibiting factors for integrating maternity care. Methods: Qualitative study using interv

  2. Opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders about integration of maternity care: a qualitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Jans, S.; Verhoeven, C.; Henneman, L.; Wiegers, T.; Mol, B.W.; Schellevis, F.; Jonge, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to give insight into the opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders on the integration of midwife-led care and obstetrician-led care and on the facilitating and inhibiting factors for integrating maternity care. Methods Qualitative study using intervie

  3. Opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders about integration of maternity care: a qualitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Jans, S.; Verhoeven, C.; Henneman, L.; Wiegers, T.; Mol, B.W.; Schellevis, F.; Jonge, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to give insight into the opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders on the integration of midwife-led care and obstetrician-led care and on the facilitating and inhibiting factors for integrating maternity care. Methods Qualitative study using intervie

  4. Opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders about integration of maternity care: a qualitative study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Jans, S.; Verhoeven, C.; Henneman, L.; Wiegers, T.; Mol, B.W.; Schellevis, F.; Jonge, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to give insight into the opinions of maternity care professionals and other stakeholders on the integration of midwife-led care and obstetrician-led care and on the facilitating and inhibiting factors for integrating maternity care. Methods: Qualitative study using interv

  5. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-05-28

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional

  6. The uses and gratifications of online care pages: a study of CaringBridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Isolde K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated how online care pages help people connect with others and gain social support during a health care event. It reports the results of a survey of 1035 CaringBridge authors who set up personalized web pages because of hospitalization, serious illness, or other reasons, regarding the uses and gratifications obtained from their sites. Four primary benefits were found to be important to all authors of CaringBridge sites: providing information, receiving encouragement from messages, convenience, and psychological support. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed significant effects for six demographic and health-related variables: gender, age, religiosity, Internet usage, the purpose for which the site was set up, and sufficiency of information received from health care providers. Support was obtained for the perspective that online care pages provide new media gratifications for authors, and that health-related antecedents of media use may affect media selection and gratifications. The implications of this study for communication researchers and support services like CaringBridge are also discussed.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  8. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children,...... collection newcomers into care from the 1995 cohort will be included in the sample....

  9. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  10. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…

  11. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  12. Study protocol: The Intensive Care Outcome Network ('ICON' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Vicki S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866

  13. Human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis: a case report from Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Fasih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae infestation is an eye infection in humans. A case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young male from Karachi, Pakistan in winter (December 2012, without history of close proximity to domestic animals or visit to any rural area was reported. The condition is self-limiting and the disease is confined to the conjunctiva. The eye was locally anesthetized and washed with 5% povidine iodine solution. A total number of 27 first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed with fine forceps. The patient received 0.5% moxifloxacin and diclofenac eye drops for one week. His eye was examined after one day, one week and one month and the recovery status was favorable. The present case raise the awareness among ophthalmologists regarding larval conjunctivitis as one of the causes of conjunctivitis and it can occur throughout the year in any season including winter. Moreover, it can occurr in any area either rural or urban with or without close proximity to domestic animals especially in subtropical regions with high parasitic burden.

  14. [External ophthalmic myiasis cause by Oestrus ovis (sheep and goat botfly)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfelschneider, P; Wiedemann, P

    1996-10-01

    The case of a 22-year-old woman is presented. The patient complained of a severe foreign-body sensation, immediately after being back at home from vacation in Greece. The eye showed redness and hyperaemia. The cornea was slightly clouded. On the tarsal plate white larvae of an approximate length of 1.5 mm and width of 0.5 mm were moving. The visual acuity was 1,0 and the inner parts of the eye were clinically inconspicuous. The parasites were removed and preserved. After instillation of Betaisodona into the conjunctival sac antibiotics (Aureomycin) were prescribed. After 2 days the clinical signs had disappeared nearly completely. An ENT-examination showed regular findings. The larva was identified as a first-instar larva of Oestrus ovis. This insect causes external ophthalmomyiasis. The larva develops into an adult fly. O. ovis is well known as a parasite in the nasal cavities of domestic sheep and goats. The infestation of a human eye with maggots of a fly is a rare disease. The parasites are very mobile and clinical signs are variable. A penetration into the eye is possible. Since people have been travelling more often the infection with parasites has a greater probability, although these insects are living in central Europe and in Germany.

  15. Ophthalmomyiasis externa due to the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in southwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, J; Erb, C; Kamin, G; Wild, M; Riedinger, C; Kosmidis, P; Pleyer, U; Thiel, H J

    1995-05-01

    We present a case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a 54-year-old man in southwest Germany (Baden-Württemberg). After the patient had been attacked by a fly, he complained of a foreign-body sensation and itching in his right eye and developed purulent conjunctivitis. Slit-lamp examination revealed the presence of translucent, rapidly moving insect larvae in the conjunctival sac and on the corneal surface. Following removal of all larvae and instillation of gentamicin, the symptoms completely resolved within 2 days. Two of the nine larvae removed were examined by light microscopy and taxonomically classified as first-instar larvae of the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis L. 1758. Although this fly is the most common causative agent of external ophthalmomyiasis in the world, infestations in central Europe have only rarely been reported. Besides the case report and a detailed description of the larvae, an overview of the literature on European cases of ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis is given.

  16. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Risa Fukuda; Yasuko Shimizu; Natsuko Seto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setti...

  17. Detection of homocytotropic antibody in lambs infested with the louse, Bovicola ovis, using a basophil histamine-release assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, A; Phegan, M D; Bany, J

    1997-07-01

    The utility of a basophil histamine-release assay using washed whole blood cells was examined in lambs and was used to determine if homocytotropic antibody with specificity for Bovicola ovis was produced in response to infestation with the louse. Maximal histamine release in the assay in response to Concanavalin A, anti-ovine IgE monoclonal antibody and, in sensitized lambs, to B. ovis antigen ranged from 18 to 48%. Histamine release from blood cells in response to B. ovis antigen was significantly higher in louse-infested lambs than in louse-naive lambs and was significantly correlated with louse and cockle scores. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests were negative with sera obtained from the lambs at the same time as blood for the basophil histamine-release assay. Serum histamine levels also were significantly higher in the louse-infested lambs than in louse-naive lambs and were significantly correlated with louse and cockle scores. The present results support a role for B. ovis-specific homocytotropic antibody in the development of cockle and indicate that the basophil histamine-release assay is more sensitive than the PCA test.

  18. Sirenophila ovis-atra a new species of maritime Teloschistaceae from the Southern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Søgaard, Majbrit Zeuthen; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Sirenophila ovis-atra is described from maritime rocks of southern Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Macquarie Island, where it grows in the upper part of the black ‘Verrucaria-zone’, most often on members of the genus Hydropunctaria. It is so far the only known species of Sireno...

  19. Human Nasal Myiasis Caused by Oestrus ovis in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, P; Williams, R R; Lopez, M; Cabada, M M

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation by dipterous larvae. The larvae can infect intact or decaying tissue including the skin or epithelial surfaces of the orbits, nose, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. We report a case of primary obligatory nasal myiasis by Oestrus ovis in a 56-year-old man from Cusco in Peru. He presented with nasal pruritus, congestion, and sneezing white "cottony" material. The material was identified as O. ovis larvae. A literature review of publications reporting nasal myiasis caused by O. ovis is presented.

  20. Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural women seek healthcare ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... as each has some unique features such as herbal concoctions for traditional, ultrasound and ...

  1. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses: a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Anne M; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-12-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries as to the competencies for specialised wound care nurses that meet international professional expectations and educational systems. Wound care experts including doctors, wound care nurses, lecturers, managers and head nurses were invited to contribute to an e-Delphi study. They completed online questionnaires based on the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists framework. Suggested competencies were rated on a 9-point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as an agreement of at least 75% for each competence. Response rates ranged from 62% (round 1) to 86% (rounds 2 and 3). The experts reached consensus on 77 (80%) competences. Most competencies chosen belonged to the domain 'scholar' (n = 19), whereas few addressed those associated with being a 'health advocate' (n = 7). Competencies related to professional knowledge and expertise, ethical integrity and patient commitment were considered most important. This consensus on core competencies for specialised wound care nurses may help achieve a more uniform definition and education for specialised wound care nurses.

  2. Embedding care management in the medical home: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Hay, Sherry; Prentice, Amy; Gwynne, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Care managers are playing increasingly significant roles in the redesign of primary care and in the evolution of patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), yet their adoption within day-to-day practice remains uneven and approaches for implementation have been minimally reported. We introduce a strategy for incorporating care management into the operations of a PCMH and assess the preliminary effectiveness of this approach. A case study of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Family Medicine Center used an organizational model of innovation implementation to guide the parameters of implementation and evaluation. Two sources were used to determine the effectiveness of the implementation strategy: data elements from the care management informatics system in the health record and electronic survey data from the Family Medicine Center providers and care staff. A majority of physicians (75%) and support staff (82%) reported interactions with the care manager, primarily via face-to-face, telephone, or electronic means, primarily for facilitating referrals for behavioral health services and assistance with financial and social and community-based resources. Trend line suggests an absolute decrease of 8 emergency department visits per month for recipients of care management services and an absolute decrease of 7.5 inpatient admissions per month during the initial 2-year implementation period. An organizational model of innovation implementation is a potentially effective approach to guide the process of incorporating care management services into the structure and workflows of PCMHs.

  3. Introduction: Studying Health and Health Care in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    De Geest, S.; Krause, K

    2014-01-01

    This introduction delineates and discusses the field of social, cultural, and historical studies of health and health care in Ghana. Health and health care are viewed as significant nexuses of social and cultural processes. This overview of studies, mainly from Anglophone medical anthropology, focuses on developments around "traditional" medicine and various themes relating to biomedicine, including hospital ethnography, pharmaceuticals, health insurance, reproductive technology, and HIV/AIDS...

  4. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  5. Usefulness of a Regional Health Care Information System in primary care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Marianne C; Asikainen, Paula; Mäenpää, Tiina; Wanne, Olli; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe some benefits and possible cost consequences of computer based access to specialised health care information. A before-after activity analysis regarding 20 diabetic patients' clinical appointments was performed in a Health Centre in Satakunta region in Finland. Cost data, an interview, time-and-motion studies, and flow charts based on modelling were applied. Access to up-to-date diagnostic information reduced redundant clinical re-appointments, repeated tests, and mail orders for missing data. Timely access to diagnostic information brought about several benefits regarding workflow, patient care, and disease management. These benefits resulted in theoretical net cost savings. The study results indicated that Regional Information Systems may be useful tools to support performance and improve efficiency. However, further studies are required in order to verify how the monetary savings would impact the performance of Health Care Units.

  6. Concepts of person-centred care: a framework analysis of five studies in daily care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Person-centred care is used as a term to indicate a ‘made to measure’ approach in care. But what does this look like in daily practice? The person-centred nursing framework developed by McCormack and McCance (2010 offers specific concepts but these are still described in rather general terms. Empirical studies, therefore, could help to clarify them and make person-centredness more tangible for nurses. Aims: This paper describes how a framework analysis aimed to clarify the concepts described in the model of McCormack and McCance in order to guide professionals using them in practice. Methods: Five separate empirical studies focusing on older adults in the Netherlands were used in the framework analysis. The research question was: ‘How are concepts of person-centred care made tangible where empirical data are used to describe them?’ Analysis was done in five steps, leading to a comparison between the description of the concepts and the empirical significance found in the studies. Findings: Suitable illustrations were found for the majority of concepts. The results show that an empirically derived specification emerges from the data. In the concept of ‘caring relationship’ for example, it is shown that the personal character of each relationship is expressed by what the nurse and the older person know about each other. Other findings show the importance of values being present in care practices. Conclusions: The framework analysis shows that concepts can be clarified when empirical studies are used to make person-centred care tangible so nurses can understand and apply it in practice. Implications for practice: The concepts of the person-centred nursing framework are recognised when: Nurses know unique characteristics of the person they care for and what is important to them, and act accordingly Nurses use values such as trust, involvement and humour in their care practice Acknowledgement of emotions and compassion create

  7. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... Alterations in the liver, central nervous system, and heart muscle have been ... invasive surrogate for myocardial injury was certainly not studied in .... over the thoracic spine. The electrical vector is represented with an arrow.

  8. Music during after-death care: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Marianne S; Fålun, Nina; Gjengedal, Eva; Norekvål, Tone M

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is not only a place to recover from injuries incurred during accidents and from serious illness. For many patients, it is also a place where they might die. Nursing care does not stop when a patient dies; rather, it continues with the care of the deceased and with family support. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the experiences and attitudes of nurses towards the use of ambient music in the ICU during after-death care and (2) to describe the feedback nurses received from relatives when music was used during the viewing. A qualitative design employing focus group interviews was used. Three focus group interviews with 15 nurses were conducted. All the interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six main categories of attitudes emerged from the analysis: (1) different attitudes among nurses towards the use of music; (2) music affects the atmosphere; (3) music affects emotions; (4) use of music was situational; (5) special choice of music and (6) positive feedback from the bereaved. This study demonstrates that music might be helpful for nurses during after-death care as well as for the care of the relatives. Including ambient music in an after-death care programme can help nurses show respect for the deceased as the body is being prepared. Music played during the viewing may be a way of helping relatives in their time of grieving. It may ease the situation by making that event special and memorable. However, standardizing this intervention does not seem appropriate. Rather, the individual nurse and the family must decide whether music is to be used in a particular situation. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  9. Nurses' knowledge of foot care in the context of home care: a cross-sectional correlational survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Puukka, Pauli; Viitanen, Matti; Voutilainen, Päivi; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore nurses' knowledge of foot care and related factors in home care nursing. Nurses caring for older people are increasingly confronted with clients who have multiple foot problems and need support with their foot health. The role of nurses in promoting foot health, caring for existing foot problems and supporting older people in foot self-care is especially important in the home care context. However, this entails up-to-date foot care knowledge and practices. A cross-sectional correlational survey study design. Nurses' knowledge of foot care was evaluated using the Nurses' Foot Care Knowledge Test developed for this study. The data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Nurses (registered nurses, public health nurses and licensed practical nurses) from public home care (n = 322, response rate 50%) participated the study. Nurses' knowledge in foot care varied. The knowledge scores were highest for skin and nail care and lowest for the identification and care of foot structural deformities. Longer working experience in the current work place and participation in continuing education explained higher Nurses' Foot Care Knowledge Test scores. Nurses need more knowledge, and hence continuing education, in the foot care of older people to effectively prevent, recognise and care for foot problems and promote independent living in the community. Nurses' have clinically relevant knowledge gaps. Therefore, foot care knowledge of nurses needs to be improved by continuing education in clinical settings. Adequate foot care knowledge among nurses is important to identify, prevent and care foot problems especially in older people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao He; De-Ying Hu; Yi-Lan Liu; Li-Fen Wu; Lian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School (CCWS) on the nurses' caring ability. Methods: Questionnaire 25 nurses of humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS using the Nkongho Caring Ability Inventory (CAI) before and after implement the humanistic nursing care model, including reform the systems of nursing care, introduce humanistic care model, implement the humanistic care, to measure the nurses' caring ability. Results: The nurses' caring ability had significantly developed on total, cognition dimension, courage dimension and patience dimension after all measures considered (p Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  11. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I.S. Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at baseline, and at 14, 35, and 63 days after the animals were first fed the diets, while histopathology of heart samples was performed at the very end of the study. Our results showed an increase in serum AST and LDH over time, while CK-MB did not change significantly. Changes that could be ascribed to myocardial damage were not documented in the electrocardiograms. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated only mild-to-moderate vacuolar degeneration, myofiber edema and disarray, structural disorganization, and cellular necrosis. In conclusion, S. occidentalis caused myocardial fiber degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, but the electrocardiogram was not able to identify these lesions non-invasively. Because the markers of myofiber injury used in this study lack specificity, they may not be used to support cardiac impairment objectively, despite some of them did change over time.

  12. Building COPD care on shaky ground: a mixed methods study from Swedish primary care professional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Sara; Tistad, Malin; Rehn, Börje; Wiklund, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Wadell, Karin

    2017-07-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a public health problem. Interprofessional collaboration and health promotion interventions such as exercise training, education, and behaviour change are cost effective, have a good effect on health status, and are recommended in COPD treatment guidelines. There is a gap between the guidelines and the healthcare available to people with COPD. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of what shapes the provision of primary care services to people with COPD and what healthcare is offered to them from the perspective of healthcare professionals and managers. The study was conducted in primary care in a Swedish county council during January to June 2015. A qualitatively driven mixed methods design was applied. Qualitative and quantitative findings were merged into a joint analysis. Interviews for the qualitative component were performed with healthcare professionals (n = 14) from two primary care centres and analysed with qualitative content analysis. Two questionnaires were used for the quantitative component; one was answered by senior managers or COPD nurses at primary care centres (n = 26) in the county council and the other was answered by healthcare professionals (n = 18) at two primary care centres. The questionnaire data were analysed with descriptive statistics. The analysis gave rise to the overarching theme building COPD care on shaky ground. This represents professionals driven to build a supportive COPD care on 'shaky' organisational ground in a fragmented and non-compliant healthcare organisation. The shaky ground is further represented by uninformed patients with a complex disease, which is surrounded with shame. The professionals are autonomous and pragmatic, used to taking responsibility for their work, and with limited involvement of the management. They wish to provide high quality COPD care with interprofessional collaboration, but they lack competence and are hindered by

  13. Linking patient satisfaction with nursing care: the case of care rationing - a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Tsangari, Haritini; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    Implicit rationing of nursing care is the withholding of or failure to carry out all necessary nursing measures due to lack of resources. There is evidence supporting a link between rationing of nursing care, nurses' perceptions of their professional environment, negative patient outcomes, and placing patient safety at risk. The aims of the study were: a) To explore whether patient satisfaction is linked to nurse-reported rationing of nursing care and to nurses' perceptions of their practice environment while adjusting for patient and nurse characteristics. b) To identify the threshold score of rationing by comparing the level of patient satisfaction factors across rationing levels. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. Participants in this study included 352 patients and 318 nurses from ten medical and surgical units of five general hospitals. Three measurement instruments were used: the BERNCA scale for rationing of care, the RPPE scale to explore nurses' perceptions of their work environment and the Patient Satisfaction scale to assess the level of patient satisfaction with nursing care. The statistical analysis included the use of Kendall's correlation coefficient to explore a possible relationship between the variables and multiple regression analysis to assess the effects of implicit rationing of nursing care together with organizational characteristics on patient satisfaction. The mean score of implicit rationing of nursing care was 0.83 (SD = 0.52, range = 0-3), the overall mean of RPPE was 2.76 (SD = 0.32, range = 1.28 - 3.69) and the two scales were significantly correlated (τ = -0.234, p < 0.001). The regression analysis showed that care rationing and work environment were related to patient satisfaction, even after controlling for nurse and patient characteristics. The results from the adjusted regression models showed that even at the lowest level of rationing (i.e. 0.5) patients indicated low satisfaction. The

  14. Genetic typing of mitochondrial DNA in sheep (Ovis aries )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴波; 冯继东; 李宁; 王爱华; 吴常信

    2001-01-01

    Using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing, this study confirmed that HinfI polymorphism in the ovine mitochondrial COI gene resulted from the T-C substitution at the nucleotide 234 but this mutation did not encode another amino acid, which was actually a synonymous mutation. This single nucleotide polymorphism can be used as gene typing marker for mitochondrial genome in the research of the interactions between mitochondria and nucleus, extranuclear gene effects, and as molecular discriminating marker for embryo or individual in the research area of gene transfer and animal cloning.

  15. Ambivalent implications of health care information systems: a study in the Brazilian public health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Porto de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates social implications of the "SIGA" Health Care Information System (HIS in a public health care organization in the city of São Paulo. The evaluation was performed by means of an in-depth case study with patients and staff of a public health care organization, using qualitative and quantitative data. On the one hand, the system had consequences perceived as positive such as improved convenience and democratization of specialized treatment for patients and improvements in work organization. On the other hand, negative outcomes were reported, like difficulties faced by employees due to little familiarity with IT and an increase in the time needed to schedule appointments. Results show the ambiguity of the implications of HIS in developing countries, emphasizing the need for a more nuanced view of the evaluation of failures and successes and the importance of social contextual factors.

  16. Detection of Chlamydophila abortus in Sheep (Ovis aries in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Jiménez-Estrada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus is one of the pathogens which induce abortion in small ruminants; this pathogen has a tropism for ruminant placenta and causes the disease commonly referred to as Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA. In Europe are estimated economic losses of around 20 million pounds a year by OEA. In the American Continent the disease has been reported only in Canada, the United States, Colombia and Chile while in Mexico it is unknown whether OEA is common and it is causing abortions in flocks of sheep from “Estado de Mexico”. The objective of this study was investigating the prevalence of anti-Chlamydophila abortus IgG antibodies and detection of C. abortus DNA in sheep with clinical abort history by mean of ELISA assay (C. abortus ELISA, Institute Pourquier, Montpellier, France and molecular identification of the principal outer membrane protein (POMP 90-91B gene by PCR, respectively. A cross-sectional study was carried out to enroll and random sample of ewes from november 2003 until march 2005. A total of 349 sera and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 35 flocks of sheep from Xalatlaco. The results showed that the seropositive rate was 31.1% (14/45 for healthy and 21.3% (65/304 for sheep with history clinical of abort. In vaginal swabs, the PCR showed 0% (0/45 for healthy animals and 0.65% (2/304 for aborted sheep. Samples from the lungs and liver of the fetus of one of these animals were also positive for C. abortus. In conclusion, these results confirmed that infection with C. abortus is common and is affecting sheep flocks in the Mexican highlands. Therefore, is necessary that the authorities responsible for animal welfare in Mexico (SAGARPA to set up appropriate epidemiological surveillance and control programs to eradicate this disease.

  17. The Study of Frequency Self Care Strategies against Auditory Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Nadem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In schizophrenic clients, self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations can decrease disturbances results in hallucination. This study was aimed to assess frequency of self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenic patients, hospitalized in Shafa Hospital.Materials and Method: This was a descriptive study on 201 patients with paranoid schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatry unit with convenience sampling in Rasht. The gathered data consists of two parts, first unit demographic characteristic and the second part, self- report questionnaire include 38 items about self-care strategies.Results: There were statistically significant relationship between demographic variables and knowledg effect and self-care strategies against auditory hallucinaions. Sex with phisical domain p0.07, marriage status with cognitive domain (p>0.07 and life status with behavioural domain (p>0.01. 53.2% of reported type of our auditory hallucinations were command hallucinations, furtheremore the most effective self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations were from physical domain and substance abuse (82.1% was the most effective strategies in this domain.Conclusion: The client with paranoid schizophrenia used more than physical domain strategies against auditory hallucinaions and this result highlight need those to approprait nursing intervention. Instruction and leading about selection the effective self-care strategies against auditory ha

  18. Effect of vaccination against pneumonia on the survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with carrier animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Haldorson, Gary J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-05-01

    Leukotoxin producing (lkt+) members of Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi are important pathogens of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis), causing fatal disease. Predisposing or concurrent infection with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae enhances the severity of the disease, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of vaccines against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae in preventing fatal pneumonia in BHS. In all of these studies, however, vaccinated animals were challenged experimentally, by direct inoculation of the pathogens, rather than by natural challenge. Moreover, none has investigated the efficacy of the vaccines under conditions of concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. We immunized three bighorn rams and one pregnant ewe with an experimental multivalent vaccine along with a commercial vaccine. The immunized animals were then commingled with two bighorn ewes known to be carriers of lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae, to simulate natural infection or disease transmission. All vaccinated animals remained healthy. We then inoculated the two carrier ewes with nasal washings from domestic sheep containing M. ovipneumoniae. Within a week, all animals developed mild to moderate signs of pneumonia. While the rams died within two-three months post-inoculation (p.i.), the vaccinated ewe and her lamb died five and eight months p.i., respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that vaccination of BHS against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae alone can protect them from natural challenge by these pathogens. However, it may not be adequate to protect them against pneumonia compounded by concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily responses of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.) activity to summer climatic conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourgoin, G; Garel, M; Blanchard, P; Dubray, D; Maillard, D; Gaillard, J.-M

    2011-01-01

    ... and survival of individuals, and thereby population growth. Although climatic conditions are known to impact the activity patterns of large herbivores, few studies have investigated this relationship at a fine temporal scale...

  20. [Retrospective study of children referred from paediatric intensive care to palliative care: Why and for what].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salido, Alberto; Santos-Herranz, Paula; Puertas-Martín, Verónica; García-Teresa, María Ángeles; Martino-Alba, Ricardo; Serrano-González, Ana

    2017-04-17

    The creation of paediatric palliative care units (PPCU) could optimise the management of children with palliative focus after admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This study describes the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children referred from PICU to the UCPP of the Autonomous Community of Madrid (CAM). The overall treatment, relapses, re-admissions, and deaths, if occurred, are described. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records from children transferred from the CAM paediatric intensive care units to the paediatric palliative care unit (1 March 2008-31 January 2015). A total of 41 patients were included (26 male/15 female) with a median age of 33 months (range 1-228). In the follow by the UCPP follow-up, the main approaches were respiratory (invasive ventilation with tracheostomy tube 8/41), nutritional (gastrostomy in 20/41), and pharmacological (anti-epileptics in 29/41 and 34/41 on antibiotic treatment). Hospital re-admission was required by 11/41 patients, with no re-admissions to PICU. Of the 13/41 patients who died, 9/13 was at home, with all of them accompanied by the primary caregivers and family, and only 1/9 with the presence of the home team. The palliative approach at home is feasible in children, and the integration of UCPP could optimise the comprehensive care of previously critically ill children. It is necessary to achieve an optimal domiciliary care should be achieved, and not just because of patient death. More observational, multicentre and prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Ovis: A framework for visual analysis of ocean forecast ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations of the sea surface height that is used in ocean forecasting. The position of eddies can be derived directly from the sea surface height and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis.The behavior of eddies is important in different application settings of which we present two in this paper. First, we show an application for interactive planning of placement as well as operation of off-shore structures using real-world ensemble simulation data of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by eddies, and the oil and gas industry relies on ocean forecasts for efficient operations. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, as well as the temporal evolution, for planning the placement and operation of structures.Eddies are also important for marine life. They transport water over large distances and with it also heat and other physical properties as well as biological organisms. In the second application we present the usefulness of our tool, which could be used for planning the paths of autonomous underwater vehicles, so called gliders, for marine scientists to study simulation data of the largely unexplored Red Sea. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  2. Ovis: A Framework for Visual Analysis of Ocean Forecast Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllt, Thomas; Magdy, Ahmed; Zhan, Peng; Chen, Guoning; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Hansen, Charles D; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations of the sea surface height that is used in ocean forecasting. The position of eddies can be derived directly from the sea surface height and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis.The behavior of eddies is important in different application settings of which we present two in this paper. First, we show an application for interactive planning of placement as well as operation of off-shore structures using real-world ensemble simulation data of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by eddies, and the oil and gas industry relies on ocean forecasts for efficient operations. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, as well as the temporal evolution, for planning the placement and operation of structures.Eddies are also important for marine life. They transport water over large distances and with it also heat and other physical properties as well as biological organisms. In the second application we present the usefulness of our tool, which could be used for planning the paths of autonomous underwater vehicles, so called gliders, for marine scientists to study simulation data of the largely unexplored Red Sea.

