Nesset Merete; Rustad Åse-Bente; Kjelsberg Ellen; Almvik Roger; Bjørngaard Johan
Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems an...
Rathleff, Michael S; Skuldbøl, Sune K; Rasch, Mads N B;
Knee pain is common during adolescence. Adolescents and their parents may think that knee pain is benign and self-limiting and therefore avoid seeking medical care. However, long-term prognosis of knee pain is not favourable and treatment seems to offer greater reductions in pain compared to a...... "wait-and-see" approach. The purpose of this study was to describe the determinants of care-seeking behaviour among adolescents with current knee pain and investigate what types of treatment are initiated....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;
The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period...... hospital beds resulted in 15 mothers being refused hospitalization for their child. Of hospitalized children, 42% were discharged as improved or recovered during the 30 days preceding death. These results reveal a need for improved hospital admission criteria, improved recognition of the symptoms of...... 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease onset to first consultation between children who died and matched surviving controls indicated that...
Full Text Available BackgroundBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a widely prevalent conditionaffecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasinglife expectancy, there has been a rise in the percentage ofelderly men and so for this disease across the globe. There islack of information about health seeking behaviour of patientswith Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Therefore the study wasdesigned with the objectives of assessing health-seekingbehaviour and the effect of literacy on it among adult andolder subjects suffering from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiaattending a tertiary care hospital.MethodA series of 81 patients suffering from Benign ProstaticHyperplasia above the age of 50 years, attending surgical OutPatient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, wereassessed for their health seeking behaviour using a pre-testedand a modified questionnaire designed for assessing healthseeking behaviour.ResultsPositive health seeking behaviour of patients was observed in44%, who reported to a doctor within a month of noticingtheir problem. A greater proportion of the literates was awareabout the symptoms suggestive of enlarged prostate andconsulted a qualified health care practitioner as their firstaction. More literates approached the higher level of healthcare facility on being referred and had maximum faith inallopathic system of medicine. Also, lesser number of literateshad performed pooja (Hindi word for worship or othertraditional rituals for relief of their problems.ConclusionWe concluded that majority of subjects suffering fromBenign Prostatic Hypertrophy were not aware of theirdisease and their health-seeking behaviour was poor andcould be related to literacy. Our data highlights the needfor public awareness program targeting the younger malepopulation so that early detection and treatment can beoffered.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: On examination of the literature in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in particular Jamaica, no study could be found that investigated the health and health care-seeking behaviour of uninsured people. This study bridges the gap in the literature by evaluating uninsured Jamaicans’ medical care-seeking behaviour and good health status. Material & Method: The study extracted a sample of 5,203 uninsured respondents 15 years and older from a national probability cross-sectional survey of 6,782 Jamaicans. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample; cross-tabulations evaluated bivariate analyses, and logistic regression was used to model health and medical care-seeking behaviour. Results: Good health of uninsured Jamaicans is correlated -reported biological condition (OR =0.114, 95% CI = 0.090 -0 .145 followed by age (OR =0.952, 95% CI = 0.946- 0.959; gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.221–1.845; consumption (OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 1.000–1.000; social class (upper class OR = 0.563, 95% CI = 0.357–0.888; education (secondary and above OR = 0.622, 95%CI = 0.402–0.963, and area of residence (other towns OR = 1.351, 95% CI = 1.026–1.778. Medical care-seeking behaviour is associated with age (OR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.006 – 1.033; poor health status (OR = 2.303, 95% CI = 1.533–3.461, and marital status (married OR = 0.518, 95% CI = 0.325–0.824. Conclusion: The findings are far reaching and provide an understanding of the uninsured, and the information can be used to aid public health intervention and education programmes.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background : On examination of the literature in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in particular Jamaica, no study could be found that investigated the health and health care-seeking behaviour of uninsured people. This study bridges the gap in the literature by evaluating uninsured Jamaicans′ medical care-seeking behaviour and good health status. Material & Method : The study extracted a sample of 5,203 uninsured respondents 15 years and older from a national probability cross-sectional survey of 6,782 Jamaicans. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample; cross-tabulations evaluated bivariate analyses, and logistic regression was used to model health and medical care-seeking behaviour. Results : Good health of uninsured Jamaicans is correlated -reported biological condition (OR =0.114, 95% CI = 0.090 -0 .145 followed by age (OR =0.952, 95% CI = 0.946- 0.959; gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.221-1.845; consumption (OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 1.000-1.000; social class (upper class OR = 0.563, 95% CI = 0.357-0.888; education (secondary and above OR = 0.622, 95%CI = 0.402-0.963, and area of residence (other towns OR = 1.351, 95% CI = 1.026-1.778. Medical care-seeking behaviour is associated with age (OR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.006 - 1.033; poor health status (OR = 2.303, 95% CI = 1.533-3.461, and marital status (married OR = 0.518, 95% CI = 0.325-0.824. Conclusion : The findings are far reaching and provide an understanding of the uninsured, and the information can be used to aid public health intervention and education programmes.
Jayashree Sachin Gothankar
Full Text Available Introduction: Case finding in tuberculosis is known to be influenced by factors such as patient motivation, care seeking, the degree of diagnostic suspicion by health care provider which could result in a delayed diagnosis.Objective: To determine care seeking behaviour and delay in diagnosis and treatment of new sputum positive tuberculosis patients registered under RNTCP.Material and Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study .283 new sputum positive tuberculosis patients (≥15 yrs of age registered during a period of six months at two randomly selected tuberculosis unit of Pune city. Questionnaire by WHO was modified and used. Interviews were conducted in DOT centres. Statistical analysis: Frequency, mean and standard deviation, chi square test.Results: Mean age of patients was 35(±15 years. Eighteen percent of patients were unemployed and 77% resided in urban slums. The commonest co morbidity in 7.4% and 3.5 % patients was HIV/ AIDS followed by diabetics respectively. Majority of the patients, for the first and second time visited a general practitioner. Median patient, health care system and total delay were 18, 22 and 47 days with mean of 24±21, 32±30 and 56±33 days respectively. Health care system delay was less (p<0.05 in patients who first visited the public health care facility than patients who first visited the a private health care provider.Conclusions: General practitioners are preferred first choice of health care provider for tuberculosis patients. Mean health care system delay is more than patient delay.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea\t. Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
Riiskjær, Erik; Ammentorp, Jette; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr;
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to describe how often patients seek information about their disease in connection with contact to a hospital and to elucidate how information-seeking behaviour is related to the patients' perception of this contact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based ...
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Data for the last 2-decades (1988-2007 in Jamaica have shown a gradual decline in the percentage of people in the lowest 20th income quintile category. Despite this reality, statistics from WHO for 2005 revealed that 80 percent of chronic diseases are in low-to-middle income nations. Poverty is undoubtedly correlated with ill-health; but no study has ever been done in the Caribbean in particular Jamaica that examines health status, health care-seeking behaviour, health insurance coverage and the typology of illness influencing those people in the poorest categorization. This study bridges the gap in the literature by evaluating how recurring illness influences the poorest, health status and health care-seeking behaviour of this group as well as ascertaining factors that account for their good health status and medical care-seeking behaviour.Methods: Data from the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC for 2007 commissioned by the Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Statistical Institute of Jamaica were used to provide the analyses for this study. The sample for this study was 1,343 respondents who are classified as receiving 20th lowest percentile of the income in Jamaica (or the poorest 20%. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample; Chi-square and F-statistic were used for bivariate analyses and logistic regression was performed to determine the factors for the model. Data was stored, retrieved and processed using SPSS for windows 16.0 and a 5 percent level of significance was used to test significance.Results: The sample was 1,343 respondents (671 males and 672 females. Majority of the sample did not have health insurance coverage (93.2% compared to 5.6% with public coverage and 1.2% private. A substantial percentage of the sample had at most basic schooling (71.5%; 17.5% primary or preparatory; 10.6% secondary and 0.4% tertiary. Only 14.7% of respondents indicated that
Full Text Available Objective:(1 To determine the treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients. (2 To ascertain the relationship of socio-demographic factors and sexual behaviours with the treatment seeking component in STI clients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the data collected daily from master register, STI/RTI patient wise register and counsellor's patient diary during the study period August 2013 to July 2015 was processed by Microsoft Excel program. The counsellor also recorded the source of information regarding STI Clinic. The information collected regarding bio-social characteristics, high risk sexual behaviours and source of knowledge about Suraksha clinic was analysed. Results: Our results showed that literacy, male sex, urban residence and employment were some of the parameters which significantly improved the health seeking behaviour of STI clients. These variables were associated with higher odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. Similarly group with bisexual and homosexual behaviour had significantly lower odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. Conclusion/Key Message: The optimal use of information, education and communication (IEC techniques needs to be strengthened to further improve the utilization of STI clinic services at tertiary care teaching hospitals.
Sodemann, M.; Jakobsen, M. S.; Mølbak, K.; Alvarenga, I. C.; Aaby, P
The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654. Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively. A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34% was low. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes.
M.J. van der Werf; Y. Chechulin; O.B. Yegorova; T. Marcinuk; A. Stopolyanskiy; V. Voloschuk; M. Zlobinec; A. Vassall; J. in 't Veen; E. Hasker; L.V. Turchenko
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) doctors in Kiev City have the impression that TB patients often present with advanced TB disease, and the mortality rate among TB patients is high. Delay in seeking health care may explain these observations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of patient delay and evaluate
Full Text Available Background: Scrub typhus is one among the re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. Various studies conducted across India reveals that its public health importance is increasing. This study was conducted 1 To describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological profile of patients admitted with scrub typhus. 2 To assess the health care seeking behaviour of these patients. 3 To estimate the cost factors incurred in the current episode of illness. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013 among all lab confirmed cases of scrub typhus admitted to department of medicine and pediatrics of JSS Hospital, Mysore. The study subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic profile, epidemiological profile, disease outcome, health care seeking behaviour and cost factors incurred with current episode of illness were collected. Data entry and analysis were done with SPSS.v.22.0 using descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviations and inferential statistics like chi-square test. Results: Among 192 patients tested positive by Weil-Felix test and/or Immuno-Chromatographic Test (ICT for scrub typhus majority 105 (54.7% were males and were predominantly 135 (70.3 % from rural areas. Mostly 172(89.6% were unaware of any mite bite in the past. Majority 167 (87.0% of them had visited atleast three Health Care Facilities (HCF for treatment. The mean +/- SD total duration of illness was 15.6 +/- 4.1 days. Most 104 (54.2 % of them had suffered from illness for 11-15 days. Majority 175 (91.1% of them had recovered while 3 (1.6% of them had succumbed to the condition. The median Total direct cost, total indirect cost and overall total cost were Rs. 7500 (7000-9500, Rs. 3000 (2500-3500 and Rs. 10500 (10000-13000 respectively. Most 104 (54.2% of them spent from money borrowed from others, followed by 78 (40.6% spent Out Of Pocket (OOP. Conclusion: People from rural
Escobedo, Angel A.; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel
Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88.6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presen...
Surekha Kishore; Mr. Kapil Sharma; Richa Singh; Bhanu Pratap Singh Gaur; Rachana R Satish; Yatish Bhaskar; Ritu Bhaskar
Background: Ageing is a natural process, always associated with physiological and biological decline. Global population is ageing; the proportion of older persons has been rising steadily, from 7% in 1950 to 11% in 2007, with an expected rise to reach 22 % in 2050. With improving knowledge and awareness the health care seeking behavior has shown an increasingly positive trend. With increasing age, morbidity, especially those arising from chronic diseases also increases. On the contrary, hea...
Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Talabi, Ademola A; Aina, Olufemi B
WHO/UNICEF currently recommend that childhood malaria and pneumonia be managed together in the community; most African countries are in the process of developing this policy. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine maternal awareness of general danger signs of childhood illnesses and the prevalence, determinants and sources of pre-hospital treatment by mothers during their child's acute respiratory illness in a poor urban community in south-western Nigeria. A total of 226 mothers were interviewed. Only 4.9% of the mothers were aware of the two pneumonia symptoms: difficult breathing and fast breathing. About 75% of the children were given pre-hospital medication at home and only 16.5% of them received the drugs within 24 hour of symptom recognition. Drug shops/patent medicine vendors (PMVs; 70.6%) were the most common source of care. Wishing to try home management first (46.6%); waiting for the child to improve (14.4%) and lack of money (31.6%) delayed care-seeking. Older maternal age (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.4) and having a child with cough and difficult and/or fast breathing (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-5.2) were positive predictors of pre-hospital treatment. Maternal education and adequately equipping PMVs could improve prompt access to integrated community-based child health services in Nigeria. PMID:24029675
Swastika Suvirya; Rohit Singh; Prasad Senthamizh; Vishal Sharma
Objective: (1) To determine the treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients. (2) To ascertain the relationship of socio-demographic factors and sexual behaviours with the treatment seeking component in STI clients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the data collected daily from master register, ST...
Swastika Suvirya; Rohit Singh; Prasad Senthamizh; Vishal Sharma
Objective:(1) To determine the treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients. (2) To ascertain the relationship of socio-demographic factors and sexual behaviours with the treatment seeking component in STI clients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the data collected daily from master register, STI...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia.
Full Text Available There is currently limited information as to which conditions are most prevalent in communities in developing countries. This makes effective planning of eye services difficult.3,899 eligible individuals were recruited and examined in a cross-sectional survey in Asa Local Government Area, Nigeria. Those who self-reported an ocular morbidity were also asked about their health-seeking behaviour. Health records of local facilities were reviewed to collect information on those presenting with ocular morbidities.25.2% (95% CI: 22.0-28.6 had an ocular morbidity in at least one eye. Leading causes were presbyopia and conditions affecting the lens and conjunctiva. The odds of having an ocular morbidity increased with age and lower educational attainment. 10.1% (7.7-13.0 self-reported ocular morbidity; 48.6% (40.4-56.8 of them reported seeking treatment. At the facility level, 344 patients presented with an ocular morbidity over one month, the most common conditions were red (26.3% or itchy (20.8% eyes.Ocular morbidities, including many non vision impairing conditions, were prevalent with a quarter of the population affected. The delivery of eye care services needs to be tailored in order to address this need and ensure delivery in a cost-effective and sustainable manner.
M. Prosper Lutala
Full Text Available Background: Health and social services utilisation is seen to be more closely related to age than to other socio-demographic characteristics. Many health problems are known to increase with age and this demographic trend may lead to an increase in the absolute number of health conditions in this population. However, questions are still emerging as to how the elderly seek care in response to their needs in the context of a war-torn region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of the elderly in seeking care during a time of conflict.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the health district Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, using a multistage sampling of 500 senior citizens. Eight trained field-workers were deployed in the field where they administered a structured questionnaire.Results: The public health sector was well known and preferred by 186 participants (37.2%, but only used by 16 (3.2% participants. Financial support received by the elderly came from their own relatives and fellow believers in 33.5% and 20.2% of cases, respectively. Almost 71% of monetary support is the result of begging and unknown sources – there is no government involvement whatsoever. Much of the external support that the elderly receive involves support in the form of food. Disease expenses remain a main concern of the elderly themselves.Conclusion: Government support for the elderly in the DRC is non-existent. There is an overuse of private sector and traditional medicine, despite the preference indicated for the public health sector. As a recommendation, a general increase in income-related activities could contribute to alleviating the health state of the elderly in a war situation. Further studies might explore in future the contribution of those results on the health of elders.
Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry
Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers.Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies th...
Chomi, EN; Mujinja, PG; Enemark, U; K Hansen; Kiwara, AD
Background Many countries striving to achieve universal health insurance coverage have done so by means of multiple health insurance funds covering different population groups. However, existence of multiple health insurance funds may also cause variation in access to health care, due to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple...
Beogo, Idrissa; Huang, Nicole; Drabo, Maxime K; Yé, Yazoumé
In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria inflicts a high healthcare expenditure to individuals. However, little is known about healthcare expenditure to individual affected by malaria and determinants of healthcare seeking behaviour in urban settings where private sector is thriving. This study investigated the level and correlates of expenditure among individuals with self-reported malaria episode in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional household survey conducted in August-November 2011 in Ouagadougou covered 8,243 individuals (1,600 households). Using Generalized Estimating Equations, the analysis included 1082 individuals from 715 households, who reported an episode of malaria. Of individuals surveyed, 38.3% sought care from public, 27.4% from private providers, and, 34.2% self-medicated. The median cost for malaria treatment was USD10.1 (4,850.0XOF) with significant different between public, private and self-medication (p<0.001). In public primary care health facilities, the median cost was USD8.4 (4,050.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD15.2 (7,333.5XOF) for severe malaria. In private-for-profit facilities run by a medical doctor, the median cost was USD30.3 (14,600.0XOF) for uncomplicated malaria and USD 43.0 (20,725.0XOF) for severe malaria. Regardless of the source of care, patients with insurance incurred significantly higher expenditure compared to those without insurance (p<0.001) and medicine accounted for the largest share of the expenditure. The type of provider, having insurance, and the severity of the malaria predict the amount of money spent. The high financial cost of malaria treatment regardless of the providers poses threat to the goal of universal access to malaria interventions, the unique way to achieve elimination goals. PMID:27154586
Bécares, Laia; Das-Munshi, Jayati
The health of ethnic minority people is reported to be poorer in areas of lower ethnic density. Based on this literature, higher rates of health seeking behaviours would be expected among ethnic minorities resident in neighbourhoods of lower ethnic density. Should health seeking not increase in areas of lower ethnic density, a possible explanation might be that ethnic minority people resident in these neighbourhoods are not accessing services for fear of racial discrimination. The present study examined this hypothesis using two nationally-representative surveys from England. Health seeking behaviour did not vary by ethnic density. Lower ethnic density was associated with increased reports of expected discrimination from services, but also with increased satisfaction with services. PMID:23603426
Balasundaram, Abyramy; Sarkar, Sonali; Hamide, Abdoul; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha
ABSTRACT India has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) for eligible persons living with HIV (PLHA) has been scaled up significantly both in terms of facilities for treatment and number of beneficiaries. This study aimed at describing the profile of HIV/AIDS patients on ART from a tertiary-care hospital and to explore the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour, family support, and perceptions regarding HIV and ART...
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine self-rated health status and health care-seeking behaviour of Jamaicans; and to ascertain the socio-economic determinants of health care-seeking behaviour as well as good health status. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 1,006 respondents who answered the question on health-seeking behaviour was used, and this was extracted from a larger nationally representative probability sampling survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the demographic characteristics of the sample, chi-square was used to examine correlation between two non-metric variables and logistic regressions were employed to establish the predictors of health care-seeking behaviour and good self-rated health status. Findings: Of the sample, 40.5% was men and 59.5% women, with a mean age of 41.8 years (SD=27.6 years. Forty-four percent of the sample reported at least good health, 97% claimed that they have had some form of dysfunction; 6% reported being injured due to accidents, and only 11% indicated that their illness was not diagnosed by a health practitioner. Of those who indicated being diagnosed with a recurring ailment, 5.6% had arthritis, 20.5% hypertension, 12.4% diabetes mellitus, 9.5% asthma and 14.9% cold. Only 65.4% of the sample sought health care. In the multivariate analyses, health-care seeking behaviour of Jamaicans can be explained by age of respondents (OR=1.031, 95%CI=1.014, 1.049; area of residence (other towns OR=0.5, 95%CI=0.278, 0.902; log consumption (OR=3.605 95%CI=1.814, 7.167; marital status (married OR=0.468 95%CI=0.260, 0.843; divorced, separated or widowed, OR=0.383, 95% CI 0.163, 0.903 and social class (Upper class OR=0.319, 95%CI=0.106, 0.958. The health status of those who seek health care can be predicted duration of the individuals to carry out their normal activities (OR=0.594, 95%CI=0.413, 0.855; age of respondents (OR
Akinlusi Fatimat M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2% had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%, followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8% and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive
Evidences regarding the effect of pre- and postnatal care on women fertility were scanty and rarely explored in countries struggling to curtail high population growth. This specialized health care enabled women for regular consultation with the health professionals and discussions with fellow women visiting clinics. It enhances their awareness, knowledge and understating about mother-child welfare during pre- and postnatal cares. This improves their control on subsequent fertility and underlines the need to explore the hidden dimension of female fertility. A doctoral level study on the determinants of marital fertility was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. It also examined the influence of pre- and postnatal care on family size in terms of children ever born. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from 18 villages and 18 urban localities through formal survey. The study concluded that at least 5 prenatal and 2 postnatal cares proved effective in reducing marital fertility. Improved women access to specialized care, motivation through mass media, involvement of female representatives at union council level and effective use of primary support groups are the measures suggested to enhance women control on their fertility in Pakistan. (author)
Bennett Linda Rae
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients’ patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Results Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women’s age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. Conclusions The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources
Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.
People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918
Full Text Available Introduction: Improvement in health technologies and socio economic conditions increase life expectancy of people leading to higher proportion of elderly in total population of every country worldwide. Developing countries have less comprehensive policy and elderly health agenda, and Myanmar is not an exception. The World Health Organization highlighted that aging process and problems related to elderly should be better understood so that effective elderly health prevention can be planned and implemented. However, there are very limited studies in Myanmar for aging health care. Objective: 1 To identify the Health status of aging population in selected townships of upper and lower Myanmar. 2 To identify the health seeking behavior of elderly. 3 To find out the association between the health seeking behavior of elderly and socio-demographic characteristics. Method: This is a cross sectional survey to study health status and health seeking behavior of the elderly people in Myanmar. Study areas are Taungu from Lower Myanmar and Ye Oo from Upper Myanmar both of which are not under cover of elderly project and have no adequate data for elderly health care. Sample size calculation was done by Epi Info StatCalc. Total 729 elderly were under study. According to elderly population in Taungu and Ye Oo, 1/3 of the sample was taken from Taungu and 2/3 taken from Ye Oo. Result: Male, Female ratio of study population is 1:1.44. Around half of elderly population has primary or lower level education, only one third are working but with low income. One third of male and female elderly perceived that they are in good health. Regarding illnesses present at the time of interview, three percent of male and thirteen percent of female did not get treatment. Significant difference between the health seeking behavior of upper and lower Myanmar was seen with chi square alue 1155, P= <00000001. Health seeking behavior was not associated with Gender, ethnicity, religion
Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter
information needs, and 2) main characteristics of virtual museum visitors' information seeking behaviour. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from written enquiries to the museum, an online questionnaire and a user study of simulated interest tasks combined with retrospective think......-aloud sessions. The data collected did not show exploratory behaviour to be predominant as expected. Rather analysis of data indicates a broad coverage of different types of needs. Finally, four main characteristics of virtual museum guests' information seeking behaviour were identified....
Full Text Available Introduction. We report an investigation designed to explore information-seeking behaviour of extension managers and specialists in Iran, and to identify the factors that correlate with their information-seeking behaviour. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore information-seeking behaviour of extension managers and specialists. Analysis. Data collected were analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS. Appropriate statistical procedures for description (frequencies, percent, means, and standard deviations were used. Results. Results showed that the main motivation for seeking job-related information by both public extension managers and specialists was because they were interested in developing their own job-related information. The top three mostly used information sources by extension managers and specialists were Persian books, Persian scientific magazines, and scientific-technical reports. Concerning communication channels, interpersonal communication with colleagues, in-service training courses and scientific-technical conventions were ranked respectively as the three top communication channels used by respondents. There was a negative correlation between managers' years of extension work and their information-seeking behaviour. For specialists, a significant positive correlation was found between years of education and level of job satisfaction with their information-seeking behaviour. Conclusion. Providing valuable information sources, and removing information seeking barriers, can improve information-seeking behaviour of extension specialists and managers.
Buurman, M.B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2013; 27; 406-413 Women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour: a qualitative interview study Aims: To explore women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour. Methods: We interviewed 26 pati
S. R. Girija
Libraries develop their collections, facilities and services to meet the information needs of their patrons. However, in order to accomplish this task effectively, libraries must have a thorough understanding of the information needs and information seeking behavior of their users. This article examines the information - seeking behaviour of scholars in the Internet era. The articles focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information seeking process in s...
Borgers, A.W.J.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; H J P Timmermans
Conventional choice-models are based on the assumption of a stable utility function. Previous studies have indicated that this assumption may be less valid for certain types of choice-behaviour. In this paper the idea of variety seeking is put forward as a possible explanation for varied choice-behaviour. A model is developed and tested in the context of recreational choice-behaviour.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.
... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for Health Planners ... Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity ...
The study focuses on pregnant women health seeking behavior and access opportunities to maternal health care service in Banke district, Nepal. Social structure, health delivery system, and barriers influence such behavior and opportunities. The objectives of this study are: to study the health seeking behavior of pregnant women; including their socio-demographic characteristics, their social structures, and influence to modern health care delivery system structure and to examine the barriers ...
Liljestrand Jerker; Jonsson Cecilia; Rööst Mattias; Essén Birgitta
Abstract Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss) identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. T...
Copping, L.; Campbell, A; Muncer, S.
Impulsivity has often been invoked as a proximate driver of different life-history strategies. However, conceptualisations of “impulsivity” are inconsistent and ambiguities exist regarding which facets of impulsivity are actually involved in the canalisation of reproductive strategies. Two variables commonly used to represent impulsivity were examined in relation to reproductive behaviour. Results demonstrated that sensation seeking was significantly related to strategy-based behaviour, but i...
Bennett Linda Rae; Wiweko Budi; Hinting Aucky; Adnyana IB Putra; Pangestu Mulyoto
Abstract Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive tec...
Allen E. Foster
Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.
Sapa, Remigiusz; Krakowska, Monika; Janiak, Malgorzata
Introduction: The paper presents original research designed to explore and compare selected aspects of the information seeking behaviour of mathematicians (scientists and students) on the Internet. Method: The data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed at the end of 2011 and in January 2012. Twenty-nine professional mathematicians and…
Trakroo P L
Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to assess the perception and management of sickness among rural population in Haryana State. The relationship between medical care seeking behaviour with dependency scale and skepticism about medical care scale has also been explained. The dependency scale measures the degree of dependence on others for management of sickness and the skepticism scale highlights the degree of reliance on other systems of medicine than modern medical care for treatment of sickness in a person (Edward Suchman1995. This study is based on 273 households drawn from three villages of Beri Block in Rohtak District. Out of the 34 villages in block, one village named as PHC village was selected having institutional facility of primary health center and from it 10 percent of the total households were drawn on simple random sampling basis. The two other villages named as non PHC villages were drawn form those villages which were around 10-15 kilometers away from any health facility and out of these villages 50 percent of the households were selected. Information from all householders were collected through interview schedules. An attempt has also been made to establish a pattern of seeking medical care in terms of the socio-economic classification of villagers as well as its caste structure
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.
Asampong, Emmanuel; Dwuma-Badu, Kwaku; Stephens, Judith; Srigboh, Roland; Neitzel, Richard; Basu, Niladri; Julius N. Fobil
Background Electronic waste workers are prone to various illnesses and injuries from numerous hazards thus the need for them to seek health care. The aim of this study was to describe health-seeking behavior, and social and other factors affecting this behavior, among electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed qualitatively from a grounded theory perspective. Results Workers experienced various kinds of ailments. These inclu...
During domestication, the dog( Canis familiaris), have become skilful in understanding human communication and also in communicating with humans. The wolf ( Canis lupus), is not as skilled with this interspecific communication. When dogs are faced with an unsolvable problem, they seek help from human by e.g. gazing at them. This behaviour has been studied and both age and breed group differences have been showed. In this study, we presented dogs with a task that consisted of a solvable and un...
Allen E. Foster
The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed ...
Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis
This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.
Thompson, Robin; Miller, Nigel; Witter, Sophie
This paper seeks to analyse the findings of an extensive household survey, uncovering interesting evidence of variation in health-seeking behaviour across rural and urban areas due, it is suggested, to differences in real costs, quality of care, and perceptions of the value of health and health care. It is shown that, ceteris paribus, urban households in Kazakhstan are more likely to consult, to be admitted to hospital, to report illness, and will spend relatively more on health care. The data suggest the need for further qualitative study into the factors underlying these patterns leading to strategies to increase the quality, acceptability and affordability of rural health services. This is important given the decline in health indicators such as life expectancy in Kazakhstan and the increased burden on households of funding health care in a time of economic insecurity and deterioration of public services. PMID:12825208
Fisher, M J; Ewigman, B; Campbell, J; Benfer, R; Furbee, L; Zweig, S
To assess the relationship of cognitive factors to a pregnant woman's decision to seek prenatal care, a semi-structured interview instrument was administered to 30 women soon after they were seen for care. A content analysis of interview transcripts was performed to identify variables affecting the decision to seek care. Variables were coded numerically, and those correlated with number of weeks gestation at first visit for pregnancy care were entered into a stepwise linear multiple regression model. Three variables accounted for 74% of the variance in the week of gestation at which pregnancy care began. Women who desired the pregnancy, wished confirmation of the pregnancy, and experienced pregnancy-related symptoms tended to seek care earlier. Results were discussed in terms of the usefulness of this integration of quantitative and qualitative methods for the study of factors related to seeking pregnancy care and the need to consider cognitive factors when designing programs to improve the delivery of prenatal care. PMID:1936719
Low, Lee Lan; Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun
This qualitative study aimed to explore the influence of social networks such as family members, friends, peers, and health care providers toward the help-seeking behaviour (HSB) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the public and private primary care settings. In-depth interviews of 12 patients, 9 family members, and 5 health care providers, as well as 3 focus groups among 13 health care providers were conducted. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim for qualitative analysis. Social influences play a significant role in the help-seeking process; once diagnosed, patients source information from people around them to make decisions. This significant influence depends on the relationship between patients and social networks or the level of trust, support, and comforting feeling. Thus, the impacts on patients' help-seeking behavior are varied. However, the help-seeking process is not solely an individual's concern but a dynamic process interacting with the social networks within the health care system. PMID:26219560
Harmsen, Irene A; Doorman, Gemma G; Mollema, Liesbeth; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E.
Background People want to be well informed and ask for more information regarding their health. The public can use different sources (i.e. the Internet, health care providers, friends, family, television, radio, and newspapers) to access information about their health. Insight into the types and sources of vaccine related information that parents use, and reasons why they seek extra information is needed to improve the existing information supply about childhood vaccinations. Methods Dutch pa...
C. Pires; D. Silva; J. Maroco; S. Ginó; T. Mendes; B.A. Schmand; M. Guerreiro; A. de Mendonça
Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as c
Agrawal, Gopal; Keshri, Kunal
In the process of health transition, India is facing rapid pace of demographic aging. Rapid increase in older adult population posed serious concerns regarding health and health care utilization for them. However, very limited research documented resultant implications of demographic aging for health and health care use in the nexus of marital status and gender. With this perspective, the present study examined patterns in morbidity prevalence and health seeking behaviour among older widows i...
Dina Silva; João Maroco; Sandra Ginó; Tiago Mendes; Schmand, Ben A; Manuela Guerreiro; Alexandre Mendonça; Carolina Pires
Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC). The mini-mental stat...
Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Clarke, Gregory N; Green, Carla A.
This study examined the experiences of teenagers seeking and receiving care for depression from primary care providers. We investigated teens’ perceived barriers in obtaining care to determine how primary care can effectively address depressed teens’ stated needs. In-depth individual (n = 15) and focus group (n = 7) interviews with adolescents were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory and prominent themes were identified. Teenagers reported faring best when providers actively consider...
Full Text Available Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC. The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3±4.2 than those in the community (5.1±3.0. Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18% as compared to the community sample (11%. Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help.
Scott, Lionel D.; Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R.
This study examined the predisposition to seek mental health care in the future for personal and mental health problems among Black males transitioning from the foster care system (n=74). Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that custody status, diagnosis of a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder, and emotional control contributed significantly to the prediction of Black male's predisposition to seek mental health care. Specifically, Black males who were still in foster care wer...
Jamali Mahmuei, H. R.
The study of information-seeking behaviour of scientists has been one of the main concerns of librarians and information scientists since mid twentieth century and yet we need to improve our understanding of their information behaviour in order to maximise the efficiency of information services provided. This thesis studies the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers with an intradisciplinary approach in order to look at similarities and dissimilarities among the subfields...
Makri, S; Blandford, A.; Cox, A L
Information-seeking is important for lawyers, who have access to many dedicated electronic resources.However there is considerable scope for improving the design of these resources to better support information-seeking. One way of informing design is to use information-seeking models as theoretical lenses to analyse users’ behaviour with existing systems. However many models, including those informed by studying lawyers, analyse information-seeking at a high level of abstraction and are only ...
Plass, A.M.C.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Wal, G. van der
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine whether self-care behaviour increases after a self-care stimulating intervention that proved to be successful in reducing care-seeking behaviour for minor illnesses of Turkish and Dutch inhabitants of a deprived area in the Netherlands, and to s
Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.;
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. METHODS: The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with...
Seibaek, Lene; Petersen, Lone K; Blaakær, Jan;
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. METHODS: The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with...
Full Text Available This article reviews the condition of information seeking behavior in Iran with analytical and qualittatire approaches to exhibit a clear, scientific, and read condition of it. Published literature has been reviewed both in theoretical bases and accomplished researches. So, all published literature including books, articles, theses, and research plans that has been released and distributed in Iran and were effective in this domain, has been studied. Reviews showed that the information seeking behavior has had a developing trend in quality and quantity form the last seventeen years of its emerging in Iran. Lower than 4% of published literature has been translated. Most resources have studied the information seeking behavior in research form. Scholar’s information seeking behavior has been done in most researches (about 34% of all researches. Then students’ information seeking behavior (about 17% and researches’ information seeking behavior (about 14% has been done. The least attention has been about examination of publics’ information seeking behavior and public library members. Reviews show that most researches have been at science and research units of Azad University in Tehran and Ahvaz. According to accomplished analysis, most articles has been published in National Studies of Librarianship and Information quarterly (previously Faslname Ketab, Processing and management of Information quarterly, and Librarianship and Information quarterly, respectively. This domain has been focused by librarians and somewhat by specialists of agricultural, social communication science, course planning, and government management fields.
Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental
Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…
Full Text Available The paper analyzes premises of rent-seeking behaviour of economic actors on the banking service market in Ukraine. The authors determine essential economic consequences of rent-seeking behaviour in the national banking system and put forward some practical recommendations for improvement of governmental regulation of banking system as an important factor of strengthening of economic competitiveness and national security in Ukraine.
Aref-Adib, Golnar; O’Hanlon, Puffin; Fullarton, Kate; Morant, Nicola; Sommerlad, Andrew; Johnson, Sonia; Osborn, David
Background The Internet and mobile technology are changing the way people learn about and manage their illnesses. Little is known about online mental health information seeking behaviour by people with psychosis. This paper explores the nature, extent and consequences of online mental health information seeking behaviour by people with psychosis and investigates the acceptability of a mobile mental health application (app). Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with people with ...
Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.
In this paper, we describe our ongoing work which involves examining the information seeking behaviour of legal professionals. This work involves studying the behaviour of both academic and practicing lawyers with the long-term aim of integrating user-centred legal information seeking support into digital law libraries. We report preliminary findings from the initial phase of the study, which comprised a series of semistructured interviews and naturalistic observations of ac...
Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.
In this paper, we describe our ongoing work which involves examining the information seeking behaviour of legal professionals. This work involves studying the behaviour of both academic and practicing lawyers with the long-term aim of integrating user-centred legal information seeking support into digital law libraries. We report preliminary findings from the initial phase of the study, which comprised a series of semistructured interviews and naturalistic observations of academic law student...
Bitso, Constance; Fourie, Ina
Introduction: This paper reports a study on information-seeking behaviour of prospective geography teachers at the National University of Lesotho based on their experiences during teaching practice. It is part of a larger doctoral study on information needs and information-seeking patterns of secondary level geography teachers in Lesotho. Method:…
Bok, H.G.; Teunissen, P.W.; Spruijt, A.; Fokkema, J.P.; Beukelen, P. van; Jaarsma, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
CONTEXT: Why and how do students seek feedback on their performance in the clinical workplace and which factors influence this? These questions have remained largely unanswered in research into workplace learning during clinical clerkships. Research on feedback has focused mainly on feedback provide
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.
Maginsh Dahal; Kushalata Baral
Background and Objectives: Health seeking behavior is the behavior of seeking health care during diseased condition. Various studies from developing countries have reported that delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number can lead to large number of child deaths. The study was carried out to assess the health seeking behavior during child morbidity and availability of modern health care facilities among Minority groups of people. Methods: A descr...
textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health sector The first determinant was studied in urban and rural areas of Nyanza, the province in the west of Kenya which has the highest HIV prevalence. The latter two determinants were studied in the capital o...
Background: A range of factors contribute to men with cancer having worse mortality and morbidity rates than women. The research specifically focused on psychosocial issues and health behaviours in men with cancer, and factors affecting help seeking behaviour. Methods: A mixed-methods study recruited adult men with cancer in the East of Scotland. The quantitative cross-sectional study explored psychosocial issues, health behaviours, and desire for support. Data from the Scottish Longitudin...
Full Text Available The present study intended to study the state of information seeking among 158 graduate students in University of Tehran and examine its correlation with students’ epistemological beliefs. A survey employing two sets of questionnaires was carried out. One set was devised by the author while the other was Schommers 63-item epistemological beliefs questionnaire. Findings indicated that there is a positive significance at 0.05 level between knowledge organization and students’ information relevancy judgments. Furthermore there is a positive significance at 0.001 level between knowledge management and time allocation. Learning speed and internalization of past knowledge however displayed a negative significance at 0.01 level. No significance was observed among the rest of epistemological beliefs aspects with other aspects of information seeking behavior
The present study intended to study the state of information seeking among 158 graduate students in University of Tehran and examine its correlation with students’ epistemological beliefs. A survey employing two sets of questionnaires was carried out. One set was devised by the author while the other was Schommers 63-item epistemological beliefs questionnaire. Findings indicated that there is a positive significance at 0.05 level between knowledge organization and students’ information releva...
Primary health care can be regarded as the boundary between society as a whole and the medical system. Many of the problems patients bring to doctors in primary care are concerned with their personalities and life situation, and can be considered together as problems of human behaviour. On being questioned in a waiting room, 15 per cent of patients considered their problem “psychosocial only”, and an additional 13 to 14 per cent “both somatic and psychosocial”.
Indira Dey (Pal
Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.
Edwards, Christine; Fox, Rebekah; Gillard, Steven; Gourlay, Stephen; Guven, Pinar; Jackson, Charles; Chambers, Mary; Drennan, Vari
The aims of the project were to analyse the information behaviour of health service managers in decision-making, to identify the facilitators and barriers to the use of information, and to develop guidelines for improving practice. The study employed a mixed methodology in two phases - five qualitative case studies, and a national survey of managers, and NHS librarians. Managers used a variety of different sources, online, written, people/ networks, and education and training courses. ...
George, C.; Bright, A.; T. Hurlbert; E.C. Linke; G. St. Clair; Stein, J
Introduction. This study explored graduate students' information behaviour related to their process of inquiry and scholarly activities. Method. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with one hundred graduate students representing all disciplines and departments from Carnegie Mellon University. Analysis. Working in pairs, we coded transcripts of interviews into meaningful categories using ATLAS.ti software. The combined use of quantitative and qualitative analysis aimed to re...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. Methods The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. Results A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14,009 visits during 2007. The women also had 6,214 contacts with various hospitals, and obtained 562 different diagnoses. From the main theme "Women's experiences with the onset of symptoms" three sub-themes were identified: "Bodily sensations", "From bodily sensation to symptom", and "Health seeking and treatment start". In all cases the General Practitioner represented the first contact to public health care, acting as gate-keeper to specialist and hospital referral. The women were major users of public health care throughout the diagnostic process and subsequent treatment. All women held personal knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. Conclusions Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being exclusively a medical problem, as the delay proved to be influenced by organisational, cultural, and social factors, too. Initiatives facilitating the diagnostic
Full Text Available Introduction. This study explored graduate students' information behaviour related to their process of inquiry and scholarly activities. Method. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with one hundred graduate students representing all disciplines and departments from Carnegie Mellon University. Analysis. Working in pairs, we coded transcripts of interviews into meaningful categories using ATLAS.ti software. The combined use of quantitative and qualitative analysis aimed to reduce subjectivity. Results. Graduate students often begin with a meeting with professors who provide direction, recommend and provide resources. Other students help to shape graduate students' research activities, and university library personnel provide guidance in finding resources. The Internet plays a major role, although students continue to use print resources. Convenience, lack of sophistication in finding and using resources and course requirements affect their information behaviour. Findings vary across disciplines and between programmes. Conclusion. Libraries can influence students' information behaviour by re-evaluating their instructional programmes and provision of resources and services. They can take a lead by working with academic staff to guide students.
Prendiville, T W
OBJECTIVES: To establish the information-seeking behaviours of paediatricians in answering every-day clinical queries. DESIGN: A questionnaire was distributed to every hospital-based paediatrician (paediatric registrar and consultant) working in Ireland. RESULTS: The study received 156 completed questionnaires, a 66.1% response. 67% of paediatricians utilised the internet as their first "port of call" when looking to answer a medical question. 85% believe that web-based resources have improved medical practice, with 88% reporting web-based resources are essential for medical practice today. 93.5% of paediatricians believe attempting to answer clinical questions as they arise is an important component in practising evidence-based medicine. 54% of all paediatricians have recommended websites to parents or patients. 75.5% of paediatricians report finding it difficult to keep up-to-date with new information relevant to their practice. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based paediatric resources are of increasing significance in day-to-day clinical practice. Many paediatricians now believe that the quality of patient care depends on it. Information technology resources play a key role in helping physicians to deliver, in a time-efficient manner, solutions to clinical queries at the point of care.
Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V; Støvring, Henrik; Hansen, Bjarne L; Soendergaard, Jens
Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and socioecono......Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and...... socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms....
Adamson Joy; Gooberman-Hill Rachael; Thorstensson Carina A; Williams Susan; Dieppe Paul
Abstract Background A large proportion of people living with hip or knee pain do not consult health care professionals. Pain severity is often believed to be the main reason for help seeking in this population; however the evidence for this is contradictory. This study explores the importance of several potential risk factors on help seeking across different practitioner groups, among adults living with chronic hip or knee pain in a large community sample. Methods Health care utilization, def...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The transition from childhood to adulthood occurs during adolescence period which is characterized by major biological changes like physical growth, sexual maturation and psycho-social development. During this phase of growth the girls first experience menstruation and related problems which is marked by feelings of anxiety and eagerness to know about this natural phenomenon. Present study was undertaken to determine health status of adolescent girls by studying morbidity patterns amongst them and to know treatment seeking behaviour of adolescent girls. Methods: This one year community based cross-sectional study was done at village Peeranwadi, PHC Kinaye, Belgaum. Four Hundred (400 adolescent girls were selected randomly from each block. Study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Information on socio-demographic variables, history regarding illness one month prior and treatment seeking behavior were recorded. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. Results: Majority (82.25% had age between 10 to 14 years and mean age of study population was 12.9±2.06 years and 98.5% were literates. Of 400 adolescent girls, 51% had attained menarche. The mean height, weight and BMI was less among 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years (p=0.000. In this study 15 (3.75% were married and of them 60% were pregnant and all had registered for antenatal care. Most common morbidity reported in last one month was GI infections (14.75%, fever (12.75% and dysmenorrhoea (12%. Prevalence of anaemia was 75% and 49.75% had mild, 20.75% had moderate and 4.5% had severe anaemia. 61.25% had taken treatment of which 74.69% visited health facility for treatment, 19.21% took home remedy and 6.12% did not take any treatment. The place of treatment was decided by themselves in 20.81% whereas 78.78% family members were
Mapp, Fiona; Hickson, Ford; Mercer, Catherine H; Wellings, Kaye
Background Social understandings of sexually transmitted infections and associated symptoms and care-seeking behaviour continue to lag behind advancements in biomedical diagnostics and treatment, perpetuating the burden of disease. There is a lack of research linking perceptions, experiences and care-seeking for sexual health issues, especially research conducted outside of medical settings. We aim to explore lay perceptions of STIs and how these influence experiences of genito-urinary sympto...
Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylène; Hanson, Kara
Low-income countries are plagued by a high burden of preventable and curable disease as well as unmet need for healthcare, but detailed microeconomic evidence on the relationship between supply-side factors and service use is limited. Causality has rarely been assessed due to the challenges posed by the endogeneity of health service supply.In this study, using data from Mozambique, we investigate the effect of healthcare service availability, measured as the type of health facilities and their level of staffing and equipment, on the individual decision to seek care. We apply an instrumental variable approach to test for causality in the effect of staff and equipment availability on the decision to seek care and we explore heterogeneous effects based on the distance of households to the closest health facility.We find that living in the proximity of a health facility increases the probability of seeking care. A greater availability of referral health services in the locality has no significant effect on decision to seek care, while greater availability of staff and equipment increases the probability of seeking care when ill. Demand side barriers to health care use exist, but have a smaller impact when health care services are available within one hour walking distance. PMID:26329425
Moeller, Scott J.; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.
Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. S...
Westerhof, G.J.; Maessen, M.; Bruijn, R. de; Smets, B.
Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural contr
Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth
Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521
Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence. PMID:27163711
Chunlin Jin; Fen Li; Linan Wang; Shanlian Hu; Changying Wang
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of external-care-seeking, explore the framework to regulate patients’ seeking doctor behavior and to promote better medical resources allocation. Methods: Obtaining data from regular reports from public medical institutions in Shanghai, comparing patients who seek doctors from out-of-Shanghai residence and local patients with insurance in terms of the quantity of service, types of diseases, medical expenses, etc. Results: External-care-seeking has a large qu...
Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar
Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758
Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.
Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264
Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in
Risqa Rina Darwita; Peter Andreas; Febriana Setyawati; Iwani Amalliah
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the health care seeking behavior of orofacial pain on female in different socioeconomic condition. Methods: The sampling was multistage cluster random sampling in 328 female adults who lived in Central Jakarta. The association between variables of socio-economy and health care seeking behavior was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The results were indicated that education factor had a significant correlation with health care seeking b...
Ikenna K. Ndu
Full Text Available Background. Efforts to reduce child mortality especially in Africa must as a necessity aim to decrease mortality due to pneumonia. To achieve this, preventive strategies such as expanding vaccination coverage are key. However once a child develops pneumonia prompt treatment which is essential to survival is dependent on mothers and caregiver recognition of the symptoms and danger signs of pneumonia. Methods. This community based cross-sectional study enrolled four hundred and sixty-six caregivers in Enugu state. It aimed to determine knowledge of caregivers about danger signs of pneumonia and the sociodemographic factors that influence knowledge and care seeking behaviour of caregivers. Results. There is poor knowledge of the aetiology and danger signs of pneumonia among caregivers. Higher maternal educational attainment and residence in semiurban area were significantly associated with knowledge of aetiology, danger signs, and vaccination of their children against pneumonia. Fast breathing and difficulty in breathing were the commonest known and experienced WHO recognized danger signs while fever was the commonest perceived danger sign among caregivers. Conclusion. Knowledge of danger signs and health seeking behaviour among caregivers is inadequate. There is need for intensified public and hospital based interventions targeted at mothers to improve their knowledge about pneumonia.
Stian Reimers; Balmer, Nigel J.; Pascoe Pleasence
When faced with a broad range of justiciable problems, people seek advice for around half of them, and advice from lawyers on around 13% of occasions. Various factors have been found to link to advice seeking behaviour, but it is commonly recognized that problem type ‘swamps’ other factors. This study draws on an Internet survey of 1,031 respondents, aged between 16 and 66, in which respondents were presented with a range of problem scenarios and asked to place them on a severity scale, chara...
Law, Colleen Ashleigh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological wellbeing and uniqueness seeking behaviour. Early research in psychology has primarily followed a pathogenic approach, focusing on the way in which stressful life events predispose an individual to negative health outcomes. More recently a number of theorists and researchers have adopted a salutogenic approach, which refers to the origins of physical and mental health and explores the factors th...
Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Splinter, Ted A.W.; Themmen, Axel P.N.
CONTEXT Medical students often fail to finish medical school within the designated time. An academic dismissal (AD) policy aims to enforce satisfactory progress and to enable early identification and timely support or referral of struggling students. In this study, we assessed whether the implementation of an AD policy improved study progress in the first 2 years of medical school. Additionally, we analysed its effect on the help-seeking behaviour of struggling students. METHODS We compared t...
Ivana Furi; Kornelija Petr Balog
Purpose: The paper presents selected findings of a small-scale pilot study on the actual information-seeking behaviour of the Osijek University students in the digital environment.Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was conducted on the sample of six graduate students of different social science disciplines (information sciences, psychology, economy, cultural management) who were asked to perform searches in order to provide answers to several information tasks. The research m...
Chandraprabha Patgar; M. G. Huddar
Every tribal society irrespective of its folk and urban cultural elements would have been disappeared, had if not been recognized the notion of health Seeking behaviour. Siddhis in the state are small, homogeneous, typical language and isolated human group. According to the Bombay Gazetteer the Siddhis were escaped from Goa from their masters and settled in India and Yellapur Talukas, Uttar-Kannada District. They are described as having a black skin, curly hair, sloping forehead and thick lip...
S.F. Luis; N. Kamp; E.M.H. Mitchell; K. Henriksen; F. van Leth
SETTING: A passive case-finding strategy as present in the DOTS strategy presupposes a patient's willingness to seek care. This requires awareness of tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and the diagnostic process, and positive attitudes towards access and probability of cure. OBJECTIVE: To measure parameters
museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich, qualitative data to validate and elaborate the characteristics of online museum visitors' information-seeking behaviour. Analysis. Based on the serious leisure perspective, data analysis led to the identification of two different user groups named......Introduction. This paper explores the characteristics of online museum visitors in an everyday life, information-seeking context. Method. A triangulation of research methods was applied. A Web questionnaire survey gave initial, quantitative information about online museum visitors to a military...... research area of everyday life information seeking within serious leisure. It also contributes to the emerging field of museum informatics by adding to the characteristics of the online museum visitor....
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents selected findings of a small-scale pilot study on the actual information-seeking behaviour of the Osijek University students in the digital environment.Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was conducted on the sample of six graduate students of different social science disciplines (information sciences, psychology, economy, cultural management who were asked to perform searches in order to provide answers to several information tasks. The research method used in the research was a think-aloud method where the respondents were asked to verbalise their thoughts and feelings while performing the simulated search tasks. The respondents were video-recorded and the transcripts of video material were subsequently analysed and interpreted.Research limitations: The small and convenient sample limits the findings.Originality/Value: The results provide the useful insight into the information behaviour of students in the electronic environment (their search strategy, search steps, feelings, etc. but surprisingly reveals the poor information seeking skills of information-science students.Keywords: students, information seeking behaviour, digital environment, University of Osijek
textabstractThe study described in this thesis explores ethnic differences in the process of help-seeking for emotional and behavioural problems in 5-6-year-old children in a Dutch preventive care setting. Research has shown that early detection of emotional and behavioural problems in childhood is possible and can be beneficial to a child’s development, well-being and health [1-3]. Preventive child health care services, like we know in the Netherlands, can be regarded as an ideal setting for...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in
Blackstock, Oni J; Blank, Arthur E; Fletcher, Jason J; Verdecias, Niko; Cunningham, Chinazo O
We sought to examine characteristics of HIV-positive women with varying levels of engagement in care and care-seeking behaviors. From 2010 to 2013, in a multi-site US-based study of engagement in care among HIV-positive women, we conducted baseline interviews, which included socio-demographic, clinical, and risk behavior characteristics, and barriers to care. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare differences among three distinct categories of 748 women: engaged in care; not engaged in care, but seeking care ("seekers"); and not engaged in care and not seeking care ("non-seekers"). Compared with women in care, seekers were more likely to be uninsured and to report fair or poor health status. In contrast, non-seekers were not only more likely to be uninsured, but, also, to report current high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors, and less likely to report transportation as a barrier to care. Examining care-seeking behaviors among HIV-positive women not engaged in care revealed important differences in high-risk behaviors. Because non-seekers represent a particularly vulnerable population of women who are not engaged in care, interventions targeting this population likely need to address drug use and be community-based given their limited interaction with the health care system. PMID:25561307
Klein Eili Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is currently the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria infections. However, a significant proportion of ACT is assumed to be of poor quality, particularly in Africa. In addition, little is known about how treatment-seeking behaviour of individuals or drug price is associated with drug quality. Methods Caregivers of children less than 5 years of age were interviewed on their knowledge of malaria and their choices for treatment. Artemisinin drugs were then purchased from sellers that caregivers preferred or had previously patronized. The active ingredients were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results A negative relationship was anticipated between the education level of caregivers and the quality of anti-malarial drugs purchased. However, of the 33 drugs collected from 16 different shops, only one contained less than 80% of its purported active ingredient, and most drugs were within 90% of their listed amounts. No link was found between drug quality and price. Nonetheless, while ACT is the recommended first-line treatment in Ghana, 21% of the drugs collected were artemisinin monotherapy, and 27% of the ACT was not co-formulated. Among caregivers, higher education was found to be associated with both an increased likelihood of seeking treatment in a clinic first, as opposed to visiting drug shops or using herbal remedies, and with purchasing drugs from licensed sellers. Conclusion Surprisingly, drug quality was found to be uniformly high and thus no significant relationship between price, treatment-seeking behaviour and the content of the active ingredients was observed. However, artemisinin monotherapy, which the WHO considers inappropriate therapy, was still widely available in Ghana in 2010. Monotherapy was more likely to be available in unlicensed vendors where less-educated caregivers generally shopped. This linkage between education
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.
The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…
Full Text Available Background: Care for women and babies before, during, and after the time of birth is a sensitive measure of the functionality of any health system. Engaging communities in preventing newborn deaths is a promising strategy to achieve further progress in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To assess the effect of a home visit strategy combined with health facility strengthening on uptake of newborn care-seeking, practices and services, and to link the results to national policy and scale-up in Uganda. Design: The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST was a two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial in rural eastern Uganda. In intervention villages volunteer community health workers (CHWs were trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits (two during pregnancy and three in the first week after birth to offer preventive and promotive care and counselling, with extra visits for sick and small newborns to assess and refer. Health facility strengthening was done in all facilities to improve quality of care. Primary outcomes were coverage of key essential newborn care behaviours (breastfeeding, thermal care, and cord care. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as a clinical trial, number ISRCTN50321130. Results: The intervention significantly improved essential newborn care practices, although many interventions saw major increases in both arms over the study period. Immediate breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (72.6% vs. 66.0%; p=0.016 and 81.8% vs. 75.9%, p=0.042, respectively. Skin-to-skin care immediately after birth and cord cutting with a clean instrument were marginally higher in the intervention arm versus the control arm (80.7% vs. 72.2%; p=0.071 and 88.1% vs. 84.4%; p=0.023, respectively. Half (49.6% of the mothers in the intervention arm waited more than 24 hours to bathe the baby, compared to 35.5% in
Neela J. Deshpande
Full Text Available This article reports the results of a study of the information seeking behaviour of faculty members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire from seven faculties in Rajabhat Universities. Results show that most of respondents (forty one percent stated their method of seeking information by consulting a knowledgeable person in the field. Two hundred and thirteen respondents (82 percent seek information for preparing lectures. Fifty-four percent of faculty members access more documents was references from a book. It is revealed that most of the faculty members (57 percent used textbooks. Seventy four percent of respondents read information materials in Thai and twenty four percent read materials in English. The Internet had been almost universally adopted; they trace materials from the library via the Internet. Google.com was used for searching information by respondents. They use frequently e-mail for communication. It is found that 42 percent of respondents use the ERIC (Education Resources Information Centre database. The majority of respondents faced the common problem while seeking information i.e. unavailability of information.
Abstract Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were ...
Tu, Ha T; Cohen, Genna R
In 2007, 56 percent of American adults--more than 122 million people--sought information about a personal health concern, up from 38 percent in 2001, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Use of all information sources rose substantially, with the Internet leading the way: Internet information seeking doubled to 32 percent during the six-year period. Consumers across all categories of age, education, income, race/ethnicity and health status increased their information seeking significantly, but education level remained the key factor in explaining how likely people are to seek health information. Although elderly Americans--65 and older--sharply increased their information seeking, they still trail younger Americans by a substantial margin, especially in using Internet information sources. Consumers who actively researched health concerns widely reported positive impacts: More than half said the information changed their overall approach to maintaining their health, and four in five said that the information helped them to better understand how to treat an illness or condition. PMID:18770913
Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M.; Hickie, Ian B
Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression...
Oshima Sumiko; Kisa Kengo; Terashita Takayoshi; Kawabata Hidenobu; Maezawa Masaji
Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured foc...
Svihra J; Luptak J; Svihrova V; Mesko D
Jan Svihra,1 Jan Luptak,1 Viera Svihrova,2 Dusan Mesko31Department of Urology, 2Department of Public Health, 3Department of Sports Medicine, Jessenius School of Medicine, Martin, Slovak RepublicBackground: Barriers to seeking care for urinary incontinence are specific, objective, external conditions that prevent incontinence sufferers from seeking treatment. The aim of this study was to compare barriers, gender, and health care disparities in incontinence sufferers.Methods: Incontinent patien...
Full Text Available Objectives ‐ To gain insight into the extent to which user information‐seeking behaviours should inform the design and development of Digital Libraries in an academic setting, a study was carried out at Dalhousie University, Canada to explore the information‐seeking behaviours of business students.Methods ‐ The students studied were drawn from the School of Business Administration at Dalhousie University, Canada. The study was based on qualitative and quantitative data collected through a survey, in‐depth semi‐structured interviews, observational study and document analysis. Qualitative case study data was coded using QSR N6 qualitative data analysis software. The data was categorized using Atkinson’s “Model of BusinessInformation Users’ Expectations” and Renda and Straccia‘s personalized collaborative DL model. Atkinson’s model defines the expectations of business students in terms of cost, time,effort required, pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Renda and Straccia’s model of a personalized and collaborative digital library centres around three concepts: actors, objects, and functionality. The survey data was analysed using the Zoomerang software.Results ‐ The study results revealed that students tend to select resources based on cost(free or for fee, accessibility, ease of use, speed of delivery (of results, and convenience. The results showed that similar to Atkinson’s findings, the business students’ information seeking behaviour is influenced by the concepts of cost‐benefit and break‐even analyses that underlie business education. Concerning speed of delivery and convenience, the organization of the resources was paramount. Students preferred user‐defined resource lists, alert services, and expert‐created business resource collections. When asked about the usefulness of potential digital library functionalities, students valued a personalized user interface and communal virtual spaces to share
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people living with hip or knee pain do not consult health care professionals. Pain severity is often believed to be the main reason for help seeking in this population; however the evidence for this is contradictory. This study explores the importance of several potential risk factors on help seeking across different practitioner groups, among adults living with chronic hip or knee pain in a large community sample. Methods Health care utilization, defined as having seen a family doctor (GP during the past 12 months; or an allied health professional (AHP or alternative therapist during the past 3 months, was assessed in a community based sample aged 35 or over and reporting pain in hip or knee. Adjusted odds ratios were determined for social deprivation, rurality, pain severity, mobility, anxiety/depression, co-morbidities, and body mass index. Results Of 1119 persons reporting hip or knee pain, 52% had pain in both sites. Twenty-five percent of them had seen a doctor only, 3% an AHP only, and 4% an alternative therapist only. Thirteen percent had seen more than one category of health care professionals, and 55% had not seen any health care professional. In the multivariate model, factors associated with consulting a GP were mobility problems (OR 2.62 (1.64-4.17, urban living (OR 2.40 (1.14-5.04 and pain severity (1.28 (1.13-1.44. There was also some evidence that obesity was associated with increased consultation (OR 1.72 (1.00-2.93. Factors were similar for consultation with a combination of several health care professionals. In contrast, seeing an alternative therapist was negatively associated with pain severity, anxiety and mobility problems (adjusting for age and sex. Conclusion Disability appears to be a more important determinant of help-seeking than pain severity or anxiety and depression, for adults with chronic pain in hip or knee. The determinants of seeking help from alternative practitioners
Catherine A. Johnson
Full Text Available It is an almost universal finding in studies investigating human information behaviour that people choose other people as their preferred source of information. An explanation for the use of people as information sources is that they are easier to approach than more formal sources and therefore are a "least effort" option. However there have been few studies that have investigated who the people chosen as information sources are and what their relationship to the information seeker is. This paper reports findings that come out of a larger investigation of the information seeking behaviour of a random sample of residents of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Using the theory of social capital as a conceptual framework and the methods of social network analysis, this study investigated the relational factors associated with the choice of people as information sources. Results indicate that respondents chose people who had better resources than they had and were not well known by them. This suggests that respondents were deliberate in their choice of people information sources and therefore it is speculated that people are not necessarily the least effort option but may require considerable effort to seek out and consult.
Baracz, Sarah J; Everett, Nicholas A; McGregor, Iain S; Cornish, Jennifer L
The psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive illicit drug. Systemic administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates METH-related reward and METH-seeking behaviour. Recent findings demonstrated a reduction in METH-induced reward by oxytocin administration into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. It is not known, however, if oxytocin acts in this region to reduce relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Using the drug reinstatement paradigm in rats experienced at METH self-administration, we aimed to determine whether oxytocin pre-treatment within the NAc core would reduce relapse to METH use and if this could be reversed by the co-administration of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to implant an intravenous jugular vein catheter and bilateral microinjection cannulae in the NAc core. Rats were then trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) by lever press during 2-hour fixed ratio 1 scheduled sessions for 20 days. Following extinction of lever press activity, the effect of microinjecting saline, oxytocin (0.5 pmol, 1.5 pmol, 4.5 pmol) or co-administration of oxytocin (1.5 pmol) and desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (1 nmol, 3 nmol) in the NAc core (500 nl/side) was examined on METH-primed (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviour. Our results showed oxytocin directly administered into the NAc core decreased METH-primed reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the selective OTR antagonist did not specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of oxytocin on METH priming, suggesting mediation by receptors other than the OTR. These findings highlight an important modulatory effect of oxytocin in the NAc core on relapse to METH seeking. PMID:25399704
Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.
McLemore, Monica; Levi, Amy
In its first issue in 1972, JOGNN published a review article reporting surveillance data about abortions in the United States (Bourne, Kahn, Conger, & Tyler, 1972). This historical article predated Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion. Since this landmark decision, numerous articles have addressed nurses' role in abortion care. We review current literature on nurses and abortion care and use thematic categories to highlight areas of investigation. PMID:22273447
Although emotional and behavioural problems are relatively common in children and adolescents, they are rarely brought to the attention of general practitioners (GPs) or mental health professionals. The main aim of this study was to investigate the process of help-seeking for child and adolescent ps
Medley, Graham F; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Olliaro, Piero L; Adams, Emily R
Countries in the Indian subcontinent have committed to reducing the incidence of kala-azar, a clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis, to below 1 in 10,000 by 2020. We address the role of timing of use and accuracy of diagnostics in kala-azar control and elimination. We use empirical data on health-seeking behaviour and health-system performance from the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepal to parameterize a mathematical model. Diagnosis of cases is key to case management, control and surveillance. Treatment of cases prevents onward transmission, and we show that the differences in time to diagnosis in these three settings explain the observed differences in incidence. Shortening the time from health-care seeking to diagnosis is likely to lead to dramatic reductions in incidence in Bihar, bringing the incidence down to the levels seen in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining population and health-system awareness, particularly as transmission and disease incidence decline. We explore the possibility of diagnosing patients before the onset of clinical kala-azar (before 14 days fever), and show that this could have a marked impact on incidence, even for a moderately sensitive test. However, limited specificity (that results in false positives) is a major barrier to such a strategy. Diagnostic tests of high specificity used at an early stage of active infection, even if sensitivity is only moderate, could have a key role in the control of kala-azar, and prevent its resurgence when paired with the passive health-care system and tests of high sensitivity, such as the test for rK39 antibody response. PMID:26633763
van Weel, Chris
As a result of disappointing experiences in managing problem behaviour presented by patients in general practice, a system of team or group-based care was developed at the Ommoord Health Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.
Ivynian, S E; DiGiacomo, M; Newton, P J
Over 50 % of heart failure (HF) patients delay seeking help for worsening symptoms until these reach acute levels and require emergency hospitalisation. This metasynthesis aimed to identify and explore factors influencing timely care-seeking in patients with HF. Electronic databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed journal articles, written in English, and reported perspectives of HF patients following qualitative data collection and analysis. Forty articles underwent analysis following the approach of Thomas and Harden. Leventhal's self-regulatory model (SRM) was used to organise the literature. Much of the literature fits within the SRM; however, this model did not account for all factors that influence patients' care-seeking for worsening symptoms. Factors not accounted for included patients' appraisals of previous care-seeking experiences, perceived system and provider barriers to accessing care, and the influence of external appraisals. When added to factors already represented in the model, such as misattribution of symptoms, not identifying with HF diagnosis, cognitive status, lack of understanding information provided, adaptation to symptoms, and emotional responses, a more comprehensive account of patients' decision-making was revealed. This metasynthesis identified factors, as yet unaccounted for, in a prominent model, and has suggested a more comprehensive framework for addressing care-seeking in HF patients. This information can be used to tailor education, communication, and service initiatives to improve HF patients' responses to worsening symptoms and target those most at risk of delay. PMID:26456919
Prach, Lisa M; Treleaven, Emily; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Liu, Jenny
Background To achieve health development goals, policymakers are increasingly focused on improving primary care in low- and middle-income countries, and private sector drug retailers offer one channel through which basic services may be delivered. In Nigeria, patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs) serve as a main source of medications, but little is known about their clientele or how care is sought at PPMVs for common illnesses. We explore differences in care-seeking at PPMV shops ba...
Whealin, Julia M; Kuhn, Eric; Pietrzak, Robert H
Despite the availability of effective mental health interventions, the vast majority of veterans with a mental disorder underutilize psychological services. Contemporary research has revealed that several factors such as low education, stigma, stoicism, lack of knowledge, and negative beliefs about mental health services are associated with veterans' underutilization of services. In this article, the authors provide an overview of factors that affect symptomatic veterans' decisions about whether to seek mental health services. Second, they describe the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), a useful model for understanding mental health care seeking that can inform the development of technology-based interventions designed to increase veterans' willingness to seek psychological services. Third, the authors describe the development of Considering Professional Help, a personalized web-based tool developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which has been designed to promote mental health care seeking in veterans with mental health problems. PMID:25384001
Full Text Available The imposed query model provides a new way of thinking about whom the user is in information proving organizations and environments. It does this by making a distinction between questions that are self-generated (internally motivated by personal context and those that are imposed (thought up by one person then given to someone else to resolve. While the imposed query model represents familiar behaviour, it is a dimension of information seeking that has only recently been explicitly addressed and isolated for study. This article summarizes research on the imposed query in two different information providing contexts: the elementary school and the adult reference desk at the public library. Results reveal whom the imposers and agent users are in these environments and provide an assessment of how common imposed queries are in these contexts.
Robbins, Jonathan Leserman; Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Shiboski, Caroline; Kral, Alex H.
Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Phys...
The purpose of this study was to look at housing and health care services provided for asylum seeking women in Bradford, and whether service delivery meets their needs and expectations. This study used a qualitative research approach; the method of data collection was focused group interviews. The participants were selected from the Bradford Ecumenical Asylum Concern (BEACON) project. 10 women seeking asylum were interviewed and the interview data was analysed through the method of conten...
Benova, L.; Campbell, OM; Sholkamy, H; Ploubidis, GB
Introduction Socio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the fou...
Pradip Joshi, Alfred; Nikose, S.M.
The paper presents the various attitudes and behaviour in seeking information from engineering college libraries by users .Analysis shows that students ,teachers and scholars have been shown more affection to formal collection in libraries. As well as the information seeking from electronic resources with internet has given more preference.Impact of ICT has done more for users of Engineering College Libraries.Thus electronic print media are popular among users.
Pauline Singh, Jane E. Klobas & Karen Anderson
Full Text Available This article considers whether the way RM professionals manage records in accordance with the ISO 15489 standard is consistent with the information seeking behaviour (ISB of Electronic Records Management Systems (ERMS users. The empirical research includes an investigation of the ISB of ERMS users and how various factors, such as training, individual information seeking styles, tasks, and time, affect the ISB. Forty ERMS users in four Australian government organisations – in the utility, town council, banking and finance industries – participated in the study. Qualitative research methods (interviews and protocol analysis were used to develop a model of the ISB of ERMS users. An understanding of how ISO 15489 was implemented in the ERMSs of the organisations was obtained from interviews with the organisations’ records managers. The findings reveal that there is a partial match between the ISB of ERMS users and how the organisations implemented the ISO 15489 standard to manage records in the ERMSs. Users rely heavily on using the metadata elements included in the ERMSs. They are mostly happy with their ability to find records in the ERMSs, but they encounter difficulties and frustration when performing some searches. These searches could be completed more efficiently and effectively if users had a better understanding of the classification scheme or thesaurus, but records managers do not generally make these tools available to the users.
This study examines the buying behaviour of Finnish women related to facial skin care products. The primary purpose of the study is to discover the similarities and differences in the buying behaviour of young and middle-aged women when purchasing facial skin care products. The objective is to study what kinds of factors affect the buying behaviour of both young (20 to 35 years old) and middle-aged (40 to 60 years old) women and then compare the findings from both groups. Furthermore, the aim...
Li-Ying, Jason; Paunova, Minna; Egerod, Ingrid
of the questionnaire were used – one designed for nurse employees and the other for the managing nurse(s). An ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Results Different aspects of knowledge sharing affect innovation differently, depending on the strength of the control of care......Aims This study investigates the influence of intensive care unit nurses’ knowledge sharing behaviour on nurse innovation, given different conditions of care quality control. Background Health-care organisations face an increasing pressure to innovate while controlling care quality. We have little...... insight on how the control of care quality interacts with the knowledge sharing behaviour of intensive care nurses to affect their innovative behaviours. Methods We developed a multi-source survey study of more than 200 intensive care nurses at 22 intensive care units of 17 Danish hospitals. Two versions...
Full Text Available Background: Appropriate and timely care seeking reduces mortality for childhood illnesses including pneumonia. Despite over 90 000 Lady Health Workers (LHWs deployed in Pakistan, whose tasks included management of pneumonia, only 16% of care takers sought care from them for respiratory infections. As part of a community case management trial for childhood pneumonia, community mobilization interventions were implemented to improve care seeking from LHWs in Haripur district, Pakistan. The objective of the study was to increase the number of children receiving treatment for pneumonia and severe pneumonia by Lady Health Workers (LHWs through community mobilization approaches for prompt recognition and care seeking in 2 to 59 month–old children. Methods: To assess pneumonia care seeking practices, pre and post– intervention household surveys were conducted in 28 target Union Councils. Formative research to improve existing LHW training materials, job aids and other materials was carried out. Advocacy events were organized, LHWs and male health promoters were trained in community mobilization, non–functional women and male health committees were revitalized and LHWs and male health promoters conducted community awareness sessions. Results: The community mobilization interventions were implemented from April 2008 – December 2009. Project and LHW program staff organized 113 sensitization meetings for opinion leaders, which were attended by 2262 males and 3288 females. The 511 trained LHWs organized 6132 community awareness sessions attended by 50 056 women and 511 male promoters conducted 523 sessions attended by 7845 males. In one year period, the number of LHWs treating pneumonia increased from 11 in April 2008 to 505 in March 2009. The care seeking from LHWs for suspected pneumonia increased from 0.7% in pre–intervention survey to 49.2% in post–intervention survey. Conclusion: The increase in care seeking from LHWs benefited the community
Orejarena, María Juliana; Lanfumey, Laurence; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia
The serotonergic system appears crucial for (??)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reinforcing properties. Current evidence indicates that serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity and several behavioural responses related to the addictive properties of psychostimulants. This study evaluated the role of 5-HT2ARs in MDMA-induced reinforcement and hyperlocomotion, and the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviour. Basal and MDMA-stimulated extracellul...
Jensen, Jens Christian; Haahr, Jens Peder; Frost, Poul; Andersen, JH
OBJECTIVES: Musculoskeletal pain conditions remain a major cause of care-seeking in general practice. Not all patients with musculoskeletal pain (MP) seek care at their general practitioner (GP), but for those who do, the GP's knowledge of what work-related factors might have influenced the patient......'s decision to seek care could be important in order to give more well-founded advice to our patients. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of workloads on care-seeking for back pain or upper extremity pain during an eighteen-month follow-up period. METHODS: This is a prospective study...... among females. Repetitive work and psychosocial factors did not have any statistically significant impact on care-seeking for neither back pain nor upper extremity pain. CONCLUSION: Work-related factors such as heavy lifting do, to some extent, contribute to care-seeking with MP. We suggest that asking...
Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N
This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves. PMID:26627885
Stokes, Sonya; Seritan, Andreea L; Miller, Elizabeth
This study explored patterns of abuse and care seeking among women victims of gender-based violence (GBV) in Afghanistan. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 Afghan women (M age = 19 years) living in a shelter for victims of GBV. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Participants reported experiencing multiple forms of abuse. The majority received medical treatment for abuse-related health concerns. However, less than half reported abuse to health care providers or were asked by health care providers about the context of their injuries. Strategies to improve health care responses to GBV are needed to ensure safety and support for Afghan women. PMID:26681300
Mulder, Annelies A.; Boerma, Roelien P.; Barogui, Yves; Zinsou, Claude; Johnson, R. Christian; Gbovi, Jules; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje
Buruli ulcer is a devastating condition emerging in West Africa. We investigated why patients often report late to the hospital. Health seeking behaviour determinants and stigma were studied by in-depth interviews in patients treated in hospital (n = 107), patients treated traditionally (n = 46) of
Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H.
Background: The present study was designed to investigate the association between visual exploratory behaviour in early infancy, novelty seeking in adolescence, and the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotype. Methods: Visual attention was measured in 232 three-month-old infants (114 males, 118 females) from a prospective longitudinal study using a…
Eman Ramadan Ghazawy; Amany Edward Seedhom; Eman Mohamed Mahfouz
Objectives. To determine the barriers that hinder early seeking of medical care among Minia's myocardial infarction patients. Methods. The study was based on individual interviews with 207 men and women with a first confirmed myocardial infarction (MI), admitted to the coronary care units of hospitals in Minia city in the period from April 1 to August 30, 2014. Data was collected via structured questionnaire and patient medical charts. The delay was evaluated by assisting patients to triangul...
Eseigbe, Edwin E.; Anyiam, Jane O.; Ogunrinde, Gboye O.; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Zoaka, Hassan A.
Cerebral malaria is a significant cause of childhood morbidity in our region. The challenges of effective management include time and quality of treatment. The study appraised the health care seeking behavior of caregivers of sick children who developed cerebral malaria, in Zaria, northwestern Nigeria. Caregivers indentified were parents 29 (87.9%) and grandparents 4 (12.1%). Most of them were in the upper social classes. Health care options utilized before presentation at our facility were f...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Health seeking behavior is the behavior of seeking health care during diseased condition. Various studies from developing countries have reported that delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number can lead to large number of child deaths. The study was carried out to assess the health seeking behavior during child morbidity and availability of modern health care facilities among Minority groups of people. Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted among the minority group in Chandranighapur VDC of Rautahat District of Nepal. Among the total respondents only 100 respondents were selected purposively having child below 5 years of age on the household basis. Results: The study revealed that during the period of last one year all children were found to be exposed to any type of illness. Diarrhea, common cold and fever were the most leading cause of illness. One year incidence of childhood illness was higher among children of uneducated mothers. Similarly, children from joint families and from traditional household were found to be more likely to be exposed to sickness. Likewise, all of the respondents accepted treatment from modern health care services. Treatment success rate was found to be 100 percent. Feeding practices during diseased conditions were not found to be satisfactory and very few respondents knew about proper home care of these disease condition. Conclusions: Majority of respondents were found to seek modern health care for one year. Majority of respondents didn’t have access to modern health care facilities due to high transportation cost and high cost for medicine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. Methods A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Results Malaria (busa was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86% and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96% disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Conclusion Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour.
Le, Thuy-My; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; van Hoffen, Els; Lebens, Ans F. M.; Goossens, Nicole J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Knulst, Andre C.
Background: Food allergy (FA) affects 2-4% of adults, but only a small percentage visit an outpatient clinic for a thorough evaluation. Methods: A matched case-control study was used to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the Dutch general population that did not seek medical care for t
Full Text Available Abstract Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers. The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency to a general practitioner (GP, a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP. For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency, high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist. Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP, full time work (GP frequency and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist. Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to
Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: In a country like India, the mortality of under-five children is mainly due to acute respiratory infections (23% and diarrheal diseases (18% as per WHO report 2002. Aim: To assess the health seeking behavior in labour population for their children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was of children aged between 0-5 years whose parents were construction workers. A total of 450 children were selected for the study. RESULTS: Out of total 450 children the most common symptom reported were cough and cold in 225(50% children followed by fever among 189(42% children. The average duration of illness is 18.4 days in pneumonia followed by skin infections 11.8 days. Out of total 450 children, 360(80% of the children had at least one episode of morbidity and out of total 360 children, 265(73.6% were taken to the hospital, 70(19.4% purchased drugs, 21(5.8% used traditional medicine, 35(9.7% consulted traditional healers and no care was sought for 55(15.2% children. CONCLUSION: Considering the high prevalence of child morbidities and poor status of 'some desired practices' of caregivers at household level for sick children, Health care delivery system needs to be implemented to promote child health.
Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen
Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information. PMID:26575365
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.
Manderson, Lenore; Oldenburg, Brian; Lin, Vivian;
cardiovascular disease, which are among the most prevalent chronic conditions in Australia. Qualitative data collected in the first phase of the study informed the design of a self administered questionnaire, for people with cardiovascular disease or diabetes, to investigate care seeking, complementary therapy...... use and the relevance of social, locational, economic and cultural factors to health behaviour. Valid survey returns totalled 2915 (290 online and 2625 postal), providing a rich data set on health status, health care and costs, demographic and social information, and quality of life. In the 12 months...
Full Text Available Joanna Atkins,1 Sharon L Naismith,1 Georgina M Luscombe,2 Ian B Hickie1 1Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Rural Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Orange, NSW, Australia Objective: This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method: One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past. Results: From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking
Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring’s condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child’s sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research. PMID:26998319
Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth
Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring's condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child's sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research. PMID:26998319
Larsen, Anna; Exavery, Amon; Phillips, James F; Tani, Kassimu; Kanté, Almamy M
Objectives Four antenatal visits, delivery in a health facility, and three postnatal visits are the World Health Organization recommendations for women to optimize maternal health outcomes. This study examines maternal compliance with the full recommended maternal health visits in rural Tanzania with the goal of illuminating interventions to reduce inequalities in maternal health. Methods Analysis included 907 women who had given birth within two years preceding a survey of women of reproductive age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of maternal, household, and community-level characteristics on four alternative classes defining relative compliance with optimal configuration of maternal health care seeking behavior. Results Parity, wealth index, timeliness of ANC initiation, nearest health facility type, religion, and district of residence were significant predictors of maternal health care seeking when adjusted for other factors. Multiparous women compared to primiparous were less likely to seek care at the high level [RRR 0.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.46], at the mid-level (RRR 0.22, 95 % CI 0.09-0.58), and the mid-low level (RRR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.09-0.80). Women in the highest wealth index compared to those in the poorest group were almost three times more likely to seek the highest two levels of care versus the lowest level (high RRR 2.92, 95 % CI 1.27-6.71, mid-level RRR 2.71, 95 % 1.31-5.62). Conclusion Results suggest that efforts to improve the overall impact of services on the continuum of care in rural Tanzania would derive particular benefit from strategies that improve maternal health coverage among multiparous and low socioeconomic status women. PMID:27194528
Full Text Available Background: This study explores help-seeking behaviour among women with Urinary Incontinence (UI. Help-seeking behaviour is interpreted as the result of a process which is influenced by several factors, such as the appraisal of symptoms, individual characteristics, experiences within the health-care system, especially with regard to health professionals' reactions to personal needs, social norms, and information about health issues. Methods: The study was carried out between 2012 and 2014 in Northern Germany and followed an exploratory qualitative study design. Four semi-structured focus group interviews were undertaken with women affected by involuntary loss of urine. 49 women, aged 41 to 86 years old, participated in the focus groups. Thorough sampling of study participants was carried out to warrant demographic and cultural variation and, resultantly, the completeness of perspectives relevant to this field. The verbatim transcripts of the interviews were analyzed following the content analysis method of Mayring. The analysis combined deductive and inductive approaches. Results: Important barriers to seeking medical help were identified: women's interpretation of UI as a non-medical problem, the lack of knowledge about the causes and treatment of UI, shame and taboo, and the problem of naming and ldquo;it and rdquo;. Also, the study results showed factors which supported women's decision to seek medical help, notably the severity of symptoms or the women's feeling of losing control of her bodily functions and significant parts of everyday life. Conclusion: The results of the study allow recommendations about measures that can be taken to improve the situation of women affected with UI. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 826-835
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Trivers, Katrina F; Stewart, Sherri L
To investigate U.S. women's intended care seeking for symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined. Analyses were limited to women with no history of gynecologic cancer (N = 1726). Logistic regression models for intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were developed. A minority of women recognized that unexplained pelvic or abdominal pain (29.9%), unexplained bloating (18.1%), and feeling full after eating a small amount of food (10.1%) can indicate ovarian cancer, and 31.1% mistakenly believed that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test screens for the disease. In the multivariate regression models, the most consistent, significant predictors (p educational efforts should emphasize that symptoms associated with ovarian cancer may also result from benign conditions. PMID:27419020
Joanna Atkins,1 Sharon L Naismith,1 Georgina M Luscombe,2 Ian B Hickie1 1Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Rural Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Orange, NSW, Australia Objective: This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of dep...
Atkins J; Naismith SL; Luscombe GM; Hickie IB
Joanna Atkins,1 Sharon L Naismith,1 Georgina M Luscombe,2 Ian B Hickie1 1Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Rural Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Orange, NSW, Australia Objective: This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depress...
Abolghasem Pourreza; Aziz Batebi
"nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respo...
Pourreza, Abolghasem; Batebi, Aziz
Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and h...
Dan Friesner; Chris Stevens
Specialty health care practices are unique in that they exhibit a wide range of ownership types, from large corporations controlled by third parties to those directly owned by practitioners (physicians, therapists, etc.). Many of these practices also employ licensed assistants whose labor is partially substitutable with those of the practitioners. This paper presents a theoretical model that examines the impact that different levels of ownership have on rent-seeking behavior and efficiency wi...
Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth
Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring’s condition. Here, we make use of household data on health seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey ...
Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo Forero, Erley; Vincenti Gonzalez, Maria F.; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana
Background Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to u
Yulinar Wusanani; Djauhar Ismail; Rina Triasih
Background Delayed health care-seeking behavior is a cause of high mortality in children due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Factors that may affect health care-seeking behavior are socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, parents’ perception of illness, child’s age, number of children under five years of age in the family, and occurrence of natural disasters. The 2006 Central Java earthquake damaged homes and health care facilities, and led to increased poverty among t...
Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan
Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p URL: www.isrctn.com. PMID:26662809
Omidian, Faranak; Seifi Maleki, A.M. Masoomeh
The Internet has increasingly influenced the information-seeking behavior of students in higher education over the past few decades. The mass availability of information on the web has seen significant changes in the electronic information needs, information retrieval, and communication patterns (information seeking behavior) of university…
This paper deals with Kuwait’s current political paralysis and the stagnation of its democratic institutional development. In order to do so, it evaluates the ‘institutional settings’ of the Kuwaiti polity by applying rent-seeking theory. It therefore examines the spread of rent-seeking behavior as a factor that is eroding the existing political institutions.
Светлана Николаевна Дехнич
Full Text Available The research’s aim is to give health-social characteristic of contingents of the urban population, seeking for outpatient dental care, including a comparative estimation of stomatological index of life quality (SILQ by doctors and patients.Novelty: Was installed the difference in the estimation of work sets SILQ by doctors and patients.Methodology of the research work. It was used an advantage «Card of studying the dental health» for holding the research, including the objective and subjective expert estimations of the dental patient’s status by doctors. This information was comparing with the subjective estimation of SILQ by patients. The sample volume was about 400 people out of number of people, seeking for outpatient dental care in state budget dental clinics during 2011-2012 years.Results. Was installed mostly very high level of prevalence of caries, the destruction of fabrics of parodont reaches 100 % with the age. The stomatological index of life quality among the patients, seeking for outpatient care is low. One of the reasons- a low population’s sanitary culture. A big part of patients seek in case of acute pain(40%. Out of three components of SILQ the criteria of social welfare got rather high estimation. The lowest estimation was given to moral psychological well-being criteria. In this case the moral psychological well-being criteria was given a higher estimation by doctors then by patients (in 1,8. The criteria of the physical and social well-being is lower compared with the patient’s (in 1,8 and 1,2 times respectively.Practical implication: Indicators SILQ may be the basis for planning activities of stomatological polyclinics, including the preventive dentists’ work.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-46
Mbonye, Anthony K; Neema, Stella; Magnussen, Pascal
Malaria in pregnancy is a serious health problem that contributes greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality. This study investigated risk perceptions and care seeking practices for malaria in pregnancy among adolescents. Data were collected using focus group disusions(FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). Results showed that malaria was perceived as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. However, adolescent girls did not consider themselves at risk of malaria even when pregnant. Anaemia and low birth weight were not well understood and not related to malaria in pregnancy. Self-medication was common including over the counter drugs, herbs or a combination of both. When this failed, several options were taken such as seeking care at health units. People preferred to visit heath units with laboratory facilities, since investigations were valued and perceived useful. These investigations were locally known as okukebera omusayi, which translates to examining blood This local term is non-specific and used when patients are referred to laboratories to investigate diseases like HIV, syphilis and malaria. The use of this term however, discourages some people who are afraid of knowing their HIV status. Similarly, the notion that HIV/AIDS is spread thorough contaminated needles and syringes discourages people from giving blood for laboratory tests. In addition, the cost of investigations, fear of pain due to pricking, and the rudeness of laboratory technicians negatively influence seeking laboratory tests. Implications of these findings include developing a health promotion package that explains the dangers of self medication and advocates prompt seeking for malaria treatment especially for adolescents and primigravidae. Policy decisions to introduce rapid diagnostic kits (RDTs) in primary care units including drug shops are required in order to improve effective treatment of malaria. PMID:17340848
Reddy Vamsi P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions
Full Text Available Background Delayed health care-seeking behavior is a cause of high mortality in children due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs. Factors that may affect health care-seeking behavior are socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, parents’ perception of illness, child’s age, number of children under five years of age in the family, and occurrence of natural disasters. The 2006 Central Java earthquake damaged homes and health care facilities, and led to increased poverty among the residents. Objective To assess the relationship between socioeconomic status and mother’s health care-seeking behavior for children under five years of age with ARIs in a post-earthquake setting. Methods This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the Child Health Need Assessment (CHNA survey. Logistic regression test was used to analyze variables that may affect mother’s health care-seeking behavior for children under five years of age with ARIs. Results Of the 665 infants surveyed, 442 infants (66.5% had ARIs. Health care-seeking behavior was good (81.7% in the majority of mothers. We observed that socioeconomic status did not affect maternal health care-seeking behavior for children under five with ARIs (OR 1.33; 95%CI 0.79 to 2.24; P=0.26. Maternal age, maternal education, child’s age and gender, number of children under five in the family, parents’ perceptions of illness and severity of house damage caused by the earthquake also had no effect on maternal health care-seeking behavior for children with ARIs. Conclusion After the 2006 earthquake, we find that socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, child age, child gender, number of children under five in the family, parents’ perceptions of illness, and severity of house damage have no effect on mother’s health care-seeking behavior for their children with ARIs. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:144-9.].
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verhaak, P.F.M.; BENSING, J; Van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.
In order to understand the discrepancy between rates of child and adolescent psychopathology and rates of mental health service use, variables influencing the help-seeking process need to be investigated. The present article aims to extend and refine previous findings by reviewing 47 recent empirical studies on parental and adolescent problem recognition and help seeking, and problem recognition by the general practitioner (GP). Several variables (child age, the presence of medical and school...
Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J M; Van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.
In order to understand the discrepancy between rates of child and adolescent psychopathology and rates of mental health service use, variables influencing the help-seeking process need to be investigated. The present article aims to extend and refine previous findings by reviewing 47 recent empirical studies on parental and adolescent problem recognition and help seeking, and problem recognition by the general practitioner (GP). Several variables (child age, the presence of medical and school...
Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.
Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A. M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kikwilu, E.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demand for orthodontic treatment among 9-18 olds seeking dental care in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. DESIGN: Case-control, interview and clinical study. SETTINGS: Children seeking dental care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demand for orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: Most of the children (85%) in the case group attended the dental clinic because of crowding. Aesthetic impairment (AC grades 8-10) and severe malocclusions (DHC grades 4-5) were higher in cases than in controls b...
Shabila, NP; Al-Tawil, NG; Al-Hadithi, TS; Sondorp, E
Background: Information on health seeking behavior and beneficiaries' perception of the quality of primary care can help policy makers to set strategies to improve health system. With scarcity of research on this particular field in Iraqi Kurdistan region, we sought to explore the patterns of health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services of a sample of population. Methods: This explorative study was carried out in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected u...
Светлана Николаевна Дехнич; Вера Павловна Загороднова; Елена Александровна Торопина (Дмитриева); Ирина Михайловна Горбацевич (Романова)
The research’s aim is to give health-social characteristic of contingents of the urban population, seeking for outpatient dental care, including a comparative estimation of stomatological index of life quality (SILQ) by doctors and patients.Novelty: Was installed the difference in the estimation of work sets SILQ by doctors and patients.Methodology of the research work. It was used an advantage «Card of studying the dental health» for holding the research, including the objective and subjecti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective management of malaria in children under the age of 5 requires mothers to seek, obtain, and use medication appropriately. This is linked to timely decision, accessibility, correct use of the drugs and follow-up. The aim of the study is to identify the basis on which fever was recognized and classified and exploring factors involved in selection of different treatment options. Methods Data was obtained by interviewing 96 mothers who had brought their febrile children to selected health facilities, conduction of 10 focus group discussions with mothers at village level as well as by observation. Results A high score of mothers' knowledge and recognition of fever/malaria was recorded. Mothers usually start care at home and, within an average of three days, they shift to health workers if there was no response. The main health-seeking behaviour is to consult the nearest health facility or health personnel together with using traditional medicine or herbs. There are also health workers who visit patients at home. The majority of mothers with febrile children reported taking drugs before visiting a health facility. The choice between the available options determined by the availability of health facilities, user fees, satisfaction with services, difficulty to reach the facilities and believe in traditional medicine. Conclusion Mothers usually go through different treatment option before consulting health facilities ending with obvious delay in seeking care. As early effective treatment is the main theme of the control programme, implementation of malaria home management strategy is urgently needed to improve the ongoing practice.
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Nazan Özenç Uçak; Umut Al
Although the Internet has a rich content in terms of information, users are introuble while making search on the Internet. In this study we focused on not only studies in the literature about information seeking behaviour on the Internet but also Internet users which have different features and usage patterns. In addition to this the importance of user-system interaction, common user errors and the importance of user education for reducing these errors. Internet bilgi yönünden zengin bir içer...
Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân
Knowledge of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour was investigated in an area of low transmission in Uganda to help health services to plan for appropriate interventions to control malaria. Although knowledge of malaria symptoms, preventive methods and malaria risks was widespread, few were...... actually using insecticide-treated nets. Many patients (25%) had received treatment prior to visiting a health facility, with drug shops and general stores being the main sources of treatment. Some shops dispensed quinine, a second-line drug recommended for complicated malaria. Prescription practices of...
Yun, Katherine; Paul, Papia; Subedi, Parangkush; Kuikel, Leela; Nguyen, Giang T; Barg, Frances K
The objective of this study was to document barriers to care, help-seeking behaviors, and the impact of a community-based patient navigation intervention on patient activation levels among Bhutanese refugees in the U.S. Data sources comprised 35 intake and 34 post-intervention interviews with program participants, 14 intake and 14 post-intervention interviews with patient navigators, and 164 case notes. Textual data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Patient activation level was assessed at both time points. Participants had limited English proficiency (97 %), limited literacy (69 %), and the lowest level of patient activation (69 %). Participants routinely experienced complex insurance access, coverage, and payment problems and had limited healthcare-related life skills. Help-seeking began within social networks, with high reliance on bilingual, literate family members perceived to have experience with "the system." Help-seeking was not stigmatized and was instead consistent with societal norms valuing mutual assistance. Participants preferred helpers to act as proxies and required repeated social modeling by peers to gain confidence applying healthcare-related life skills. Following the intervention, only one-third reported the lowest level of patient activation (35 %) and one-third were highly activated (32 %). Bhutanese refugees overcome healthcare access barriers by seeking help from a network of support that begins within the community. Community health workers serving as patient navigators are readily sought out, and this approach is concordant with cultural expectations for mutual assistance. Community health workers serving immigrant groups should model healthcare-related life skills in addition to providing direct assistance. PMID:26659398
Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio
Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…
Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Ende, J. van der; Verhulst, F.C.
In order to understand the discrepancy between rates of child and adolescent psychopathology and rates of mental health service use, variables influencing the help-seeking process need to be investigated. The present article aims to extend and refine previous findings by reviewing 47 recent empirica
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.; Ende, J. van der; Verhulst, F.C.
In order to understand the discrepancy between rates of child and adolescent psychopathology and rates of mental health service use, variables influencing the help-seeking process need to be investigated. The present article aims to extend and refine previous findings by reviewing 47 recent empirica
Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda
Full Text Available Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735, 663 (2.2% individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural
Warbhe Priya A, Warbhe Rupesh
Full Text Available Background: Population ageing is a significant product of demographic transition. Declining fertility and improved health and longevity have generated rising proportions of the older population. Double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affects the geriatric segment of the population with variable health seeking behaviour. Objectives: To assess morbidity profile, health seeking behaviour and home environmental survey for adaptive measures in geriatric population from an urban community. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study stratified systematic random sampling was applied. Research tool was interviewer based closed ended questionnaire. Adaptive measures as part of environment survey were assessed. Proportions and Pearson’s chi-square test were calculated. Results: 64.1% participants were from 60-69 years age category, 9.1% current smokers. 94.1% had 1-3 morbidities, 4.1% had 4-6 morbidities .37.3% gave a history of fall and 31.4% history of fracture. 13.6% cataract operation, 16.8% procedure for fracture.10% had dental procedure. 54.2% went to UHC and GOVT/BMC hospitals for treatment and 78.6% received both allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. History of fall was not associated with adaptive measures in the house (p=0.952. Conclusions: Majority of the participants suffered from old age related morbidities, hypertension emerged as a major morbidity. Most of the participants relied on government hospitals for treatment. Adaptive measures were lacking in most of the houses.
Zhang, Lange; Kou, Yu; Zhao, Yunlong; Fu, Xinyuan
Previous studies have found that when low-status group members are aware that their in-group is stereotyped as dependent by a specific out-group (i.e. a dependency meta-stereotype is salient), they are reluctant to seek help from the high-status out-group to avoid confirming the negative meta-stereotype. However, it is unclear whether low-status group members would seek more help in the context of a salient dependency meta-stereotype when there is low (vs. high) group boundary permeability. Therefore, we conducted two experiments to examine the moderating effect of permeability on meta-stereotype confirmation with a real group. In study 1, we manipulated the salience of the dependency meta-stereotype, measured participants' perceived permeability and examined their help-seeking behaviour in a real-world task. Participants who perceived low permeability sought more help when the meta-stereotype was salient (vs. not salient), whereas participants who perceived high permeability sought the same amount of help across conditions. In study 2, we manipulated the permeability levels and measured the dependency meta-stereotype. Participants who endorsed a high-dependency meta-stereotype sought more help than participants who endorsed a low-dependency meta-stereotype; this effect was particularly strong in the low-permeability condition. The implications of these results for social mobility and intergroup helping are discussed. PMID:25885332
Shweta,; Umesh; Priyanka; Roshan
: BACKGROUND: In a country like India, the mortality of under-five children is mainly due to acute respiratory infections (23%) and diarrheal diseases (18%) as per WHO report 2002. Aim: To assess the health seeking behavior in labour population for their children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was of children aged between 0-5 years whose parents were construction workers. A total of 450 children were selected for the study. RESULTS: Out of total 450 children t...
Malaria remains a major health burden, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of the main vector control tools, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is compromised by the development of physiological and behavioural resistance in the target mosquito species
Mukiira, Carol; Ibisomi, Latifat
In Kenya, as in other developing countries, diarrhea is among the leading causes of child mortality. Despite being easy to prevent and treat, care seeking for major child illnesses including diarrhea remains poor in the country. Mortality due to diarrhea is even worse in informal settlements that are characterized by poor sanitary conditions and largely unregulated health care system among other issues. The study aims to examine the health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The article used data from a maternal and child health (MCH) prospective study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Results show that more than half (55%) of the caregivers sought inappropriate health care in the treatment of diarrhea of their child. Of the 55%, about 35% sought no care at all. Use of oral rehydration solution and zinc supplements, which are widely recommended for management of diarrhea, was very low. The critical predictors of health care seeking identified in the study are duration of illness, informal settlement of residence, and the child's age. The study showed that appropriate health care seeking practices for childhood diarrhea remain a great challenge among the urban poor in Kenya. PMID:24270995
Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services
Djibo Ali; Luquero Francisco J; Hustache Sarah; Page Anne-Laure; Manzo Mahamane; Grais Rebecca F
Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up sur...