  3. Superoxide dismutase from Trichuris ovis, inhibiton by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Moreno

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Three superoxide dismutase isoenzymes of different cellular location were detected in an homogenate of Thrichuris ovis. Each of these molecular forms was purified by differential centrifugation and precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 columns. The activity levels of the two molecular forms detected in the mitochondrial (one cyanide sensitive Cu-Zn-SOD and the other cyanide intensitive Mn-Sod were higher than that of the superoxide dismutase detected in the cytoplasmic fraction (cyanid sensitive Cu-Zn-SOD. All the mollecular forms present evident differences to the SODs contained in the host liver. Molecular mass and some of the physical and chemical aproperties of the enzyme was determined for all three molecular forms. An inhibitory effect on the SOD of the parasite an the host was detected with a series of compounds, some of wich markedly inhibited parasite ensyme but not host enzyme.

  4. Tactic responses of the parasitic mite, Psoroptes ovis, to light and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, K R; Wall, R

    2004-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligate, non-burrowing ectoparasite of vertebrates, of particular economic importance in domestic sheep flocks where it causes clinical psoroptic mange. To help understand the behaviour which facilitates transmission via the environment, the responses of P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. Psoroptes cuniculi) to temperature and light were examined in the laboratory. On a vertical surface of uniform temperature, the presence and direction of illumination had a significant effect on the distance and direction moved by the mites. In darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved relatively little, but this movement was upwards. In contrast, with illumination from above only, mites moved downwards. When the direction of the illumination was reversed so that it came from below only, the mites moved upwards. On a vertical surface with a temperature gradient, in darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved up or down towards the area of highest temperature, depending on whether this was above or below, respectively. However, the movement of the mites in response to the temperature gradient was strongly displaced up or down by the presence of unidirectional illumination from above or below, respectively. The results indicate that the movement of these mites is strongly directed towards areas of high temperature but away from higher light intensity. These behaviours might be expected to maintain the position of the mites on a host animal and help them locate the skin surface of a new host when displaced into the environment.

  5. Using visuo-kinetic virtual reality to induce illusory spinal movement: the MoOVi Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Smith, Ross T; Hunter, Estin V; Davis, Miles G; Sterling, Michele; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2017-01-01

    Illusions that alter perception of the body provide novel opportunities to target brain-based contributions to problems such as persistent pain. One example of this, mirror therapy, uses vision to augment perceived movement of a painful limb to treat pain. Since mirrors can't be used to induce augmented neck or other spinal movement, we aimed to test whether such an illusion could be achieved using virtual reality, in advance of testing its potential therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that perceived head rotation would depend on visually suggested movement. In a within-subjects repeated measures experiment, 24 healthy volunteers performed neck movements to 50(o) of rotation, while a virtual reality system delivered corresponding visual feedback that was offset by a factor of 50%-200%-the Motor Offset Visual Illusion (MoOVi)-thus simulating more or less movement than that actually occurring. At 50(o) of real-world head rotation, participants pointed in the direction that they perceived they were facing. The discrepancy between actual and perceived direction was measured and compared between conditions. The impact of including multisensory (auditory and visual) feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, and the use of 360(o) immersive virtual reality with and without three-dimensional properties, was also investigated. Perception of head movement was dependent on visual-kinaesthetic feedback (p = 0.001, partial eta squared = 0.17). That is, altered visual feedback caused a kinaesthetic drift in the direction of the visually suggested movement. The magnitude of the drift was not moderated by secondary variables such as the addition of illusory auditory feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, or three-dimensionality of the scene. Virtual reality can be used to augment perceived movement and body position, such that one can perform a small movement, yet perceive a large one. The MoOVi technique tested here has clear potential for assessment and

  6. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  7. The use of a Psoroptes ovis serodiagnostic test for the analysis of a natural outbreak of sheep scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is a highly contagious disease of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The disease is endemic in the UK and has significant economic impact through its effects on performance and welfare. Diagnosis of sheep scab is achieved through observation of clinical signs e.g. itching, pruritis and wool loss and ultimately through the detection of mites in skin scrapings. Early stages of infestation are often difficult to diagnose and sub-clinical animals can be a major factor in disease spread. The development of a diagnostic assay would enable farmers and veterinarians to detect disease at an early stage, reducing the risk of developing clinical disease and limiting spread. Methods Serum samples were obtained from an outbreak of sheep scab within an experimental flock (n = 480 (3 samples each from 160 sheep allowing the assessment, by ELISA of sheep scab specific antibody prior to infestation, mid-outbreak (combined with clinical assessment and post-treatment. Results Analysis of pre-infestation samples demonstrated low levels of potential false positives (3.8%. Of the 27 animals with clinical or behavioural signs of disease 25 tested positive at the mid-outbreak sampling period, however, the remaining 2 sheep tested positive at the subsequent sampling period. Clinical assessment revealed the absence of clinical or behavioural signs of disease in 132 sheep, whilst analysis of mid-outbreak samples showed that 105 of these clinically negative animals were serologically positive, representing potential sub-clinical infestations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that this ELISA test can effectively diagnose sheep scab in a natural outbreak of disease, and more importantly, highlights its ability to detect sub-clinically infested animals. This ELISA, employing a single recombinant antigen, represents a major step forward in the diagnosis of sheep scab and may prove to be critical in any future control

  8. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources that are associated with this demand. Furthermore, the accuracy of the waiting list as a reflection of this demand has been examined. Methods 67 elderly people waiting for admission into a home for the elderly, are subjected to semi-structured interviews. The data are analyzed by using multivariate statistics. Results Elderly people who indicate that they would refuse an offer of admission into a home for the elderly feel healthier (p = 0.02, have greater self-care agency (p = 0.02 and perceive less necessity of admission (p Conclusion The results contribute to the understanding of waiting lists and the demand for residential care. It became apparent that not everybody who asks for admission into a home for the elderly, really needed it. The importance of elderly people's resources like social networks and the ability to manage everyday activities in relation to the demand for care became clear. These findings are important because they indicate that resources also play a role in predicting elderly people's demand and as a result can guide the development and the (redesign of adequate health care services.

  9. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Alfaya Góngora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants.Methods:A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed.Results:The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources.Conclusion:Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  10. Politics and care: a study of Czech Americans within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    1997-01-01

    The domain of inquiry for this study was the influence of the American political environmental context on professional and generic care patterns, expressions, and meanings of Czech American immigrants. The purpose of the research was to document, describe, interpret, and analyze the diversities and universalities of professional and generic care for this cultural group, to provide culturally congruent care to Czech Americans, and to explicate the role of politics as an influence on care patterns, health, and well being. The researcher's former transcultural ethnonursing study in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1991 served as a stimulus for this in-depth study on politics and care. Twelve key and twenty general informants were interviewed. Five major themes were identified. The researcher discovered that the capitalist economic market structure of the United States influenced informant lifeways in all dimensions of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, as depicted in the Sunrise Model. Specific care patterns discovered included care as choice, care as responsibility, and care as helping each other. Findings related to professional and generic care supported researcher predictions that generic culture care patterns would be important to immigrants. Provisions for culturally congruent nursing care were articulated based on research findings.

  11. Team structure, team climate and the quality of care in primary care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, P; Campbell, S; Bojke, C; Sibbald, B

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether practice structure (for example, list size, number of staff) predicts team processes and whether practice structure and team process in turn predict team outcomes Observational study using postal questionnaires and medical note audit. Team process was assessed through a measure of "climate" which examines shared perceptions of organisational policies, practices, and procedures. Primary care. Members of the primary health care team from 42 practices. Objective measures of quality of chronic disease management, patients' evaluations of practices, teams' self-reported ratings of effectiveness, and innovation. Team climate was better in singlehanded practices than in partnerships. Practices with longer booking intervals provided superior chronic disease management. Higher team climate scores were associated with superior clinical care in diabetes, more positive patient evaluations of practice and self-reported innovation and effectiveness. Although the conclusions are preliminary because of the limited sample size, the study suggests that there are important relationships between team structure, process, and outcome that may be of relevance to quality improvement initiatives in primary care. Possible causal mechanisms that might underlie these associations remain to be determined.

  12. Integrating care coordination home telehealth and home based primary care in rural Oklahoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Bratkovich, Kristi L; Wingo, Rita; Qureshi, Saleem M; Mason, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate the benefits of integrating VA Care Coordination Home Telehealth and Telemental health within HBPC. A case study design was used to determine quality assurance and quality improvement of incorporating additional home telehealth equipment within Home Based Primary Care (HBPC). Veterans with complex medical conditions and their caregivers living in rural Oklahoma were enrolled. Veterans received the same care other HBPC patients received with the addition of home telehealth equipment. Members from the interdisciplinary treatment team were certified to use the telehealth equipment. Veterans and their caregivers were trained on use of the equipment in their homes. Standard HBPC program measures were used to assess the program success. Assessments from all disciplines on the HBPC team were at baseline, 3, and 6 months, and participants provided satisfaction and interview data to assess the benefits of integrating technology into standard care delivery within an HBPC program. Six veterans were enrolled (mean age = 72 yrs) with a range of physical health conditions including: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, diabetes, hypertension, and syncope. Primary mental health conditions included depression, dementia, anxiety, and PTSD. Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination ranged from 18 to 30. Over a 6-month period, case studies indicated improvements in strength, social functioning, decreased caregiver burden, and compliance with treatment plan. This integration of CCHT and HBPC served previously underserved rural veterans having complex medical conditions and appears both feasible and clinically beneficial to veterans and their caregivers.

  13. A Study of Understandings in Care Work with Elderly People: Experiences using the Sophos Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Krogh

    2004-01-01

    At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme......At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme...

  14. Implementation of integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 by two Dutch care groups : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien; Huizing, Anna; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though previous research has demonstrated improved outcomes of integrated care initiatives, it is not clear why and when integrated care works. This study aims to contribute to filling this knowledge gap by examining the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes by two Du

  15. "I Want Child Care He's Gonna Be Happy in": A Case Study of a Father's Child Care Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglowski, Deborah; Shears, Jeffrey; Furman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This in-depth single case study explores the experiences of a single father with finding and maintaining child care for his son. This American middle-income, Caucasian father lives and works in Minnesota. Findings include difficulty locating and maintaining child care, dissatisfaction with child care quality, concerns about…

  16. Assessing Timing and Causes of Neonatal Lamb Losses in a Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis Herd via Use of Vaginal Implant Transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jamin L; Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Miller, Michael W; P Dreher, Brian

    2017-02-13

    We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, USA, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado. We were subsequently able to collar a lamb from each of 13 VITs, and two additional lambs opportunistically from ewes without transmitters. As lambs died, we recovered and submitted carcasses for necropsy and laboratory assessment. All lambs captured and one additional lamb (carcass found opportunistically) were dead by about 130 d of age: 11 died of apparent pneumonia (all within 8-10 wk of age), one died from trauma after being kicked or trampled, one was killed by a mountain lion ( Puma concolor ), and three died of starvation likely caused by abandonment after capture. Pneumonic lambs had involvement of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi . The use of VITs and lamb collars enabled us to efficiently identify pneumonia as the predominant cause of depressed lamb recruitment in this herd; however, we urge care in neonatal lamb handling to minimize abandonment.

  17. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  18. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...... a need to optimize was found. 2) Shared care, which was lacking. 3) The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion: Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs...

  19. The process of care in integrative health care settings - a qualitative study of US practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-10-23

    There is a lack of research on the organisational operations of integrative healthcare (IHC) practices. IHC is a therapeutic strategy integrating conventional and complementary medicine in a shared context to administer individualized treatment. To better understand the process of care in IHC - the way in which patients are triaged and treatment plans are constructed, interviews were conducted with integrative health care leaders and practitioners in the US. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a pragmatic group of fourteen leaders and practitioners from nine different IHC settings. All interviews were conducted face-to-face with the exception of one phone interview. Questions focussed on understanding the "process of care" in an integrative healthcare setting. Deductive categories were formed from the aims of the study, focusing on: organisational structure, processes of care (subcategories: patient intake, treatment and charting, use of guidelines or protocols), prevalent diseases or conditions treated, and the role of research in the organisation. The similarities and differences of the ITH entities emerged from this process. On an organisational level, conventional and CM services and therapies were co-located in all nine settings. For patients, this means there is more opportunity for 'seamless care'. Shared information systems enabled easy communication using internal messaging or email systems, and shared patient intake information. But beyond this infrastructure alignment for integrative health care was less supported. There were no use of protocols or guidelines within any centre, no patient monitoring mechanism beyond that which occurred within one-on-one appointments. Joint planning for a patient treatment was typically ad hoc through informal mechanisms. Additional duties typically come at a direct financial cost to fee-for-service practitioners. In contrast, service delivery and the process of care within hospital inpatient services followed

  20. In vitro and in vivo effects of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) products on larvae of the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L. Díptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Servín, R; Ramírez-Orduña, J M; Ascencio, F; Dorchies, P; Angulo-Valadez, C E

    2014-02-24

    Two studies were carried out in order to test the effects of neem tree extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on sheep bot fly larvae (Oestrus ovis L. Diptera: Oestridae). First, aqueous extracts from neem seeds (ASNE) at 0, 5 y 10% (w/v) concentrations were tested on larval mortality in vitro. In a second study, the effect of oral administration with neem seed meal (0, 100 y 200mg/kg) and neem leaves (1% of diet) on number of larvae found at necropsy and larval development was evaluated in experimentally O. ovis-infected sheep. Results in Experiment 1 showed a significant (P<0.05) effect of ASNE on time to L1 mortality in a dosis-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, oral administration of seeds or leaves did not affect the number of larvae found at necropsy of the sheep, but interfered with larval development and there was a tendency to reduce larval weight at the end of the infection period (55d). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient preferences for future care - how can Advance Care Planning become embedded into dementia care: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exley Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living with a long term condition may wish to be able to plan ahead, so that if in future they cannot make decisions, their wishes about their care will be known; this process is termed Advance Care Planning (ACP. In dementia, guidance stipulates that ACP discussions should take place whilst the person still has capacity to make decisions. However there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of ACP in influencing patient choice and resource use. The aims of this study are to determine the effectiveness of ACP in dementia care, identify the factors which facilitate the process in practice and provide a better understanding of the views and experiences of key stakeholders in order to inform clinical practice. Methods/Design The four phase project comprises a systematic review (Phase 1 and a series of qualitative studies (Phases 2 and 3, with data collection via focus groups and individual interviews with relevant stakeholders including people with dementia and their carers, health and social care professionals and representatives from voluntary organisations and the legal profession. The conduct of the systematic review will follow current best practice guidance. In phases 2 and 3, focus groups will be employed to seek the perspectives of the professionals; individual interviews will be carried out with people with dementia and their carers. Data from Phases 1, 2 and 3 will be synthesised in a series of team workshops to develop draft guidance and educational tools for implementing ACP in practice (Phase 4. Discussion In the UK, there is little published research on the effectiveness of ACP, despite its introduction into policy. This study was designed to explore in greater depth how ACP can best be carried out in routine practice. It affords the opportunity to develop both a theoretical and practical understanding of an area which both patients and professionals may find emotionally challenging. Importantly the

  2. Cyst wall ultrastructure of two Sarcocystis spp. from European mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon) in Germany compared with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odening, K; Stolte, M; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1995-10-01

    Muscle samples from six wild and two captive European mouflons (Ovis ammon musimon) in Germany as well as one domestic sheep from a German zoo were infected with sarcocysts (Sarcocystis: Sarcocystidae, Apicomplexa). Sarcocystis tenella and S. arieticanis were identified by light and electron microscopy. Both species are determined for the first time from wild sheep, and this is the first description of S. arieticanis from wild sheep.

  3. Sheep (Ovis aries) as a Model for Cardiovascular Surgery and Management before, during, and after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    DiVincenti, Louis; Westcott, Robin; Lee, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Because of its similarity to humans in important respects, sheep (Ovis aries) are a common animal model for translational research in cardiovascular surgery. However, some unique aspects of sheep anatomy and physiology present challenges to its use in these complicated experiments. In this review, we discuss relevant anatomy and physiology of sheep and discuss management before, during, and after procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a concise source of information for veteri...

  4. Sheep (Ovis aries) as a model for cardiovascular surgery and management before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Westcott, Robin; Lee, Candice

    2014-09-01

    Because of its similarity to humans in important respects, sheep (Ovis aries) are a common animal model for translational research in cardiovascular surgery. However, some unique aspects of sheep anatomy and physiology present challenges to its use in these complicated experiments. In this review, we discuss relevant anatomy and physiology of sheep and discuss management before, during, and after procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a concise source of information for veterinarians, technicians, and researchers developing and implementing protocols with this model.

  5. Improving COPD Care in a Medically Underserved Primary Care Clinic: A Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Irene; Wang, Fei; Reardon, Jane; Vergara, Cunegundo D; Salvietti, Ralph; Acevedo, Myrtha; Santana, Blanca; Fortunato, Gil

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a focus group study in an urban hospital-based primary care teaching clinic serving an indigent and Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) population in New England in order to learn how patients with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) perceive their disease, how they experience their medical care, and the barriers they face managing their disease and following medical recommendations. The research team included medical doctors, nurses, a medical anthropologist, a clinical pharmacist, a hospital interpreter, and a systems analyst. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish and English in April and May 2014. The demographic characteristics of the 25 focus group participants closely reflected the demographics of the total COPD clinic patients. The participants were predominantly female (72%) and Hispanic (72%) and had a median age of 63. The major themes expressed in the focus groups included: problems living with COPD; coping with complexities of comorbid illnesses; challenges of quitting smoking and maintaining cessation; dealing with second-hand smoke; beliefs and myths about quitting smoking; difficulty paying for and obtaining medications; positive experiences obtaining and managing medications; difficulties in using sleep machines at home; expressions of disappointment with the departure of their doctors; and overall satisfaction with the clinic health care providers. The study led to the creation of an action plan that addresses the concerns expressed by the focus study participants. The action plan is spearheaded by a designated bilingual and bicultural nurse and is now in operation.

  6. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin eHermenau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and three months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children’s behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, one month before, and three months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach.

  7. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  8. Transforming Cultures of Care: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Karyn; Cross, David; Jones, Daren; Buff, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a small organizational case study highlighting the dimensions of trauma-informed care, the processes of organizational change, and the growth of caregiver expertise. The article is framed by the notion of caregiving cultures, which refers to the beliefs, languages, and practices of caregivers and caregiving organizations.…

  9. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  10. Transforming Cultures of Care: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Karyn; Cross, David; Jones, Daren; Buff, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a small organizational case study highlighting the dimensions of trauma-informed care, the processes of organizational change, and the growth of caregiver expertise. The article is framed by the notion of caregiving cultures, which refers to the beliefs, languages, and practices of caregivers and caregiving organizations.…

  11. Integrated Care in College Health: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.

  12. A qualitative study: professionals' experiences of advance care planning in dementia and palliative care, 'a good idea in theory but ...'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Louise; Dickinson, Claire; Bamford, Claire; Clark, Alexa; Hughes, Julian; Exley, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Advance care planning comprises discussions about an individual's wishes for future care while they have capacity. To explore professionals' experiences on the implementation of advance care planning in two areas of clinical care, dementia and palliative care. Qualitative study, focus groups and individual interviews. North East of England. Ninety-five participants from one Primary Care Trust, two acute National Health Service Hospital Trusts, one Ambulance Trust, one Local Authority and voluntary organisations and the legal sector. Fourteen focus groups and 18 interviews were held with 95 participants. While professionals agreed that advance care planning was a good idea in theory, implementation in practice presented them with significant challenges. The majority expressed uncertainty over the general value of advance care planning, whether current service provision could meet patient wishes, their individual roles and responsibilities and which aspects of advance care planning were legally binding; the array of different advance care planning forms and documentation available added to the confusion. In dementia care, the timing of when to initiate advance care planning discussions was an added challenge. This study has identified the professional, organisational and legal factors that influence advance care planning implementation; professional training should target these specific areas. There is an urgent need for standardisation of advance care planning documentation. Greater clarity is also required on the roles and responsibilities of different professional groups. More complex aspects of advance care planning may be better carried out by those with specialist skills and experience than by generalists caring for a wide range of patient groups with different disease trajectories.

  13. The German MultiCare-study: Patterns of multimorbidity in primary health care – protocol of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Ingmar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is a highly frequent condition in older people, but well designed longitudinal studies on the impact of multimorbidity on patients and the health care system have been remarkably scarce in numbers until today. Little is known about the long term impact of multimorbidity on the patients' life expectancy, functional status and quality of life as well as health care utilization over time. As a consequence, there is little help for GPs in adjusting care for these patients, even though studies suggest that adhering to present clinical practice guidelines in the care of patients with multimorbidity may have adverse effects. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multicentre prospective, observational cohort study of 3.050 patients aged 65 to 85 at baseline with at least three different diagnoses out of a list of 29 illnesses and syndromes. The patients will be recruited in approx. 120 to 150 GP surgeries in 8 study centres distributed across Germany. Information about the patients' morbidity will be collected mainly in GP interviews and from chart reviews. Functional status, resources/risk factors, health care utilization and additional morbidity data will be assessed in patient interviews, in which a multitude of well established standardized questionnaires and tests will be performed. Discussion The main aim of the cohort study is to monitor the course of the illness process and to analyse for which reasons medical conditions are stable, deteriorating or only temporarily present. First, clusters of combinations of diseases/disorders (multimorbidity patterns with a comparable impact (e.g. on quality of life and/or functional status will be identified. Then the development of these clusters over time will be analysed, especially with regard to prognostic variables and the somatic, psychological and social consequences as well as the utilization of health care resources. The results will allow the development of an

  14. Real-time PCR for detection of Brucella ovis and Histophilus somni in ovine urine and semen

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    V.S. Moustacas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A epididimite infecciosa ovina é uma das principais enfermidades reprodutivas de carneiros. O presente estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver protocolos de PCR em tempo real para B. ovis e H. somni e avaliar sua aplicabilidade em amostras de sêmen e urina de carneiros. Delinearam-se primers e sondas espécie-específicos para cada agente. As sondas foram delineadas com o sistema TaqMan incorporando um marcador FAM para B. ovis e Cy5 para H. somni na extremidade 5' e um quencher na extremidade 3'. A PCR em tempo real para B. ovis e H. somni foi altamente sensível, uma vez que a amplificação de DNA ocorreu com até 0,2ng de DNA/reação. A especificidade dos iniciadores e sondas foi avaliada com amostras de DNA de outros agentes causadores de epididimite ovina e nenhuma amplificação inespecífica foi observada. A aplicabilidade da técnica em amostras biológicas também foi confirmada, pois não houve perda de eficácia (P>0,05 quando comparada à PCR convencional com amostras de sêmen e urina de carneiros experimentalmente infectados.

  15. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao He

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  16. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination1

    OpenAIRE

    Van Houdt, Sabine; Heyrman, Jan; Vanhaecht, Kris; Sermeus, Walter; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frame...

  17. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Van Houdt; Jan Heyrman; Kris Vanhaecht; Walter Sermeus; Jan De Lepeleire

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical fram...

  18. Drug utilization study in a burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital

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    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate drug utilization and associated costs for the treatment of patients admitted in burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for a period of 15 months at Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga and the data collected was analyzed for various drug use indicators. Results: A total of 100 prescriptions were collected with 44% belonging to males and 56% to females. The average number of drugs per prescription ranged from 4.5 to 9.5. 9.5% of generics and 92% of essential drugs were prescribed. The opioid analgesics and sedatives were prescribed to all the patients who were admitted in burn care unit. The (Defined daily dose DDD/1 000/day for amikacin (359 was the highest followed by diclofenac sodium (156, pantoprazole (144, diazepam (130, ceftazidime (124, tramadol (115, ceftriaxone (84 and for paracetamol (4 which was the lowest. Conclusions: Significant amount of the money was spent on procurement of drugs. Most of the money was spent on prescribed antibiotics. The prescription of generic drugs should be promoted, for cost effective treatment. Hence the results of the present study indicate that there is a considerable scope for improvement in the prescription pattern.

  19. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  20. Current practice and challenges in night-time care for people with dementia living in care homes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Kayleigh Marie; Khan, Zunera; Testad, Ingelin; Lawrence, Vanessa; Creese, Byron; Corbett, Anne

    2017-05-26

    To explore the current practices and challenges in night-time care for people with dementia living in care homes in the UK. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with care staff and family carers from five care homes in South London. To supplement the FGD data, an online survey was circulated to family carers (n = 16), and informal interviews were conducted with night-time care staff and nurses (n = 19). The questions for the online survey were designed to specifically explore the themes that emerged from the FGD. Thematic analysis revealed eight key themes in the management of sleep disturbance in people with dementia living in care homes: current night-time care practices, dissonance in perceived causes of sleep disturbances, inconsistencies in treatment options, insufficient staffing levels, working relationships between shifts, nurse burden and responsibility, communication as a critical challenge, connecting with residents and one overarching theme of balance. The findings of this study highlight the need for an evidence-based sleep disturbance management programme designed for use in care homes and informed by stakeholders. The key themes identified represent the major barriers to good quality care and areas which future programmes will need to address to improve the quality of night-time care in care homes. There are clearly opportunities for future examination of non-pharmacological night-time care management programmes for use in the population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 42 CFR 456.143 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.143...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.143 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related to the...

  2. 42 CFR 456.243 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.243... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.243 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related...

  3. Compassion fatigue: A Study of critical care nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the level of compassion fatigue which experienced by nurses who work in intensive care units and factors that affecting it. In a cross sectional design, critical nurses were surveyed by using questionnaire and  compassion fatigue (CF subscale of the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV to measure levels of compassion fatigueat a large National Education and ResearchHospital located in northwestof Turkey. A total of 69 critical care nurses participated in the study, for a response rate of 78%.A series of cross tab analyses examined the relationship between nurses demographics and compassion fatigue (CF subscale. To analyze the data further, participants were recategorized into 2 groups for CF scores: (1 higher than 17: high risk and (2 lower than 17: low risk. Findings show that critical care nurses were at high risk (52.7% and low risk (47.3% for CF. Nurses informed significant differences in compassion fatigue on the basis of age, years of critical care experience, working hours (weekly.