Full Text Available Objective: Advanced oral cancers are a challenge for treatment, as they require complex procedures for excision and reconstruction. Despite being occurring at a visible site and can be detected easily, many patients present in advanced stages with large tumors. Timely intervention is important in improving survival and quality of life in these patients. The aim of the present study was to find out the causes of delay in seeking specialist care in advanced oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective questionnaire based study was done on 201 consecutive advanced oral squamous cancer patients who underwent surgery at our hospital. All patients had either cancer of gingivobuccal complex (GBC or tongue and had tumors of size more than 4 cm (T3/T4 and were treatment naοve at presentation. RESULTS: Even though most patients observed abnormal lesions in their mouth, majority delayed the decision to visit a physician early. A significant percentage of patients (50% also reported a delayed diagnosis by the primary care physician before being referred to a tertiary care center for definitive treatment. The average total duration from symptoms to treatment was 7 months. Conclusion: The main reasons of this delay in receiving treatment were due to patients themselves (primary delay or due to time taken by the primary physician to diagnose the condition (secondary delay. Oral self-examination can be helpful in detecting oral cancers early.
Evenboer, Klaasje Elisabeth
Characteristics of care for youth with behavioural and emotional problems are of growing interest. Statements about the effectiveness of care are hard to make, because of a lack of standardized instruments for recording and classifying care. The aim of this study was to partly open the black box of care and treatment provided to children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems by developing, testing and applying a Taxonomy of care for Youth (TOCFY). This study was conducted wi...
Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J
This article integrates three uncertainty frameworks (i.e., uncertainty reduction, motivation to reduce uncertainty, predicted outcome value) to examine the relationship between uncertainty and information seeking in the context of health care reform. The study consisted of a pretest to assess model variables, tracking of online information seeking (by monitoring website use), and a posttest. Results indicate predicted outcome value theory is the best predictor of information seeking, which is subsequently associated with greater certainty and information recall. The data suggest uncertainty alone is not enough to motivate information seeking; individuals must perceive information to have appreciable value in order to spend time seeking it. Theoretical and practical applications, as well as avenues for future research, are presented. PMID:26698558
Gilmour, Jean; Strong, Alison; Chan, Helen; Hanna, Sue; Huntington, Annette
Online information is a critical resource for evidence-based practice and patient education. This study aimed to establish New Zealand nurses' access and evaluation of online health information in the primary care context using a postal questionnaire survey; there were 630 respondents from a random sample of 931 nurses. The majority of respondents were satisfied with work access to online information (84.5%, n = 501) and searched for online information at least several times a week (57.5%, n = 343). The major barrier to online information seeking was insufficient time, but 68 respondents had no work online information access. The level of nursing qualification was significantly correlated with computer confidence and information quality checking. A range of information evaluation approaches was used. Most nurses in study accessed and evaluated Internet information in contrast to the findings of earlier studies, but there were barriers preventing universal integration into practice. PMID:25355072
Βασιλακάκη, Ευγενία; Hartley, R.J.; Johnson, Frances; Randall, Dave
The volume of information available on the Web in various languages and the growing number of the non-English native speaking users generate a need for developing and providing Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) systems. The efficient development of such systems depends greatly on gaining a better insight into users' interactions and search behaviours in multilingual environments. In this context, the decision about which method/s to employ is considered essential. This stud...
Full Text Available Introduction. Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations. Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered. Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.
Ekberg, Katie; McDermott, Joanne; Moynihan, Clare; Brindle, Lucy; Little, Paul; Leydon, Geraldine M
Helplines are core feature of the contemporary U.K. health care system, however little is known about callers' experiences of seeking cancer-related telephone help. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 cancer helpline callers. The findings suggest cancer helplines offer callers (1) time to discuss their issues, (2) anonymity, (3) convenience, and (4) an open outlet for anyone affected by cancer including family/friends. Further, the findings highlighted that callers' help-seeking behavior was multifaceted, with their psychosocial needs being intrinsically intertwined with their information or advice-seeking needs. The implications are discussed in relation to the role of cancer helplines in the healthcare system. PMID:24611530
Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Bosmans, Judith E; van Tulder, Maurits W; Eefsting, Jan A; Gerritsen, Debby L; Pot, Anne-Margriet
BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. METHODS/DESIGN:
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: An extensive review of the literature revealed that no study exists that has examined poverty, not seeking medical care, inflation, self-reported illness, and mortality in Jamaica. The current study will bridge the gap by providing an investigation of poverty; not seeking medical care; illness; health insurance coverage; inflation and mortality in Jamaica. Materials and Method: Using two decades (1988-2007, the current study used three sets of secondary data published by the (1 Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (2 the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (Demographic Statistics and (3 the Bank of Jamaica (Economic Report. Scatter diagrams were used to examine correlations between the particular dependent and independent variables. For the current study, a number of hypotheses were tested to provide explanation morality in Jamaica. Results: The average percent of Jamaicans not seeking medical care over the last 2 decades was 41.9%; and the figure has been steadily declining over the last 5 years. In 1990, the most Jamaicans who did not seek medical care were 61.4% and this fell to 52.3% in 1991; 49.1% in 1992 and 48.2% the proceeding year. Based on the percentages, in the early 1990s (1990-1994, the percent of Jamaicans not seeking medical care was close to 50% and in the latter part of the decade, the figure was in the region of 30% and the low as 31.6% in 1999. In 2006, the percent of Jamaicans not seeking medical care despite being ill was 30% and this increased by 4% the following year. Concomitantly, poverty fell by 3.1 times over the 2 decades to 9.9% in 2007, while inflation increased by 1.9 times, self-reported illness was 15.5% in 2007 with mortality averaging 15,776 year of the 2 decades. There is a significant statistical correlation between not seeking medical-care and prevalence of poverty (r = 0.759, p< 0.05. There is a statistical correlation between
Pihlaja, Päivi; Sarlin, Tanja; Ristkari, Terja
In educational contexts there are few topics that receive as much attention from adults as children’s behaviour that is seen as challenging. Challenging behaviour has been a topic in many disciplines, such as education, child psychiatry, psychology and special education. Along with the definition of challenging behaviour, we can read about social and emotional difficulties or disruptive behaviour. In this article we examine the definitions of challenging behaviour in Finnish day care. Altoget...
Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of information behaviour. The model is part of the Search Situation Transition method schema. The method schema is developed to discover and analyse interplay between phenomena traditionally analysed as factors influencing either information retrieval or information seeking. In this paper the focus is on the model's five main categories: the work task, the searcher, the social/organisational environment, the search task, and the search process. In particular, the search process and its sub-categories search situation and transition and the relationship between these are discussed. To justify the method schema an empirical study was designed according to the schema's specifications. In the paper a subset of the study is presented analysing the effects of work tasks on Web information searching. Findings from this small-scale study indicate a strong relationship between the work task goal and the level of relevance used for judging resources during search processes.
Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James
This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and help-seeking behavior were also explored in parents of children with autism. Prior findings of higher dysphoric mood levels in parents of children with autism were supported, as was the positive correlation between dysphoric moods and Neuroticism levels. Parenting Sense of Competence did not differ across locations, and there were no parent type by location interactions. Access to services among parents of a child with autism did not moderate dysphoria levels. PMID:26858033
Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve;
) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted......BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how...... participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. OBJECTIVE: To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative...
D. Danso-Appiah (Anthony); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); K.M. Bosompem (Kwabena); J. Otchere (Joseph); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)
textabstractBackground: Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-s
Full Text Available Background: In India, common morbidities among children under 3 years of age are fever, acute respiratory infections, diarrhea. Effective early management at the home level and health care-seeking behavior in case of appearance of danger signs are key strategies to prevent the occurrence of severe and life-threatening complications. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of acute child morbidities, their determinants and health-seeking behavior of the mothers of these children. Setting and Design: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Wardha district of central India. 0 Material and Methods: We interviewed 990 mothers of children below 3 years of age using 30-cluster sampling method. Nutritional status was defined by National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS reference. Composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF was constructed. Hemoglobin concentration in each child was estimated using the ′filter paper cyanm ethemoglobin method.′ Using World Health Organization guidelines, anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration less than 110 g/L. Post-survey focus group discussions (FGDs were undertaken to bridge gaps in information obtained from the survey. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed by using SPSS 12.0.1 software package. Chi-square was used to test the association, while odds ratios were calculated to measure the strength of association. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to derive the final model. Results: Anemia was detected in 80.3% of children, and 59.6% of children were undernourished as indicated by CIAF. The overall prevalence of acute morbidity was 59.9%. Children with mild anemia, moderate anemia and severe anemia had 1.52, 1.61 and 9.21 times higher risk of being morbid, respectively. Similarly, children with single, 2 and 3 anthropometric failures had 1.16, 1.29 and 2.27 times higher risk of being morbid, respectively. Out of 594 (60% children with at least one of the acute morbidities, 520
Symoens Sara AA; Colman Elien; Bracke Piet F; Van Praag Lore
Abstract Background Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermor...
Savitha, S; K B Kiran
Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness ...
Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Armenia, case reports of active TB increased from 590 to 1538 between 1990 and 2003. However, the TB case detection rate in Armenia in 2007 was only 51%, indicating that many cases go undetected or that suspected cases are not referred for confirmatory diagnosis. Understanding why Armenians do not seek or delay TB medical care is important to increase detection rates, improve treatment outcomes, and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods. Two hundred-forty patients hospitalized between August 2006 and September 2007 at two Armenian TB reference hospitals were interviewed about symptoms, when they sought medical attention after symptom onset, outcomes of their first medical visit, and when they began treatment after diagnosis. We used logistic regression modeling to identify reasons for delay in diagnosis. Results. Fatigue and weight loss were significantly associated with delay in seeking medical attention [aOR=2.47 (95%CI=1.15, 5.29; aOR=2.99 (95%CI=1.46, 6.14, resp.], while having night sweats protected against delay [aOR=0.48 (95%CI=0.24, 0.96]. Believing the illness to be something other than TB was also significantly associated with delay [aOR=2.63 (95%CI=1.13, 6.12]. Almost 20% of the 240 TB patients were neither diagnosed at their first medical visit nor referred for further evaluation. Conclusions. This study showed that raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of TB among both the public and clinical communities is urgently needed.
Vieira AH; Leles CR
Antonio Hélio Vieira, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles Department of Prevention and Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil Abstract: Motivations for seeking and undergoing prosthodontic care are poorly understood and are not often explored for clinical purposes when determining treatment need and understanding the factors related to the demand for health care and effective use. This article uses the Theory of Planned Behavi...
Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.
Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine ...
McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien
Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…
Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.
Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in
Snow, Elizabeth; Langdon, Peter E; Shirley A. Reynolds
Challenging behaviours may elicit negative emotional reactions and increase stress within care staff. The Leeds Attributional Coding System (LACS) was used to elicit spontaneous causal attributions of staff toward hypothetical clients with challenging behaviours. It was hypothesized that there would be relationships (1) between staff exposure to challenging behaviours and burnout, and (2) between staff cognitions and burnout. Using a cross-sectional correlational design, 41 care staff took pa...
Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.
Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.
Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is
Eefsting Jan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation. A stepped wedge design will be used. A total of 14 dementia special care units will implement the care programme. The primary outcome is behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life, prescription rate of antipsychotics, use of physical restraints and workload and job satisfaction of nursing staff. The effect of the care programme will be estimated using multilevel linear regression analysis. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will also be carried out. Discussion The care programme is expected to be cost-effective and effective in decreasing behavioural problems, workload of nursing staff and in increasing quality of life of residents. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR. Trial number: NTR 2141
Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Liu, Yong; Zheng, Yong
High-risk sexual behaviours (HRSBs), such as having male casual sexual partners (MCSPs) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), are combined with a high prevalence of HIV infection among gay/bisexual men. Sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC), which are intrapersonal factors, were observed to have associations with HRSB among gay/bisexual men in Western nations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between SSS, SC, socio-demographic factors, and HRSB (defined as having MCSP and UAI with MCSP) among self-identified gay and bisexual men in Southwest China. The study was cross-sectional, with a sample of 436 respondents. And their mean age was 24.5 years. The results confirmed that SSS, SC, and sexual attitude are associated with both having MCSP and UAI with MCSP in the Chinese cultural context, among the subgroup of men who have sex with men. Being older, not a student, and having transactional sex in the last 6 months were independently associated with having MCSP. Lower educational level, unemployed, having a relationship with a man, and an unsure HIV status were independently associated with UAI with MCSP. This study indicates that SSS and SC are cross-cultural personality traits related to HRSB. The results of this study may shed light on HIV prevention among gay/bisexual men in China. PMID:26924809
Schene, A.H.; Baas, K.D.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Wittkampf, K.A.; Huyser, J.; van Weert, H.C.
Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and pro
Taber, Jennifer M.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Klein, William M. P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Harris, Peter R.
Objective Self-affirming—such as by reflecting on one's strengths and values—reduces defensiveness to threatening information, reduces negative effects of stereotype threat, and promotes prosociality. These outcomes may promote physical health, highlighting a need to examine the role of self-affirmation in medical and health contexts. Design Data were collected as part of the nationally representative, cross-sectional, 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey. Items were completed by 2,731 respondents. Main Outcome Measures Respondents answered questions about spontaneous self-affirmation tendencies, perceptions of providers and health care, involvement in medical appointments, health information seeking, and engagement in medical research. Results Spontaneous self-affirmation was associated with more positive perceptions of communication with one's provider, better perceived quality of care, greater likelihood of asking questions in a medical appointment, greater information seeking for oneself, and multiple indices of surrogate information seeking (i.e., seeking information for others). Four of eight significant associations remained significant when controlling for optimism. The associations of self-affirmation with aspects of the patient-provider relationship were not modified by factors likely to be associated with stereotype threat (e.g., race or BMI). Conclusion Spontaneous self-affirmation was related to positive outcomes in health contexts. Experimental research is needed to further explore the causal nature of these associations. PMID:26315683
Sikder Shegufta S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified
Nyasulu, Peter; Phiri, Faith; Sikwese, Simon; Chirwa, Tobias; Singini, Isaac; Banda, Hastings T; Banda, Rhoda; Mhembere, Tichaona; Chimbali, Henry; Ngwira, Bagrey; Munthali, Alister C
Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) among individuals suspected of having TB may lead to continued transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in communities, higher mortality rates, and increase in government health expenditure because of prolonged illness due to late diagnosis and treatment initiation. The study explored factors leading to delayed health care seeking among individuals living in Ntcheu District, Malawi. Two key informant interviews, 16 in-depth interviews, and three focus group discussions were conducted. Participants were aged 18 years and older and never had TB. Data were analyzed using content analysis and factors were identified: inadequate knowledge about cause and transmission of TB, low self-awareness of personal risk to TB, cultural and traditional beliefs about sources of TB, stigma, and strong belief in witchcraft as a cause of illness. The TB Control Program needs to invest in social mobilization and education of communities to mitigate early health care seeking. PMID:26015428
Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Korsholm, Lars;
herniation and nerve root compression in the lower lumbar levels in girls. In general, these areas had few findings and are likely be abnormal and clinically relevant. Furthermore, it is possible that they reflect an underlying pathology like Scheuermann disease in the upper area and disc herniation in the......Background: In MRI studies lumbar disk degeneration and endplate changes have been found in children and adolescents. Such MRI findings appear to be more strongly associated with LBP than in adults. However, this knowledge is mainly based on cross-sectional studies from which no inferences regarded...... were sampled to be representative of Danish schoolchildren. Data about seeking care for LBP and lumbar spine MRI were collected independently of each other. The outcome was seeking care for LBP at the age of 16. The potential predictors were positive MRI findings at the age of 13 (disk signal intensity...
Ram Kumar Adhikari; Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand; Shiva Raj Mishra; Kamal Ranabhat; Amrit Pokharel; Pramila Devkota; Durga Mishra; Yadu Chandra Ghimire; Khageshwor Gelal; Rajan Paudel; Rajendra Raj Wagle
Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema pr...
Ezeaka, Chinyere V; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Mukhtar-Yola, Mariya; Ekure, Ekanem N; Olusanya, Bolajoko O
Background Nigeria is frequently associated with disproportionately high rates of severe neonatal jaundice (NNJ) underpinned by widespread Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Timely and appropriate treatment of NNJ is crucial for preventing the associated morbidity and neuro-developmental sequelae. Since mothers are likely to be the first mostly to observe the onset of severe illness in their newborns, we set out to identify the pattern and predictors of maternal care-seeking...
Gill, Jessica M.; Page, Gayle G.; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a traumatic event and has been linked to psychiatric and physical health declines. Rates of PTSD are far higher in individuals with low incomes and who reside in urban areas compared to the general population. In this study, 250 urban health care-seeking women were interviewed for a diagnosis of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and also the experience of traumatic events. Multivariate logistic regressions were used ...
Kashyap, Mandavi; Tu, Le Mai; Tannenbaum, Cara
Background Several medication classes may contribute to urinary symptoms in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of these medications in a clinical cohort of incontinent patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 390 new patients aged 60 years and older seeking care for incontinence in specialized outpatient geriatric incontinence clinics in Quebec, Canada. The use of oral estrogens, alpha-blocking agents, benzodiazepines, antidepre...
Jimba Masamine; Sakisaka Kayako; Hanada Kyo
Abstract Background In 2008, approximately 8.8 million children under 5 years of age died worldwide. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, but little is known about poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors for their children. We examined poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness, and identified factors affecting their choices. We also assessed mothers' perception of the medical services and their confidence in the health care available for their childr...
Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.
Kendal, Sarah; Keeley, Philip; Callery, Peter
Background Little is known about high school students' perceptions of school-based pastoral support. This study aimed to explore this in the context of a high school–based emotional support project. Methods Qualitative interviews explored perspectives on help seeking of students (N = 23) and staff (N = 27) in three UK high schools where a pastoral project was introduced. Data were analysed thematically. Results Student peer groups perceived help seeking as a sign of weakness....
Scott, Lionel D.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R.
Using the behavioral model for vulnerable populations as a framework, this study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to seeking help from formal and informal sources among older Black male foster youth and alumni. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that emotional control, a predisposing variable, was related to help-seeking. Specifically, greater adherence to the norm of emotional control was related to lower likelihood of using informal or formal sources of ...
Buhagiar, Kurt; Afzal, Neelam; Cosgrave, Mary
Background Management of neuropsychiatric symptoms is a challenging task in primary care. Aims To assess self-reported confidence and knowledge of general practitioners (GPs) regarding the identification and management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).
Ram Kumar Adhikari
Full Text Available Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices.
Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj
Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785
Gurung Anup; Narayanan Prakash; Prabhakar Parimi; Das Anjana; Ranebennur Virupax; Tucker Saroj; Narayana Laxmi; Radha, R.; Prakash K; Touthang J; Sono Collins Z; Wi Teodora; Morineau Guy; Neilsen Graham
Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods...
Gurung, Anup; Narayanan, Prakash; Prabhakar, Parimi; Das, Anjana; Ranebennur, Virupax; Tucker, Saroj; Narayana, Laxmi; R, Radha; Prakash, K; Touthang,; Sono, Collins Z; Wi, Teodora; Morineau, Guy; Neilsen, Graham
Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avah...
Layton, Deborah; Osborne, Vicki; Al-Shukri, Mohammad; Shakir, Saad A W
Background Problematic prescription drug use is reflected by or associated with drug-seeking aberrant behaviours. Research gaps include lack of post-marketing evidence and instruments. As part of the pharmacovigilance requirements, a risk management plan was developed for fentanyl buccal tablets (FEBT) by the manufacturer, with an additional pharmacovigilance activity requested by the regulatory authority, to investigate the risks of misuse, abuse, criminal use, off-label use and accidental e...
Hooiveld, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Smit, L.A.M.; Vogelaar, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.; Yzermans, C.J.
Introduction and objectives. Odour annoyance forms the main source of environmental stress in residents living in the proximity of animal feeding operations (AFOs) and it has been associated with reduced health. This study aims to gain more insight into the association between AFOs in the neighbourh
Team, Victoria; Manderson, Lenore H; Markovic, Milica
In this article, we report on a small qualitative scale study with immigrant Russian-speaking Australian women, carers of dependent family members. Drawing on in-depth interviews, we explore women's health-related behaviours, in particular their participation in breast and cervical cancer screening. Differences in preventive health care policies in country of origin and Australia explain their poor participation in cancer screening. Our participants had grown up in the former Soviet Union, where health checks were compulsory but where advice about frequency and timing was the responsibility of doctors. Following migration, women continued to believe that the responsibility for checks was their doctor's, and they maintained that, compared with their experience of preventive medicine in the former Soviet Union, Australian practice was poor. Women argued that if reproductive health screening were important in cancer prevention, then health care providers would take a lead role to ensure that all women participated. Data suggest how women's participation in screening may be improved. PMID:22951044
Full Text Available Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.
Sonali Kar; Shalini Ray; Dayanidhi Meher
Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem that can cause a number of serious complications. Foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among diabetics. The present study was undertaken in the diabetes outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital to assess the practices regarding foot care in diabetes, find out the determinants of foot ulcer in diabetics, and offer suggestions to imp...
Lassi, Zohra S; Philippa F. Middleton; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Crowther, Caroline
Background Lack of appropriate health care seeking for ill mothers and neonates contributes to high mortality rates. A major challenge is the appropriate mix of strategies for creating demand as well as provision of services. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (last search: Jan 2015) to assess the impact of different strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health care seeking in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Results Fifty-eight experimental [rand...
Lassi, Zohra S; Philippa F. Middleton; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Caroline Crowther
Background: Lack of appropriate health care seeking for ill mothers and neonates contributes to high mortality rates. A major challenge is the appropriate mix of strategies for creating demand as well as provision of services. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (last search: Jan 2015) to assess the impact of different strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health care seeking in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Results: Fifty-eight experimental [r...
Lassi, Zohra S; Philippa F. Middleton; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Crowther, Caroline
Background: Lack of appropriate health care seeking for ill mothers and neonates contributes to high mortality rates. A major challenge is the appropriate mix of strategies for creating demand as well as provision of services.Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (last search: Jan 2015) to assess the impact of different strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health care seeking in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).Results: Fifty-eight experimental [ran...
Jamal, Amr; Khan, Samina A; AlHumud, Ahmed; Al-Duhyyim, Abdulaziz; Alrashed, Mohammed; Bin Shabr, Faisal; Alteraif, Alwalid; Almuziri, Abdullah; Househ, Mowafa; Qureshi, Riaz
Background Health information obtained from the Internet has an impact on patient health care outcomes. There is a growing concern over the quality of online health information sources used by diabetic patients because little is known about their health information–seeking behavior and the impact this behavior has on their diabetes-related self-care, in particular in the Middle East setting. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the online health-related information–seeking behavio...
Between 2000 and 2011, Ethiopia rapidly expanded its health-care infrastructure recording an 18-fold increase in the number of health posts and a 7-fold increase in the number of health centers. However, annual per capita outpatient utilization has increased only marginally. The extent to which individuals forego necessary health care, especially why and who foregoes care are issues that have received little attention in the context of low-income countries. This paper uses five clinical vigne...
Mebratie, Anagaw; VAN DE POEL, ELLEN; Debebe, Zelalem; Abebaw Ejigie, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun Singh
textabstractBetween 2000 and 2011, Ethiopia rapidly expanded its health-care infrastructure recording an 18-fold increase in the number of health posts and a 7-fold increase in the number of health centers. However, annual per capita outpatient utilization has increased only marginally. The extent to which individuals forego necessary health care, especially why and who foregoes care are issues that have received little attention in the context of low-income countries. This paper uses five cl...
Gesler, W M; Meade, M S
The use of regular sources of health care by a sample of residents of Chatham County, Georgia was examined through an analysis of the interactions among distance, sociodemographic, locational, and activity-space factors. Health care facilities were concentrated near downtown Savannah. Distance from home to regular source of care was a relatively more important factor for inner-city residents than for suburban or urban fringe residents. There were no clear differences by race, sex, age, occupa...
Sumathipala, A.; Siribaddana, S.; Abeysingha, M. R. N.; Silva, P.; Dewey, M; Prince, M.; Mann, A.H.
Background A pilot trial in Sri Lanka among patients with medically unexplained symptoms revealed that cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) administered by a psychiatrist was efficacious. Aims To evaluate CBT provided by primary care physicians in a comparison with structured care. Method A randomised control trial (n=75 in each arm) offered six 30 min sessions of structured care or therapy. The outcomes of the two interventions were compared at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. Resu...
Vieira, Antonio Hélio; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
Motivations for seeking and undergoing prosthodontic care are poorly understood and are not often explored for clinical purposes when determining treatment need and understanding the factors related to the demand for health care and effective use. This article uses the Theory of Planned Behavior construct to identify factors related to the motivations of edentulous subjects to seek and undergo prosthodontic treatment. The conceptual framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior includes attitude toward behavior, an individual's positive or negative evaluation of self-performance of the particular behavior; the subjective norm, an individual's perception of social normative pressures or relevant others' beliefs that he or she should or should not perform such behavior; and perceived behavioral control, or an individual's perceived ease or difficulty in performing the particular behavior, determined by the total set of accessible control beliefs. These components mediate a subject's intention and behavior toward an object and may also explain health-related behaviors, providing strong predictions across a range of health behaviors. This study suggests categories for each component of the Theory of Planned Behavior, based on clinical evidence and practical reasoning. Attitudes toward behavior include perceived consequences of no treatment, perceived potential benefits and risks of treatment, dental anxiety, previous experiences, and interpersonal abilities of the health care providers. The subjective norm includes the opinions of relevant others, advertisement, professionally defined normative need, perceived professional skills, and technical quality of care. Perceived behavioral control includes subject's time, availability and opportunity, treatment costs, subject's perceived need, and accessibility to dental care. This conceptual model represents a theoretical multidimensional model that may help clinicians better understand the patient's treatment behaviors and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases. Methods A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted. Results In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0 and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6, respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1 reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household. Conclusions The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of
Gwee KA; Setia S
Kok Ann Gwee1,2, Sajita Setia31Gleneagles Hospital, 2Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS), 3Janssen, Johnson and Johnson Pte Ltd, SingaporeIntroduction: Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation.Methods: Responses were col...
Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to (1 describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2 assess influential background characteristics, and (3 formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever, a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.
Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe
This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688
Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe
This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011–2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5–6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86–91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51–€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688
Sheleaswani Inche Zainal Abidin; Rosnah Sutan; Khadijah Shamsuddin
Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior an...
Z.Pouranssari; P Kamali; H.Eftekhar Ardbili; A.Komarizadeh
Reproductive behavior of 1525 pregnant woman were studied in the time of termination of pregnancy in relation to maternal age, education, prenatal care and the number of previous pregnancies. The results show that the frequency of maternal attendance at the centers of prenatal care is significantly related to maternal education. And the total pregnancies per woman are inversely correlated with maternal education. The kind of termination of pregnancy which resulted in live births or abortion h...
Full Text Available Background. In the UK, most people with mental health problems are managed in primary care. However, many individuals in need of help are not able to access care, either because it is not available, or because the individual's interaction with care-givers deters or diverts help-seeking. Aims. To understand the experience of seeking care for distress from the perspective of potential patients from “hard-to-reach” groups. Methods. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, analysed using a thematic framework. Results. Access to primary care is problematic in four main areas: how distress is conceptualised by individuals, the decision to seek help, barriers to help-seeking, and navigating and negotiating services. Conclusion. There are complex reasons why people from “hard-to-reach” groups may not conceptualise their distress as a biomedical problem. In addition, there are particular barriers to accessing primary care when distress is recognised by the person and help-seeking is attempted. We suggest how primary care could be more accessible to people from “hard-to-reach” groups including the need to offer a flexible, non-biomedical response to distress.
Shevlin, Mark; Millar, Rob
Background: This study applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in an attempt to predict longitudinal growth of career exploratory behaviour in school pupils. The importance of information for making considered career decisions is indicated in theories of career development and choice, career education programmes, and concepts of career…
Rohmansyah Wahyu Nurindra; Imas Masturoh; Joni Hendri; Mara Ipa
cross sectional study was carried out to determine health seeking behaviour of dengue patient in Ciamis district. Subjects were 80 dengue patient’s care taker chosen by purposive sampling. Data was presented descriptively.The result showed based on the first place of treatment, pattern of treatment seeking behavior were identified the most common one was using public hospital as the first step. Pattern of treatment seeking behavior of the patient’s care taker that influenced decision making t...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the Internet to seek health information is becoming more common. Its consequences on health care utilisation are hardly known in the general population, in particular among children whose parents seek health information on the Internet. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child. Methods This cross-sectional survey has been carried out in a population of parents of pre-school children in France. The main outcome measure was the self-reported number of primary care consultations for the child, according to parental use of the Internet to seek health information, adjusted for the characteristics of the parents and their child respectively, and parental use of other health information sources. Results A total of 1 068 out of 2 197 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 49%. No association was found between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and the number of consultations within the last 12 months for their child. Variables related to the number of primary care consultations were characteristics of the child (age, medical conditions, homeopathic treatment, parental characteristics (occupation, income, stress level and consultation of other health information sources (advice from pharmacist, relatives. Conclusion We did not find any relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for children. The Internet seems to be used as a supplement to health services rather than as a replacement.
Magid, David J.; Houry, Debra; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Ziller, Andrew; Soules, Michael R.; Jenny, Carole
Women who seek medical care following sexual assault are usually evaluated and treated in an emergency department (ED). Therefore, EDs can be an important source of sexual assault surveillance data. The authors compared the incidence of sexual assault presenting for emergency care in a single county during July to November of 1974 and 1991.…
Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L
Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904
Mousa, Shimaa M; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Hablas, Ahmed; Elbana, Eman S; Soliman, Amr S
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. PMID:21807518
Full Text Available Research article Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College Rajal Thaker*,Kay Perrin**, Ellen Daley *** ,Cheryl Vamos ****,Pankaj Patel ***** * Associate Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ***** Dean; Smt N H L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. ** Associate Professor, *** Associate Professor, Co-Director, Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH, **** Research Assistant Professor, Associate Director; Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH; University of South Florida College of Public Health, USA Abstract Background: Women’s preventative health is a major public health issue across the globe. From prenatal care to post-menopausal screenings, women’s preventative care covers a wide spectrum of issues and topics. There is limited data on knowledge and practices of screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care professionals in India. This study examines health care professionals’ knowledge and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screenings in India. Material and Methods After clearance from Institutional Review Board (IRB of University of South Florida (USF and permission from Smt N H L Municipal Medical College (NHLMMC, a cross- sectional interview based survey was conducted amongst female teaching faculty and female consultants of NHLMMC, two affiliated teaching hospitals (Sheth V S General Hospital and Smt S C L General Hospital, and SBB college of Physiotherapy during the year 2010-2011. Conclusion Findings highlight the critical need for education and practice with regards to women’s preventive health care. Practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE and Pap test amongst the health care professionals was quite low; however, those who were 40 year or older were more conscious about their health. Findings also highlight the need for
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Background: Research has shown that especially pregnant women, and also women with a wish for a child, have increased nutrition awareness. Seeking nutrition information seemed to be an important determinant for nutrition awareness. However, little research has been carried out about nutrition-relate
Full Text Available Antonio Hélio Vieira, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles Department of Prevention and Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil Abstract: Motivations for seeking and undergoing prosthodontic care are poorly understood and are not often explored for clinical purposes when determining treatment need and understanding the factors related to the demand for health care and effective use. This article uses the Theory of Planned Behavior construct to identify factors related to the motivations of edentulous subjects to seek and undergo prosthodontic treatment. The conceptual framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior includes attitude toward behavior, an individual’s positive or negative evaluation of self-performance of the particular behavior; the subjective norm, an individual’s perception of social normative pressures or relevant others’ beliefs that he or she should or should not perform such behavior; and perceived behavioral control, or an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty in performing the particular behavior, determined by the total set of accessible control beliefs. These components mediate a subject’s intention and behavior toward an object and may also explain health-related behaviors, providing strong predictions across a range of health behaviors. This study suggests categories for each component of the Theory of Planned Behavior, based on clinical evidence and practical reasoning. Attitudes toward behavior include perceived consequences of no treatment, perceived potential benefits and risks of treatment, dental anxiety, previous experiences, and interpersonal abilities of the health care providers. The subjective norm includes the opinions of relevant others, advertisement, professionally defined normative need, perceived professional skills, and technical quality of care. Perceived behavioral control includes subject’s time, availability and opportunity, treatment costs
Samayoa, Marianne B
This article draws upon letters to a colonial physician, contemporary printed medical advice and published medical texts to confirm that formal medical assistance and information about treatment options were available in late colonial New Spain. Publications approved and supervised by the government, doctors, and pharmacies provided up-to-date medical treatments, and individuals actively sought health care from physicians and pharmacists, and expected relief from their ailments. A tradition of government participation in public health in Spain supported structures in New Spain where the latest European advances joined local traditions and experimentation. Although historians may question the effectiveness of any particular cure or treatment, they must accept that individuals in late colonial New Spain participated in their own health care and expected relief from their ailments. PMID:17153157
Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various p...
Aline Umubyeyi; Margareta Persson; Ingrid Mogren; Gunilla Krantz
Objective Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various p...
Susan Caplan; Steven Buyske
Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated th...
Crista E. Johnson-Agbakwu; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F.; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are the most common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multi-ethnic, newly-arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women’s health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally-responsive, ...
Walters, K; Buszewicz, M.; Weich, S.; King, M
Background There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress.Aim To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the imp...
Visser, G.J.; Peters, L.; Rasker, J J
Alternative treatment, such as homoeopathy, acupuncture and spiritual healing, are popular among patients with rheumatic diseases. Rheumatologists are therefore likely to be confronted with patients who make use of less orthodox health care. Patients' and rheumatologists' views on the subject and on the rheumatologists' role, however, have not yet been assessed. A questionnaire on alternative medicine was sent to all 101 practising Dutch rheumatologists (response rate: 70%). After the results...
Aline Marques Acosta
Full Text Available Aim: to identify the profile of frequent users of emergency services, to verify the associated factors and to analyze the reasons for the frequent use of the services. METHOD: An explanatory sequential type mixed method was adopted. Quantitative data were collected from the electronic medical records, with a sample of 385 users attended four or more times in an emergency service, during the year 2011. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 users, intentionally selected from the results of the quantitative stage. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: It was found that 42.9% were elderly, 84.9% had chronic diseases, 63.5% were classified as urgent, 42.1% stayed for more than 24 hours in the service and 46.5% were discharged. Scheduled follow-up appointment, risk classification, length of stay and outcome were factors associated with frequent use. The reasons for seeking the services were mainly related to the exacerbation of chronic diseases, to easier access and concentration of technology, to the bond, and to the scheduled appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to comprehending the repeated use of emergency services and provide additional data to plan alternatives to reduce frequent use.
Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E
Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations. PMID:1807069
Hampanda, Karen; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana
Youth represent almost half of all new HIV infections globally. Although condom use is an effective method of HIV prevention among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), they face substantial barriers in obtaining condoms in environments where adults hold attitudes condemning premarital sex. More research is needed to better understand the multitude of factors that affect SSA youths' behaviors regarding safe sex practices, including factors that may influence their ability to obtain condoms, and decisions to be tested for HIV. In this study of Uganda youth (n = 1503) from five secondary schools, logistic regression models highlight factors that influence perceptions regarding respect and confidentiality at health centers, condom acquisition, and HIV testing. Family support appears to be an especially important factor that affects youth perceptions about how they will be treated when seeking condoms and HIV testing. Condom acquisition and HIV-testing behaviors are also associated with peer influence, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics, such as age. PMID:24625122
Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J
Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia. PMID:26698164
Jaarsma, T; Stromberg, A; Martensson, J; Dracup, K
Background: Improvement of self-care behaviour is an aim of several non-pharmacological nurse-led management programmes for patients with heart failure. These programmes are often evaluated based on their effects on readmission, costs and quality of life. It is, however, also important to know how p
Newby, Jill M; Mewton, Louise; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin
BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (iCBT) has been shown to be effective for the combined treatment of depression and anxiety in randomised controlled trials. The degree to which these findings generalise to patients in primary care awaits further investigation. METHODS:
Muijrers, P.E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Knottnerus, J.A.
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between pharmaceutical care and prescribing routines of general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Cross-sectional study; 201 pharmacies, 408 general practices, The Netherlands, 2000/2001. The variation in prescribing behaviour was characterised using 20 validated pres
Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi F; Bamgboye, Elijah A.; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Issa, Bolakale K; Ngige, Evelyn; Amida, Perpetua; Bashorun, Adebobola; Abatta, Emmanuel
Background Recently, Nigeria emerged as the largest economy in Africa and the 26th in the world. However, a pertinent question is how this new economic status has impacted on the wealth and health of her citizens. There is a dearth of empirical study on the wealth distribution in Nigeria which could be important in explaining the general disparities in their health seeking behavior. An adequate knowledge of Nigeria wealth distribution will no doubt inform policy makers in their decision makin...
Hyde, Abbey; Fullerton, Deirdre; Lohan, Maria; et al.
Aim: To analyse the role of sex-focused knowledge in the contraceptive behaviour of sexually active young people in state care. Methods: The sample consisted of 19 care leavers (young people previously in state care) aged 18–22 years, 16 females and 3 males. In-depth interviewing was the method of data collection, and a qualitative strategy resembling modified analytical induction was used to analyse data. Findings: Findings indicated that a lack of information was not the sole or even the pr...
Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter M; Mellström, Carl; Lohmander, Stefan; Englund, Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of frequent knee pain in radiographic, symptomatic and clinically defined knee OA in middle-aged and elderly patients and the proportion that seeks medical care. METHODS: In 2007 a random sample of 10 000 56- to 84-year-old residents...... knee OA or pain. RESULTS: The 10 000 subjects had a mean age of 70 years (s.d. 7.6), a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m(2) and 62% were women. The prevalence of frequent knee pain was 25.1% (95% CI 24.1, 26.1), higher in women and similar across age groups. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA was 25.4% while...... 15.4% had either symptomatic or clinically defined knee OA. Of these, 68.9% consulted a physician for knee OA or pain during 2004-11. CONCLUSION: Fifteen per cent of middle-aged or elderly individuals have knee OA and symptoms. About one in three of those do not consult a physician. Inefficient care...
Carol W. Runyan, MPH, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction: A youth’s emergency department (ED visit for suicidal behaviors or ideation provides an opportunity to counsel families about securing medications and firearms (i.e., lethal means counseling. Methods: In this quality improvement project drawing on the Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM model, we trained 16 psychiatric emergency clinicians to provide lethal means counseling with parents of patients under age 18 receiving care for suicidality and discharged home from a large children’s hospital. Through chart reviews and follow-up interviews of parents who received the counseling, we examined what parents recalled, their reactions to the counseling session, and actions taken after discharge. Results: Between March and July 2014, staff counseled 209 of the 236 (89% parents of eligible patients. We conducted follow-up interviews with 114 parents, or 55% of those receiving the intervention; 48% of those eligible. Parents had favorable impressions of the counseling and good recall of the main messages. Among the parents contacted at follow up, 76% reported all medications in the home were locked as compared to fewer than 10% at the time of the visit. All who had indicated there were guns in the home at the time of the visit reported at follow up that all were currently locked, compared to 67% reporting this at the time of the visit. Conclusion: Though a small project in just one hospital, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of adding a counseling protocol to the discharge process within a pediatric psychiatric emergency service. Our positive findings suggest that further study, including a randomized control trial in more facilities, is warranted.
the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...
Ansah, EK; Gyapong, M; Narh-Bana, S; Bart-Plange, C; Whitty, CJ
Several public health interventions to improve management of patients with fever are largely focused on the public sector yet a high proportion of patients seek care outside the formal healthcare sector. Few studies have provided information on the determinants of utilization of the private sector as against formal public sector. Understanding the differences between those who attend public and private health institutions, and their pathway to care, has significant practical implications. The...
Groenewegen, Peter P.; Cardola, Mieke; Spreeuwenberga, Peter; Dijk, Liset Van; Van Den Bosch, Wil J.H.M.; De Bakker, Dinny H.
Why do contact frequencies with general practice of family members resemble each other? Many aspects related to the clustering of health-care utilisation within families have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms have not been addressed. This article considers whether family similarity in cont
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main killer diseases of children all manifest as acute febrile illness, yet are curable with timely and adequate management. To avoid a fatal outcome, three essential steps must be completed: caretakers must recognize illness, decide to seek care and reach an appropriate source of care, and then receive appropriate treatment. In a fatal outcome some or all of these steps have failed and it remains to be elucidated to what extent these fatal outcomes are caused by local disease perceptions, inappropriate care-seeking or inadequate resources in the family or health system. This study explores caretakers' experiences of care-seeking for childhood febrile illness with fatal outcome in rural Uganda to elucidate the most influential barriers to adequate care. Methods A mixed methods approach using structured Verbal/Social autopsy interviews and in-depth interviews was employed with 26 caretakers living in Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site who had lost a child 1–59 months old due to acute febrile illness between March and June 2006. In-depth interviews were analysed using content analysis with deductive category application. Results Final categories of barriers to care were: 1 "Illness interpretation barriers" involving children who received delayed or inappropriate care due to caretakers' labelling of the illness, 2 "Barriers to seeking care" with gender roles and household financial constraints hindering adequate care and 3 "Barriers to receiving adequate treatment" revealing discontents with providers and possible deficiencies in quality of care. Resource constraints were identified as the underlying theme for adequate management, both at individual and at health system levels. Conclusion The management of severely ill children in this rural setting has several shortcomings. However, the majority of children were seen by an allopathic health care provider during the final illness. Improvements of basic health care
Mitchell, James E; Agras, Stewart; Crow, Scott; Halmi, Katherine; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bryson, Susan; Kraemer, Helena
Background This study compared the best available treatment for bulimia nervosa, cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) augmented by fluoxetine if indicated, with a stepped-care treatment approach in order to enhance treatment effectiveness. Aims To establish the relative effectiveness of these two approaches. Method This was a randomised trial conducted at four clinical centres (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT00733525). A total of 293 participants with bulimia nervosa were randomise...
Knapp, Martin; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Astin, Jack; Beecham, Jennifer; Pendaries, Claude
The paper examines the links between degree of intellectual disability, challenging behaviour, service utilisation and cost for a group of people with intellectual disabilities living in care accommodation in England. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of people with intellectual disabilities, identified via provider organisations, with supplementary collection of costs data. Multivariate analyses of cost variations were carried out for 930 adults with intellectual disabilities. There wer...
Rong Ye; Luscombe Georgina M; Davenport Tracey A; Hickie AM Ian B; Hickie Megan L; Bell Morag I
Abstract Background Depression causes substantial disease burden in both developed and developing countries. To reduce this burden, we need to promote understanding of depression as a major health condition. The International Depression Literacy Survey (IDLS) has been developed to assess understanding of depression in different cultural and health care settings. Methods Four groups of Australian university students completed the survey: medical students in second (n = 103) and fourth (n = 82)...
Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680
Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.
AlHumud, Ahmed; Al-Duhyyim, Abdulaziz; Alrashed, Mohammed; Bin Shabr, Faisal; Alteraif, Alwalid; Almuziri, Abdullah; Househ, Mowafa; Qureshi, Riaz
Background Health information obtained from the Internet has an impact on patient health care outcomes. There is a growing concern over the quality of online health information sources used by diabetic patients because little is known about their health information–seeking behavior and the impact this behavior has on their diabetes-related self-care, in particular in the Middle East setting. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the online health-related information–seeking behavior among adult type 2 diabetic patients in the Middle East and the impact of their online health-related information–seeking behavior on their self-care activities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 344 patients with type 2 diabetes attending inpatient and outpatient primary health care clinics at 2 teaching hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The main outcome measures included the ability of patients to access the Internet, their ability to use the Internet to search for health-related information, and their responses to Internet searches in relation to their self-care activities. Further analysis of differences based on age, gender, sociodemographic, and diabetes-related self-care activities among online health-related information seekers and nononline health-related information seekers was conducted. Results Among the 344 patients, 74.1% (255/344) were male with a mean age of 53.5 (SD 13.8) years. Only 39.0% (134/344) were Internet users; 71.6% (96/134) of them used the Internet for seeking health-related information. Most participants reported that their primary source of health-related information was their physician (216/344, 62.8%) followed by television (155/344, 45.1%), family (113/344, 32.8%), newspapers (100/344, 29.1%), and the Internet (96/344, 27.9%). Primary topics participants searched for were therapeutic diet for diabetes (55/96, 57%) and symptoms of diabetes (52/96, 54%) followed by diabetes treatment (50/96, 52%). Long history of diabetes
Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric
Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048
Morsø, Lars; Kent, Peter; Albert, Hanne B;
Differences between the psychosocial risk factors of low back pain (LBP) patients in primary and secondary care are under-investigated. Similarly, differences in the psychosocial profile of people classified into STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) subgroups in primary and secondary care settings have...... a cross-sectional comparison of LBP patients in Danish primary settings (405 general practitioner or physiotherapy patients) and a secondary care setting (311 outpatient spine centre patients). Psychosocial factors were measured with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of...
Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J
Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study was conducted with 167 patients over the age of 18 from one of two diabetes clinics in a major Turkish City. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to eligible outpatients who had an appointment in one of the clinics. Health literacy was measured by a newly translated Turkish version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Chew self-report scale. Patient empowerment was measured by a 12-item scale based on Spreitzer's conceptualisation of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Self-care behaviour was measured by the Self-care behaviours were measured by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). Level of diabetes knowledge was measured by Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results Two subscales of empowerment, impact and self-determination, predicted self-reported frequency of self-care behaviours. Neither health literacy nor diabetes knowledge had an effect on self-care behaviours. Conclusions Health literacy might be more effective in clinical decisions while empowerment might exert a stronger influence on habitual health behaviours. PMID:26975936
Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce risky use of alcohol, alcohol-related HIV risks and improve help-seeking behaviour among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa
Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie; Laubscher, Ria; Nel, Elmarie; Parry, Charles
Objective To test the effectiveness of a programme aimed at reducing the risky use of alcohol and alcohol-related HIV risk and increase help-seeking behaviour among a sample of municipal employees in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Methods A clustered randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2011–2012 among 325 employees. The eight hour intervention, Team Awareness (TA), addressing behavioural risk among employees was administered to 168 employees in the intervention arm and the ...
Caplan, Susan; Buyske, Steven
Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated that 45 participants (25%) had depression by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) criteria. Factors most likely to be associated with depression were: poverty; difficulty in functioning; greater somatic symptoms, perceived stress and stigma; number of chronic illnesses; and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Fifty-four people endorsed help-seeking. Factors associated with help-seeking were: female gender, difficulty in functioning, greater somatic symptoms, severity of depression, having someone else tell you that you have an emotional problem, and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Factors most likely to be associated with self-recognition were the same, but also included greater perceived stress. This manuscript contributes to the literature by examining attitudinal factors that may be associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition among subethnic groups of Latinos that are underrepresented in research studies. PMID:26343691
Full Text Available Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated that 45 participants (25% had depression by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 criteria. Factors most likely to be associated with depression were: poverty; difficulty in functioning; greater somatic symptoms, perceived stress and stigma; number of chronic illnesses; and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Fifty-four people endorsed help-seeking. Factors associated with help-seeking were: female gender, difficulty in functioning, greater somatic symptoms, severity of depression, having someone else tell you that you have an emotional problem, and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Factors most likely to be associated with self-recognition were the same, but also included greater perceived stress. This manuscript contributes to the literature by examining attitudinal factors that may be associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition among subethnic groups of Latinos that are underrepresented in research studies.