  4. Using appreciative inquiry during care transitions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Elizabeth; Costa, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a transitional care coaching intervention offered to chronically ill medical patients during the transition from hospital to home. This 2-arm randomized pilot study uses a coaching framework based on appreciative inquiry theory. This article reviews the appreciative inquiry literature and identifies the characteristics of patients who participated in appreciative inquiry coaching. Lessons learned are summarized, and suggestions for future research are offered.

  5. A person-centred segmentation study in elderly care: towards efficient demand-driven care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissens van der Laan, M R; van Offenbeek, M A G; Broekhuis, H; Slaets, J P J

    2014-07-01

    Providing patients with more person-centred care without increasing costs is a key challenge in healthcare. A relevant but often ignored hindrance to delivering person-centred care is that the current segmentation of the population and the associated organization of healthcare supply are based on diseases. A person-centred segmentation, i.e., based on persons' own experienced difficulties in fulfilling needs, is an elementary but often overlooked first step in developing efficient demand-driven care. This paper describes a person-centred segmentation study of elderly, a large and increasing target group confronted with heterogeneous and often interrelated difficulties in their functioning. In twenty-five diverse healthcare and welfare organizations as well as elderly associations in the Netherlands, data were collected on the difficulties in biopsychosocial functioning experienced by 2019 older adults. Data were collected between March 2010 and January 2011 and sampling took place based on their (temporarily) living conditions. Factor Mixture Model was conducted to categorize the respondents into segments with relatively similar experienced difficulties concerning their functioning. First, the analyses show that older adults can be empirically categorized into five meaningful segments: feeling vital; difficulties with psychosocial coping; physical and mobility complaints; difficulties experienced in multiple domains; and feeling extremely frail. The categorization seems robust as it was replicated in two population-based samples in the Netherlands. The segmentation's usefulness is discussed and illustrated through an evaluation of the alignment between a segment's unfulfilled biopsychosocial needs and current healthcare utilization. The set of person-centred segmentation variables provides healthcare providers the option to perform a more comprehensive first triage step than only a disease-based one. The outcomes of this first step could guide a focused and

  6. THE CARE OF NURSING TO THE FAMILY: A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Souza Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the scientific article about the care of nursing to the family,published in periodic of Brazilian nursing, index-linked article survey to the LILACS, in the period of 1993 the 2003,and to analyze them how much to the concept and composition of the families, systematization and proposals ofaction of nursing and formation and qualification of the authors. In the results we find in 10 years (1993-2003, 9publications concerning nursing in family. Where we can find the predominance of works that focus thesystematization and proposals of action, evidencing of a general form, a lack of studies in the area of nursing infamily, where the Program of Health of the Family appears as principal source of promotion of care of nursing tothe family and motivation for studies that approach this thematic one. All research had had as authorship nursesdoctors, masters and specialists, which acted as professors.

  7. Information exchange networks for chronic illness care in primary care practices: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koetsenruiter Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information exchange networks for chronic illness care may influence the uptake of innovations in patient care. Valid and feasible methods are needed to document and analyse information exchange networks in healthcare settings. This observational study aimed to examine the usefulness of methods to study information exchange networks in primary care practices, related to chronic heart failure, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods The study was linked to a quality improvement project in the Netherlands. All health professionals in the practices were asked to complete a short questionnaire that documented their information exchange relations. Feasibility was determined in terms of response rates and reliability in terms of reciprocity of reports of receiving and providing information. For each practice, a number of network characteristics were derived for each of the chronic conditions. Results Ten of the 21 practices in the quality improvement project agreed to participate in this network study. The response rates were high in all but one of the participating practices. For the analysis, we used data from 67 health professionals from eight practices. The agreement between receiving and providing information was, on average, 65.6%. The values for density, centralization, hierarchy, and overlap of the information exchange networks showed substantial variation between the practices as well as between the chronic conditions. The most central individual in the information exchange network could be a nurse or a physician. Conclusions Further research is needed to refine the measure of information networks and to test the impact of network characteristics on the uptake of innovations.

  8. Care planning and decision-making in teams in Swedish elderly care: a study of interprofessional collaboration and professional boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, Anna

    2013-05-01

    In front-line practice, joint working between different professionals in health/social care and rehabilitation is regarded as a means to reach a comprehensive assessment of the needs of the older care recipients, leading to decisions on appropriate care and services. The aim of this study was to examine professional collaboration and professional boundaries in interprofessional care planning teams. Two different care planning teams were studied, one performing care planning in the homes of older individuals and the other performing care planning for older people in hospital wards. The empirical data consisted of audio-recorded care planning meetings and interviews with the professionals in the teams. The integration between the professionals involved was most noticeable in the investigation and assessment phase, while it was lower in the planning phase and almost non-existent in decision-making. The home care planning team tended to work in a more integrated manner than the discharge planning team. The importance of clarifying the roles of all professions concerned with needs assessment and care planning for older people became evident in this study.

  9. Viewing eCare through Nurses' Eyes: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Jeffrey Allan

    2013-01-01

    Published research suggests that the future of health care will be dependent on new technologies that serve to decrease the need for increased numbers of critical-care nurses while also increasing the quality of patient care delivery. The eCare technology is one technology that provides this service in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The…

  10. Viewing eCare through Nurses' Eyes: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Jeffrey Allan

    2013-01-01

    Published research suggests that the future of health care will be dependent on new technologies that serve to decrease the need for increased numbers of critical-care nurses while also increasing the quality of patient care delivery. The eCare technology is one technology that provides this service in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The…

  11. Team dynamics, clinical work satisfaction, and patient care coordination between primary care providers: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hummy; Ryan, Molly; Tendulkar, Shalini; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Frolkis, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Chien, Alyna T; Singer, Sara J

    Team-based care is essential for delivering high-quality, comprehensive, and coordinated care. Despite considerable research about the effects of team-based care on patient outcomes, few studies have examined how team dynamics relate to provider outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among team dynamics, primary care provider (PCP) clinical work satisfaction, and patient care coordination between PCPs in 18 Harvard-affiliated primary care practices participating in Harvard's Academic Innovations Collaborative. First, we administered a cross-sectional survey to all 548 PCPs (267 attending clinicians, 281 resident physicians) working at participating practices; 65% responded. We assessed the relationship of team dynamics with PCPs' clinical work satisfaction and perception of patient care coordination between PCPs, respectively, and the potential mediating effect of patient care coordination on the relationship between team dynamics and work satisfaction. In addition, we embedded a qualitative evaluation within the quantitative evaluation to achieve a convergent mixed methods design to help us better understand our findings and illuminate relationships among key variables. Better team dynamics were positively associated with clinical work satisfaction and quality of patient care coordination between PCPs. Coordination partially mediated the relationship between team dynamics and satisfaction for attending clinicians, suggesting that higher satisfaction depends, in part, on better teamwork, yielding more coordinated patient care. We found no mediating effects for resident physicians. Qualitative results suggest that sources of satisfaction from positive team dynamics for PCPs may be most relevant to attending clinicians. Improving primary care team dynamics could improve clinical work satisfaction among PCPs and patient care coordination between PCPs. In addition to improving outcomes that directly concern health care providers, efforts to

  12. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  13. Taking good care of myself: a qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2014-12-01

    In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving.

  14. Family members' experiences of being cared for by nurses and physicians in Norwegian intensive care units: a phenomenological hermeneutical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frivold, Gro; Dale, Bjørg; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-08-01

    When patients are admitted to intensive care units, families are affected. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being taken care of by nurses and physicians for relatives in Norwegian intensive care units. Thirteen relatives of critically ill patients treated in intensive care units in southern Norway were interviewed in autumn 2013. Interview data were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method inspired by the philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes emerged: being in a receiving role and being in a participating role. The receiving role implies experiences of informational and supportive care from nurses and physicians. The participating role implies relatives' experiences of feeling included and being able to participate in caring activities and decision-making processes. The meaning of being a relative in ICU is experienced as being in a receiving role, and at the same time as being in a participating role. Quality in relations is described as crucial when relatives share their experiences of care by nurses and physicians in the ICU. Those who experienced informational and supportive care, and who had the ability to participate, expressed feelings of gratitude and confidence in the healthcare system. In contrast, those who did not experience such care, especially in terms of informational care expressed feelings of frustration, confusion and loss of confidence. However, patient treatment and care outweighed relatives' own feelings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent efficacy of a long acting injectable formulation of moxidectin against natural infestations of the sheep nasal bot (Oestrus ovis) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Douglas; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Sarasola, Patxi; Figueras, Luis; Lacasta, Delia; Liu, Bo; Bartram, David

    2012-09-10

    Cydectin(®) 2% LA Solution for Injection for Sheep (Pfizer Animal Health) is a long-acting (LA) formulation of moxidectin for the treatment and prevention of mixed infections of gastro-intestinal nematodes, respiratory nematodes and certain arthropod parasites in sheep. To evaluate the duration of persistent efficacy against nasal bots (Oestrus ovis), a natural exposure study was conducted in Spain during the summer of 2011. One hundred and twenty nasal bot-free, Rasa Aragonesa sheep were randomly allocated to eight groups of 15 animals each. On Day 0, four groups were treated at the recommended dose rate of 1 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight. Four groups remained untreated as negative controls. All animals were held in nasal bot-proof housing except for exposure to natural challenge when one group of treated sheep and one of group of control animals were transferred to a local pasture at either 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, or 60-80 days after treatment. Following challenge, sheep were scored for clinical signs of bot infestation, necropsied and the heads sectioned for larval recovery. Nasal bot larvae were retrieved from 7 to 11 control sheep following each exposure period indicating that adult bots were active throughout the study. In the first challenge up to 20 days after treatment, when sheep were slaughtered immediately after exposure, the majority of larvae were first instar (L1) and only 3 of the 15 control sheep were infested with second instars (L2). There was 100% efficacy against L2 and 38.1% reduction in the number of live L1 in the treated sheep but mean counts were not significantly different between treatment and control groups (P ≥ 0.05). For the subsequent exposure periods 20-80 days after treatment (necropsies 7-9 days after challenge), 6-10 sheep were infested with L1 and 9-11 control sheep were infested with L2 and third instars (L3). There was negligible efficacy against L1, but treatment with moxidectin resulted in 100% control of L2 and L3. These

  16. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted.

  17. Prevention of Critical Care Complications in the Coronary Intensive Care Unit: Protocols, Bundles, and Insights From Intensive Care Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Sligl, Wendy I; Washam, Jeffrey B; Gilchrist, Ian C; Arora, Rakesh C; Katz, Jason N

    2017-01-01

    Over the past half century, coronary care units have expanded from specialized ischemia arrhythmia monitoring units into intensive care units (ICUs) for acutely ill and medically complex patients with a primary cardiac diagnosis. Patients admitted to contemporary coronary intensive care units (CICUs) are at risk for common and preventable critical care complications, yet many CICUs have not adopted standard-of-care prevention protocols and practices from general ICUs. In this article, we (1) review evidence-based interventions and care bundles that reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, excess sedation during mechanical ventilation, central line infections, stress ulcers, malnutrition, delirium, and medication errors and (2) recommend pragmatic adaptations for common conditions in critically ill patients with cardiac disease, and (3) provide example order sets and practical CICU protocol implementation strategies.

  18. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  19. Primary care capitation payments in the UK. An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Beerstecher Hendrik J; Rhys Gwion; Morgan Claire L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004 an allocation formula for primary care services was introduced in England and Wales so practices would receive equitable pay. Modifications were made to this formula to enable local health authorities to pay practices. Similar pay formulae were introduced in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but these are unique to the country and therefore could not be included in this study. Objective To examine the extent to which the Global Sum, and modifications to the original f...

  20. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  1. Designing a Care Pathway Model – A Case Study of the Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin I. Oosterholt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the clinical attributes of total hip arthroplasty (THA care pathways have been thoroughly researched, a detailed understanding of the equally important organisational attributes is still lacking. The aim of this article is to contribute with a model of the outpatient THA care pathway that depicts how the care team should be organised to enable patient discharge on the day of surgery. Theory: The outpatient THA care pathway enables patients to be discharged on the day of surgery, short- ening the length of stay and intensifying the provision and organisation of care. We utilise visual care modelling to construct a visual design of the organisation of the care pathway. Methods: An embedded case study was conducted of the outpatient THA care pathway at a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. The data were collected using a visual care modelling toolkit in 16 semi- structured interviews. Problems and inefficiencies in the care pathway were identified and addressed in the iterative design process. Results: The results are two visual models of the most critical phases of the outpatient THA care pathway: diagnosis & preparation (1 and mobilisation & discharge (4. The results show the care team composition, critical value exchanges, and sequence that enable patient discharge on the day of surgery. Conclusion: The design addressed existing problems and is an optimisation of the case hospital’s pathway. The network of actors consists of the patient (1, radiologist (1, anaesthetist (1, nurse specialist (1, pharmacist (1, orthopaedic surgeon (1,4, physiotherapist (1,4, nurse (4, doctor (4 and patient applica- tion (1,4. The critical value exchanges include patient preparation (mental and practical, patient education, aligned care team, efficient sequence of value exchanges, early patient mobilisation, flexible availability of the physiotherapist, functional discharge criteria, joint decision making and availability of the care team.

  2. Heritability of resistance to infestation with the body louse, Bovicola ovis, in Romney sheep bred for differences in resistance or resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, A; Morris, C A; Green, R S; Wheeler, M; Shu, D; Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A

    2007-12-01

    The inheritance of resistance to louse infestation and the related allergic skin disease, cockle, was examined in Romney lambs. The lambs used in the study were the 2001- and 2004-born progeny of four experimental breeding lines ("Resistant", "Susceptible", "Resilient" and "Control") developed as part of a long-term study of the genetics of host resistance (maintenance of low faecal egg count (FEC) under nematode challenge) or resilience (maintenance of health and productivity under nematode challenge irrespective of FEC) to nematode parasites in sheep. Between 13 and 22 progeny (equally distributed between males and females, where possible) from each of five sires in each line were selected each year for this trial. All lambs (n=701) were examined for lice (Bovicola ovis) before artificial infestation; in 2001 the lambs were free of natural infestation, whilst in 2004 naturally acquired infestation was evident. In November 2001 and May 2002, approximately 60 B. ovis were transferred to each lamb, followed by monitoring at approximately 2-monthly intervals until August 2002. Similar procedures, but with fewer monitoring times, were repeated on the 2004 lambs. Overall, lambs in the Control line were significantly more susceptible to louse infestation and cockle compared with those in the other three lines (Pestimates were similar to those obtained for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in these breeding lines, using log-transformed FECs. Heritability estimates for cockle score in autumn, winter and when combined were 0.06 (SE 0.04), 0.45 (SE 0.09) and 0.40 (SE 0.09), respectively. The genetic correlations of mean log-transformed louse score with mean cockle score and levels of two different louse antigens in wool were, respectively, 0.97 (SE 0.04), 0.96 (SE 0.08) and 0.95 (SE 0.09). However, there was no significant genetic correlation between louse scores and FEC. These results suggest that selective breeding would be effective in reducing louse infestation

  3. The quality of paper-based versus electronic nursing care plan in Australian aged care homes: A documentation audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2015-08-01

    The nursing care plan plays an essential role in supporting care provision in Australian aged care. The implementation of electronic systems in aged care homes was anticipated to improve documentation quality. Standardized nursing terminologies, developed to improve communication and advance the nursing profession, are not required in aged care practice. The language used by nurses in the nursing care plan and the effect of the electronic system on documentation quality in residential aged care need to be investigated. To describe documentation practice for the nursing care plan in Australian residential aged care homes and to compare the quantity and quality of documentation in paper-based and electronic nursing care plans. A nursing documentation audit was conducted in seven residential aged care homes in Australia. One hundred and eleven paper-based and 194 electronic nursing care plans, conveniently selected, were reviewed. The quantity of documentation in a care plan was determined by the number of phrases describing a resident problem and the number of goals and interventions. The quality of documentation was measured using 16 relevant questions in an instrument developed for the study. There was a tendency to omit 'nursing problem' or 'nursing diagnosis' in the nursing process by changing these terms (used in the paper-based care plan) to 'observation' in the electronic version. The electronic nursing care plan documented more signs and symptoms of resident problems and evaluation of care than the paper-based format (48.30 vs. 47.34 out of 60, Pquality score. The electronic care plan contained fewer problem or diagnosis statements, contributing factors and resident outcomes than the paper-based system (Pplan were weak in documenting measurable and concrete resident outcomes. The overall quality of documentation content for the nursing process was no better in the electronic system than in the paper-based system. Omission of the nursing problem or diagnosis

  4. [The development of the larvae of the sheep nasopharyngeal botfly, oestrus ovis l. (diptera, oestridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breev, K A; Sultanov, F R

    1975-01-01

    In order to find out factors affecting the presence of two generations of O. ovis in the southern parts of its distribution area there were conducted regular measurements of the body length of the Ist instar (3718 specimens) and weight of the IInd and IIId instar larvae (1460 specimens). These observations were carried out in two herds of sheep in low-lying and foothill zones of Aserbaijan. Statistical analysis has shown the following: a) the growth inhibition, which is especially distinct in autumn-spring generation, takes place in the Ist instar larvae 1.76-2.20 mm long inhabiting the walls of the nasal cavity and concha (their average body length at hatching is 1.08 plus or minus 0.004 mm); the inhibition is associated with interpopulation relations and apparently does not depend on the date of its beginning and can last from 6 to 7 months; c) after the growth resumption the development continues uninterruptedly up to the moulting; the inhibition is also possible at the beginning of the 2nd instar and then the development proceeds without any intervals up to the complete maturation of larvae. The total number of the Ist instar larvae in the bot fly populations is two times higher than that of the IInd and III-instars. This points to a high mortality of larvae during the Ist instar developmental period.

  5. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis as inducer of immunity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA R. PAVAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Molecules with immune modulating activity are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their impact on aquaculture has been exploited in order to increase fish resistance to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO on blood cells and innate and acquired immune response of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. iPPVO inoculation had no effect on respiratory burst activity; however, following iPPVO inoculation, we observed a significant decrease on circulating monocytes concomitantly with an increased number of heterophilic granulocytes and thrombocytes, which are the main cells involved in innate immunity and provide connection with acquired immunity. Fish inoculated with a combination of bovine serum albumin (BSA + iPPVO had significantly higher levels of antibodies to BSA compared to fish inoculated with BSA alone, but lower than fish inoculated with BSA + Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA. These findings points to the potential usefulness of iPPVO as immunomodulator in fish and instigate further research to identify its component that interact with immune cells and that could be exploited as adjuvants in fish.

  6. Oestrus ovis larval infestation among sheep and goats of Green Mountain areas in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Negm-Eldin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heads of sheep (n=180 and goats (n=120 slaughtered at four regions (Labraq, Shahat, Elbeida, and Masa of Green Mountain areas in Libya were investigated for the presence of larvae of Oestrus ovis. The animals were divided into sex and age groups. The heads were cut along longitudinal and sagittal axes, and the larvae (L1, L2, and L3 were collected. The infestation rate was significantly higher in sheep (51.66%; n=93/180 as compared to goats (28.33%; n=34/120. In sheep, the rate was higher during May (100%, while in goat, it was higher during August (70%. The incidence of L1 peaked in April (90% for sheep and October (100% for goats, while L2 reached to maximum in May for sheep (26.95% and goats (75%. L3 reached to peak in February (50% for sheep, and June (25% for goats. Mean intensity of larval burden was higher in sheep than goat, reaching to peak in June (9.1 larvae/head for sheep and March (3.5 larvae/head for goats. The infestation rate was significantly higher in males than females. The older animals were mostly affected as compared to younger animals. Highest infestation rate was recorded in Masa (45.83%, and the lowest rate was found in Labraq (40.27%. In conclusion, these findings may be used in designing the control strategies of myiasis in Libya.

  7. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  8. Massive Warm/Hot Galaxy Coronae as Probed by OVI, OVII and OVIII Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Faerman, Yakov; McKee, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    We construct an analytic phenomenological model for extended warm/hot gaseous coronae of L* galaxies. We aim to reproduce the column densities of highly ionized oxygen ions observed in the ultraviolet and X-ray, as evidence for warm/hot gas in a wide range of temperatures and ionization states. We consider OVI data from the COS-Halos sample of galaxies in combination with the nearby OVII and OVIII absorption that we interpret as arising in an extended corona around the Milky Way. We fit these data sets with a single representative model. The gas in our model is multiphased, with hot and warm components. Each component has a (turbulent) log-normal distribution of temperatures and densities. The hot gas is traced by the OVII and OVIII and is in hydrostatic equilibrium in a Milky Way gravitational potential. The median temperature of the hot gas is $1.8*10^6$ K and the resulting mean hydrogen density is $\\sim 5*10^{-5}~cm^{-3}$, consistent with ram-pressure stripping observed in Milky Way satellites. The warm co...

  9. Exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of the St Kilda archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A L; Nussey, D H; Lloyd-Smith, J O; Longbottom, D; Maley, M; Pemberton, J M; Pilkington, J G; Prager, K C; Smith, L; Watt, K A; Wilson, K; McNEILLY, T N; Brülisauer, F

    2016-07-01

    We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen-host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta.

  10. Keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO), 'pink eye' or 'zere oogjes' (a survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, C D

    1983-07-01

    The occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO) in the Netherlands was reported by Hofland et al. in 1969 for the first time. At present the disease is well known in the Netherlands. Nevertheless there are still questions about the causative agent and the most effective and easiest therapy. Most authors suppose that the disease is caused by Colesiota conjunctivae, although others mention infections by other chlamydia, Mycoplasma conjunctivae, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Acholeplasma oculi and a wide variety of bacteria. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of the symptoms and the detection of the agent in conjunctival scrapings. The bacilliform bodies can be found in conjunctival smears in the cytoplasm (Giemsa, Stamp). Many therapies are used topically, parenterally or orally. Locally used eye-ointments must be effective against Colesiota; antimicrobial drugs administered by injection must be effective against the latter and also provide a sufficient cell tissue penetration with excretion into the lacrimal fluids. Injections have proved to be easier to administer, especially in serious outbreaks, but such outbreaks are exceptional (18). Some therapies have been evaluated in small scale experiments (28) as well as in field trials (17).

  11. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  12. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A; Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-06-15

    In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were 'protective' (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Besser, Thomas E; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  14. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina K Plowright

    Full Text Available Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  15. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3 with previously exposed rams (n=2. Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease; however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia.

  16. Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Clémentine; Estellat, Candice; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Blondel, Béatrice; Alfaiate, Toni; Schmitz, Thomas; Oury, Jean-François; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Luton, Dominique; Ravaud, Philippe; Azria, Elie

    2017-05-16

    Maternal social deprivation is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Inadequate prenatal care utilization (PCU) is likely to be an important intermediate factor. The health care system in France provides essential health services to all pregnant women irrespective of their socioeconomic status. Our aim was to assess the association between maternal social deprivation and PCU. The analysis was performed in the database of the multicenter prospective PreCARE cohort study. The population source consisted in all parturient women registered for delivery in 4 university hospital maternity units, Paris, France, from October 2010 to November 2011 (N = 10,419). This analysis selected women with singleton pregnancies that ended after 22 weeks of gestation (N = 9770). The associations between maternal deprivation (four variables first considered separately and then combined as a social deprivation index: social isolation, poor or insecure housing conditions, no work-related household income, and absence of standard health insurance) and inadequate PCU were tested through multivariate logistic regressions also adjusted for immigration characteristics and education level. Attendance at prenatal care was poor for 23.3% of the study population. Crude relative risks and confidence intervals for inadequate PCU were 1.6 [1.5-1.8], 2.3 [2.1-2.6], and 3.1 [2.8-3.4], for women with a deprivation index of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, compared to women with deprivation index of 0. Each of the four deprivation variables was significantly associated with an increased risk of inadequate PCU. Because of the interaction observed between inadequate PCU and mother's country of birth, we stratified for the latter before the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for the potential confounders, this social gradient remained for women born in France and North Africa. The prevalence of inadequate PCU among women born in sub-Saharan Africa was 34

  17. 42 CFR 456.242 - UR plan requirements for medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.242 UR plan requirements for medical care... medical care evaluation studies under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (b) The UR plan must provide that... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UR plan requirements for medical care...

  18. 42 CFR 456.142 - UR plan requirements for medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Hospitals Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.142 UR plan requirements for medical care... medical care evaluation studies under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (b) The UR plan must provide that... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UR plan requirements for medical care...

  19. The positioning of palliative care in acute care: A multiperspective qualitative study in the context of metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jennifer; Windsor, Carol; Connell, Shirley; Yates, Patsy

    2016-06-01

    The positioning and meaning of palliative care within the healthcare system lacks clarity which adds a level of complexity to the process of transition to palliative care. This study explores the transition to the palliative care process in the acute care context of metastatic melanoma. A theoretical framework drawing on interpretive and critical traditions informs this research. The pragmatism of symbolic interactionism and the critical theory of Habermas brought a broad orientation to the research. Integration of the theoretical framework and grounded-theory methods facilitated data generation and analysis of 29 interviews with patients, family carers, and healthcare professionals. The key analytical findings depict a scope of palliative care that was uncertain for users of the system and for those working within the system. Becoming "palliative" is not a defined event; nor is there unanimity around referral to a palliative care service. As such, ambiguity and tension contribute to the difficulties involved in negotiating the transition to palliative care. Our findings point to uncertainty around the scopes of practice in the transition to palliative care. The challenge in the transition process lies in achieving greater coherency of care within an increasingly specialized healthcare system. The findings may not only inform those within a metastatic melanoma context but may contribute more broadly to palliative practices within the acute care setting.

  20. Meanings and expressions of care and caring for elders in urban Namibian families: a transcultural nursing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, C J; Small, L F; van Dyk, A

    2000-09-01

    Since Namibia's Independence in 1990, the population of elders--persons 65 years old and older--in urban communities is growing steadily. As such, requests for home health care, health counselling, respite care and residential care for aging members of society are overwhelming nurses and the health care system. This study expands transcultural nursing knowledge by increasing understanding of generic (home-based) patterns of elder care that are practised and lived by urban Namibian families. Guided by Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality and the ethnonursing research method, emic (insider) meanings and expressions of care and caring for elders in selected urban households have been transposed into five substantive themes. The themes, which depict what carring for elders means to urban families, include: 1 nurturing the health of the family, 2 trusting in the benevolence of life as lived, 3 honouring one's elders, 4 sustaining security and purpose for life amid uncertainty, and 5 living with rapidly changing cultural and social structures. These findings add a voice from the developing world to the evolving body of transcultural nursing knowledge. Synthesis of findings with professional care practices facilitates the creation of community-focussed models for provisioning culturally congruent nursing care to elders and their families in urban Namibia.

  1. Integration home care in the care chain: results from the EURHOMAP study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Boerma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Demand for home care is expected to rise sharply across Europe as a result of trends of reduced institutional care and the ageing of populations. The increased volume and complexity in home care will challenge the coordination of services delivered in the home situation and the coordinat

  2. Better Kid Care Program Improves the Quality of Child Care: Results from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.; Wehmeier, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    More high quality child care is needed in the United States. This article evaluates the Better Kid Care (BKC) program produced by Pennsylvania State University Extension. Child care staff in Wisconsin were interviewed about changes they had made in their early childhood programs following participation in the BKC program. Findings show that 2…

  3. Diagnosis of Asthma in Primary Health Care: A Pilot Study

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    Karin C. Ringsberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some patients with an asthma diagnosis have a poor controlled asthma. One explanation may be an incorrect diagnosis. Aim. The aim of the study was to diagnose and classify patients with non-infectious lower respiratory tract problems in primary health care using internationally applied diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests. Patients and Methods. New adult patients visiting a primary health care centre due to lower airway problems were included. The diagnostic tests included FEV1, FVC, PEF, two questionnaires, methacholine test, and skin prick test. Results. The patients (n=43 could be divided into four groups: asthma (28%, asthma-like disorder (44%, idiopathic cough (12%, and a nonreversible bronchial obstructive group (16%. The asthma and asthma-like groups showed similar patterns of airway symptoms and trigger factors, not significantly separated by a special questionnaire. Phlegm, heavy breathing, chest pressure/pain, cough, and wheezing were the most common symptoms. Physical exercise and scents were the dominating trigger factors. Conclusions. Nonobstructive asthma-like symptoms seem to be as common as bronchial asthma in primary health care. Due to the similarities in symptoms and trigger factors the study supports the hypothesis that asthma and nonobstructive asthma-like disorders are integrated in the same “asthma syndrome,” including different mechanisms, not only bronchial obstruction.

  4. A study of medication errors in a tertiary care hospital

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    Nrupal Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the nature and types of medication errors (MEs, to evaluate occurrence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs, and assess rationality of prescription orders in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted in General Medicine and Pediatric ward of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad during October 2012 to January 2014. MEs were categorized as prescription error, dispensing error, and administration error (AE. The case records and treatment charts were reviewed. The investigator also accompanied the staff nurse during the ward rounds and interviewed patients or care taker to gather information, if necessary. DDIs were assessed by Medscape Drug Interaction Checker software (version 4.4. Rationality of prescriptions was assessed using Phadke′s criteria. Results: A total of 1109 patients (511 in Medicine and 598 in Pediatric ward were included during the study period. Total number of MEs was 403 (36% of which, 195 (38% were in Medicine and 208 (35% were in Pediatric wards. The most common ME was PEs 262 (65% followed by AEs 126 (31%. A potential significant DDIs were observed in 191 (17% and serious DDIs in 48 (4% prescriptions. Majority of prescriptions were semirational 555 (53% followed by irrational 317 (30%, while 170 (17% prescriptions were rational. Conclusion: There is a need to establish ME reporting system to reduce its incidence and improve patient care and safety.

  5. How to Manage Hospital-Based Palliative Care Teams Without Full-Time Palliative Care Physicians in Designated Cancer Care Hospitals: A Qualitative Study.

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    Sakashita, Akihiro; Kishino, Megumi; Nakazawa, Yoko; Yotani, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    To clarify how highly active hospital palliative care teams can provide efficient and effective care regardless of the lack of full-time palliative care physicians. Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted, and content analysis was performed. A total of 7 physicians and 6 nurses participated. We extracted 209 codes from the transcripts and organized them into 3 themes and 21 categories, which were classified as follows: (1) tips for managing palliative care teams efficiently and effectively (7 categories); (2) ways of acquiring specialist palliative care expertise (9 categories); and (3) ways of treating symptoms that are difficult to alleviate (5 categories). The findings of this study can be used as a nautical chart of hospital-based palliative care team (HPCT) without full-time PC physician. Full-time nurses who have high management and coordination abilities play a central role in resource-limited HPCTs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  7. The performance of integrated health care networks in continuity of care: a qualitative multiple case study of COPD patients

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    Sina Waibel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated health care networks (IHN are promoted in numerous countries as a response to fragmented care delivery by providing a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population. However, evidence on their effectiveness and outcome is scarce, particularly considering continuity across levels of care; that is the patient's experience of connected and coherent care received from professionals of the different care levels over time. The objective was to analyse the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients’ perceptions of continuity of clinical management and information across care levels and continuity of relation in IHN of the public health care system of Catalonia.Methods: A qualitative multiple case study was conducted, where the cases are COPD patients. A theoretical sample was selected in two stages: (1 study contexts: IHN and (2 study cases consisting of COPD patients. Data were collected by means of individual, semi-structured interviews to the patients, their general practitioners and pulmonologists and review of records. A thematic content analysis segmented by IHN and cases with a triangulation of sources and analysists was carried out.Results: COPD patients of all networks perceived that continuity of clinical management was existent due to clear distribution of roles for COPD care across levels, rapid access to care during exacerbations and referrals to secondary care when needed; nevertheless, patients of some networks highlighted too long waiting times to non-urgent secondary care. Physicians generally agreed with patients, however, also indicated unclear distribution of roles, some inadequate referrals and long waiting times to primary care in some networks. Concerning continuity of information, patients across networks considered that their clinical information was transferred across levels via computer and that physicians also used informal communication mechanisms (e-mail, telephone; whereas

  8. Care coordination between specialty care and primary care: a focus group study of provider perspectives on strong practices and improvement opportunities

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    Kim B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bo Kim,1,2 Michelle A Lucatorto,3 Kara Hawthorne,4 Janis Hersh,5 Raquel Myers,6 A Rani Elwy,1,7 Glenn D Graham81Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Hospital, Bedford, 2Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Office of Nursing Services, Department of Veterans Affairs, 4Chief Business Office, Purchased Care, Washington, DC, 5New England Veterans Engineering Resource Center, Boston, MA, 6SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 7Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 8Specialty Care Services (10P4E, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Care coordination between the specialty care provider (SCP and the primary care provider (PCP is a critical component of safe, efficient, and patient-centered care. Veterans Health Administration conducted a series of focus groups of providers, from specialty care and primary care clinics at VA Medical Centers nationally, to assess 1 what SCPs and PCPs perceive to be current practices that enable or hinder effective care coordination with one another and 2 how these perceptions differ between the two groups of providers. A qualitative thematic analysis of the gathered data validates previous studies that identify communication as being an important enabler of coordination, and uncovers relationship building between specialty care and primary care (particularly through both formal and informal relationship-building opportunities such as collaborative seminars and shared lunch space, respectively to be the most notable facilitator of effective communication between the two sides. Results from this study suggest concrete next steps that medical facilities can take to improve care coordination, using as their basis the mutual understanding and respect developed between SCPs and PCPs through relationship-building efforts

  9. Patients from across Europe have similar views on patient-centred care: an international multilingual qualitative study in infertility care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dancet, E.A.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Sermeus, W.; Empel, I. van; Strohmer, H.; Wyns, C.; Santa-Cruz, D.; Nardo, L.G.; Kovatchki, D.; Vanlangenakker, L.; Garcia-Velasco, J.; Mulugeta, B.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International patient centredness concepts were suggested but never conceptualized from the patients' perspective. Previously, a literature review and a monolingual qualitative study defined 'patient-centred infertility care' (PCIC). The present study aimed to test whether patients from

  10. [Transferring palliative-care patients from hospital to community care: A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Casado, Matías; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    To know the experience of case-manager nurses with regard to transferring palliative-care patients from the hospital to their homes. Qualitative phenomenological study carried out in 2014-2015. Poniente and Almería health districts, which referral hospitals are Poniente Hospital and Torrecárdenas Hospital, respectively. A purposive sample comprised of 12 case-manager nurses was recruited from the aforementioned setting. Theoretical data saturation was achieved after performing 7 in-depth individual interviews and 1 focus group. Data analysis was performed following Colaizzi's method. Three themes emerged: (1) 'Case-management nursing as a quality, patient-centred service' (2) 'Failures of the information systems', with the subthemes "patients" insufficient and inadequate previous information" and "ineffective between-levels communication channels for advanced nursing"; (3) 'Deficiencies in discharge planning', with the subthemes "deficient management of resources on admission", "uncertainty about discharge" and "insufficient human resources to coordinate the transfer". Case-manager nurses consider themselves a good-quality service. However, they think there are issues with coordination, information and discharge planning of palliative patients from hospital. It would be useful to review the communication pathways of both care and discharge reports, so that resources needed by palliative patients are effectively managed at the point of being transferred home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Histomorphometric, fractal and lacunarity comparative analysis of sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) compact bone samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudea, A I; Stefan, A C

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies dealing with histomorphometry of the bone tissue play a new role in modern legal medicine/forensic medicine and archaeozoology nowadays. This study deals with the differences found in case of humerus and metapodial bones of recent sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus) specimens, both from a qualitative point of view, but mainly from a quantitative perspective. A novel perspective given by the fractal analysis performed on the digital histological images is approached. This study shows that the qualitative assessment may not be a reliable one due to the close resemblance of the structures. From the quantitative perspective (several measurements performed on osteonal units and statistical processing of data),some of the elements measured show significant differences among 3 species(the primary osteonal diameter, etc.). The fractal analysis and the lacunarity of the images show a great deal of potential, proving that this type of analysis can be of great help in the separation of the material from this perspective.

  12. Personal Digital Assistants as Point-of-Care Tools in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syeda S.; Wang, Jia; Ruiz, Jorge G.; Roos, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used both survey and interview questionnaires. It was designed to assess the feasibility, usability, and utility of two point-of-care tools especially prepared with information relevant for dementia care by staff nurses in a small, a medium-sized, and a large nursing home in Florida. Twenty-five LPN or RN nurses were recruited for the…

  13. Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care: The Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G.; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T.; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K.; Kedan, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Design Case series. Setting The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Participants Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. Outcome measures The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. Results The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort. PMID:21942161

  14. Acceptability of community pharmaceutical care in Portugal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Mara; Cantrill, Judith; Martins, Paula

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, community pharmacists are increasingly involved in clinical care. This study aimed to explore the acceptability to users of pharmaceutical care (drug therapy monitoring and management) provided in Portuguese community pharmacies, thereby informing future practice, policy and research. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews with a maximum variability sample of 21 service users. Interviews were audio-taped with permission of interviewees, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the 'framework approach' with the help of NVIVO(®) software. A perception of convenient access is one of the key themes associated with acceptability to users. Four factors are central in understanding this perception: shorter waiting time; flexibility of appointments; service organization; and proximity to home. Data analysis suggests that these factors have different weights. Another key theme underpinning user acceptability is the formation of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' accounts provide evidence of a trusting and collaborative relationship where the pharmacist is seen as a health care provider. Recognition of interpersonal and technical skills were associated with the formation of this relationship. Although patients generally trusted the pharmacist's ability to help, patients were unable to voice clear expectations about the service, either in terms of the pharmacist's role or expected outcomes. Acceptability to patients is mainly determined by perceptions of convenient access and the development of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' expectations concerning the service are not well developed, but not necessarily low.

  15. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains.

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    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs. With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis

  16. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Sola, Iván; Rotaeche, Rafael; Marzo-Castillejo, Mèrce; Louro-González, Arturo; Carrillo, Ricard; González, Ana-Isabel; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-08-09

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts.The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts

  17. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

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    Calderón Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1 The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2 The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3 The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not

  18. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

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    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  19. Relationship preferences and experience of primary care patients in continuity of care: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaojie; Wu, Yeqing; Chi, Xueyang

    2017-08-22

    Continuity of care can bring a wide range of benefits to consumers, providers and health care systems. This study aimed to understand the relationship preferences of primary care patients and their associations with patient experience of continuity of care. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 700 patients who sought medical care from a community health organisation in Beijing. The survey contained four items examining the relationship preferences of the respondents, and a modified Questionnaire of Continuity between Care Levels (CCAENA) measuring patient experience of continuity of care based on a three dimensional (relational, informational and managerial) model. The associations between the relationship preferences and the experience of respondents in continuity of care was tested using a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, education, medical insurance, personal income and servicing facilities. The respondents experienced relatively lower levels of informational and managerial continuity compared with relational continuity of care. More than 80% of respondents preferred free choice and a continuing relationship with doctors, compared with 59% who endorsed community facility control over hospital appointments. A preference for a continuing relationship with doctors was associated with all aspects of continuity of care. A preference in favour of community facility control over hospital appointments was a strong predictor of managerial continuity (β = 0.333, p  0.08). Perceived importance of information exchange was associated with relational and managerial continuity (p relationship with doctors. Relationship preferences of patients are associated with their experience of continuity of care. But patient strong preference for free choice of doctors is not aligned with relational continuity with primary care, a desirable feature of cost-effective healthcare systems.

  20. Characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-Producing and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon in Austria and Germany.

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    Igor Loncaric

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactamase producing or fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon. The mouflon samples originated from nasal and perineal swabs and/or organ samples in cases of a suspected infection. Only one of the 32 mouflons was tested positive for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae that displayed either an ESBL/AmpC phenotype or were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The positively tested swab originated from a sample of the jejunal mucosa of a four-year old female mouflon. Two different colony morphotypes were identified as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized in detail by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were multi-drug resistant. The E. coli isolate belonged to the phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type (ST 744 and harboured the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1. The K. pneumoniae, identified as ST11, harboured the β-lactamase genes blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1 as well as the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR gene qnrB55. The present study demonstrates that wild animals can acquire human-derived resistance determinants and such findings may indicate environmental pollution with resistance determinants from other sources.

  1. Slaughter Performance and Carcass Characteristics of the Hybrids Obtained by Crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and Sheep Breed Tigaie

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    Nenad Nedeljkovic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine differences between slaughter performances and carcass characteristics of first generation hybrids (F1 obtained by crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal. and the Romanian sheep breed Tigaie. To assess the yield at slaughter and the participation percentage of the cut parts from the whole carcass structure, crossbreeding were made between females of sheep breed Tigaie and males of mouflon (FT x MM respectively between mouflon females and males of sheep breed Tigaie (FMxMT. At the age of 60 days 14 lambs were sacrificed (7 hybrids FTxMM and 7 hybrids FMxMT. Slaughter yield calculated on hot and chilled carcasses had higher values at FMxMT (P<0.05. The participation percentage of the cut parts from the whole carcass structure had the highest values at FMxMT hybrids compared to FTxMM hybrids. Results from this study showed that genotype significantly influenced the studied characteristics and have revealed the superiority of FMxMT hybrids as against FTxMM hybrids lambs.

  2. Polymorphism of the CSN1S1 casein gene in position 663 in national sheep breeds and European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon

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    Roman Niżnikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on the material of 1802 sheeps (1175♀ and 627♂ coming from European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon, its hybrids with Polish heat sheep, four sheep breeds that are characterised by a mixed wool, as well as Polish merino. All animals were subjected to the identification of the alpha-S1 casein gene – CSN1S1. On the basis of the research two alleles (C and T were identified and three genotypes (CC, CT and TT. A balanced frequency of alleles C and T in European mouflon were identified, which translated into a balanced distribution of genotypes, in contrast to the other groups, in which the T allele and the TT genotype decidedly had most of the frequency compared to C allele and CC and TC genotypes. It was shown that in the European mouflon CC genotype appeared in the highest proportion in comparison to the other groups, of which only Polish heat sheep and Polish mountain sheep – white were characterised by the participation of trace conditioning. It was concluded that the studies proved that the process of domestication may have a significant impact on the quantity and distribution of alleles and genotypes in the alpha-S1 casein gene. This result indicates the need for further research in this area in “cultural” sheep (e.g. compared to the Polish merino, characterised by a more specialised usability (e.g. meat or wool-meat.

  3. Polymorphism of the PrP prion protein gene in national sheep breeds with mixed wool, polish merino and european mouflon (Ovis aries musimon

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    Roman Niżnikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on the material of 1787 sheep (1169♀ i 618♂ originating from European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon, its hybrids with Polish heat sheep and four sheep breeds with mixed wool, compared to Polish merino. All animals were subjected to the identification of the PrP prion protein gene. Based on performed research work it has been identified from two alleles in European mouflon and mouflon – Polish heat sheep to six alleles in Polish colour mountain sheep and Polish merino (in establishing the presence of 14 genotypes. Analysis of the distribution of prion protein PrP genotypes showed the least amount in European mouflon (three genotypes and mouflon – Polish heat sheep (two genotypes, and most in Polish merino (12 genotypes and the Polish mountain sheep of white variety (10 genotypes, as well as of colour variety (nine genotypes. It was also noted in the distribution of alleles and genotypes of scrapie a significant increase in their number, depending on the utility of higher specialisation of the studied sheep groups. Generally, allele ALRQ (also in the form of homozygotic genotype dominated in mouflon, while in cultural breeds – ALRR. Identification of conditions associated with the occurrence of VLRQ allele in the genotype indicates the need to eliminate it from individual populations (except for Polish heat sheep, in which this allele was not stated. It requires an elaboration of appropriate breeding programs.

  4. Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae an important ectoparasite in sheep of four cantons of the municipality of Sorata province Larecaja, department of La Paz

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    Choque-Fernández Graciela Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of Oestrosis in sheep was carried out in the cantons of Sorata, Obispo Bosque, Laripata and Ilabaya, belonging to the Municipality of Sorata, under the agreement made with the institution Departmental Agricultural and Livestock Service (SEDAG between August and September 2002, with 164 heads of sheep out of which 151 heads were Oestrus ovis, 13 were negative, taking into account the factors canton, sex, age and number of larvae per animal. The prevalence of Oestrosis in Sorata was 39% and by corner Obispo Bosque 28%, Ilabaya and Laripata 18% and 15% respectively. The analysis of variance to quantify the number of larvae per canton did not present significant differences (P> 0.005 as well as for the sex and age factor, which means that the canton Sorata, Obispo Bosque, Laripata and Ilabaya have equal % of Oestrosis for The age factor is not significant difference between females and males nor groups of age 1 and 2. Analysis of variance to determine the differences in the number of larvae per canton, sex, age and larval stage also does not exist significant differences, however, considering (P <0.005 because there are more larvae in the L-1 stage than L-2 and L-3. In this sense, Oestrosis affects all the cantons under study without distinction of age groups, sex, however varying in the presence of different larval stages, where L-1 predominates.

  5. What do practitioners think? A qualitative study of a shared care mental health and nutrition primary care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann Paquette-Warren

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-depth understanding of a shared care model from primary mental health and nutrition care practitioners with a focus on program goals, strengths, challenges and target population benefits. Design: Qualitative method of focus groups. Setting/Participants: The study involved fifty-three practitioners from the Hamilton Health Service Organization Mental Health and Nutrition Program located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Method: Six focus groups were conducted to obtain the perspective of practitioners belonging to various disciplines or health care teams. A qualitative approach using both an editing and template organization styles was taken followed by a basic content analysis. Main findings: Themes revealed accessibility, interdisciplinary care, and complex care as the main goals of the program. Major program strengths included flexibility, communication/collaboration, educational opportunities, access to patient information, continuity of care, and maintenance of practitioner and patient satisfaction. Shared care was described as highly dependent on communication style, skill and expertise, availability, and attitudes toward shared care. Time constraint with respect to collaboration was noted as the main challenge. Conclusion: Despite some challenges and variability among practices, the program was perceived as providing better patient care by the most appropriate practitioner in an accessible and comfortable setting.

  6. Cost analysis of prenatal care using the activity-based costing model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesse, T; Golembeski, S; Potter, J

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care.

  7. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  8. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannieuwenborg, Frederic; Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-10-31

    In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely, care rescheduling and the billing for

  9. Economic valuation of informal care in Asia: a case study of care for disabled stroke survivors in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Ponsoongnern, Kanyarat; Van den Berg, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    This study values informal care for disabled stroke survivors in Thailand. It applies the conventional recommended opportunity cost method to value informal care in monetary terms. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews conducted during 2006. The sample consisted of 101 disabled persons who had suffered a stroke at least six months prior to the interview, and who had a functional status score of less than 95 as measured by the Barthel Index. Average monthly time spent on informal care was 94.6 hours, and the major source of opportunity cost was forgone unpaid work (43.5%). The average monthly monetary value of informal care was 4642.6 baht, based on 2006 prices. This study shows that providing informal care involves a substantial opportunity cost, implying a hidden value to Thai society.

  10. Efficiency of a Care Coordination Model: A Randomized Study with Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficiency of a social work care coordination model for stroke patients. Care coordination addresses patient care and treatment resources across the health care system to reduce risk, improve clinical outcomes, and maximize efficiency. Method: A randomly assigned, pre-post experimental design measured…

  11. A pilot study: Reiki for self-care of nurses and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathovde, Angela

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Reiki energy therapy, level I, was taught as a self-care practice to healthcare providers, would their caring perceptions change? Methodological triangulation technique, including a self-report caring scale and interviews, was used, demonstrating positive changes in perceptions of participants' caring behaviors.

  12. Predicting dropout in fertility care: a longitudinal study on patient-centredness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppelschoten, A.G.; Dongen, A.J.C.M. van; Philipse, I.C.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are clinic factors, including patients' experiences with patient-centred care, associated with dropout in fertility care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Clinic factors, including patients' experiences with patient-centred care, are not related to dropout. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In fertility care, a

  13. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

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    Risa Fukuda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs. The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results: In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions: The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.

  14. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: a study based on focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko; Seto, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1-1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.

  15. Diffusion of a collaborative care model in primary care: a longitudinal qualitative study

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    Vedel Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although collaborative team models (CTM improve care processes and health outcomes, their diffusion poses challenges related to difficulties in securing their adoption by primary care clinicians (PCPs. The objectives of this study are to understand: (1 how the perceived characteristics of a CTM influenced clinicians' decision to adopt -or not- the model; and (2 the model's diffusion process. Methods We conducted a longitudinal case study based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. First, diffusion curves were developed for all 175 PCPs and 59 nurses practicing in one borough of Paris. Second, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 40 PCPs and 15 nurses to better understand the implementation dynamics. Results Diffusion curves showed that 3.5 years after the start of the implementation, 100% of nurses and over 80% of PCPs had adopted the CTM. The dynamics of the CTM's diffusion were different between the PCPs and the nurses. The slopes of the two curves are also distinctly different. Among the nurses, the critical mass of adopters was attained faster, since they adopted the CTM earlier and more quickly than the PCPs. Results of the semi-structured interviews showed that these differences in diffusion dynamics were mostly founded in differences between the PCPs' and the nurses' perceptions of the CTM's compatibility with norms, values and practices and its relative advantage (impact on patient management and work practices. Opinion leaders played a key role in the diffusion of the CTM among PCPs. Conclusion CTM diffusion is a social phenomenon that requires a major commitment by clinicians and a willingness to take risks; the role of opinion leaders is key. Paying attention to the notion of a critical mass of adopters is essential to developing implementation strategies that will accelerate the adoption process by clinicians.

  16. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-09-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

  17. The timing of the onset of puberty, extension of the breeding season, and length of postpartum anestrus in the female mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Lopez-Sebastian, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Gomez-Brunet, A; Tortonese, D

    2001-06-01

    The timing of the onset of puberty, duration of seasonal ovulatory activity, and length of postpartum anestrus were studied by means of blood plasma progesterone concentrations in a flock of European female mouflons (Ovis gmelini musimon) maintained in captivity under natural photoperiod (40 degrees 25'N). Concentrations of progesterone in the peripheral blood were determined by radioimmunoassay in samples collected from the jugular vein twice a week. First ovulations in the breeding season were highly synchronized and occurred in mid-October. In contrast, the cessation of ovulatory cycles showed significant variation among females and extended from February to May, depending on age, with 2-yr-old animals exhibiting the longest anovulatory period (P mouflon lambs that reached a minimum threshold body weight (23.8 +/- 0.6 kg) in their first breeding season reached puberty at 8 mo of age. In those with slower growth rates, however, the prepubertal period was extended throughout the first breeding and nonbreeding seasons, reaching puberty during the breeding season of the following year at 19 mo of age and 27 +/- 0.3 kg body weight. Further, attainment of puberty in ewe lambs born in June/July was also delayed until the breeding season of the following year, when animals had reached a threshold body weight at 17 mo of age.

  18. Evaluation of Tris-citric acid, skim milk and sodium citrate extenders for liquid storage of Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Bushra A; Hussain, Iftikhar; Akhter, Shamim; Ullah, Nemat; Andrabi, Syed M H; Ansari, Muhammad S

    2013-09-01

    The Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is an endangered subspecie of ovidae, distributed as small scattered populations in the forest belt of the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan and in the areas enclosed by the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the liquid storage of Punjab Urial spermatozoa in different extenders for use in future in situ conservation activities. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from three captive Punjab Urial rams. Suitable ejaculates of individual animals were pooled and divided into three aliquots for dilution with the experimental extenders (Tris-citric acid, skim milk and sodium citrate) at 37°C. Extended semen was cooled from 37°C to 5°C in 2h, and stored for three days at 5°C. Sperm motility (%), viability (%; live/dead), acrosome integrity (%) and plasma membrane integrity (%) were assessed on days 1, 2 and 3 of storage. On day 1, sperm motility, viability as well as acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were similar (p>0.05) in all three experimental extenders. On day 2, sperm motility, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were higher (psodium citrate based extender. On day 3 of storage, the values of motility, viability and acrosome integrity were higher (psodium citrate based extenders. In conclusion, Tris-citric acid extender appears to be a better option compared with skim milk and sodium citrate extenders for liquid storage of Punjab Urial semen.

  19. Molecular identification of cryptic cysticercosis: Taenia ovis krabbei in wild intermediate and domestic definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, N; Chiari, M; Trogu, T; Gaffuri, A; Garbarino, C; Boniotti, M B; Corradini, C; Lanfranchi, P; Ferrari, N

    2017-03-28

    The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Through molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene, cysticerci and the adult tapeworm of T. krabbei were identified. Taenia krabbei cysticercosis was recorded for the first time in Italy. Although the role of dogs in the parasite's life cycle emerges, the overlap between wild and domestic definitive hosts and the increase of wild population densities raise concerns about the temporal (old or new) introduction and the spread of this parasite by one of these canid species (wolf (Canis lupus) or dog). Although T. krabbei is not a public health issue, economic concerns emerged for hunters and meat producers, related to the damage of carcasses by cysticerci. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the spread of T. krabbei in the intermediate and definitive host populations, and to ensure the relevant sanitary education for hunters in order to avoid practices that could favour the spread and maintenance of its life cycle.