Eshed, H; Epstein, L
The patterns of adolescents' behaviour place them at a risk from developing health and social pathology. In order to assess whether primary care nursing meets adolescents' health needs, the reported performance of 306 registered nurses working in different primary health care settings was studied. The research tool developed especially for the study was a video-taped trigger film. Demographic, education and work-related variables were studied by means of a questionnaire. The behaviour patterns studied were smoking, sexual activity, alcohol and drug consumption, and eating habits. The clinical issues were hypertension, obesity and anorexia nervosa. Reported performance was low--35% of the total possible score--with the lowest scores in the areas of preventive care, data gathering and recording, and somewhat higher in the areas of curative care and follow-up. The video-taped trigger films were considered to have face validity; they were found to be reliable, with an ability to assess the nurses' reported performance and to differentiate between the nurses in the three different work settings. This is the first study of its kind in Israel. The results show that primary health nursing of adolescents is insufficient, and that teenagers should get higher priority as a target population from the nursing profession in order to achieve WHO's aims of 'health for all by the year 2000'. PMID:2005286
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332. Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2% or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%, whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive
Peipins Lucy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Night-time calf cramping affects approximately 1 in 3 adults. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of night-time calf cramp; if and where people seek treatment advice; and perceived treatment effectiveness. Methods 80 adults who experienced night-time calf cramp at least once per week were recruited from the Hunter region, NSW, Australia through newspaper, radio and television advertisements. All participants completed a pilot-tested survey about muscle cramp. Quantitative data were analysed with independent-sample t-tests, Chi square tests and Fisher's tests. Qualitative data were transcribed and sorted into categories to identify themes. Results Median recalled age of first night-time calf cramp was 50 years. Most participants recalled being awoken from sleep by cramping, and experiencing cramping of either calf muscle, calf-muscle soreness in the days following cramp and cramping during day-time. Despite current therapies, mean usual pain intensity was 66 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Participants described their cramps as being 'unbearable', 'unmanageable' and 'cruel'. One participant stated that 'sometimes I just wish I could cut my legs open' and another reported 'getting about 2 h sleep a night due to cramps'. Most participants had sought advice about their night-time calf cramps from a health professional. Participants identified 49 different interventions used to prevent night-time calf cramp. Of all treatment ratings, 68% described the intervention used to prevent cramp as being 'useless' or of 'a little help'. Of 14 participants who provided additional information regarding their use of quinine, eight had a current prescription of quinine for muscle cramp at the time of the survey. None had been asked by their prescribing doctor to stop using quinine. Conclusion Night time calf cramps typically woke sufferers from sleep, affected either leg and caused ongoing pain. Most participants
Goldstick, Jason Elliott; Lipton, Robert I.; Carter, Patrick; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Newton, Manya F.; Reischl, Thomas; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.
Background Frameworks for studying the ecology of human behavior suggest that multiple levels of the environment influence behavior and that these levels interact. Applied to studies of weapons aggression, this suggests proximal risk factor (e.g., substance use) effects may differ across neighborhoods. Objectives To estimate how the association between weapons aggression and substance use varies as a function of several community-level variables. Methods Individual-level measures (demographics, behavioral measures) were obtained from a survey of youth aged 14–24 years old seeking care at a Level-1 ED in Flint, Michigan. Community-level variables were obtained from public sources. Logistic generalized additive models were used to test whether community-level variables (crime rates, alcohol outlets, demographics) modify the link between individual-level substance use variables and the primary outcome measure: self-reported past 6-month weapon (firearm/knife) related aggression. Results The effect of marijuana misuse on weapons aggression varied significantly as a function of five community-level variables: racial composition, vacant housing rates, female headed household rates, density of package alcohol outlets, and nearby drug crime rates. The effect of high-risk alcohol use did not depend on any of the eight community variables tested. Conclusions The relationship between marijuana misuse and weapons aggression differed across neighborhoods with generally less association in more disadvantaged neighborhoods, while high-risk alcohol use showed a consistently high association with weapons aggression that did not vary across neighborhoods. The results aid in understanding the contributions of alcohol and marijuana use to the etiology of weapon-related aggression among urban youth, but further study in the general population is required. PMID:25607807
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH. Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48 were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7% of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Wai Hon Lo; Sau Nga Fu; Carlos King Ho Wong; Ee San Chen
To investigate the prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking behavior of erectile dysfunction(ED) in type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting, a multi‑center cross‑sectional survey using a structured anonymous self‑administered questionnaire was performed in 10 general outpatient clinics. Of the 603 subjects(91% response rate), the prevalence of ED men, as deifned by the International Index of Erectile Function, was 79.1%. Most subjects had mild ED(28.9%), followed by mild‑to‑moderate ED(27.9%), then moderate ED(13.4%) and severe ED(9%). Nearly 55% of those with ED did not consider themselves as having ED. Less than 10% of them had ever sought medical treatment, although 76.1% of them wished to receive management from doctor(s) should they be diagnosed with ED. They considered the most important management from doctors to be clinical assessment(41.7%), followed by management of potential underlying cause(37.8%), referral to specialist(27.5%), education(23.9%), prescription of phosphodiesterase type5 inhibitors(16.9%) and referral to counseling service(6.7%). The prevalence of ED was strongly associated with subjects who thought they had ED(odds ratio(OR)= 90.49(20.00–409.48, P<0.001)) and were from the older age group(OR=1.043(1.011–1.076,P=0.008)). In conclusion, ED is highly prevalent among T2DM men. The majority of them wanted management from doctors should they have ED, but only a minority would actually voice out the request. Screening of ED among T2DM men using structural questionnaire allowed the diagnosis of more than half of the ED cases, which otherwise would have gone undiagnosed.
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe;
systems in low income settings to improve maternal and child health. OBJECTIVES: to assess the effectiveness of a participatory antenatal care intervention on health behaviours and to illuminate how the different socioeconomic groups responded to the intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia. SETTING, INTERVENTION...... AND MEASUREMENTS: an intervention was designed participatorily and comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, health education material, and adaption of guidelines. It was implemented at public facilities. Household surveys, before (2008) and after (2010) intervention, were conducted amongst all...... women who had given birth within the previous 12 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed by comparing the change in health behaviours (number of antenatal visits, health facility delivery, breast feeding, preventive infant health check, and infant immunisation) from before to after the...
Anne Case; Alicia Menendez; Cally Ardington
We examine patterns of health seeking behaviour prior to death among 1282 individuals who lived in the Umkhanyakude District of Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Information on the health care choices of these individuals, who died between January 2003 and July 2004, was gathered after their deaths from their primary care-givers. We examine choices made concerning public and private medicine, western and traditional medicine, and non-prescribed self-medication. We find that virtually all adults who wer...
de Keizer Nicolette F
Full Text Available Background Quality indicators are increasingly used in healthcare but there are various barriers hindering their routine use. To promote the use of quality indicators, an exploration of the barriers to and facilitating factors for their implementation among healthcare professionals and managers of intensive care units (ICUs is advocated. Methods All intensivists, ICU nurses, and managers (n = 142 working at 54 Dutch ICUs who participated in training sessions to support future implementation of quality indicators completed a questionnaire on perceived barriers and facilitators. Three types of barriers related to knowledge, attitude, and behaviour were assessed using a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Results Behaviour-related barriers such as time constraints were most prominent (Mean Score, MS = 3.21, followed by barriers related to knowledge and attitude (MS = 3.62; MS = 4.12, respectively. Type of profession, age, and type of hospital were related to knowledge and behaviour. The facilitating factor perceived as most important by intensivists was administrative support (MS = 4.3; p = 0.02; for nurses, it was education (MS = 4.0; p = 0.01, and for managers, it was receiving feedback (MS = 4.5; p = 0.001. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that healthcare professionals and managers are familiar with using quality indicators to improve care, and that they have positive attitudes towards the implementation of quality indicators. Despite these facts, it is necessary to lower the barriers related to behavioural factors. In addition, as the barriers and facilitating factors differ among professions, age groups, and settings, tailored strategies are needed to implement quality indicators in daily practice.
Neill, Sarah; Roland, Damian; Jones, Caroline HD; Thompson, Matthew; Lakhanpaul, Monica
Objective To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. Methods 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal T...
Neill, S; Roland, D; Jones, C.H.; Thompson, M.; Lakhanpaul, M; ASK SNIFF study group
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. METHODS: 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal...
Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis
Background Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via in...
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral
Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim
Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412
Yusuf, Huda; Kolliakou, Anna; Ntouva, Antiopi; Murphy, Marie; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Richard G. Watt
BACKGROUND: To explore the factors predicting preventive behaviours among NHS dentists in Camden, Islington and Haringey in London, using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of NHS dentists working in North Central London was conducted. A self-completed questionnaire based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed. It assessed dentists' attitudes, current preventive activities, subjective norms and perceived beh...
Jaarsma, Tiny; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzen; Martensson, Jan; Dracup, Kathleen; Stromberg, Anna
Aims Improved self-care is the goat of many heart failure (HF) management programmes. The 12-item European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale (EHFScB scale) was developed and tested to measure patient self-care behaviours. It is now available in 14 languages. The aim of this study was to furthe
Full Text Available Background & objectives: For management of malaria, there is a need to give attention on specificgroup of people like children <5 yr of age in the community. They are unable to explain theirfeelings about severity of illness and effects of treatment on health and they are dependent onothers for their health care, therefore, it is the mother who can seek, obtain, and use medicationappropriately. This is directly linked to the level of education, socioeconomic status, timely decision,accessibility of health facility, correct use of drugs and their follow-up. The present study wasundertaken with the aim to know the basis on which malaria was recognized and classified andexploring factors involved in the selection of different treatment options in the desert populationof Rajasthan.Methods: Interview and observation techniques were used for data collection in 15 villages ofRamgarh PHC in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan state, India. A total of 164 mothers were interviewedand observations were made by the investigators in the group discussions who utilized healthfacility for the febrile children <5 yr of age.Results: More than 93.3% mothers started taking care at home for their febrile children andwatched for improvement on an average up to 72 h. When they thought there was no hope tomanage the case at their level, they shifted their febrile children to the nearest health facility suchas sub-centre/PHC/private health practitioner. Utilization of health facility was linked with theage of the child, with younger children (<24 months of age being significantly more likely to beutilized nearby health facility than 24–59 months children. Children judged as severely ill by theirmothers utilized health facility significantly more often than those not thought to be severely ill.Mothers from households where the household heads had a primary or secondary education weremore likely to utilize health facility than those household heads having no education
Shelby E Wilson
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To design effective national diarrhea control programs, including oral rehydration solution (ORS and therapeutic zinc supplementation, information is needed on local perceptions of illness, external care seeking behaviors, and home treatment practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey was conducted in the Orodara Health District, Burkina Faso. Caregivers of 10,490 children <27 months were interviewed to assess child diarrhea prevalence and related care practices. Characteristics of households, caregivers, children, and reported illnesses were compared for those caregivers who did or did not recognize the presence of diarrhea, as defined according to clinical criteria (≥ 3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with illness recognition and treatment. RESULTS: Clinically defined diarrhea was present in 7.6% (95% CI: 7.1-8.1% of children during the 24 hours preceding the survey but recognized by only 55% of caregivers. Over half (55% of the caregivers of 1,067 children with a clinically defined diarrhea episode in the past 14 days sought care outside the home; 78% of those seeking care attended a public sector clinic. Care was sought and treatment provided more frequently for children with fever, vomiting, anorexia, longer illness duration, and those living closer to the health center; and care was sought more frequently for male children. 80% of children with recent diarrhea received some form of treatment; only 24% received ORS, whereas 14% received antibiotics. Zinc was not yet available in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers frequently fail to recognize children's diarrhea, especially among younger infants and when illness signs are less severe. Treatment practices do not correspond with international recommendations in most cases, even when caregivers consult with formal health services. Child caregivers need additional
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB detection under the national TB control program in China follows passive case-finding guidelines, which could be influenced by the accessibility of health service and patient's health-care seeking behaviors. One intriguing topic is the correlation between men and women's knowledge on TB and their health-care seeking behaviors. Methods Two cross-sectional studies were separately carried out in Yangzhong County, a rural area of China. One study, by using systematic sampling method, including 1,200 subjects, was conducted to investigate the TB knowledge among general population. Another study in the same source population screened 33,549 people aged 15 years or over among 20 stratified cluster-sampled villages for identifying prolonged cough patients at households and individual interviews were then carried out. Gender difference in the knowledge of TB and health-care seeking behaviors was analyzed particularly. Results Among general population, only 16.0% (men 17.1% vs. women 15.0% knew the prolonged cough with the duration of 3 weeks or longer was a symptom for suspicious TB. Fewer women than men knew the local appointed health facility for TB diagnosis and treatment as well as the current free TB service policy. Moreover, women were less likely to learn information about TB and share it with others on their own initiatives. On the contrary, after the onset of the prolonged cough, women (79.2% were more likely to seek health-care than men (58.6% did. However, a large part of women preferred to visit the lower level non-hospital health facilities at first such as village clinics and drugstores. Conclusion TB and DOTS program were not well known by rural Chinese. Gender issues should be considered to reduce diagnostic delay of TB and improve both men and women's access to qualified health facility for TB care. Strengthening awareness of TB and improving the accessibility of health-care service is essential in TB
Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth
Job satisfaction is complex and is an important component in facilitating high quality nursing care. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can be clustered into one of five syndromes: psychosis, aggression, psychomotor agitation, depression and apathy, and comprise signs and symptoms of disturbed perception, thought content, mood or behaviour that frequently occur in patients with dementia. BPSD can cause tremendous distress both for the patients and for their caregivers a...
Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J
Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cro...
Fichera, Eleonora; Gray, Ewan; Sutton, Matt
The efficacy of the management of long-term conditions depends in part on whether healthcare and health behaviours are complements or substitutes in the health production function. On the one hand, individuals might believe that improved health care can raise the marginal productivity of their own health behaviour and decide to complement health care with additional effort in healthier behaviours. On the other hand, health care can lower the cost of unhealthy behaviours by compensating for their negative effects. Individuals may therefore reduce their effort in healthier lifestyles. Identifying which of these effects prevails is complicated by the endogenous nature of treatment decisions and individuals' behavioural responses. We explore whether the introduction in 2004 of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a financial incentive for family doctors to improve the quality of healthcare, affected the population's weight, smoking and drinking behaviours by applying a sharp regression discontinuity design to a sample of 32,102 individuals in the Health Survey for England (1997-2009). We find that individuals with the targeted health conditions improved their lifestyle behaviours. This complementarity was only statistically significant for smoking, which reduced by 0.7 cigarettes per person per day, equal to 18% of the mean. We investigate whether this change was attributable to the QOF by testing for other discontinuity points, including the introduction of a smoking ban in 2007 and changes to the QOF in 2006. We also examine whether medication and smoking cessation advice are potential mechanisms and find no statistically significant discontinuities for these aspects of health care supply. Our results suggest that a general improvement in healthcare generated by provider incentives can have positive unplanned effects on patients' behaviours. PMID:27183132
... technologies (MetroE, MPLS, Virtual Private Network, etc.) to meet their requirements. These solutions are... circuits or create private networks. We seek more focused comment on whether the NRCs eligible to receive... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments...
Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R
The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a 'gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes in
Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R
The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a ‘gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes
Full Text Available Background: Delay by men in seeking healthcare results in their higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB treatment and contributes to ongoing community-level disease transmission before going on treatment. Objective: To understand masculinity's role in delay in healthcare seeking for men, with a focus on TB-suggestive symptoms. Design: Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2012 in low-income suburbs in urban Blantyre using focus group discussions with community members (n=8 and health workers (n=2, in-depth interviews with 20 TB patients (female=14 and 20 uninvestigated chronic coughers (female=8, and a 3-day participatory workshop with 27 health stakeholder representatives. The research process drew to a large extent on grounded theory principles in the manner of Strauss and Corbin (1998 and also Charmaz (1995. Results: Role descriptions by both men and women in the study universally assigned men as primary material providers for their immediate family, that is, the ones earning and bringing livelihood and additional material needs. In a context where collectivism was valued, men were also expected to lead the provision of support to wider kin. Successful role enactment was considered key to achieving recognition as an adequate man; at the same time, job scarcity and insecurity, and low earnings gravely impeded men. Pressures to generate continuing income then meant constantly looking for jobs, or working continuously to retain insecure jobs or to raise money through self-employment. All this led men to relegate their health considerations. Conclusions: Early engagement with formal healthcare is critical to dealing with TB and HIV. However, role constructions as portrayed for men in this study, along with the opportunity costs of acknowledging illness seem, in conditions of vulnerability, important barriers to care-seeking. There is a need to address hidden care-seeking costs and to consider more complex interventions
Niesten, D; van der Sanden, W J M; Gerritsen, A E
In order to explore how the level of frailty and various frailty factors affect the dental service use and oral self-care behaviour of frail elderly people, 51 frail elderly people were interviewed. Additional information on age, gender, living situation, prosthetic status, self-reported health and oral health, chronic diseases and an index for frailty was collected. A thematic qualitative analysis of the collected data reveals that frail elders maintain long-established oral hygiene routines as long as possible to sustain a sense of self-worth. When burdened by severe health complaints they discontinue visits to the dentist first and oral hygiene routines subsequently. A loss of confidence in the results of dental service use, the trivializing of complaints and a diminishing sense of the importance of oral health play a role in these developments. Frail elderly people also experience psychological and social barriers to oral healthcare and dental service use when they are institutionalized. PMID:26210121
Study Describes Research Scientists’ Information Seeking Behaviour, but Methodological Issues Make Usefulness as Evidence Debatable. A Review of: Hemminger, B.M., Lu, D., Vaughan, K.T.L., & Adams, S. J. (2007). Information seeking behavior of academic scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(14), 2205‐2225.
Objective – To quantify the transition to electronic communication in information‐seeking behaviour of academic scientists.Design – Census survey.Setting – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a large public research university.Subjects – Nine hundred two faculty, research staff, and graduate students involved in research in basic or medical science departments. Participants self‐selected (26%) from 3523 recruited. The sample reflected the larger population in terms of gender, age, un...
Full Text Available Erika Tanaka,1 Mikio Momoeda,2 Yutaka Osuga,3 Bruno Rossi,4 Ken Nomoto,5 Masakane Hayakawa,5 Kinya Kokubo,6 Edward CY Wang1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Integrated Women's Health, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 5Medical Affairs Women's Health and Dermatology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 6Consumer Goods/Service and Healthcare Industry Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan Background: Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist's medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose: To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient and women opting for self-care (nonvisit, to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women's daily lives. Methods: Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274 and nonvisit (n=500 groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results: The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea
Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001. Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005. More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27. Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85 and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10 predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions: Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV
Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Putnam, S.; Jong, M. de; Weerth, C. de
This longitudinal study examined the link between multiple aspects of early non-parental care and internalizing and externalizing behaviour at 30 months of age. We also examined whether this link was mediated by children's inhibitory control and moderated by early temperamental negative affectivity.
Conclusions: The status of foot self-care knowledge and behaviours are not optimistic. According to the patients' own characteristics, the theory of knowledge, attitude and practice applies to encouraging patients to go for periodic inspection and education about diabetic complications so as to enhance the knowledge and promote the self-care behaviours.
Shankha Chakraborty; Era Dabla-Norris
This paper examines the relationship between rent seeking and economic performance when governments cannot enforce property rights. With imperfect credit markets and a fixed cost to rent seeking, only wealthy agents choose to engage in it, as it allows them to protect their wealth from expropriation. Hence, the level of rent seeking and economic performance are determined by the initial distribution of income and wealth. When individuals also differ in their productivity, not all wealthy agen...
Stoffers Henri E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality Improvement Interventions require significant financial investments, and therefore demand careful consideration in their design in order to maximize potential benefits. In this correspondence we present the methodological approach of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention aiming to improve quality of care in primary care, properly tailored for a country such as Cyprus where general practice is currently seeking recognition. Methods Our methodological approach was focused on the design of an open label, community-based intervention controlled trial using all patients from two urban and two rural public primary care centers diagnosed with hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus. The design of our intervention was grounded on a strong theoretical framework that included the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, and the Chronic Care Model, which synthesize evidence-based system changes in accordance with the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The primary outcome measure was improvement in the quality of care for two chronic diseases evaluated through specific clinical indicators, as well as the patient satisfaction assessed by the EUROPEP questionnaire and additional personal interviews. Results We designed a multifaceted quality improvement intervention model, supported by a varying degree of scientific evidence, tailored to local needs and specific country characteristics. Overall, the main components of the intervention were the development and adoption of an electronic medical record and the introduction of clinical guidelines for the management of the targeted chronic diseases facilitated by the necessary model of organizational changes. Conclusion Health planners and policy makers need to be aware of the potential use of certain theoretical models and applied methodology as well as inexpensive tools that may be suitably tailored to the local needs, in order to
Tasca, Giorgio A; Presniak, Michelle D; Demidenko, Natasha; Balfour, Louise; Krysanski, Valerie; Trinneer, Anne; Bissada, Hany
Fairburn et al (Fairburn, CG, Cooper, Z, Shafran, R. Behav Res Ther 2003;41:509-528) proposed additional maintenance mechanisms (ie, interpersonal difficulties, mood intolerance, low self-esteem, and perfectionism) for some individuals with eating disorders in addition to core eating disorder psychopathology (ie, overevaluation of eating, weight, and shape and their control). This is the first study to both elaborate and test this maintenance model as a structural model. Adults seeking treatment of an eating disorder (N = 1451) at a specialized tertiary care center were included in this cross-sectional study. In the first part of the study, diagnostically heterogeneous participants (n = 406) were randomly selected to test a structural model based on the maintenance model. In the second part of the study, remaining participants (n = 1045) were grouped according to eating disorder diagnosis to test for invariance of the structural paths of the final model across diagnoses. Overall, the structural model with core and additional mechanisms fit the data well and, with 1 exception, represented maintenance processes for each of the diagnostic groups. Treatment models based on both core and additional maintenance factors for those seeking therapy at a specialized tertiary care center may result in improved treatment outcomes for these patients with eating disorders. PMID:21295776
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. METHOD: We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. RESULTS: Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers
Muntasir T Salah
Results: Three-hundred fifty housewives were interviewed. The majority (85.7% had had at least basic education and 244 (69.7% were full-time housewives. A total of 237 (67.7% mothers were found to have adequate knowledge about malaria. Malaria was perceived by only 143 (40.9% of the respondents as a cause of low grade fever and this percentage was almost doubled in the case of high fever. There were similar findings with respect to the selection of treatment sources and the use of antimalarial drugs. High fever urged 319 (91.1% to seek advice from health workers and 281 (80.3% to take drugs other than chloroquine. Conclusion: The intensity of fever (low/ high governed the respondent′s perceived causes of fever, decision about available treatment options and the type of antimalarial drugs they used. Health education programmes should focus on the importance of seeking early advice, compliance with prescribed treatment and awareness and handling of danger signs before presenting at health facility.
Weiner, Saul J; Vangeest, Jonathan B; Abrams, Richard I; Moswin, Arthur; Warnecke, Richard
The purpose of this case study was to understand why many uninsured patients opt not to make use of a free public hospital when it is available, instead seeking emergency department care at sites where they will be billed for the services they receive. One hundred fifty seven uninsured patients were interviewed over an 8-week period at three emergency departments that bill for services near a county hospital that provides free care. Data was gathered on income, health status, and credit history. Subjects were also asked if they had previously sought care at the county hospital and, if they had, how satisfied they were with the quality of care and with the wait time. Seventy two percent of the subjects reported household incomes of income, problems with debt, and reported health status did not. Access involves more than geographic proximity and affordability. Excessive wait times can deter even patients who are poor, in ill health and in debt from making use of services that are intended for their benefit. PMID:16736373
Full Text Available Tribal malaria is a cause of high morbidity in India. Lack of affordable and accessible health care leads to out of pocket expenditure on malaria which is easily treatable under the NVBDCP. Lack of knowledge about causation and preventive measures about malaria predisposes to high incidence among Tribal. OBJECTIVES: 1 To study the prevalence of malaria like illness in the population 2 To study the health seeking behavior of the respondents 3 Study the health care spending on malaria like illness 4 Awareness among cases about malaria causation, prevention and control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out during the month of September 2009 in three villages which fell under the Rural Health training center of a tertiary care medical .A Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from only those who had suffered from Malaria like illness with investigator visiting each household to enquire about malaria like illness in past 3 months. All the respondents who gave a positive history were included in the study. RESULTS: The study findings include (11% of people suffered Malaria like illness, 80% of patients took treatment other than sub center and PHC, mean cost of spending per visit was 62 rs, 62% had no knowledge of malaria causation while 52% used cow dung smoke to drive out the mosquitoes. CONCLUSION: Health seeking behavior of tribal people in malaria like illness is inclined more towards the Private physicians and faith healers. Out of pocket expenditure was high on diseases which can be treated free of cost under government sponsored programme. There was a general lack of knowledge about modes of transmission of malaria and methods of mosquito control. Inadequate active surveillance by the health worker was noted.