  20. A high resolution atlas of gene expression in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Bush, Stephen J; McCulloch, Mary E B; Farquhar, Iseabail L; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Pridans, Clare; Tsang, Hiu; Wu, Chunlei; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Watson, Mick; Whitelaw, C Bruce; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; Archibald, Alan L; Hume, David A

    2017-09-15

    Sheep are a key source of meat, milk and fibre for the global livestock sector, and an important biomedical model. Global analysis of gene expression across multiple tissues has aided genome annotation and supported functional annotation of mammalian genes. We present a large-scale RNA-Seq dataset representing all the major organ systems from adult sheep and from several juvenile, neonatal and prenatal developmental time points. The Ovis aries reference genome (Oar v3.1) includes 27,504 genes (20,921 protein coding), of which 25,350 (19,921 protein coding) had detectable expression in at least one tissue in the sheep gene expression atlas dataset. Network-based cluster analysis of this dataset grouped genes according to their expression pattern. The principle of 'guilt by association' was used to infer the function of uncharacterised genes from their co-expression with genes of known function. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the sheep gene expression atlas and assign those signatures, where possible, to specific cell populations or pathways. The findings are related to innate immunity by focusing on clusters with an immune signature, and to the advantages of cross-breeding by examining the patterns of genes exhibiting the greatest expression differences between purebred and crossbred animals. This high-resolution gene expression atlas for sheep is, to our knowledge, the largest transcriptomic dataset from any livestock species to date. It provides a resource to improve the annotation of the current reference genome for sheep, presenting a model transcriptome for ruminants and insight into gene, cell and tissue function at multiple developmental stages.

  1. An epizootic of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in captive Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, S R; Barker, I K; Mehren, K G; Crawshaw, G J; Rosendal, S; Ruhnke, L; Thorsen, J; Carman, P S

    1988-10-01

    In late spring of 1986, 10 of 23 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the Metropolitan Toronto Zoo were moved to a new exhibit, where all developed severe respiratory signs refractory to anthelmintic and antibiotic therapy. In July, two animals died with chronic active bronch-pneumonia, and a third was euthanized because of pneumonia several months later. Bacteria were not isolated from the lungs of the first, steptococci and Pasteurella hemolytica were isolated from the other two, respectively; Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was isolated from both. Pulmonary lesions in all three sheep were consistent with Mycoplasma sp. infection. Nasal swabs of the remaining animals yielded no consistent bacterial isolates; however, four of eight sheep were positive for M. ovipneumoniae. Viral cultures yielded an as yet unidentified herpesvirus. Sheep in the original and new herds had no serologic titers to parainfluenza-3, equine viral rhinopneumonitis, or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and had variable titers against bovine respiratory syncytial virus. No titers against M. ovipneumoniae were present in 13 sheep still in the original exhibit, but titers varied from 1:32 to 1:256 in eight pneumonic sheep. Sera taken from three sheep before or early in the outbreak were all negative for antibody to M. ovipneumoniae. Two of the affected Dall's sheep had been in contact with domestic sheep in the winter of 1985-1986, and M. ovipneumoniae was subsequently cultured from the domestic flock. Exposure to a new pathogen, and environmental and social stress in a new exhibit may have resulted in this severe disease in Dall's sheep.

  2. Structure and function of the gnathosoma of the mange mite, Psoroptes ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapstone, S C; Beasley, A; Wall, R

    2002-12-01

    Mites of the genus Psoroptes (Acari: Psoroptidae) are obligate, non-burrowing, astigmatid ectoparasites of mammals. A detailed understanding of the morphology of the gnathosoma is an important step towards elucidation of the feeding behaviour of this mite and, hence, the pathology of psoroptic mange. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (syn. P. cuniculi). The gnathosoma is composed of an infracapitulum (hypostome), which forms the floor of an extended U-shaped pre-oral trough, bounded by laterally compressed palps and enclosing paired chelicerae. Distally, each palp terminates in a flap-like process and four tapered terminal sensillae. The floor of the infracapitulum is interrupted along its length by a dorsally projecting ridge. At the distal end of the infracapitulum are paired, grooved pseudorutellae and, between them, paired, ungrooved lateral lips. Between the lateral lips is a grooved, elongate labium. Medially, a pair of finger-like projections emanates from the paraxial walls of the palps and project anteriorly. Each chelicera is made up of fixed and mobile digits, with a cheliceral membranous fold articulating the two. The distal ends of both digits are chelated. For much of its length, the mobile cheliceral digit appears to lie within a fold formed by the infracapitular ridge, thereby creating a central channel between the chelicerae. It is suggested that this arrangement of elements may facilitate a two-way flow of liquid, where saliva flows down a central salivary canal and spills out onto the host's skin over the labium at the point where the chelated tips of the chelicerae meet and abrade the skin. Liquid food may move along the grooves of the pseudorutellae and then be sucked up a food canal formed by the paraxial walls of the palps and the outer wall of the chelicerae.

  3. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis on a desert island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T Wilder

    Full Text Available Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  4. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T; Betancourt, Julio L; Epps, Clinton W; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Mead, Jim I; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  5. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  6. Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E J; Veitch, A M; Kutz, S J; Bollinger, T K; Chirino-Trejo, J M; Elkin, B T; West, K H; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

    2007-04-01

    We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall's sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall's sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone's sheep and one naturally infected Dall's sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall's sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated.

  7. Argali sheep Ovis ammon trophy hunting in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgalanbaatar, S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Argali sheep Ovis ammon in Mongolia are highly sought by foreign hunters because of their impressive size and long, spiraling horns. To be sustainable, hunting programs must be well managed and have the support of local communities. Argali numbers in Mongolia seems to be declining rapidly due primarily to poaching and competition with domestic livestock, which have increased over the past decade. Laws, regulations, and revenue disbursement associated with argali trophy hunting in Mongolia are described. Argali trophy hunting is lucrative and the number of argali licenses and hunting organizations has been increasing over the past decade. Controversy surrounds the program. This controversy has been manifested in growing local opposition and accusations of corruption by the media. To help address this controversy, we suggest a reform of argali trophy hunting management in Mongolia that will better conserve the argali, as well as enjoy enduring public support. A reformed trophy hunting program should be characterized by 1 openness and transparency, 2 external review and oversight, 3 a mix of top-down and bottom-up authority that enjoys local support, and 4 active and adaptive argali conservation and management using funds generated by trophy hunters.

    [fr]
    L’argali Ovis ammon de Mongolie est un trophée très apprécié par les chasseurs étrangers du fait de ses grandes cornes spiralées. La gestion de la chasse, si on la veut soutenable, doit être bien planifiée et doit faire participer les populations locales. Le nombre d'argalis en Mongolie a beaucoup baissé ces dernières années surtout du fait du braconnage et de la compétition avec les animaux domestiques, ces derniers ayant augmenté au cours de la dernière décade. Nous étudions les lois, les réglementations et les revenus associés à la chasse en Mongolie. Cette chasse au trophée se montre lucrative et le nombre de licences et d'associations de

  8. Health care provider and consumer understandings of cultural safety and cultural competency in health care: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in Australia that racial and ethnic minority groups experience significant disparities in health and health care compared with the average population and that the Australian health care system needs to be more responsive to the health and care needs of these groups. The paper presents the findings of a year long study that explored what providers and recipients of health care know and understand about the nature and implications of providing culturally safe and competent health care to minority racial and ethnic groups in Victoria, Australia. Analysis of the data obtained from interviewing 145 participants recruited from over 17 different organizational sites revealed a paucity of knowledge and understanding of this issue and the need for a new approach to redress the status quo.

  9. Nursing Care Hour Standards Study. Part 2 thru Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    mother and fetus, provide assistance to physician and patient during the delivery room process. Establish the airway, determine apgar score , obtain...Rater Two . 10 7. Descriptive Data of Patient Care Indicator Scores for Rater One vs Rater Two by Sex ..... ... .. ........................ 10 8...Rater Two for Category of Care ....... 12 10. Critical Care Patient Classification Instrument Total Patient Care Indicator Score (PCIS) by Category of

  10. A person-centred segmentation study in elderly care : Towards efficient demand-driven care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissens-van der Laan, Monique; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; Broekhuis, Manda; Slaets, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Providing patients with more person-centred care without increasing costs is a key challenge in healthcare. A relevant but often ignored hindrance to delivering person-centred care is that the current segmentation of the population and the associated organization of healthcare supply are based on di

  11. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.C.; Oud, M.; Lange, J.; Wensing, M.J.; Grol, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in

  12. Alarming signs of serious infections in febrile children: Studies in primary care and hospital emergency care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Ierland (Yvette)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children constitute a substantial part of the workload of physicians in primary care and hospital emergency care. In the Netherlands, about 70% of the 3.9 million inhabitants less than 20 years of age had one or more contacts with their general practitioner (GP) in 2011

  13. The Cleft Care UK study. Part 4: perceptual speech outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, D; Mildinhall, S; Albery, L; Wills, A K; Sandy, J R; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To describe the perceptual speech outcomes from the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study and compare them to the 1998 Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) audit. Setting and sample population A cross-sectional study of 248 children born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 who underwent speech assessment. Materials and methods Centre-based specialist speech and language therapists (SLT) took speech audio–video recordings according to nationally agreed guidelines. Two independent listeners undertook the perceptual analysis using the CAPS-A Audit tool. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were tested. Results For each speech parameter of intelligibility/distinctiveness, hypernasality, palatal/palatalization, backed to velar/uvular, glottal, weak and nasalized consonants, and nasal realizations, there was strong evidence that speech outcomes were better in the CCUK children compared to CSAG children. The parameters which did not show improvement were nasal emission, nasal turbulence, hyponasality and lateral/lateralization. Conclusion These results suggest that centralization of cleft care into high volume centres has resulted in improvements in UK speech outcomes in five-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate. This may be associated with the development of a specialized workforce. Nevertheless, there still remains a group of children with significant difficulties at school entry. PMID:26567854

  14. The factors influencing burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses: a study of Saudi critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Jalal; Wilson, Rhonda; Woods, Cindy; Usher, Kim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of burnout and job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses. Burnout is caused by a number of factors, including personal, organisational and professional issues. Previous literature reports a strong relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses. Little is known about this phenomenon among Saudi national critical care nurses. A convenience sample of 150 Saudi national critical care nurses from three hospitals in Hail, Saudi Arabia were included in a cross-sectional survey. Saudi national critical care registered nurses reported moderate to high levels of burnout in the areas of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Participants also reported a feeling of ambivalence and dissatisfaction with their jobs but were satisfied with the nature of their work. Saudi national critical care nurses experience moderate to high levels of burnout and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout is a predictor of job satisfaction for Saudi national critical care nurses. These results provide clear evidence of the need for nurse managers and policy makers to devise strategies to help nurses better cope with a stressful work environment, thereby also improving job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Children in Self-Care: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Martha

    Before- and after-school care arrangements for third- and fifth-grade students were investigated, with specific attention given to the extent of self-care arrangements, satisfaction levels of parents and children using self-care, and variables contributing to satisfaction. The sample included 675 students attending Newington Elementary School in…

  16. Hope in palliative care: A longitudinal qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsman, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes hope in palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare professionals. An interpretative synthesis of the literature (chapter 2) and a metaphor analysis of semi-structured interviews with palliative care professionals (chapter 3) highlight palliative care pr

  17. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in pr...

  18. Characteristics of evolving models of care for arthritis: A key informant study

    OpenAIRE

    Veinot Paula; MacKay Crystal; Badley Elizabeth M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of arthritis is increasing in the face of diminishing health human resources to deliver care. In response, innovative models of care delivery are developing to facilitate access to quality care. Most models have developed in response to local needs with limited evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to a) examine the range of models of care that deliver specialist services using a medical/surgical specialist and at least one other health care provide...

  19. Primary care nursing role and care coordination: an observational study of nursing work in a community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daren R; St Hilaire, Daniel; Flinter, Margaret

    2012-05-31

    Care coordination is a core element of the Patient-Centered Medical Home and requires an effective, well educated nursing staff. A greater understanding of roles and tasks currently being carried out by nurses in primary care is needed to help practices determine how best to implement care coordination and transform into PCMHs. We conducted an observational study of primary care nursing in a Community Health Center by creating a classification schema for nursing responsibilities, directly observing and tracking nurses' work, and categorizing their activities. Ten nurses in eight different practice sites were observed for a total of 61 hours. The vast majority of nursing time was spent in vaccine and medication administration; telephone work; and charting and paper work, while only 15% of their time was spent in activity that was classified broadly as care coordination. Care coordination work appeared to be subsumed by other daily tasks, many of which could have been accomplished by other, lesser trained members of the health care team. Practices looking to implement care coordination need a detailed look at work flow, task assignments, and a critical assessment of staffing, adhering to the principal of each team member working to the highest level of his or her education and license. Care coordination represents a distinct responsibility that requires dedicated nursing time, separate from the day to day tasks in a busy practice. To fully support these new functions, reimbursement models are needed that support such non visit-based work and provide incentives to coordinate and manage complex cases, achieve improved clinical outcomes and enhance efficiency of the health system. This article describes our study methods, data collection, and analysis, results, and discussion about reorganizing nursing roles to promote care coordination.

  20. Industry-sponsored economic studies in critical and intensive care versus studies sponsored by nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael; Knoth, Holger; Schulz, Diane; Knoth, Sven; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis of health economic studies in the field of intensive and critical care was to investigate whether any relationship could be established between type of sponsorship and (1) type of economic analysis, (2) health technology assessed, (3) sensitivity analysis performed, (4) publication status, and (5) qualitative cost assessment. Using the terms critical care or intensive care, all health economics publications in the field of critical and intensive care were identified in the Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, Version 1995-2001) on the basis of sponsorship and comparative studies. This search yielded a total of 42 eligible articles. Their evaluations were prepared independently by 2 investigators on the basis of specific criteria. When evaluators disagreed, a third investigator provided a deciding evaluation. There was no statistically demonstrable relationship between types of sponsorship and sensitivity analysis performed, publication status, types of economic analysis, or qualitative cost assessment.

  1. Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Handover (or 'handoff' is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations; SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan; and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec. The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9% of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0 times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45

  2. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  3. [Study of primary care health needs through family health diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Arreola, Laura Pilar; Vladislavovna Doubova, Svetlana; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Villa-Barragán, Juan Pablo; Constantino-Casas, Patricia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2006-10-31

    To assess the health needs of the eligible public population of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Observational, descriptive, transversal study. Family Medicine Unit number 8 of the IMSS, in the city of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A sample of 1200 families using multi-stage sampling, between October 1999 and March 2000. The designed and validated questionnaire on "Family health diagnosis" was used. A 19.2% of the families had a very low socio-economic level, and 14.9% of subjects were not entitled to Social Security. Functional illiteracy in at least one member was found in 12.6% of the families. According to the family Apgar, 93% of families were functional and two-thirds of the families were classified as nuclear. About 51.1% and 36.9% of women used programs for detection of cervical/uterine and breast cancer, respectively. Only 25% of the adult population underwent the detection tests for diabetes mellitus and hypertension and 10.9% had a chronic disease. 56.4% of families considered the quality of health care good, and only 18.13% were satisfied with the care received. Identification of health needs through diagnosis of family health is useful as a basis for establishing a hierarchy of problems as well as for developing health programs that may facilitate greater equity in attention.

  4. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Maghsoudloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family’s health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors.

  5. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician's care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  6. Describing clinical faculty experiences with patient safety and quality care in acute care settings: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Linda; Sumpio, Catherine; Beauvais, Audrey M; O'Shea, Eileen R

    2017-02-01

    A major safety initiative in acute care settings across the United States has been to transform hospitals into High Reliability Organizations. The initiative requires developing cognitive awareness, best practices, and infrastructure so that all healthcare providers including clinical faculty are accountable to deliver quality and safe care. To describe the experience of baccalaureate clinical nursing faculty concerning safety and near miss events, in acute care hospital settings. A mixed method approach was used to conduct the pilot study. Nurse faculty (n=18) completed study surveys from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to track patient safety concerns: Incidents; Near misses; or Unsafe conditions, during one academic semester, within 9 different acute care hospitals. Additionally, seven nurse faculty participated in end of the semester focus groups to discuss the semester long experience. Clinical faculty identified a total of 24 patient occurrences: 15 Incidents, 1 Near miss event, and 8 Unsafe conditions. Focus group participants (n=7) described benefits and challenges experienced by nursing clinical faculty and students in relation to the culture of safety in acute care hospital settings. Six themes resulted from the content analysis. Utilizing nursing clinical faculty and students may add significant value to promoting patient safety and the delivery of quality care, within acute care hospital settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  8. Patient perspectives on discharge from specialist type 2 diabetes care back to primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Heidi; Rowan, Margo S; Liddy, Clare; Maranger, Julie; Ooi, Teik Chye; Malcolm, Janine; Keely, Erin

    2014-06-01

    Timely access to specialist care remains a barrier for both patients with type 2 diabetes and their primary care physicians. To improve access to specialists for new patients, an efficient and appropriate discharge process is required. Consideration of patient perspectives is central to developing a smooth care transition, and currently, research in this area is limited. The aim of this study was to explore patients' expectations and experiences surrounding discharge from a specialized diabetes centre back to primary care. A qualitative approach was used involving data from one-to-one semistructured interviews. Participants were 12 patients with type 2 diabetes who had been discharged from the Tertiary Care Diabetes Referral Centre in Ottawa, Canada. Participants were uncertain in their initial expectations of specialist care duration. Patients expressed that an explicit discussion of the discharge process had not occurred, and many were unclear about the reason for discharge and plans for appropriate primary care physician follow up. Patients' psychological preparedness for discharge existed on a spectrum from low to high readiness. Many articulated a desire for improved communication surrounding the discharge plan, and some wished to have input into the discharge decision. Although most described their primary care physician positively, some expressed concern over cessation of specialist care. It is important to prepare patients for discharge from care, and to recognize that individual patients have varying needs and preferences. Further research is warranted to develop effective interventions for improving the discharge process for patients. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family satisfaction with patient care in critical care units in Pakistan: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtisham, Younas; Subia, Parveen; Gideon, Victor

    2016-11-23

    To assess family satisfaction with care provided to patients in critical care units in Islamabad. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 medical and surgical critical care units at two private hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The purposive sample consisted of 323 immediate family members and other relatives and friends (referred to as family members in this article) of 323 patients admitted to the critical care units for at least 24 hours. The revised Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. A total of 149/323 (46%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 137/323 (42%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A total of 143/323 (44%) family members were 'satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 131/323 (41%) were 'satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A few family members (21/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours and a few (20/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. Some family members (38/323, 12%) were 'not satisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours, and some (18/323, 6%) were 'not satisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. The majority of family members (244/323, 75%) were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' that their relatives' needs were being met in the critical care units. However, qualitative data indicate that most family members wanted greater involvement in decision making. These findings should be considered by staff working in critical care settings to ensure high-quality patient care.

  10. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter; Conrad, Douglas A; Hernandez, Susan E; Watts, Carolyn; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2012-12-14

    Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations - from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets and addressing conditions for innovation.

  11. Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounsey Kate E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7 Mb and 86 (± 2 Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion.

  12. Evaluation of Brucella melitensis B115 as rough-phenotype vaccine against B. melitensis and B. ovis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, R; Francia, M; Ciuchini, F

    2008-09-08

    Brucella melitensis strain Rev1 is used as vaccine for the prophylaxis of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Because of its smooth phenotype, however, it induces antibodies directed to the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), thus unabling to distinguish between vaccinated and infected animals. It has been speculated that alternative vaccines could be live, attenuated Brucella rough strains, which are devoid of the O-PS. B. melitensis B115 is a natural, attenuated, rough strain. The O-PS is not exposed at the surface but is present in the cytoplasm. We tested the protective activity of B115 against B. melitensis and B. ovis infections in mice, in comparison with that of Rev1. The residual virulence and the humoral response following B115 vaccination were also evaluated. Vaccination with B115 conferred significant protective immunity against B. melitensis 16M and B. ovis challenge strains, equivalent to that provided by Rev1. No interfering antibodies to O-PS were detected, while the B115 vaccination was monitored by a specific B115-based complement fixation test. These promising features suggest further evaluation of B. melitensis B115 as vaccine for target animal hosts.

  13. Human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis:a case report from Karachi,Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naima; Fasih; Kanza; Noor; Qaiser; Syeda; Aisha; Bokhari; Bushra; Jamil; Mohammad; Asim; Beg

    2014-01-01

    Ocular myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae infestation is an eye infection in humans.A case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young male from Karachi,Pakistan in winter(December 2012),without history of close proximity to domestic animals or visit to any rural area was reported.The condition is self-limiting and the disease is confined to the conjunctiva.The eye was locally anesthetized and washed with 5%povidine iodine solution.A total number of 27 first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed with fine forceps.The patient received 0.5%moxifloxacin and diclofenac eye drops for one week.His eye was examined after one day,one week and one month and the recovery status was favorable.The present case raise the awareness among ophthalmologists regarding larval conjunctivitis as one of the causes of conjunctivitis and it can occur throughout the year in any season including winter.Moreover,it can occurr in any area either rural or urban with or without close proximity to domestic animals especially in subtropical regions with high parasitic burden.

  14. Primary care COPD patients compared with large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies: an UNLOCK validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarije L Kruis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS. There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. METHODS: Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n=3508 from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD-2.4; p=0.03, predominantly male (MD 12.4; p=0.1 with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; p<0.01 and worse quality of life scores (SGRQ MD 15.8; p=0.01. There were large differences in GOLD stage distribution compared to primary care patients. Mean exacerbation rates were higher in LPCS, with an overrepresentation of patients with ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 exacerbations, although results were not statistically significant. Our findings add to the literature, as we revealed hitherto unknown GOLD I exacerbation characteristics, showing 34% of mild patients had ≥ 1 exacerbations per year and 12% had ≥ 2 exacerbations per year. The proportion of primary care patients eligible for inclusion in LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT. CONCLUSION: Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care

  15. Students' understanding of "Women-Centred Care Philosophy" in midwifery care through Continuity of Care (CoC) learning model: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, Yanti; Claramita, Mora; Emilia, Ova; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The philosophy of midwifery education is based on the 'Women-centred care' model, which provides holistic care to women. Continuity of care (CoC) is integral to the concept of holistic women-centred care and fundamental to midwifery practice. The objective of this study was to determine any differences in students' understanding of midwifery care philosophy between students who underwent the CoC learning model and those who underwent the fragmented care learning model. We used a quasi-experiment design. This study was conducted by all final year midwifery students at two schools of midwifery in Indonesia. Fifty four students from one school attended 6 months of clinical training using the CoC learning model. The control group was comprised of 52 students from the other school. These students used the conventional clinical training model (the fragmented care learning model). The independent T-test using SPSS was used to analyse the differences between the two groups of students in terms of understanding midwifey care philosophy in five aspects (personalized, holistic, partnership, collaborative, and evidence-based care). There were no significant differences between the groups before interventon. There were significant differences between the two groups after clinical training (p students using all five aspects of the CoC clinical learning model (15.96) was higher than that of the students in the control group (10.65). The CoC clinical learning model was shown to be a unique learning opportunity for students to understand the philosophy of midwifery. Being aligned with midwifery patients and developing effective relationships with them offered the students a unique view of midwifery practice. This also promoted an increased understanding of the philosophy of women-centred care. Zero maternal mortality rate was found in the experiment group. The results of this study suggest that clinical trainingwith a CoC learning model is more likely to increase students

  16. Pathways to Care of Alcohol -Dependent Patients: An Exploratory Study From a Tertiary Care Substance Use Disorder Treatment Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Singh Balhara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background No study from India has examined pathways to care in alcohol using population systematically. Objectives The present study aimed to understand the pathways to care among alcohol-dependent individuals seeking help at a tertiary care center. Patients and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with alcohol- dependence syndrome as per DSM-IV-TR were included in the study. Pathways to care were assessed using the world health organization encounter form. Results For 56.9% of the subjects, first point of contact was with a tertiary care addiction psychiatrist. Traditional healers were consulted by about 5.2% of the patients seeking help for the first time. The mean duration of main problems due to alcohol use was 5.82 ± 4.95 years. The first contact tended to be at place nearer to the patient’s residence while further contacts tended to be farther away. Family, friends and neighbours together constituted the single largest group suggesting patients to seek care. Conclusions There is a long time lag between the onset of alcohol use related problems and the first help seeking attempt. Of those who do decide to seek help, the proportion of those obtaining specialist help is higher than commonly believed.

  17. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.

  18. A comparison of two agar gel immunodiffusion methods and a complement fixation test for serologic diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in experimentally infected rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de epididimite e infertilidade em carneiros, resultando em falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas significativas em rebanhos ovinos ao redor do mundo. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar três testes sorológicos disponíveis para o diagnóstico da brucelose ovina por B. ovis, utilizando 181 soros ovinos. Amostras de soro provenientes de carneiros experimentalmente infectados foram coletadas ao longo de 192 dias pós-infecção (n=117 e durante o período pré-infecção (n=9. Adicionalmente, amostras de soro foram obtidas de ovinos provenientes de um rebanho livre para B. ovis (n=55. As técnicas de imunodifusão em gel de agar (IDGA, utilizando dois antígenos disponíveis comercialmente, e de fixação de complemento foram comparadas (FC. Foram obtidos resultados de sensibilidade especificidade semelhantes para ambos os métodos de IDGA e ainda, a técnica de IDGA foi mais eficiente do que a da FC para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por B. ovis.

  19. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae.

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of ovine epididymitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of ovine epididymitis...

  1. Identifying Markers of Dignity-Conserving Care in Long-Term Care: A Modified Delphi Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve N Thompson

    Full Text Available Ensuring that people living in nursing homes (NHs are afforded with dignity in their daily lives is an essential and humane concern. Promoting dignity-conserving care is fundamentally important. By nature, however, this care is all-encompassing and holistic, and from current knowledge it is challenging to create explicit strategies for measuring dignity-conserving care. In practice the majority of current NH indicators of quality care are derived from information that is routinely collected on NH residents using the RAI-Minimum Data Set (MDS. In this regard, issues that are more tangible to resident dignity such as being treated with respect, compassion, and having opportunities to engage with others are not adequately captured in current NH quality of care indicators. An initial set of markers was created by conducting an integrative literature review of existing markers and indicators of dignity in the NH setting. A modified Delphi process was used to prioritize essential dignity-conserving care markers for use by NH providers, based on factors such as the importance to fostering a culture of dignity, the impact it may have on the residents, and how achievable it is in practice. Through this consensus building technique, we were able to develop a comprehensive set of markers that capture the range and diversity of important dignity-conserving care strategies for use in NHs. The final 10 markers were judged as having high face validity by experts in the field and have explicit implications for enhancing the provision of daily dignified care to NH residents. These markers make an important addition to the traditional quality indicators used in the NH setting and as such, bridge an important gap in addressing the psychosocial and the less easily quantified needs of NH residents.

  2. Experiences of patients and caregivers with early palliative care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Breffni; Swami, Nadia; Rodin, Gary; Pope, Ashley; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Early palliative care improves quality of life and satisfaction with care and is increasingly endorsed for patients with advanced cancer. However, little is known about the experience of receiving early palliative care from a patient and caregiver perspective. The aim of this qualitative study was to determine, from a participant perspective, the experience of receiving early palliative care and elements of that care. Qualitative grounded theory study using individual interviews. The study took place at a comprehensive cancer centre. Patients ( n = 26) and caregivers ( n = 14) from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of early palliative care versus standard oncology care participated in qualitative interviews. Participants were asked to comment on their quality of life, the quality of care provided over the intervention period and their experiences with the palliative care team. Participants described feeling supported and guided in their illness experience and in their navigation of the healthcare system. Specific elements of early palliative care included prompt, personalised symptom management; holistic support for patients and caregivers; guidance in decision-making; and preparation for the future. Patients with symptoms particularly valued prompt attention to their physical concerns, while those without symptoms valued other elements of care. Although three patients were ambivalent about their current need for palliative care, no distress was reported as a consequence of the intervention. The elements of care described by participants may be used to develop, support and refine models of early palliative care for patients with cancer.

  3. A prospective study of fever in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circiumaru, B; Baldock, G; Cohen, J

    1999-07-01

    To determine the epidemiology of fever on the intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective, observational study. Nine-bed general ICU in a 500-bed tertiary care inner city institution. 100 consecutive admissions of 93 patients over a 4-month period between July and October 1996. All patients were seen and examined by one investigator within 24 h of ICU admission. Patients were followed up on a daily basis throughout their ICU stay, and all clinical and laboratory data were recorded during the admission. Fever (core temperature > or = 38.4 degrees C) was present in 70% of admissions, and it was caused by infective and non-infective processes in approximately equal number. Most fevers occurred early in the course of the admission, within the first 1-2 days, and most lasted less than 5 days. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 15 (+/- 0.6). The 70 episodes associated with fever at any time were associated with a significantly higher APACHE II score on admission than the afebrile episodes (15.8 +/- 6.1 vs 12.1 +/- 6.7, p = 0.04). The most common cause of non-infective fever was in the group designated post-operative fever (n = 34). All the patients in the post-operative fever group were febrile on day 0 or day 1; their mean admission APACHE score was 12.4 (+/- 4.4) compared to 15.9 (+/- 7.1) for the remaining patients (p = 0.01). Fever alone was not associated with a higher mortality: 26/70 (37%) of febrile patients died, compared to 8/30 (27%) of afebrile patients, (chi 2 = 1.23, p = 0.38). Prolonged fever (> 5 days) occurred in 16 patients. In 13 cases, fever was due to infection, and in the remaining 3 both infective and non-infective processes occurred concurrently. The mortality in the group with prolonged fever was 62.5% (10/16) compared to 29.6% (16/54) in patients with fever of less than 5 days' duration, a highly significant difference (p Fever is a common event on the intensive care unit. It usually occurs early in the

  4. Posttraumatic stress in intensive care unit survivors - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Mette; Brink, Ole; Knudsen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to identify factors associated with PTSD in survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment following traumatic injury. Methods: Fifty-two patients who were admitted to an ICU through...... the emergency ward following traumatic injury were prospectively followed. Information on injury severity and ICU treatment were obtained through medical records. Demographic information and measures of acute stress symptoms, experienced social support, coping style, sense of coherence (SOC) and locus...... of control were assessed within one-month post-accident (T1). At the six months follow-up (T2), PTSD was assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Results: In the six months follow-up, 10 respondents (19.2%) had HTQ total scores reaching a level suggestive of PTSD (N = 52), and 11 respondents (21...

  5. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. de; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary c

  6. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, W.L.; Boerma, W.G.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. De; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects

  7. Eficácia acaricida de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados Miticidal efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% neem (Azadirachtaindica oil for control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio I. Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica, no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de seis animais cada. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento, enquanto que o grupo tratado recebeu a formulação em teste, contendo 10% de Nim, borrifando ambos os condutos auditivos, uma vez ao dia, por sete dias consecutivos. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente para observação de possíveis efeitos adversos do produto. Nos dias +3, +7, +14,+21, +28 e +35 foi coletado material de todos os animais para avaliação da presença de ácaros vivos. Os coelhos do grupo controle apresentavam ácaros em ambos os condutos auditivos em todos os dias de observação. O grupo tratado apresentou eficácia de 41,7% no dia +3 e 100% a partir do dia +7 até o dia +35. O produto demonstrou ser eficaz no tratamento da sarna psoróptica em coelhos. Entretanto, todos os animais tratados apresentaram reações dermatológicas, tais como alopecia e hiperemia no local de aplicação do produto, variando de baixa a média severidade.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% of neem (Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits. Twelve rabbits were randomly divided in two groups of six animals. The control group remained without treatment; while animals in the other group were treated with the 10% neem extract formulation by spraying both ears daily for seven consecutive days. The animals were evaluated daily for the presence of adverse effects. Material from ears all animals was collected on days +3, +7, +14, +21, +28 and +35, and evaluated for the presence of living mites. Animals from control group presented mites in both ears along all days of observation. The treated group presented an efficacy of 41.7% on day +3

  8. What Makes for Good Collaboration and Communication in Maternity Care? A Scoping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helmond, L.; Korstjens, I.; Mesman, J.; Nieuwenhuijze, M.; Horstman, K.; Scheepers, H.; Spaanderman, M.; Keulen, J.; de Vries, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good communication and collaboration are critical to safe care for mothers and babies. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with good collaboration and communication among maternity care professionals and between both professionals and parents. METHOD: Scoping study. We searched Pub

  9. Correlation study of knowledge and behavior regarding breast care among female undergraduate students in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Meng-Xue; Li, Jian; Geng, Yun-Long; Wang, Yan-Chun; Li, Jie; Chen, Yu-Juan; Ali, Gholam; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wen, Yu-Feng; Sun, Wen-Jie

    This study aimed to understand the relationship between knowledge level and behavior on breast care in Chinese students, so as to provide strategies for improving the health education of breast care...

  10. SINONASAL MASSES: A CLINICO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the demography of sinonasal masses, clinical presentation, histopathological pattern and to correlate clinical findings with histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study entitled "Clinico pathological study of sinonasal masses" was carried out in 100 patients who attended the ENT OPD and inpatients in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior (M.P. and associated with J.A. Group of Hospitals, Gwalior (M.P. during the period of July 2011 to June 2013 who were diagnosed as cases of sinonasal masses on the basis of clinical and histopathological examination. RESULTS: 32% patients were in age group 15-24 years, 64% were males. Most significant complaints were nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea. Among 100 patients, nasal polyps were diagnosed in 83 patients, angiofibroma in 7 patients, septal angioma in 2 patients, rhinosporidiosis in 2 patients and one case each of capillary haemangioma, squamous cell carcinoma, angiosarcoma, transitional cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma was present. CONCLUSION: In the present study of masses in sinonasal cavity, most of the patients presented with trivial nasal symptoms, and there is always a possibility to miss the diagnosis if great care is not taken while examining the patient. The findings must be interpreted in light of great clinical suspicion, and complete ENT examination including radiologic and endoscopic studies.

  11. Team Interactions in Specialized Palliative Care Teams: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klarare, Anna; Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Fürst, Carl Johan; Fossum, Bjoorn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teamwork is a standard of care in palliative care and that is emphasized by leading organizations. When interdisciplinary teams communicate their varied assessments, outcomes may be more than additive due to the synthesis of information. Interprofessionality does not guarantee multidimensionality in health care interventions, however, and that interprofessional teams promote collaboration may be questioned. Aim: The aim was to explore team interaction among team members in special...

  12. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wy; Hung, Maria Sy; Woo, Kevin

    2016-11-25

    A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning), changing (action), and refreezing (results) were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff's practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the revised risk assessment method, the timely and appropriate

  13. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  14. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units : Part I-European Intensive Care Admission Triage Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, Charles L.; Baras, Mario; Iapichino, Gaetano; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Lippert, Anne; Hargreaves, Chris; Pezzi, Angelo; Pirracchio, Romain; Edbrooke, David L.; Pesenti, Antonio; Bakker, Jan; Gurman, Gabriel; Cohen, Simon L.; Wiis, Joergen; Payen, Didier; Artigas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Scoring systems have been developed for prognosticating intensive care unit mortality but none for intensive care unit triage. The objective of this study was to develop an intensive care unit triage decisio

  15. Hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care, with and without an intermediate care hospital – a qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unni Alice Dahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intermediate care is an organisational approach to improve the coordination of health care services between health care levels. In Central Norway an intermediate care hospital was established in a municipality to improve discharge from a general hospital to primary health care. The aim of this study was to investigate how health professionals experienced hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care with and without an intermediate care hospital. Methods: A qualitative study with data collected through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews.Results: Discharge via the intermediate care hospital was contrasted favourably compared to discharge directly from hospital to primary health care. Although increased capacity to receive patients from hospital and prepare them for discharge to primary health care was viewed as a benefit, professionals still requested better communication with the preceding care level concerning further treatment and care for the elderly patients.Conclusions: The intermediate care hospital reduced the coordination challenges during discharge of elderly patients from hospital to primary health care. Nevertheless, the intermediate care was experienced more like an extension of hospital than an included part of primary health care and did not meet the need for communication across care levels.

  16. Hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care, with and without an intermediate care hospital – a qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unni Alice Dahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intermediate care is an organisational approach to improve the coordination of health care services between health care levels. In Central Norway an intermediate care hospital was established in a municipality to improve discharge from a general hospital to primary health care. The aim of this study was to investigate how health professionals experienced hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care with and without an intermediate care hospital.  Methods: A qualitative study with data collected through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews. Results: Discharge via the intermediate care hospital was contrasted favourably compared to discharge directly from hospital to primary health care. Although increased capacity to receive patients from hospital and prepare them for discharge to primary health care was viewed as a benefit, professionals still requested better communication with the preceding care level concerning further treatment and care for the elderly patients. Conclusions: The intermediate care hospital reduced the coordination challenges during discharge of elderly patients from hospital to primary health care. Nevertheless, the intermediate care was experienced more like an extension of hospital than an included part of primary health care and did not meet the need for communication across care levels.

  17. Using visuo-kinetic virtual reality to induce illusory spinal movement: the MoOVi Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Harvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Illusions that alter perception of the body provide novel opportunities to target brain-based contributions to problems such as persistent pain. One example of this, mirror therapy, uses vision to augment perceived movement of a painful limb to treat pain. Since mirrors can’t be used to induce augmented neck or other spinal movement, we aimed to test whether such an illusion could be achieved using virtual reality, in advance of testing its potential therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that perceived head rotation would depend on visually suggested movement. Method In a within-subjects repeated measures experiment, 24 healthy volunteers performed neck movements to 50o of rotation, while a virtual reality system delivered corresponding visual feedback that was offset by a factor of 50%–200%—the Motor Offset Visual Illusion (MoOVi—thus simulating more or less movement than that actually occurring. At 50o of real-world head rotation, participants pointed in the direction that they perceived they were facing. The discrepancy between actual and perceived direction was measured and compared between conditions. The impact of including multisensory (auditory and visual feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, and the use of 360o immersive virtual reality with and without three-dimensional properties, was also investigated. Results Perception of head movement was dependent on visual-kinaesthetic feedback (p = 0.001, partial eta squared = 0.17. That is, altered visual feedback caused a kinaesthetic drift in the direction of the visually suggested movement. The magnitude of the drift was not moderated by secondary variables such as the addition of illusory auditory feedback, the presence of a virtual body reference, or three-dimensionality of the scene. Discussion Virtual reality can be used to augment perceived movement and body position, such that one can perform a small movement, yet perceive a large one. The MoOVi

  18. Disease and predation: sorting out causes of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Smith

    Full Text Available Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010-2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70 died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36% was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2-8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AIC c (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size value, indicating that age (3-stage age-interval: 1 week, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks best explained survival. Weekly survival estimates for 1 week, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.70-0.88, 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90, and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91-0.96, respectively. Overall probability of surviving 52 weeks was 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01-0.07. Of 70 documented mortalities, 21% occurred during the first week, 55% during weeks 2-8, and 23% occurred >8 weeks of age. We found pneumonia and predation were temporally heterogeneous with lambs most susceptible to predation during the first 2-3 weeks of life, while the greatest risk from pneumonia occurred from weeks 4-8. Our results indicated pneumonia was the major factor limiting recruitment followed by predation. Mortality from predation may have been partly compensatory to pneumonia and its effects were less pronounced as alternative prey became available. Given the high rates of pneumonia-caused mortality we observed, and the apparent lack of pneumonia-causing pathogens in bighorn populations in the western Black Hills, management activities should be geared towards eliminating contact between diseased and healthy populations.

  19. Disease and predation: sorting out causes of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010-2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70) died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36%) was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%). We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2-8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AIC c (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) value, indicating that age (3-stage age-interval: 1 week, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Weekly survival estimates for 1 week, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.70-0.88), 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90), and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91-0.96), respectively. Overall probability of surviving 52 weeks was 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01-0.07). Of 70 documented mortalities, 21% occurred during the first week, 55% during weeks 2-8, and 23% occurred >8 weeks of age. We found pneumonia and predation were temporally heterogeneous with lambs most susceptible to predation during the first 2-3 weeks of life, while the greatest risk from pneumonia occurred from weeks 4-8. Our results indicated pneumonia was the major factor limiting recruitment followed by predation. Mortality from predation may have been partly compensatory to pneumonia and its effects were less pronounced as alternative prey became available. Given the high rates of pneumonia-caused mortality we observed, and the apparent lack of pneumonia-causing pathogens in bighorn populations in the western Black Hills, management activities should be geared towards eliminating contact between diseased and healthy populations.

  20. Nurse Practitioner Mental Health Care in the Primary Context: A Californian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theane Theophilos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In America, mental health needs surpass the availability of specialized providers. This vulnerable population also has other obstacles for comprehensive care including gaps in medical coverage, stigma, economic barriers, and a geographical mal‑distribution of qualified mental health professionals. A wide availability of primary care providers, including primary care and family nurse practitioners, are well-positioned to deliver integrated mental and physical health care. A case study from a Southern California Coachella Valley primary care clinic with integrated services is used to demonstrate the much-needed approach of care to address health disparities that face low‑income immigrants, migrant workers, and others without access to specialized care centers and providers. It is argued that mental health care should be part of all holistic treatment provided by primary care and family nurse practitioners. This has implications for curricula and practice development.

  1. Nurse Practitioner Mental Health Care in the Primary Context: A Californian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilos, Theane; Green, Roger; Cashin, Andrew

    2015-03-18

    In America, mental health needs surpass the availability of specialized providers. This vulnerable population also has other obstacles for comprehensive care including gaps in medical coverage, stigma, economic barriers, and a geographical mal‑distribution of qualified mental health professionals. A wide availability of primary care providers, including primary care and family nurse practitioners, are well-positioned to deliver integrated mental and physical health care. A case study from a Southern California Coachella Valley primary care clinic with integrated services is used to demonstrate the much-needed approach of care to address health disparities that face low‑income immigrants, migrant workers, and others without access to specialized care centers and providers. It is argued that mental health care should be part of all holistic treatment provided by primary care and family nurse practitioners. This has implications for curricula and practice development.

  2. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  3. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; van Iersel, Trudie; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-10-01

    To adequately measure the attitudes of Flemish palliative care nurses toward euthanasia, and assess the relationship between these attitudes and demographic factors and the (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on death anxiety. An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n=589) employed in palliative care in Flanders, Belgium: 70.5% of the nurses (n=415) responded. A majority of the nurses supported the Belgian law regulating euthanasia but also believed that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care. Three clusters were discovered: staunch advocates of euthanasia (150 nurses, 41.1%); moderate advocates of euthanasia (135 nurses, 37%); and (moderate) opponents of euthanasia (80 nurses, 21.9%). An absolute opposition between advocates and opponents of euthanasia was not observed. A statistically significant relationship was found between the euthanasia clusters and years of experience in palliative care, and (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on anxiety when a patient dies. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia are nuanced and contextual. By indicating that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care, the nurses applied a 'palliative filter' a standard procedure in the case of a euthanasia request.

  4. Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; Bellows, Jim; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    Of fifteen diabetes care management practices, our data indicate that high performance is most associated with provider alerts and more weakly associated with action plans and with guideline distribution and training. Lack of convergence in the literature on effective care management practices...

  5. Models for integrating rehabilitation and primary care: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Shortt, Samuel; Godwin, Marshall; Smith, Karen; Rowe, Kirby; O'Brien, Patti; Donnelly, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    To describe the scope and breadth of knowledge currently available regarding the integration of rehabilitation and primary care services. Peer-reviewed journals were searched using CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EBM Reviews for the years 1995 through 2007. This process identified 172 items. To be considered for the subsequent review, the article had to describe a service delivery program that offered primary care and rehabilitation, or services specifically designed for people with chronic conditions/disabilities. Further, it had to be available in English or French. No methodological limitations were applied to screen for levels of evidence. Based on these criteria, 38 articles remained that pertained to both primary care and rehabilitation. These were reviewed, sorted, and categorized to discover commonalities and differences among the approaches used to integrating rehabilitation into primary care. In consultation with the team of investigators, it was determined that there were 6 different models for providing primary health care and rehabilitation services in an integrated approach: clinic, outreach, self-management, community-based rehabilitation, shared care, and case management. In addition, a number of themes were identified across models that may act as either supports or impediments to the integration of rehabilitation services into primary care settings: team approach, interprofessional trust, leadership, communication, compensation, accountability, referrals, and population-based approach. Rehabilitation providers interested in working in the primary care sector may be assisted in conceptualizing the benefits that they bring to the setting by considering these models and issues.

  6. Home care in childhood diabetes : a controlled evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Zoeteweij (Moniek)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis considers children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and their psychological and medical functioning during 31 months of participation in a home-care program compared to traditional hospital-based care. In general, diabetes mellitus -derived from the greek diabainein (

  7. Palliative care services in The Netherlands: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper several types of specialized palliative care services in The Netherlands are presented. These include palliative care units in homes for the elderly, in nursing homes, in a general hospital and in an oncology clinic. In addition, a description is given of private hospices and of a home

  8. Burnout and personality in intensive care: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, K E; Land, Tatjana

    2003-01-01

    Previous research into the causes of burnout has mainly been concerned with external triggers, such as onerous work criteria or organizational or social influences. Factors such as individual reactions and personality have largely been ignored as a possible etiology of burnout. In preparation for a long-term study, this general cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between burnout and personality variables. Different personality variables that have a possible impact on burnout were determined in a number of prestudies. The data were gathered from 119 people working in intensive care units. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as well as certain subscales of the following personality questionnaires: Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Inventory of Aggressivity (IA), Trier Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), Scales of Control (SC), Locus of Control (LC), and the Logo-test (LOGO). The scales of mental health, respectively Psychoprotection, external locus of control, and neuroticism, were confirmed as being statistically relevant concerning burnout. The application and significance of this study for future burnout research are discussed.

  9. Are patients discharged with care? A qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of patients, family members and care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Gijs; Flink, Maria; Olsson, Mariann; Barach, Paul; Dudzik-Urbaniak, Ewa; Orrego, Carola; Toccafondi, Giulio; Kalkman, Cor; Johnson, Julie K; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Wollersheim, Hub

    2012-12-01

    Advocates for quality and safety have called for healthcare that is patient-centred and decision-making that involves patients. The aim of the paper is to explore the barriers and facilitators to patient-centred care in the hospital discharge process. A qualitative study using purposive sampling of 192 individual interviews and 26 focus group interviews was conducted in five European Union countries with patients and/or family members, hospital physicians and nurses, and community general practitioners and nurses. A modified Grounded Theory approach was used to analyse the data. The barriers and facilitators were classified into 15 categories from which four themes emerged: (1) healthcare providers do not sufficiently prioritise discharge consultations with patients and family members due to time restraints and competing care obligations; (2) discharge communication varied from instructing patients and family members to shared decision-making; (3) patients often feel unprepared for discharge, and postdischarge care is not tailored to individual patient needs and preferences; and (4) pressure on available hospital beds and community resources affect the discharge process. Our findings suggest that involvement of patients and families in the preparations for discharge is determined by the extent to which care providers are willing and able to accommodate patients' and families' capabilities, needs and preferences. Future interventions should be directed at healthcare providers' attitudes and their organisation's leadership, with a focus on improving communication among care providers, patients and families, and between hospital and community care providers.

  10. Potential determinants of health-care professionals' use of survivorship care plans: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Presseau, Justin; Ellis, Shellie D; Gerstel, Adrian A; Mayer, Deborah K

    2014-11-15

    Survivorship care plans are intended to improve coordination of care for the nearly 14 million cancer survivors in the United States. Evidence suggests that survivorship care plans (SCPs) have positive outcomes for survivors, health-care professionals, and cancer programs, and several high-profile organizations now recommend SCP use. Nevertheless, SCP use remains limited among health-care professionals in United States cancer programs. Knowledge of barriers to SCP use is limited in part because extant studies have used anecdotal evidence to identify determinants. This study uses the theoretical domains framework to identify relevant constructs that are potential determinants of SCP use among United States health-care professionals. We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the relevance of 12 theoretical domains in predicting SCP use among 13 health-care professionals in 7 cancer programs throughout the United States with diverse characteristics. Relevant theoretical domains were identified through thematic coding of interview transcripts, identification of specific beliefs within coded text units, and mapping of specific beliefs onto theoretical constructs. We found the following theoretical domains (based on specific beliefs) to be potential determinants of SCP use: health-care professionals' beliefs about the consequences of SCP use (benefit to survivors, health-care professionals, and the system as a whole); motivation and goals regarding SCP use (advocating SCP use; extent to which using SCPs competed for health-care professionals' time); environmental context and resources (whether SCPs were delivered at a dedicated visit and whether a system, information technology, and funding facilitated SCP use); and social influences (whether using SCPs is an organizational priority, influential people support SCP use, and people who could assist with SCP use buy into using SCPs). Specific beliefs mapped onto the following psychological constructs: outcome

  11. Learning the 'SMART' way... results from a pilot study evaluating an interprofessional acute care study day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of patients requiring critical care are now being managed outside of critical care facilities. There is evidence that staff looking after these patients lack the necessary knowledge and skills to care for them safely, and that effective pre-registration education can play a significant role in addressing these shortfalls in nurses' knowledge and skills. A team from Sheffield Hallam University, in collaboration with the University of Sheffield, developed a pilot one day interprofessional acute illness programme which was called SMART® (Student Management of Acute illness - Recognition and Treatment). To evaluate the pilot programme, 16 student doctors and 72 student nurses were recruited. A pre- and post-course questionnaire based on the Featherstone et al. (2005) evaluation of ALERT was used to ascertain the students' general level of knowledge of the deteriorating patient, their experiences of and confidence in caring for an acutely unwell patient, and their level of comfort with interprofessional working. The results from the pilot study indicate that the students' levels of knowledge, their levels of confidence and their comfort with interprofessional working all rose after undertaking the programme. The pilot study has a number of implications for the future teaching and learning of acute care clinical skills, within a theoretically based curriculum.

  12. Effectiveness of a Care Coordination Model for Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of systematically integrating biopsychosocial interventions with coordinated delivery of care for outpatients recovering from stroke. Care coordination coordinates resources across the health care system and routinely addresses the psychological and social risks affecting patient outcomes, while monitoring…

  13. Need for mental health care in adolescents and its determinants : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Wiegersma, P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Although a great deal of evidence is available on the patterns and determinants of unmet health care needs among adolescents with mental health problems, little is known about the factors that influence the need for care. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of need for care

  14. EPEC-O Self-Study - Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  15. Podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Dekker, E.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems and to explore the changes in knowledge, self-care behaviour and physical functioning after podiatric care. the treatment characteristics of 26 diabetic patients referred to podiatry were assessed. Prior

  16. What components of chronic care organisation relate to better primary care for coronary heart disease patients? An observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, J. van; Frigola Capell, E.; Ludt, S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) received by patients shows large variation across countries. In this study we explored the aspects of primary care organisation associated with key components of CVRM in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 273

  17. Impact of the primary care curriculum and its teaching formats on medical students’ perception of primary care: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Christopher; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Audétat, Marie-Claude; Birchmeier, Alain; Herzig, Lilli; Bischoff, Thomas; Sommer, Johanna; Haller, Dagmar M

    2016-01-01

    Background Switzerland is facing an impending primary care workforce crisis since almost half of all primary care physicians are expected to retire in the next decade. Only a minority of medical students choose a primary care specialty, further deepening the workforce shortage. It is therefore essential to identify ways to promote the choice of a primary care career. The aim of the present study was to explore students’ views about the undergraduate primary care teaching curriculum and differ...

  18. Nurse Practitioner Mental Health Care in the Primary Context: A Californian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Theane Theophilos; Roger Green; Andrew Cashin

    2015-01-01

    In America, mental health needs surpass the availability of specialized providers. This vulnerable population also has other obstacles for comprehensive care including gaps in medical coverage, stigma, economic barriers, and a geographical mal‑distribution of qualified mental health professionals. A wide availability of primary care providers, including primary care and family nurse practitioners, are well-positioned to deliver integrated mental and physical health care. A case study from a S...

  19. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb Mark; Chan Carusone Soo; Lohfeld Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in...

  20. A feasibility study of a combined nurse/pharmacist-led chronic pain clinic in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michelle; Closs, S José; Marczewski, Kath; Barratt, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and management hampered by lack of resources in primary and secondary care. Nurse- or pharmacist-led clinics have been shown to lead to improvements in care for patients with chronic pain. This study showed that a combined nurse/pharmacist-led clinic for managing chronic pain in primary care can lead to improvements in management of pain, reduction in use of secondary care resources and high rates of satisfaction.

  1. Knowledge and practice for pressure injury prevention among care managers in a home care setting: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masushi Kohta,1 Yuki Kameda,2 Sadako Morita3 1Medical Engineering Laboratory, Alcare Co. Ltd., Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Wound and Ostomy Care Division, Alcare Co. Ltd., Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Sumire Home-visit Nursing Station, Handa-city, Aichi, Japan Purpose: Previous studies on pressure injury prevention using questionnaire surveys have targeted physicians and nurses working in hospitals. However, few have administered surveys to social welfare professionals at home care. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the current level of knowledge and practice regarding pressure injury prevention among Japanese care managers. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study among care managers working in a Japanese city was performed from June to July 2016. Data were collected using a questionnaire to assess the participants’ knowledge of and practice for pressure injury prevention. The questionnaire included 1 measures of demographic characterization, 2 measures of knowledge, 3 measures of practice, and 4 measures of the difficulties of using pressure injury risk assessment scales. Results: A total of 48 participants were analyzed (response rate: 55%. The overall knowledge and practice scores were 78.6% and 61.8%, respectively. The percentages of participants who knew the risk assessment scales were 38%, 26%, and 13% for the Braden scale, the Ohura–Hotta scale, and the University of Kanazawa scale, respectively. We also observed that 50% of the participants in this study believed that the use of risk assessment scales in daily practice in home care may be difficult. Conclusion: Through the results of this questionnaire survey, we concluded that the current levels of knowledge and practice regarding pressure injury prevention among the care managers participating in our study were “moderate” and “low”, respectively. Low scores were obtained for knowledge with respect to the question, “Using risk assessment scales”. We will develop a

  2. Impact of depression on health care utilization and costs among multimorbid patients--from the MultiCare Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens-Oliver Bock

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. METHOD: This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. RESULTS: Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090 in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001 in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. CONCLUSION: Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients.

  3. Challenges of kidney care in a resource poor nation: A study of private kidney care centre in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezurike H Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resource poor nations are froth with various confounding challenges in their social, political, financial, physical and healthcare needs. Care of patients with health problems′, including those with kidney related disorders is associated with many challenges. This study is aimed to highlight the challenges of kidney care in a resource poor nation. Materials and methods: The activity of a private kidney care centre in Nigeria was reviewed from establishment to 6 months of operation. The details were documented and analysed. Result: The commencement of the kidney care centre was delayed as a result of financial and bureaucratic challenges. A total of 64 patients were seen during the period studied, 59.4% were male and the mean age was 48.2±5.5 years. 40.3% of the patients had chronic kidney disease. Twenty patients had haemodialysis however only 2 patients sustained the dialysis for the period studied. Most patients were unable to adhere to medication. The centre still depend on the parent hospital financially. Conclusion: The challenges of kidney care in resource poor nation are numerous and multifactorial.

  4. Primary care physicians' educational needs and learning preferences in end of life care: A focus group study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Lucy Ellen; Brighton, Lisa Jane; Robinson, Vicky; George, Rob; Khan, Shaheen A; Burman, Rachel; Koffman, Jonathan

    2017-03-09

    Primary care physicians (General Practitioners (GPs)) play a pivotal role in providing end of life care (EoLC). However, many lack confidence in this area, and the quality of EoLC by GPs can be problematic. Evidence regarding educational needs, learning preferences and the acceptability of evaluation methods is needed to inform the development and testing of EoLC education. This study therefore aimed to explore GPs' EoLC educational needs and preferences for learning and evaluation. A qualitative focus group study was conducted with qualified GPs and GP trainees in the UK. Audio recordings were transcribed and analysed thematically. Expert review of the coding frame and dual coding of transcripts maximised rigour. Twenty-eight GPs (10 fully qualified, 18 trainees) participated in five focus groups. Four major themes emerged: (1) why education is needed, (2) perceived educational needs, (3) learning preferences, and (4) evaluation preferences. EoLC was perceived as emotionally and clinically challenging. Educational needs included: identifying patients for palliative care; responsibilities and teamwork; out-of-hours care; having difficult conversations; symptom management; non-malignant conditions; and paediatric palliative care. Participants preferred learning through experience, working alongside specialist palliative care staff, and discussion of real cases, to didactic methods and e-learning. 360° appraisals and behavioural assessment using videoing or simulated interactions were considered problematic. Self-assessment questionnaires and patient and family outcome measures were acceptable, if used and interpreted correctly. GPs require education and support in EoLC, particularly the management of complex clinical care and counselling. GPs value mentoring, peer-support, and experiential learning alongside EoLC specialists over formal training.

  5. Are healthcare aides underused in long-term care? A cross-sectional study on continuing care facilities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir A; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Charland, Paola

    2017-05-17

    Over the last 10 years, appropriate workforce utilisation has been an important discussion among healthcare practitioners and policy-makers. The role of healthcare aides (HCAs) has also expanded to improve their utilisation. This evolving role of HCAs in Canada has prompted calls for standardised training, education and scope of practice for HCAs. The purpose of this research was to examine the differences in HCAs training and utilisation in continuing care facilities. From June 2014 to July 2015, we conducted a mixed-method study on HCA utilisation in continuing care. This paper presents findings gathered solely from the prospective cross-sectional survey of continuing care facilities (long-term care (LTC) and supportive living (SL)) on HCA utilisation. We conducted this study in a Western Canadian province. The managers of the continuing care facilities (SL and LTC) were eligible to participate in the survey. The pattern of HCAs involvement in medication assistance and other care activities in SL and LTC facilities. We received 130 completed surveys (LTC=64 and SL=52). Our findings showed that approximately 81% of HCAs were fully certified. We found variations in how HCAs were used in SL and LTC facilities. Overall, HCAs in SL were more likely to be involved in medication management such as assisting with inhaled medication and oral medication delivery. A significantly larger proportion of survey respondents from SL facilities reported that medication assistance training was mandatory for their HCAs (86%) compared with the LTC facilities (50%) (p value facilities. HCAs in SL facilities may be considered better used according to their required educational training and competencies. Expanding the role of HCAs in LTC facilities may lead to a cost-effective and more efficient utilisation of workforce in continuing care facilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  6. Care-of-Self in Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F; Gatto, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Poor management of care-of-self behaviors can contribute to job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition in nurses. This pilot study, designed to explore self-care among nursing students, was used to examine feasibility for a future long-term study. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The data suggest a downward trend of care-of-self behaviors as students assume more responsibility for care of others. Findings substantiate the need for development and implementation of care-of-self-promoting interventions in order to increase lifelong health-promoting behaviors.

  7. [Behavior and well-being of people with dementia in a social care group. Observation study with dementia care mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgraeber, Iris

    2013-07-01

    Social care groups for people with dementia areone way to relieve family caregivers and to activate individuals with dementia. This study aimed to describe one social care group and investigate the well-being of the groups members. The research question therefore was: What are people with dementia doing and how do they feel in a social care group? In this descriptive observation study we observed three group sessions in one social care group with five members in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) using Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The results show that there was a special course of action fixed by meals, welcoming and farewell. The behaviour and well-being varied. Leisure like doing handicraft and interaction were depicted as main activities. The well-being was high, if participants had energetic activities and the course of action of the different group members was similar. Interestingly one person was excluded from almost all activities. It is important for staff to know the constellation of the group and to include all visitors.

  8. What components of chronic care organisation relate to better primary care for coronary heart disease patients? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Jan; Frigola Capell, Eva; Ludt, Sabine; Grol, Richard; Wensing, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) received by patients shows large variation across countries. In this study we explored the aspects of primary care organisation associated with key components of CVRM in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Observational study. 273 primary care practices in Austria, Belgium, England, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland and Spain. A random sample of 4563 CHD patients identified by coded diagnoses in eight countries, based on prescription lists and while visiting the practice in one country each. We performed an audit in primary care practices in 10 European countries. We used six indicators to measure key components of CVRM: risk factor recording, antiplatelet therapy, influenza vaccination, blood pressure levels (systolic organisation based on 39 items. Using multilevel regression analyses we explored the effects of practice organisation on CVRM, controlling for patient characteristics. Better overall organisation of a primary care practice was associated with higher scores on three indicators: risk factor registration (B=0.0307, porganisation was not found to be related with recorded blood pressure or cholesterol levels. Only the organisational domains 'self-management support' and 'use of clinical information systems' were linked to three CVRM indicators. A better organisation of a primary care practice was associated with better scores on process indicators of CVRM in CHD patients, but not on intermediate patient outcome measures. Direct support for patients and clinicians seemed most influential.

  9. A Case Study of Hispanics and Hospice Care

    OpenAIRE

    Carrion, Iraida V.; Bullock, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The issues of death and dying that have given impetus to the hospice movement include the effect on people with terminal illnesses and their families, impending death, renewed attention to long-term care centers and other alternatives to hospitalization, the scarcity of resources, the emphasis on holistic health, and recognition of the rights of people who are dying to die with dignity. Hospice offers patients compassionate care that is focused the pain relief and symptom management so that t...

  10. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience.

  11. Rabbit care unit for intravenous feeding and metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukipuro, K; Harju, E

    1986-01-01

    A simple rabbit care unit for peripheral intravenous feeding and metabolic studies was developed. The unit consists of six aluminum boxes with a common cover. Inverted T-shaped mobile supports hanging from the upper horizontal part of a frame hold the infusion lines. The side walls of the box prevent the rabbit from turning around, but other movements are possible. After initial training with 21 surgically treated animals, there was only one early anesthetic death among the subsequent 21 rabbits (4.8%). There was one late death (4.8%), and one animal was slightly, and two animals clearly, deteriorated. The ear vein cannula had to be changed in one-third of the animals not more than 3 days from the outset. Problems associated with the infusion systems or urinary bladder catheterization were minor. The results showed that it is practical to infuse rabbits via a peripheral intravenous route in a semi-restraining metabolic unit. The cases of late death and deterioration can be explained in part by the stress of experimental conditions with starvation and surgery, rather than by the effect of the metabolic unit alone. With previous experience in treating rabbits, we find the period required to learn this technique is short.

  12. End-of-Life Care for Hispanic Children: A Study of California Medicaid Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Trujillo, Laura V

    2016-12-01

    More than 8,000 Hispanic children die annually in the United States; yet little is known about the end-of-life care utilized. The purpose of this study was to examine the children and family characteristics associated with end-of-life care for Hispanic children. A sample of 370 Hispanic children was created, using the 2009-2010 California Medicaid data. The relationship between child and family characteristics and end-of-life care utilization (i.e., hospice enrollment, emergency room utilization, hospital admissions) was analyzed using multivariate regression. Pediatric hospice accessibility (p care policy (p care (p care policy (p care (p Hispanic families in their community are critical to end-of-life care utilization for Hispanic children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Characteristics of evolving models of care for arthritis: A key informant study

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    Veinot Paula

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of arthritis is increasing in the face of diminishing health human resources to deliver care. In response, innovative models of care delivery are developing to facilitate access to quality care. Most models have developed in response to local needs with limited evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to a examine the range of models of care that deliver specialist services using a medical/surgical specialist and at least one other health care provider and b document the strengths and challenges of the identified models. A secondary objective is to identify key elements of best practice models of care for arthritis. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of key informants with expertise in arthritis from jurisdictions with primarily publicly-funded health care systems. Qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify common types of models of care, strengths and challenges of models, and key components of arthritis care. Results Seventy-four key informants were interviewed from six countries. Five main types of models of care emerged. 1 Specialized arthritis programs deliver comprehensive, multidisciplinary team care for arthritis. Two models were identified using health care providers (e.g. nurses or physiotherapists in expanded clinical roles: 2 triage of patients with musculoskeletal conditions to the appropriate services including specialists; and 3 ongoing management in collaboration with a specialist. Two models promoting rural access were 4 rural consultation support and 5 telemedicine. Key informants described important components of models of care including knowledgeable health professionals and patients. Conclusion A range of models of care for arthritis have been developed. This classification can be used as a framework for discussing care delivery. Areas for development include integration of care across the continuum, including primary

  14. Effect of the Uganda Newborn Study on care-seeking and care practices: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

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    Peter Waiswa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Care for women and babies before, during, and after the time of birth is a sensitive measure of the functionality of any health system. Engaging communities in preventing newborn deaths is a promising strategy to achieve further progress in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To assess the effect of a home visit strategy combined with health facility strengthening on uptake of newborn care-seeking, practices and services, and to link the results to national policy and scale-up in Uganda. Design: The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST was a two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial in rural eastern Uganda. In intervention villages volunteer community health workers (CHWs were trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits (two during pregnancy and three in the first week after birth to offer preventive and promotive care and counselling, with extra visits for sick and small newborns to assess and refer. Health facility strengthening was done in all facilities to improve quality of care. Primary outcomes were coverage of key essential newborn care behaviours (breastfeeding, thermal care, and cord care. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as a clinical trial, number ISRCTN50321130. Results: The intervention significantly improved essential newborn care practices, although many interventions saw major increases in both arms over the study period. Immediate breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (72.6% vs. 66.0%; p=0.016 and 81.8% vs. 75.9%, p=0.042, respectively. Skin-to-skin care immediately after birth and cord cutting with a clean instrument were marginally higher in the intervention arm versus the control arm (80.7% vs. 72.2%; p=0.071 and 88.1% vs. 84.4%; p=0.023, respectively. Half (49.6% of the mothers in the intervention arm waited more than 24 hours to bathe the baby, compared to 35.5% in

  15. Over- and undersupply in home care: a representative multicenter correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Nils A; Suhr, Ralf; Kuntz, Simone; Kottner, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance and funding of care become a major challenge against the background of demographic changes in western societies. The primary aim of the study was to identify possible misclassification, respectively over and undersupply of care by comparing the Barthel Index of clients of home care service with the level of care (Stage 0, I, II, III) according to the statutory German long-term care insurance. In 2012, a multi-center point prevalence study of 878 randomly selected clients of 100 randomly selected home care services across Germany was conducted. According to a standardized study protocol, demographics, the Barthel Index and the nurses' professional judgment-whether a client requires more nursing care-were assessed. Associations of the Barthel items and professional judgment were analyzed using univariate (Chi-square) and multivariate (logistic regression and classification-regression-tree-models) statistics. In each level of care, the Barthel Index showed large variability e.g. in level II ranging from 0 to 100 points. Multivariate logistic regression regarding possible under- and oversupply revealed occasionally fecal incontinence (2.1; 95 % CI 1.2-3.7), urinary incontinence (2.0; 95 % CI 1.1-3.6), feeding (1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9), immobility (0.2; 95 % CI 0.1-0.6) and to be female (1.8; 95 % CI 1.2-2.6) to be statistically significantly associated. The variability in Barthel Index in each level of care found in this study indicated a large general misclassification of home care clients according to their actual need of care. Professional caregivers identified occasional incontinence, help with eating and drinking and mobility (especially in female clients) as areas of possible under- and oversupply of care. The statutory German long-term care insurance classification should be modified according to the above finding to increase the quality of care in home care clients.

  16. Pathways to care among persons with dementia: Study from a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossien, Sk Altaf; Loganathan, Santosh; Kolar Sridara Murthy, Meena; Palanimuthu Thangaraju, Sivakumar; Bharath, Srikala; Varghese, Mathew

    2017-08-23

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing rapidly, specifically in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) due to demographic aging. Help seeking is delayed and usually sought at an advanced stage of illness and many are yet to receive a formal diagnosis. We interviewed 35 caregivers of persons with Dementia (as per ICD-10) using a semi-structured questionnaire, the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI). We explored the pathways taken by caregivers of people with dementia en route to a tertiary care centre and the interactions they had with different health care providers. Qualitative data analysis was done using ATLAS.ti. We identified three major pathways: I) The Neuropsychiatric pathway II) The General Practitioner pathway and III) The Non-cohesive pathway. In general, the caregivers were poorly informed about the illness details such as diagnosis, course and outcome. Neurologists communicated the diagnosis of 'Dementia' more frequently. When information was made available, the caregivers were satisfied with proper information about illness and with at least, partial improvement of symptoms. There is a need for increasing the awareness of dementia in community at large. Health services and systems that address this important public health problem need strengthening. Sensitization and training of primary care physician and staff to identify dementia at an early stage are the need of the hour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Miasi congiuntivale da Oestrus ovis: descrizione di un nuovo caso e problematiche in tema di miasi in ambito umano

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    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Authors related a third case of ophtalmomyasis occurred to a young adult female, during holidays in Sardinia, near a beed of reeds bordering on the beach in the north of the island.Various larvae were captured in the eyeconjunctiva and three were identified at the optical microscope as first stadium larvae of Oestrus ovis on the base of typical and reported features and characters. The Authors relate the main diagnostics keys and algorithmes for the myasis that could affect humans, as in Italy as in developing countries, and suggest a major attention to these renewed clinical pathologies caused by larvae of various genera and species of flies, not only in natural cavities (like conjunctiva but also on the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, and in intestinal tract.

  18. Aged Residential Care Health Utilisation Study (ARCHUS: a randomised controlled trial to reduce acute hospitalisations from residential aged care

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    Foster Susan J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For residents of long term care, hospitalisations can cause distress and disruption, and often result in further medical complications. Multi-disciplinary team interventions have been shown to improve the health of Residential Aged Care (RAC residents, decreasing the need for acute hospitalisation, yet there are few randomised controlled trials of these complex interventions. This paper describes a randomised controlled trial of a structured multi-disciplinary team and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS intervention aiming to reduce residents’ avoidable hospitalisations. Methods/Design This Aged Residential Care Healthcare Utilisation Study (ARCHUS is a cluster- randomised controlled trial (n = 1700 residents of a complex multi-disciplinary team intervention in long-term care facilities. Eligible facilities certified for residential care were selected from those identified as at moderate or higher risk of resident potentially avoidable hospitalisations by statistical modelling. The facilities were all located in the Auckland region, New Zealand and were stratified by District Health Board (DHB. Intervention The intervention provided a structured GNS intervention including a baseline facility needs assessment, quality indicator benchmarking, a staff education programme and care coordination. Alongside this, three multi-disciplinary team (MDT meetings were held involving a geriatrician, facility GP, pharmacist, GNS and senior nursing staff. Outcomes Hospitalisations are recorded from routinely-collected acute admissions during the 9-month intervention period followed by a 5-month follow-up period. ICD diagnosis codes are used in a pre-specified definition of potentially reducible admissions. Discussion This randomised-controlled trial will evaluate a complex intervention to increase early identification and intervention to improve the health of residents of long term care. The results of this trial are expected in early

  19. A Study on the Chromosomes of Konya Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis spp.): Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    KIRIKÇI, Kemal

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the shape and number of chromosomes of Konya wild sheep. A karyotype was prepared from G-band painted chromosomes. Konya wild sheep have 54 diploid chromosomes. The first three autosomal chromosomes were metacentric, and the other autosomal chromosomes and X chromosomes were acrocentric.

  20. Behavioral health referrals and treatment initiation rates in integrated primary care: a Collaborative Care Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxier, Andrea; Runyan, Christine; Mullin, Daniel; Mendenhall, Tai; Young, Jessica; Kessler, Rodger

    2012-09-01

    Although the benefits of integrating behavioral health (BH) services into primary care are well established (World Health Organization and World Organization of Family Doctors, 2012; Chiles et al. in Clin Psychol-Sci Pr 6:204-220, 1999; Cummings 1997; O'Donohue et al. 2003; Olfson et al. in Health Aff 18:79-93, 1999; Katon et al. in Ann Intern Med 124:917-925, 2001; Simon et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:850-856, 1995; Anderson et al. in Diabetes Care 24:1069-1078, 2001; Ciechanowski et al. in Arch Intern Med 160:3278-3285, 2000; Egede et al. in Diabetes Care 25:464-470, 2002), research has focused primarily on describing the types of interventions behavioral health providers (BHPs) employ rather than on reasons for referral, treatment initiation rates, or the patient characteristics that may impact them. This study presents the results of a multisite card study organized by The Collaborative Care Research Network, a subnetwork of the American Academy of Family Physicians' National Research Network devoted to conducting practice-based research focused on the provision of BH and health behavior services within primary care practices. The goals of the study included: (1) identifying the characteristics of patients referred for BH services; (2) codifying reasons for referral and whether patients were treated for the referral; (3) exploring any differences between patients who initiated BH contact and those who did not; and (4) assessing the types and frequency of BH services provided to patients who attended at least one appointment. Of the 200 patients referred to a BHP, 81 % had an initial contact, 71 % of which occurred on the same day. Men and women were equally likely to engage with a BHP although the time between appointments varied by gender. Depression and anxiety were the primary reasons for referral. Practice-based research is a viable strategy for advancing the knowledge about integrated primary care.

  1. Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study

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    Verdon François

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS. Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6% patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration.

  2. Dutch care innovation units in elderly care: A qualitative study into students' perspectives and workplace conditions for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, Miranda; Volbeda, Patricia; Niessen, Theo J H; Abma, Tineke A

    2016-03-01

    To promote workplace learning for staff as well as students, a partnership was formed between a residential care organisation for older people and several nursing faculties in the Netherlands. This partnership took the form of two care innovation units; wards where qualified staff, students and nurse teachers collaborate to integrate care, education, innovation and research. In this article, the care innovation units as learning environments are studied from a student perspective to deepen understandings concerning the conditions that facilitate learning. A secondary analysis of focus groups, held with 216 nursing students over a period of five years, revealed that students are satisfied about the units' learning potential, which is formed by various inter-related and self-reinforcing affordances: co-constructive learning and working, challenging situations and activities, being given responsibility and independence, and supportive and recognisable learning structures. Time constraints had a negative impact on the units' learning potential. It is concluded that the learning potential of the care innovation units was enhanced by realising certain conditions, like learning structures and activities. The learning potential was also influenced, however, by the non-controllable and dynamic interaction of various elements within the context. Suggestions for practice and further research are offered.

  3. The integration of oral health care into day-to-day care in nursing homes: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschere, L. De; Baat, C. de; Meyer, L.; Putten, G.J. van der; Peeters, B.; Soderfelt, B.; Vanobbergen, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored barriers and enabling factors to the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Oral health care in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium) is inadequate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative data were obtained from nurses employed i

  4. In vivo and in vitro fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved European mouflon [Ovis gmelini musimon] spermatozoa used to restore genetically rare and isolated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Leoni, Giovanni G; Bogliolo, Luisa; Bebbere, Daniela; Succu, Sara; Rosati, Irma; Ledda, Sergio; Naitana, Salvatore

    2005-02-01

    European mouflon sheep are an endangered species of ovidae residing primarily in the mountenous habitat of the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. The purpose of this study was to assess the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved European mouflon spermatozoa after AI in synchronized mouflon and domestic ewes and after IVF in in vitro matured mouflon and domestic ewe oocytes collected by OPU technique. Domestic ram (Ovis aries) spermatozoa served as control. Semen was collected by artificial vagina from three mouflons and three domestic rams during the breeding season and was cryopreserved. At thawing, no significant differences in sperm viability were found between the wild and the domestic species (53.1 +/- 4.6% versus 56.0 +/- 4.7%) whereas the percentage of acrosome-intact sperm was lower in mouflon (55.5 +/- 4.6%) than in ram semen (62.7 +/- 3.1%; P mouflon and domestic ewes (5/11 versus 8/12) after 150 and 156 days of pregnancy, respectively. After two OPU sessions, 87 and 132 oocytes were collected from three hyperstimulated mouflon and three domestic ewes. Cryopreserved/thawed semen was inseminated with an endoscope into the uterus of corresponding species during the non-breeding season. The oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro; 61/73 mouflon and 81/101 domestic ewe oocytes were found to be fertilized. From these, we obtained 6/61 and 17/81 blastocysts. After vitrification and thawing, the hatching rate showed no significant difference between mouflon and sheep blastocysts (4/6 versus 14/17). In conclusion, our data showed that cryopreserved mouflon spermatozoa can be successfully used to carry out a genuine and complete program of genetic restoration in small and isolated groups of European mouflons.

  5. Sheep (Ovis aries) T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) genes and genomic organization of the TRA/TRD locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Barbara; Massari, Serafina; Caputi Jambrenghi, Anna; Giannico, Francesco; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Antonacci, Rachele

    2015-09-18

    In mammals, T cells develop along two discrete pathways characterized by expression of either the αβ or the γδ T cell receptors. Human and mouse display a low peripheral blood γδ T cell percentage ("γδ low species") while sheep, bovine and pig accounts for a high proportion of γδ T lymphocytes ("γδ high species"). While the T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) genes and the genomic organization of the TRA/TRD locus has been determined in human and mouse, this information is still poorly known in artiodactyl species, such as sheep. The analysis of the current Ovis aries whole genome assembly, Oar_v3.1, revealed that, as in the other mammalian species, the sheep TRD locus is nested within the TRA locus. In the most 5' part the TRA/TRD locus contains TRAV genes which are intermingled with TRDV genes, then TRD genes which include seven TRDD, four TRDJ genes, one TRDC and a single TRDV gene with an inverted transcriptional orientation, and finally in the most 3' part, the TRA locus is completed by 61 TRAJ genes and one TRAC gene. Comparative sequence and analysis and annotation led to the identification of 66 TRAV genes assigned to 34 TRAV subgroups and 25 TRDV genes belonging to the TRDV1 subgroup, while one gene was found for each TRDV2, TRDV3 and TRDV4 subgroups. Multiple duplication events within several TRAV subgroups have generated the sheep TRAV germline repertoire, which is substantially larger than the human one. A significant proportion of these TRAV gene duplications seems to have occurred simultaneously with the amplification of the TRDV1 subgroup genes. This dynamic of expansion has also generated novel multigene subgroups, which are species-specific. Ovis aries TRA and TRD genes identified in this study were assigned IMGT definitive or temporary names and were approved by the IMGT/WHO-IUIS nomenclature committee. The completeness of the genome assembly in the 3' part of the locus has allowed us to interpret rearranged CDR3 of cDNA from

  6. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  7. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of psoriasis care in Germany: results of the national health care study "PsoHealth3".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, Anna; Radtke, Marc Alexander; Jacobi, Arnd; Purwins, Sandra; Haack, Kristina; Reich, Kristian; Stroemer, Klaus; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Two national surveys conducted in 2005 and 2007 indicated deficits in psoriasis care and induced the composition of the ''National Goals for Health Care in Psoriasis 2010-2015''. The aim of this work was to (1) evaluate the quality of care for patients with psoriasis in Germany, (2) compare this with prior psoriasis studies PsoHealth1 (2005) and PsoHealth2 (2007), and (3) review the implementation of national treatment goals. By means of a cross sectional study the following indicators of health care quality were collected: psoriasis severity (Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and proportion of PASI >20), quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were corporated: proportion of DLQI >10), previous systemic treatment, inpatient treatment, and days absent from work due to psoriasis. Between January 2013 and March 2014, 1265 patients from 82 dermatological centres were included (mean age of 52 years). 9.2 % had a PASI >20 (2007: 11.6 %; 2005: 17.8 %). 21.3 % reported strong quality of life restrictions (DLQI >10) (2007: 28.2 %; 2005: 34.0 %). 59.5 % had received a systemic treatment at least once within the last 5 years (2007: 47.3 %; 2005: 32.9 %). 20.1 % were treated inpatient within the last 5 years (2007: 20.1 %; 2005: 26.9 %). The current data indicate a better health care situation for psoriasis in Germany. The implementation of the S3-Guideline and the ''National Goals for Health Care in Psoriasis 2010-2015'' could have been contributing factors.

  9. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

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    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  10. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  11. Ventilation strategies in burn intensive care: A retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus regarding optimal burns intensive care (BICU patient management is lacking. This study aimed to assess whether ventilation strategies, cardiovascular support and sedation in BICU patients have changed over time, and whether this affects outcome. A retrospective observational study comparing two 12-patient BICU cohorts (2005/06 and 2010/11 was undertaken. Demographic and admission characteristics, ventilation parameters, sedation, fluid resuscitation, cardiovascular support and outcome (length of stay, mortality data were collected from patient notes. Data was analysed using T-tests, Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. In our study cohort groups were equivalent in demographic and admission parameters. There were equal ventilator-free days in the two cohorts 10 ± 12.7 vs. 13.3 ± 12.2 ventilator free days; P = 0.447. The 2005/06 cohort were mechanically ventilated more often than in 2010/11 cohort (568 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days vs. 206 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days; P = 0.001. The 2005/06 cohort were ventilated less commonly in tracheostomy group/endotracheal tube spontaneous (17.8% vs. 26%; P = 0.001 and volume-controlled modes (34.4% vs. 40.8%; P = 0.001. Patients in 2010/11 cohort were more heavily sedated (P = 0.001 with more long-acting sedative drug use (P = 0.001 than the 2005/06 cohort, fluid administration was equivalent. Patient outcome did not vary. Inhalational injury patients were ventilated in volume-controlled (44.5% vs. 28.1%; P = 0.001 and pressure-controlled modes (18.2% vs. 9.5%; P = 0.001 more frequently than those without. Outcome did not vary. This study showed there has been shift away from mechanical ventilation, with increased use of tracheostomy/tracheal tube airway spontaneous ventilation. Inhalation injury patients require more ventilatory support though patient outcomes do not differ. Prospective trials are required to establish which strategies confer benefit.

  12. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  13. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination. Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’. Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  14. Study of Problems Arising during Perioperative Care of Postoperative Endophthalmitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyi Lin; Yue Cai; Jiehui Huang; Ronghua Ye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To discuss the problems in perioperative nursing care for patients with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis. Methods: The medical records of 34 patients (35 eyes) pre-senting with infectious endophthalmitis at Zhongshan Oph-thalmic Center,.Sun Yat-sen University between April 2002 and December 2013 were collected to analyze preoperative and postoperative nursing care for endophthalmitis after ocular surgery. Results:Thirty-four patients (35 eyes) developed complications of infectious endophthalmitis after surgery..Thirty-three cases were successfully cured and only one patient (1 eye) was un-treated due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Conclusion: Perioperative nursing care plays a pivotal role in preventing and controlling the incidence and development of postoperative infectious endophthalmitis.

  15. Profiling Dizziness in Older Primary Care Patients: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dros, Jacquelien; Maarsingh, Otto R.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A. W. M.; Oort, Frans J.; ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.; Schellevis, François G.; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The diagnostic approach to dizzy, older patients is not straightforward as many organ systems can be involved and evidence for diagnostic strategies is lacking. A first differentiation in diagnostic subtypes or profiles may guide the diagnostic process of dizziness and can serve as a classification system in future research. In the literature this has been done, but based on pathophysiological reasoning only. Objective To establish a classification of diagnostic profiles of dizziness based on empirical data. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting 417 consecutive patients of 65 years and older presenting with dizziness to 45 primary care physicians in the Netherlands from July 2006 to January 2008. Methods We performed tests, including patient history, and physical and additional examination, previously selected by an international expert panel and based on an earlier systematic review. We used the results of these tests in a principal component analysis for exploration, data-reduction and finally differentiation into diagnostic dizziness profiles. Results Demographic data and the results of the tests yielded 221 variables, of which 49 contributed to the classification of dizziness into six diagnostic profiles, that may be named as follows: “frailty”, “psychological”, “cardiovascular”, “presyncope”, “non-specific dizziness” and “ENT”. These explained 32% of the variance. Conclusions Empirically identified components classify dizziness into six profiles. This classification takes into account the heterogeneity and multicausality of dizziness and may serve as starting point for research on diagnostic strategies and can be a first step in an evidence based diagnostic approach of dizzy older patients. PMID:21304984

  16. Profiling dizziness in older primary care patients: an empirical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelien Dros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnostic approach to dizzy, older patients is not straightforward as many organ systems can be involved and evidence for diagnostic strategies is lacking. A first differentiation in diagnostic subtypes or profiles may guide the diagnostic process of dizziness and can serve as a classification system in future research. In the literature this has been done, but based on pathophysiological reasoning only. OBJECTIVE: To establish a classification of diagnostic profiles of dizziness based on empirical data. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 417 consecutive patients of 65 years and older presenting with dizziness to 45 primary care physicians in the Netherlands from July 2006 to January 2008. METHODS: We performed tests, including patient history, and physical and additional examination, previously selected by an international expert panel and based on an earlier systematic review. We used the results of these tests in a principal component analysis for exploration, data-reduction and finally differentiation into diagnostic dizziness profiles. RESULTS: Demographic data and the results of the tests yielded 221 variables, of which 49 contributed to the classification of dizziness into six diagnostic profiles, that may be named as follows: "frailty", "psychological", "cardiovascular", "presyncope", "non-specific dizziness" and "ENT". These explained 32% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: Empirically identified components classify dizziness into six profiles. This classification takes into account the heterogeneity and multicausality of dizziness and may serve as starting point for research on diagnostic strategies and can be a first step in an evidence based diagnostic approach of dizzy older patients.

  17. Variability in Rheumatology day care hospitals in Spain: VALORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Miguel, María Victoria; Martín Martínez, María Auxiliadora; Corominas, Héctor; Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Sanmartí, Raimon; Fernandez Martinez, Carmen; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    To describe the variability of the day care hospital units (DCHUs) of Rheumatology in Spain, in terms of structural resources and operating processes. Multicenter descriptive study with data from a self-completed questionnaire of DCHUs self-assessment based on DCHUs quality standards of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. Structural resources and operating processes were analyzed and stratified by hospital complexity (regional, general, major and complex). Variability was determined using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the variable with clinical relevance that presented statistically significant differences when was compared by centers. A total of 89 hospitals (16 autonomous regions and Melilla) were included in the analysis. 11.2% of hospitals are regional, 22,5% general, 27%, major and 39,3% complex. A total of 92% of DCHUs were polyvalent. The number of treatments applied, the coordination between DCHUs and hospital pharmacy and the post graduate training process were the variables that showed statistically significant differences depending on the complexity of hospital. The highest rate of rheumatologic treatments was found in complex hospitals (2.97 per 1,000 population), and the lowest in general hospitals (2.01 per 1,000 population). The CV was 0.88 in major hospitals; 0.86 in regional; 0.76 in general, and 0.72 in the complex. there was variability in the number of treatments delivered in DCHUs, being greater in major hospitals and then in regional centers. Nonetheless, the variability in terms of structure and function does not seem due to differences in center complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary care capitation payments in the UK. An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerstecher Hendrik J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004 an allocation formula for primary care services was introduced in England and Wales so practices would receive equitable pay. Modifications were made to this formula to enable local health authorities to pay practices. Similar pay formulae were introduced in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but these are unique to the country and therefore could not be included in this study. Objective To examine the extent to which the Global Sum, and modifications to the original formula, determine practice funding. Methods The allocation formula determines basic practice income, the Global Sum. We compared practice Global Sum entitlements using the original and the modified allocation formula calculations. Practices receive an income supplement if Global Sum payments were below historic income in 2004. We examined current overall funding levels to estimate what the effect will be when the income supplements are removed. Results Virtually every Welsh and English practice (97% received income supplements in 2004. Without the modifications to the formula only 72% of Welsh practices would have needed supplements. No appreciable change would have occurred in England. The formula modifications increased the Global Sum for 99.5% of English practices, while it reduced entitlement for every Welsh practice. In 2008 Welsh practices received approximately £6.15 (9% less funding per patient per year than an identical English practice. This deficit will increase to 11.2% when the Minimum Practice Income Guarantee is abolished. Conclusions Identical practices in different UK countries do not receive equitable pay. The pay method disadvantages Wales where the population is older and has higher health needs.

  19. End-of-life care bonus promoting end-of-life care in nursing homes: An 11-year retrospective longitudinal prefecture-wide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Sugaya, Nagisa; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2017-03-22

    The end-of-life (EOL) care bonus introduced by the Japanese government works as a financial incentive and framework of quality preservation, including advance care planning, for EOL care among nursing home residents. This study aims to clarify the effects of the EOL care bonus in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. A longitudinal observational study using a questionnaire was conducted. We invited 378 nursing homes in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, a region with a rapidly aging population, to participate in the study. The outcome was the number of residents dying in nursing homes from 2004 to 2014. In a linear mixed model, fixed-effect factors included year established, unit care, regional elderly population rate and hospital beds, adjacent affiliated hospital, full-time physician on site, physician's support during off-time, basic EOL care policy, usage of the EOL care bonus, EOL care conference, and staff experience of EOL care. A total of 237 nursing home facilities responded (62.7%). The linear mixed model showed that the availability of the EOL care bonus (coefficient 3.1, 95 % CI 0.67-5.51, p = 0.012) and years of usage of the EOL care bonus (p homes. Our analysis revealed that the EOL care bonus has the potential to increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes over several years. EOL care conferences, physician support for emergency care during off-time, and the presence of an adjacent affiliated hospital may also increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes. These results suggest that a government financial incentive may contribute to effective EOL care among nursing home residents in other developed countries with rapidly aging populations.

  20. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-07-08

    To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design

  1. A quality management model for integrated care : results of a Delphi and Concept Mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkman, Mirella; Ahaus, Kees; Fabbricotti, Isabelle; Nabitz, Udo; Huijsman, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the elements and clusters of a quality management model for integrated care. In order to develop the model a combination of three methods were applied. A literature study was conducted to identify elements of integrated care. In a Delphi study experts comme

  2. Dunedin's free clinic: an exploration of its model of care using case study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Lik; Jaye, Chrystal; Dovey, Susan; Lloyd, Hywel; Rowe, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Models of care are important therapeutic modalities for achieving the goals of health care teams, but they are seldom explicitly stated or investigated. To describe the model of care at Dunedin's free clinic, and assess whether this model catered to the particular needs of enrolled patients. A mixed methods study was conducted using case study methodology to construct the clinic's model of care from multiple data sources, and to create a profile of patients' needs. A nested case study of patients with diabetes examined patients' social vulnerability characteristics. The pattern matching analytic technique was used to assess the degree of alignment between the model of care and patients' needs. Patients were not only high users of both primary and secondary health care, but also of justice and social welfare sector services. The care of patients with diabetes was complicated by coexisting social vulnerability and medical comorbidities. Surveyed patients placed high value on interpersonal dimensions of care, the Christian ethos of the clinic, and the wider range of services available. This study suggests a degree of 'fit' between the clinic's model of care and the needs of enrolled patients. A model of care that caters to the needs of patients with complex needs is important for securing their engagement in health services.

  3. Experiences of Emotion Management in Medical Care (Case Study: Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kianpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   This study lies at the intersection of the sociology of emotions and medical sociology, investigating emotion management among a rather unknown category of medical personnel –Hospital Chaplains. Sociologists of emotions seek to understand how emotions can be socially influenced in terms of both experience and expression. They believe emotions can be influenced by such institutions as culture and religion. As a result, not only do societies and subcultures have different patterns of expressing emotions according to their own norms and characteristics, but there are also different ways of managing emotions in social institutions. For example, in North American healthcare system, hospital chaplaincy is institutionalized, like other members of the medical team, to provide spiritual and religious care, which is often accompanied with emotional support, requiring therefore emotion management. In order to explore emotional experiences that chaplains undergo as a result of working in hospital and dealing with people who are emotionally overwhelmed, the author utilized insights from interactional and symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, and ethnomethodological approaches within the sociology of emotions and spoke with different chaplains from five faith traditions. The aim was to understand how chaplains perform interpersonal emotion management, what techniques, strategies and skills are involved in dealing with people’s emotions, and how performing emotion management in healthcare institutions brings religion and spirituality at the forefront of a secular society.       Material and Methods   This is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviewing with hospital chaplains working in different hospitals in the Toronto area. Toronto has a large number of hospitals and medical/healthcare institutions, most of which have a spiritual care department in which a number of full-time and part-time chaplains work to provide

  4. Technology acceptance for an Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC) system for care of the elderly: a survey-questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Wei-Han; Ke, Pei-Chih; Huang, Chun-Kai; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The key components of caring for the elderly are diet, living, transportation, education, and safety issues, and telemedical systems can offer great assistance. Through the integration of personal to community information technology platforms, we have developed a new Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC) system to provide comprehensive services for elderly care. The ICIC system consists of six items, including medical care (physiological measuring system, Medication Reminder, and Dr. Ubiquitous), diet, living, transportation, education (Intelligent Watch), entertainment (Sharetouch), and safety (Fall Detection). In this study, we specifically evaluated the users' intention of using the Medication Reminder, Dr. Ubiquitous, Sharetouch, and Intelligent Watch using a modified technological acceptance model (TAM). A total of 121 elderly subjects (48 males and 73 females) were recruited. The modified TAM questionnaires were collected after they had used these products. For most of the ICIC units, the elderly subjects revealed great willingness and/or satisfaction in using this system. The elderly users of the Intelligent Watch showed the greatest willingness and satisfaction, while the elderly users of Dr. Ubiquitous revealed fair willingness in the dimension of perceived ease of use. The old-old age group revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of result demonstrability for the users of the Medication Reminder as compared to the young-old and oldest-old age groups. The women revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of perceived ease of use for the users of Dr. Ubiquitous as compared to the men. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of gender, age, and education level in the other dimensions. The modified TAM showed its effectiveness in evaluating the acceptance and characteristics of technologic products for the elderly user. The ICIC system offers a user-friendly solution in telemedical care and improves the quality of

  5. Register studies of cancer in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Attner, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim was to study different aspect of health care use and health care costs on a population based level for persons with cancer and their partners, and from an individual level to explore the impact of comorbidities in incidence and survival. In the beginning of the study all persons in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden diagnosed with colon, rectal, breast, prostate and lung cancer during the period 2000 to 2005 were identified via the Swedish Cancer Register. Lately, inclu...

  6. Connection, regulation, and care plan innovation: a case study of four nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Lekan-Rutledge, Deborah; Utley-Smith, Queen; Ammarell, Natalie; Bailey, Donald; Piven, Mary L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Anderson, Ruth A

    2006-01-01

    We describe how connections among nursing home staff impact the care planning process using a complexity science framework. We completed six-month case studies of four nursing homes. Field observations (n = 274), shadowing encounters (n = 69), and in-depth interviews (n = 122) of 390 staff at all levels were conducted. Qualitative analysis produced a conceptual/thematic description and complexity science concepts were used to produce conceptual insights. We observed that greater levels of staff connection were associated with higher care plan specificity and innovation. Connection of the frontline nursing staff was crucial for (1) implementation of the formal care plan and (2) spontaneous informal care planning responsive to changing resident needs. Although regulations could theoretically improve cognitive diversity and information flow in care planning, we observed instances of regulatory oversight resulting in less specific care plans and abandonment of an effective care planning process. Interventions which improve staff connectedness may improve resident outcomes.

  7. Caring About Dostoyevsky: The Untapped Potential of Studying Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-04-01

    Should cognitive scientists and neuroscientists care about Dostoyevsky? Engaging with fiction is a natural and rich behavior, providing a unique window onto the mind and brain, particularly for mental simulation, emotion, empathy, and immersion. With advances in analysis techniques, it is time that cognitive scientists and neuroscientists embrace literature and fiction.

  8. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    , born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  9. [Clinical safety audits for primary care centers. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Sánchez, Míriam; Borrell-Carrió, Francisco; Ortodó Parra, Cristina; Fernàndez I Danés, Neus; Fité Gallego, Anna

    2013-01-01

    To identify organizational processes, violations of rules, or professional performances that pose clinical levels of insecurity. Descriptive cross-sectional survey with customized externally-behavioral verification and comparison of sources, conducted from June 2008 to February 2010. Thirteen of the 53 primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalonian Health Institute (ICS Costa de Ponent, Barcelona). Employees of 13 PCT classified into: director, nurse director, customer care administrators, and general practitioners. Non-random selection, teaching (TC)/non-teaching, urban (UC)/rural and small/large (LC) health care centers (HCC). A total of 33 indicators were evaluated; 15 of procedures, 9 of attitude, 3 of training, and 6 of communication. Level of uncertainty: <50% positive answers for each indicator. no collaboration. A total of 55 professionals participated (84.6% UC, 46.2% LC and 76.9% TC). Rank distribution: 13 customer care administrators, 13 nurse directors, 13 HCC directors, and 16 general practitioners. Levels of insecurity emerged from the following areas: reception of new medical professionals, injections administration, nursing weekend home calls, urgent consultations to specialists, aggressive patients, critical incidents over the agenda of the doctors, communication barriers with patients about treatment plans, and with immigrants. Clinical safety is on the agenda of the health centers. Identified areas of uncertainty are easily approachable, and are considered in the future system of accreditation of the Catalonian Government. General practitioners are more critical than directors, and teaching health care centers, rural and small HCC had a better sense of security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Megan R; Taing, Elizabeth; Cohen, Marya J; Betancourt, Joseph R; Pasinski, Roger; Green, Alexander R

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes care have been well documented. While root causes have been explored for some minority groups, less is known about smaller immigrant populations such as Cambodians. In this study, we sought to explore the potential barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes. We conducted five focus groups with three study groups: health care providers, bilingual Khmer frontline staff, and Cambodian patients with diabetes. Focus groups findings revealed that certain cultural beliefs, low health literacy, and language barriers strongly affect Cambodian patients' understanding of diabetes and self-management, as well as clinicians' ability to care effectively for Cambodian patients with diabetes. Our study supports previous literature and also adds several new insights not previously described. We recommend education for health care providers on patient-centered, cross-cultural care with an emphasis on the needs of Cambodians as well as culturally appropriate diabetes education for patients.

  11. Continuous care and patients' basic needs during weaning from mechanical ventilation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafi, Ali; Elahi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is associated with a number of risks and complications. Thus, rapid and safe weaning from mechanical ventilation is of great importance. Weaning is a complex and challenging process, requiring continuous care and knowledge of the patient. The aim of the present study was to describe the continuous care process during weaning as well as to analyse the facilitators and obstacles to the weaning process from start to finish from the perspective of intensive care unit (ICU) staff, particularly nurses. Twenty-two ICU staff members, including nurses and physicians, and three patients hospitalised in the ICU were enrolled in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection and the transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. 'Continuous care' was found to be the patients' basic need during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Uninterrupted, stable, comprehensive and dynamic care and monitoring with immediate response to all physiological and psychological changes were features of continuous care. The three main themes identified by this study were time spent with the patient, comprehensive supervision and maintenance of the quality of care during shifts. Continuous and constant care should be provided during the weaning process. Such care will help to provide health care staff with a deeper understanding of the patient and his or her continuous changes, leading to a timely and favourable response during weaning. To achieve this goal, skill, communication and organisational changes are essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syllabus Outline on Child Care for Day Care Teachers at Family Life Teacher Training Centre in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumina M.

    Five day care centers in Mogadiscio, the capital city of Somalia, were studied to (1) identify problems encountered in teaching a course in child care; (2) observe teaching methods and assess their effectiveness; (3) ascertain reasons for the lack of preservice training for day care teachers; and (4) develop a new syllabus for a course in child…

  13. Shedding Further Light on the Effects of Various Types and Quality of Early Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship: The Haifa Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa

    2002-01-01

    The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…

  14. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-10

    Environment Substudy: AD A139001 Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on the Performance of Basic Medical Tasks (HCSD Report #83-001) 8 DATE TITLE...Contact urticaria to parabens , Arch. Dermatol, 1979, 115:1231-1232. *13 Smith, E. B., Padilla, R. S., McCabe, J. M., Becker, L. E., Benzoyl...Chemical Environment . --3-Report #83-001. Ft. Sam Houston, TX: Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity, December 1982. 19 Penetar, D. M

  15. Do-it-yourself managed care. Case study I: Randall's Medical Network. Case study II: Hershey's Managed Care Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Employers, who pay for much of the healthcare in this country, are not waiting for government to restructure the healthcare system. In this cover story, PROFILES examines how two firms formed their own managed care networks to control healthcare cost and quality, and what hospitals did to become players. By understanding the employer' point of view, hospital marketers can better anticipate their needs and develop a marketing strategy to form closer relationships with employers, provide quality care at a lower cost, and increase their market share.

  16. Slaughter Performance and Carcass Characteristics of the Hybrids Obtained by Crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal.) and Sheep Breed Tigaie

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Nedeljkovic; Eliza Simiz; Nicolae Păcală; Gabi Dumitrescu; Ioan Bencsik; Dorel Dronca; Marioara Nicula; Liliana Petculescu Ciochină; Valer Carabă; Cosmin Ganță; Adrian Marcu; Adela Marcu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine differences between slaughter performances and carcass characteristics of first generation hybrids (F1) obtained by crossbreeding between European Mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon Pal.) and the Romanian sheep breed Tigaie. To assess the yield at slaughter and the participation percentage of the cut parts from the whole carcass structure, crossbreeding were made between females of sheep breed Tigaie and males of mouflon (FT x MM) respectively between mouflon fe...

  17. Mortality patterns in nondomestic hoofstock (Ovis orientalis laristanica, Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex nubiana) indicate species-specific differences in disease susceptibility in small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Deiss, R.; Hammer, C.; Müller, D.W.H.; Deb, A.; Clauss, Marcus; S. Hammer

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation was performed regarding cause of death in 91 Laristan mouflons (Ovis orientalis laristanica), 32 wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and 31 Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) between 2001 and 2008. The Capra spp. (i.e. wild goat and Nubian ibex) were strongly affected by an outbreak of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in April 2004, whereas the mouflon remained mainly unaffected. Of the mouflon, 12 % (eleven animals) died with icteru...

  18. A new immunoreactive recombinant protein designated as rBoSA2 from Babesia ovis: Its molecular characterization, subcellular localization and antibody recognition by infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Zhou, Mo; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-11-30

    Ovine babesiosis, caused by the intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia ovis, is an infectious and economically important tick-borne disease of sheep. Diagnostic testing is an essential tool used for the control of the disease. In order to identify and characterize the immunoreactive proteins which are useful in serological diagnosis of the disease, a complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library was constructed from B. ovis merozoite mRNA. A cDNA clone designated as BoSA2 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library using immune sheep serum. The sequence of the BoSA2 cDNA had a partial open reading frame of 1156 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 384 amino acid residues. Theoretical molecular mass for the mature protein was 43.5 kDa. The sequence of the BoSA2 was inserted into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 and then expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion protein. This recombinant fusion protein (rBoSA2) was purified by GST-affinity chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the rBoSA2 was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the sera from the animals naturally and experimentally infected with B. ovis. ELISA results demonstrated that this antigen was useful for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. The localization of the BoSA2 protein was shown in and on the parasite and in the cytoplasm of the infected erythrocyte by confocal laser microscope. To our knowledge, rBoSA2 is the second immunoreactive recombinant protein of B. ovis until the present.

  19. Identification and expression of Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify immunoreactive proteins that are usable for the immunological diagnosis of Babesia ovis infections, a phage lambda cDNA expression library was constructed and screened using parasite-specific immune serum. Immunoscreening resulted in the identification of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a secreted protein designated Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 (BoSA1). The full-length BoSA1 cDNA contained a 1,137-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, with a signal peptide and 2 internal repeat domains. The theoretical molecular mass of the mature protein was 42.5 kDa. Recombinant BoSA1 (rBoSA1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography. Purified rBoSA1 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally or naturally infected with B. ovis, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that specific antibodies against rBoSA1 were detectable on days 7 and 8 of the experimental infection and were maintained during the sampling period. Additionally, 38 field sera taken from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis gave strong positive reactions in the ELISA between day 20 and day 30 of treatment. As a result, the identified recombinant BoSA1 protein seems to be a promising diagnostic antigen that is usable for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. This is the first report on the molecular cloning, expression, and potential use of a recombinant antigen for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis.

  20. [The preclinical efficacy of emergency care. A prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, H J; Reinhardt, T; Otto, S; Dick, W

    1993-07-01

    Quality assurance has become an important issue in emergency medicine. At present, no prospective studies are available that quantify the efficacy of interventions performed by emergency doctors. The development and implementation of a rapid, yet simple scoring system, allowing preclinical assessment of all emergency medicine patients, is required. Once the scoring system is implemented, evaluation of the prehospital intervention, based upon objective parameters, is possible. METHODS. The Mainz Emergency Evaluation Score (MEES) is based on seven parameters: level of consciousness, heart rate, heart rhythm, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, partial arterial oxygen saturation and pain. A coded value is assigned to each parameter, with the normal physiological condition securing a score of 4, while a life-threatening condition receives a value of 1. For the parameter of pain there is no life-threatening condition, so the lowest value allowed is 2 (Table 2). Addition of the respective values from the seven parameters yields the MEES value, which objectively reflects the patients' condition (minimum = 8, maximum = 28). Comparing the MEES value before (MEES1) and after the intervention (MEES2) allows an objective evaluation of the efficacy of the preclinical care (delta-MEES = MEES2-MEES1). A difference of > or = +2 is considered an improvement, +1, +/- 0, -1 are rated as unchanged and rank sum test (Wilcoxon) and the correlation coefficient (Kendall-Tau). RESULTS. In 356 patients the condition of 187 (52%) patients improved during the preclinical treatment; the condition of 156 (44%) patients did not change. In 13 patients (3%) the condition became worse (Table 5, Fig. 2). Allocation to 16 diagnosis groups revealed that the improvement in the patient's condition depended on the underlying disease (Table 3); the disease-specific parameter improved in all cases (Table 7). CONCLUSIONS. With the MEES score one can assess the patient's prehospital condition and

  1. An interdisciplinary-interuniversity health care team management decision-making case study course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, R J; Arlinghaus, E J; Rowe, K W

    1985-01-01

    An elective case study course involving graduate students from various health profession disciplines from two universities was developed in order to provide a forum for health care teams to discuss the philosophical and functional impact of situations and their alternative solutions. The case studies stressed various aspects of the decision-making process and were nonclinical/technical but health care administratively oriented in nature. Course evaluations manifest that participants from each discipline improved their problem-solving and leadership abilities, and created a cross-fertilization of knowledge and understanding of the various health care disciplines and their perspectives that each brings to the health care system.

  2. Sources of knowledge used by intensive care nurses in Norway: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringsvor, Heidi B; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berland, Astrid

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the sources of knowledge that intensive care nurses used in their daily nursing practice. It used a qualitative design based on four focus group interviews with 20 intensive care nurses, from four intensive care units in Norway. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. The following condensed meaning units were identified: research, theoretical knowledge, experiential knowledge, work place culture, clinical expertise and patient participation. This study illustrates the complexity and variety of the knowledge bases of intensive care nurses. Despite some variation in nurses' familiarity with research literature, nursing interventions found by research to be useful were given priority, and research affected daily practice through changes in guidelines and procedures.

  3. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milawaty Nurjono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers’ and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. Methods: The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. Conclusion: If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison.

  4. Establishing contact and gaining trust : an exploratory study of care avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gert; de Jong, Gideon; Zeelen, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Title. Establishing contact and gaining trust: an exploratory study of care avoidance. Aim. This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the competencies especially deep-rooted personal qualities - of care providers who succeed in making contact and gaining trust with cli