Diesfeldt, H F A
The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of 27 questionnaire items. The study included an exploratory and a confirmatory approach. For that purpose the sample was randomly divided into two halves. Exploratory analysis revealed three dimensions of participation that adequately captured the item structure: motivation (10 items; Loevinger's H = 0.48), competence (7 items; H = 0.56) and self-confidence (4 items; H = 0.57). The structure was validated in a confirmatory analysis. In a stepwise multiple regression model 49% of the variance in motivation was explained by independent behavioural measures of apathy and affect. Apathy and cognitive impairment were significant predictors of competence in participation (R(2) = 31.2%). Negative affect was the main predictor of reduced self-confidence (R(2) = 37.9%). Cross-validation of these exploratory regression models on the confirmatory sample explained 39.6%, 29.2% and 23.1% of the variance in motivation, competence and self-confidence, respectively. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2(A,1)) as determined in a random subsample of 56 participants, were 0.77 (motivation), 0.85 (competence) and 0.76 (self-confidence). The three measures allow the differentiation and ordering of individual participants on separate dimensions of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care. PMID:25007866
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, approximately 8.8 million children under 5 years of age died worldwide. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, but little is known about poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors for their children. We examined poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness, and identified factors affecting their choices. We also assessed mothers' perception of the medical services and their confidence in the health care available for their children. Methods We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study with structured questionnaires. Participants were 756 mothers and their young children (0-23 months in Nandaime municipality, Granada province, Nicaragua. We took the children's anthropometric measurements and we assessed the mothers according to their income. We divided them into 3 global absolute poverty categories (income: 2 USD/day, and 4 quintile. Results When a child showed symptoms of illness, most mothers (>75% selected public health facilities as their first choice. More than half (>58% were satisfied with the medical services, but the poorest mothers expressed more dissatisfaction (p = 0.003, when we divided the participants into 4 quintiles groups according to their income. In the poorest group, the main reasons for dissatisfaction were cost (46.6%, and distance to the facilities (25.8%. Almost half (41.3% of mothers lacked confidence in the health care offered to their child, while most of the wealthiest mothers (75.7% did have confidence in it (p = 0.001. The poorest mothers showed greater interest in health education than the wealthiest (86.2% vs. 77.8% (p = 0.015. We found that poor mothers (≤2 USD/day changed their second choice for care in a positive direction. Factors affecting the change in second choice were the child having symptoms of respiratory disease (AOR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.28-4.90, p = 0.007, visiting health post as the first choice (AOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.26-3.53, p
Mohammed B. Abdulkadir
Full Text Available Objectives: Our study sought to determine the time parents of febrile children under the age of five took to seek competent medical care. We also looked at the possible sociodemographic/ clinical factors that influenced this presentation. Methods: Four hundred and nine under-fives presenting at the emergency unit with a history of fever in the last 48 hours along with their mothers were recruited over four months. Relevant sociodemographic information as well as symptoms and duration of illness were obtained. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of early and late presentation. Results: Over half (57% of patients presented within 24 hours of onset of fever. The mean age of the children and mothers were 22±15 months and 30±5 years, respectively. High social class (odds ratio (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.6–26.4, Hausa ethnic group (OR 19.3, 95% CI 5.7–65.6, convulsions (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6–6.5 and appearance of other symptoms (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0–12.0 were significant predictors of early presentation. Secondary school education, belonging to another ethnic group, and non-resolution of fever were significant predictors of late presentation. Conclusion: The majority of febrile under-fives came to the hospital to seek competent medical care within the first 24 hours of illness. However, there is a need for more parental education on early hospital presentation for parents of low socioeconomic status and educational background.
Nankinga, Ziadah; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Kalyango, Joan; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Kiwuwa, Steven; Njama-Meya, Denise; Karamagi, Charles
In Uganda malaria causes more morbidity and mortality than any other disease and children below 5 years contribute the biggest percentage of malaria related mortality. Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are currently one of the most cost effective option for reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality, however the factors affecting their utilization in Uganda are still not well understood. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with ITN utilization among children of age 0-12 years seeking health care from a Ugandan hospital using caregiver's reports. A cross sectional design was used to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire from 418 participants. Binary logistic regression was employed to determine predictors of ITN utilization. Results show that the prevalence of ITN utilization among children seeking health care was 34.2%. ITN utilization was higher among children of age <5 years [37.0, 95% CI 31.81-42.21] as compared to children aged ≥5 years [22.9, 95% CI 13.77-32.01]. Source of mosquito net (OR = 13.53, 95% CI = 6.47-28.27), formal employment by head of household (OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.95-18.48), sharing a bed with parent (s) (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.21-5.63) and number of children below 12 years in a household (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99), were significant predictors of utilization. ITN utilization among children was below the set national target. The predictors identified by this study reveal opportunities that can be taken advantage of by malaria control programs to achieve the desired rates of utilization and subsequently malaria prevention in children. PMID:22323100
Full Text Available Health programs implemented by microfinance institutions (MFIs aim to benefit the poor, but whether these services reach the poorest remains uncertain. This study intended to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of patients in hospitals operated by microfinance institutions (i.e. MFI hospitals in Bangladesh and compare the differences with public hospitals to determine if the programs were consistent with their pro-poor mandate.In this cross-sectional study, we used the convenience sampling method to conduct an interviewer-assisted questionnaire survey among 347 female outpatients, with 170 in public hospitals and 177 in MFI hospitals. Independent variables were patient characteristics categorized into predisposing factors (age, education, marital status, family size, enabling factors (microcredit membership, household income and need factors (self-rated health, perceived needs for care. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE to evaluate how these factors contributed to MFI hospital use.Use of MFI hospitals was associated with microcredit membership over 5 years (OR=2.9, p<.01, moderately poor household (OR=4.09, p<.001, non-poor household (OR=7.34, p<.01 and need for preventive care (OR=3.4, p<.01, compared with public hospitals. Combining membership and income, we found microcredit members had a higher tendency towards utilization but membership effect pertained to the non- and moderately-poor. Compared with the group who were non-members and the poorest, microcredit members who were non-poor had the highest likelihood (OR=7.46, p<.001 to visit MFI hospitals, followed by members with moderate income (OR=6.91, p<.001 and then non-members in non-poor households (OR=4.48, p<.01. Those who were members but the poorest had a negative association (OR=0.42, though not significant. Despite a higher utilization of preventive services in MFI hospitals, expenditure there was significantly higher.Inequity was more pronounced in MFI
Time, Cost, Information Seeking Skills and Format of Resources Present Barriers to Information Seeking by Primary Care Practitioners in a Research Environment. A review of: Andrews James E., Kevin A. Pearce, Carol Ireson, and Margaret M. Love. “Information‐Seeking Behaviors of Practitioners in a Primary Care Practice‐Based Research Network (PBRN.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 93.2 (Apr. 2005: 206‐12.
Martha Ingrid Preddie
Full Text Available Objective – To determine the information seeking behaviors of primary care practitioners in order to inform future efforts towards the design of information services that would support quality inprimary care.Design – A cross‐sectional survey.Setting – A primary care practice based research network (PBRN of caregivers who serve a broad population while simultaneously studying and disseminating innovations aimed at improvements in quality, efficiency and/or safety of primaryhealth care in the United States.Subjects – All primary care practitioners in the PBRN including family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants.Methods – A questionnaire comprising twenty‐six questions was distributed to 116 practitioners. Practitioners attached to academic centres (who were also members of the PBRN were excluded in order “to achieve a sample of practices more representative of the primary care practising population” (208. Descriptive data were collected and analyzed. SPSS v11.5 was used for statistical analyses.Main results – There was a response rate of 51% (59 of 116. Fifty‐eight percent of the respondents stated that they sought information (excluding drug dosing or drug interactions information to support patient care several times a week. Sixty‐eight per cent sought this information while the patient waited. Almost half of therespondents had access to a small medical library (48% or a hospital library (46%, while 21% used a university medical library.Approximately 14% had no immediate access to a medical library. Almost 60% of practitioners stated that they had an e‐mail account. Thirty‐four percent agreed that the use of e‐mail to communicate with patients enhanced medical practice, while 24% disagreed. There was frequent prescribing of Internet‐based consumer health information to patients by only 16% of the practitioners, while Internet support groups were frequently recommended
Gibbard, Isabel Mary
AbstractThe aim of this qualitative research project was to investigate the experiences of clients who had received Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Person Centred Therapy (PCT) in primary care. The rationale for the investigation was to inform the assessment and referral process whereby prospective clients are assigned to the two different therapies.A total of 16 clients responded to an invitation to attend an unstructured interview (PCT = 9; CBT = 7) to talk about their experiences ...
Working with people with learning disabilities can be stressful for direct care staff; as many as one-third of staff members in adult services experience stress levels indicative of a mental health problem. In addition to adverse effects on staff mental and physical health, staff stress can impact on the delivery and quality of services for people with learning disabilities. Challenging behaviour is recognised as a significant source of staff stress. Both adults and children with learning ...
Reason, Florence Paige
Nosocomial infection rates are highly dependent on hand hygiene compliance within health care facilities. This paper examines the literature concerning elements of effective hand hygiene interventions and relevant behaviour change theory, in addition to current practice surrounding hand hygiene interventions in leading institutions, in order to inform and propose recommendations for the improvement and success of the University Health Network’s current hand hygiene initiative. The results of ...
Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen
Help-seeking behaviour for suicidality is low and the reasons for this have not systematically been examined. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between suicide stigma, suicide literacy and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. One thousand two hundred seventy-four Australian adults recruited via Facebook completed an online survey assessing a range of mental health outcomes. High suicide literacy and low suicide stigma were significantly associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and, among a subsample of 534, greater intentions to seek help. Attribution of suicide to isolation was associated with more positive attitudes toward help-seeking and greater intentions to seek help, while respondents experiencing suicidal ideation had more negative attitudes toward help-seeking and lower intentions to seek help. Lower depressive symptoms, older age and female gender were associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and higher help-seeking intentions. However, there were differential associations of specific suicide knowledge items and specific stigmatising attitudes with help-seeking outcomes; suggesting a nuanced approach may be required to promote help seeking for suicidality. Suicide knowledge and attitudes play an important role in the help-seeking process for suicide and should be carefully considered in the development of public awareness campaigns. PMID:25048756
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Background: Pakistan’s population is estimated to be 160,943,000. It ranks third among the ten high burden
countries and accounts for up to 7% of worldwide neonatal deaths. According to the Pakistan’s World Health Oganization (WHO 2010 health profile, only 28% of Pakistani women have used ante natal care services (4 plus visits, whilst 39% of reported births in Pakistan had used skilled birth attendant services, whereas 59% fell within the WHO’s regional average. There is also a significant disparity, reported by the WHO, in terms of inequity between the poor and the rich in the use of skilled birth attendant services: 16% and 77 % respectively.
Objective: This ethnographic study explores the perceptions about the need for antenatal care (ANC in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan.
Method: This is an Ethnographic study which makes use of standard methods such as non-participant observation, semi structured interviews, and documentary review. Data was collected over 14 months and was analyzed thematically. Key informants assisted in understanding the community norms. Open ended answer options were used in the questionnaire.
Setting: The community in this case was an urban squatter settlement by the name of Ghazi Goth, which is the neighborhood of the poor people.
Results: We found that 41% of the women did not receive ANC because of lack of financial support. 33% said that family did not support the decision. In 43% of the cases, the husband was the decision maker regarding where the delivery of the baby should take place. 31% of the respondents also reported that their mother-inlaws were the decision makers for the baby’s delivery. Only 3% reported a self decision.
Conclusions: This a qualitative study which helps explore perceptions and attitudes of women towards ANC, through contextual data. The
Bull Fiona C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher
Shuper Engelhard, Einat; Klein, Pnina S.; Yablon, Yaacov B.
An attempt was made in the present study to identify mothers' and caregivers' teaching (mediation) behaviour in relation to toddlers' social behaviour. Participants were 103 toddlers, two- to four-year olds, their mothers, and 28 caregivers at 16 public daycare centres in Israel. Two observations were carried out, one in…
Willaing, I; Rogvi, S-A; Bøgelund, M;
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HbA1c recall by patients with Type 2 diabetes and self-management behaviours, patient activation, perception of care and diabetes distress.......The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HbA1c recall by patients with Type 2 diabetes and self-management behaviours, patient activation, perception of care and diabetes distress....
used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...
Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95
Srivastava Neeraj M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The state of Uttar Pradesh, India accounts for one-quarter of India's neonatal deaths and 8 percent of those worldwide. More than half (52% of these deaths occur due to infections. In order to achieve Millennium Development Goal-4 of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015, it is important to study factors which affect neonatal health. In Uttar Pradesh there is meager data for spending on health care in general and neonates in particular. Methods The study was conducted at an urban Reproductive and Child Health (RCH center and a District hospital. Neonates were enrolled within 48 hours of birth and were followed-up once at 6 weeks ± 15 days at the OPD of the respective hospitals or at home. This study assessed (1 distribution of neonatal illnesses and different health providers sought (2 distribution of out-of-pocket expenditures by type of illness and type of health provider sought (3 socio-economic distribution of neonatal illnesses, care-seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditures. Per-protocol analysis was performed. Results Five hundred and ten neonates were enrolled and 481(94.4% were followed-up. Parents of 50.3% (242/481 neonates reported at least one symptom of illness. Of these 22.3% (107/481 neonates had illnesses with at least one reported Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI danger sign. Among IMNCI illnesses, point prevalence of septicemia was 6.2% and pneumonia was 5.2% while among non-IMNCI illnesses point prevalence of upper respiratory infection was 9.5%, and diarrhea was 7%. Community based non-government dispensers (NGDs were leading health providers (37.6%. Mean monthly income of families was 2804 Indian Rupees (INR (range: 800 to 14000; n = 510, where US$ 1 = 42 INR. Mean out-of-pocket expenditure on neonatal illness was 547.5 INR (range: 1 to 15000; n = 202 and mean out-of-pocket expenditure for hospitalization was 4993 INR (range: 41 to 15000; n = 17
Lamberti, Laura M; Fischer Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E
Increased diarrheal episode severity has been linked to better 2-week recall and improved care-seeking and treatment among caregivers of children under five. Using cross-sectional data from three Indian states, we sought to assess the relationship between episode severity and the recall, care-seeking, and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Recall error was higher for episodes with onset 8-14 days (31.2%) versus 1-7 days (4.8%) before the survey, and logistic regression analysis showed a trend toward increased severity of less recent compared with more recent episodes. This finding indicates that data collection with 2-week recall underestimates diarrhea prevalence while overestimating the proportion of severe episodes. There was a strong correlation between care-seeking and dehydration, fever, vomiting, and increased stool frequency and duration. Treatment with oral rehydration salts was associated with dehydration, vomiting, and higher stool frequency, and trends were established between therapeutic zinc supplementation and increased duration and stool frequency. However, state and care-seeking sector were stronger determinants of treatment than episode severity, illustrating the need to address disparities in treatment quality across regions and delivery channels. Our findings are of importance to researchers and diarrhea management program evaluators aiming to produce accurate estimates of diarrheal outcomes and program impact in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26033018
Boulstridge, Emma; Carrigan, Marylyn
According to the press at the turn of the year 1999—2000, a good corporate reputation for responsible marketing is a key element in business success. One justification for this is the assumption that consumers are interested in how companies behave and this has an influence upon their consumption behaviour. There is also the suggestion that a financial pay-off is to be gained from good behaviour. Conflicting reports in previous research cast doubt upon the reliability of these assumptions, an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a significant burden on the limited resources of many low income countries. Knowing more about why and where people seek treatment will enable policy makers to better allocate the limited resources. This study aims to better understand what influences treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in one such low-income country context, Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods Two culturally, linguistically and demographically different regions in PNG were selected as study sites. A cross sectional household survey was undertaken in both sites resulting in the collection of data on 928 individuals who reported suffering from malaria in the previous four weeks. A probit model was then used to identify the factors determining whether or not people sought treatment for presumptive malaria. Multinomial logit models also assisted in identifying the factors that determined where people sought treatments. Results Results in this study build upon findings from other studies. For example, while distance in PNG has previously been seen as the primary factor in influencing whether any sort of treatment will be sought, in this study cultural influences and whether it was the first, second or even third treatment for a particular episode of malaria were also important. In addition, although formal health care facilities were the most popular treatment sources, it was also found that traditional healers were a common choice. In turn, the reasons why participants chose a particular type of treatment differed according to the whether they were seeking an initial or subsequent treatments. Conclusions Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities. Policy makers in PNG need to consider within-country variation in treatment-seeking behaviour, the important role of traditional healers and also ensure that the community fully understands the potential implications
Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Tinati, Tannaze; Cradock, Sue; Begum, Rufia; Jarman, Megan; Pease, Anna; Margetts, Barrie; Davies, Jenny; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Barker, Mary
A total of 148 health and social care practitioners were trained in skills to support behaviour change: creating opportunities to discuss health behaviours, using open discovery questions, listening, reflecting and goal-setting. At three time points post-training, use of the skills was evaluated and compared with use of skills by untrained practitioners. Trained practitioners demonstrated significantly greater use of these client-centred skills to support behaviour change compared to their untrained peers up to 1 year post-training. Because it uses existing services to deliver support for behaviour change, this training intervention has the potential to improve public health at relatively low cost. PMID:24713156
Andrew S. Dunn, DC, MEd, MS
Full Text Available Escalating prevalence estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among recently returning Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF veterans highlight the need for early detection and management for reducing chronic mental illness and disability. Because PTSD and chronic pain are common comorbid conditions among veterans, PTSD screening within specialty clinic settings addressing musculoskeletal pain may be of value. This retrospective study evaluated measures of diagnostic value for the PTSD Checklist (PCL for a sample (n = 79 of OIF/OEF veterans seeking care for neck or back pain within a Department of Veterans Affairs specialty clinic. Because published accounts of optimal PCL cutoff scores vary considerably, we used receiver operating characteristic curves to identify whether the optimal PCL cutoff score for the sample differed from a conventional cutoff score of 50. A clinical psychologist experienced in diagnosing and managing PTSD confirmed the diagnosis of PTSD for 37 veterans through a review of clinical records. The prevalence of diagnosed PTSD was 46.8%, with an optimal PCL cutoff score of 44. These findings may guide future research and influence clinical practice regarding PTSD screening for recently returning veterans with chronic pain.
Boylan (Doran), Jackie; Alderdice, Fiona A.; McGowan, Jennifer E.; Craig, Stanley; Perra, Oliver; Jenkins, John
Objective: Examine the behavioural outcomes at age 3 years of late preterm infants (LPIs) who were admitted to neonatal intensive care (NIC) in comparison with LPIs who were not admitted.Method: This cohort study prospectively recruited 225 children born late preterm (34–36+6 weeks gestation) in 2006 in Northern Ireland, now aged 3 years. Two groups were compared: LPIs who received NIC (study; n=103) and LPIs who did not receive NIC (control; n=122). Parents/guardians completed the Child Beha...
Alina-Aida Drăgan; Dacinia-Crina Petrescu
The aim of this pilot study is to outline consumers’ profile in terms of their interest in organic, natural and conventional skin care, their knowledge about these products and the differences between them, their opinion regarding the performance and price of organic skin care in relation to conventional skin care. The survey used a self-administered questionnaire and was conducted on a sample of 86 customers from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The results indicate that consumers who pu...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections (RTIs may be more severe in those with asthma or COPD and these patients are more frequently in need of health care. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of RTI symptoms in a general adult population and how care-seeking is associated with the presence of obstructive lung disease. Methods Cross-sectional data including spirometry and self-reported chronic diseases were collected among middle-aged and elderly subjects in the Tromsø population survey (Tromsø 6. Self- reported RTI symptoms, consultations and antibiotic use were the main outcome variables. Possible predictors of RTI symptoms were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 6414 subjects included, 798 (12.4% reported RTI symptoms in the previous week. RTI symptoms were reported less frequently by subjects aged 75 years or above, than by those younger than 55 years (OR 0.5. Winter season (OR 1.28, current smoking (OR 1.60, low self-rated health (OR 1.26 and moderate to severe bronchial obstruction (OR 1.51, were also statistically significant independent predictors of RTI symptoms, but these variables did not predict RTI symptoms that had started within the previous seven days. Among subjects with RTI symptoms, 5.1% also reported a consultation with a doctor. In those with bronchial obstruction by spirometry, who did not report asthma or COPD, this frequency was 2.4%. Antibiotic treatment was reported by 7.4% of the participants, among whom one third had consulted a doctor. Antibiotics were taken more frequently when asthma or COPD was reported (13.7%, but not in subjects with bronchial obstruction who did not report these diseases (7.2%. Conclusions RTI symptoms seldom led to consultation with a doctor and not even in subjects with obstructive lung disease. This was in particular the case in subjects who did not know about their obstructive lung disease. Strategies for early diagnosis of COPD and
Full Text Available Background: Inhalant (or solvent abuse is the purposeful inhalation of vapors or gases, intended to produce pleasurable psychoactive effects. There is a dearth of Indian studies on inhalant users. Aim: The present study aimed to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of inhalant users visiting a Tertiary Care Center in North India. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review for 50 inhalant users who sought treatment for the first time from the center over a period of 2 years. All patients seeking treatment for inhalant use at the center were evaluated by a psychiatrist. Results: Mean age of the sample was 17.16±4.09 years and majority comprised of children and adolescents (72.2%. There were only three girls (6%. Majority comprised of school drop-outs (82%, from lower socio-economic status (80%. Mean age of initiation of first substance was 14.13±4.27 years and inhalants were first drugs for 38%. Duration of inhalant use ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years. Use was mostly uninterrupted, and 88% were dependent users. Correction fluid was the commonest product, used by huffing or sniffing. A large majority (86% had used at least one other substance besides inhalants, and 8% reported involvement in high-risk sexual behaviors. Comorbid psychiatric disorder was seen in 8% of sample. Positive family history was observed in 30% of the sample. The mean hemoglobin of the sample was 11.88±0.60, with low hemoglobin in 25% of users. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes were elevated beyond normal in 10.8%, 6.5%, 15.2%, and 7.5%, respectively. There was no evidence of leucopenia. Bilirubin and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase was elevated in 6.6% and 13% of inhalant users, respectively. Conclusion: The study adds to the limited date available on the treatment-seeking inhalant users from Indian settings. There is a need to examine the pattern of inhalant use in larger samples
Las mujeres que se quedan: migración e implicación en los procesos de búsqueda de atención de servicios de salud Women who are left behind: the impact of international migration on the process of seeking health care
more control and capacity to seek care, with privacy and independence. CONCLUSIONS: The familial reorganization influences timely health care-seeking behaviour of female partners of migrants. The situations identified can function as obstacles or facilitators to mobilize healthcare resources.
Ioannou, Andri; Andreou, Emily; Christofi, Maria
This exploratory case study involved a humanoid robot, NAO, and four pre-schoolers. NAO was placed in an indoor playground together with other toys and appeared as a peer who played, talked, danced and said stories. Analysis of video recordings focused on children's behaviour around NAO and how the robot gained children's attention and…
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve
Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap using household survey data collected from 571 households in three rural and peri-urban sites in Nepal in 2012. Questions encompassed household socioeconomic characteristics, illness characteristics,...
Full Text Available Aim: There is little scientific evidence about the main determinants of sex discrepancies in tuberculosis rates in Albania. The aim of this study was to assess the sex-differences in socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about tuberculosis and access to health care among tuberculosis patients in Albania, a transitional country in the Western Balkans. Methods: Our analysis involved all the new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Albania during the period June 2012 – June 2013 (N=197; 69% males; overall mean age: 44±19 years. The recording and reporting system of tuberculosis cases was performed according to the WHO and EuroTB Surveillance guidelines. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, knowledge and attitudes about tuberculosis and access to health care was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of sex-differences among tuberculosis patients. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, female sex was positively related to unemployment (OR=3.7, 95%CI=1.8-7.7, bad living conditions (OR=3.0, 95%CI=1.4-6.5, a longer distance to health care facility (OR=3.0, 95%CI=1.4-6.3, a lower level of knowledge about tuberculosis (OR=3.1, 95%CI=1.3-7.1 and a higher level of stigma against tuberculosis (OR=3.6, 95%CI=1.6-7.9. Conclusion: Our study informs about selected correlates of sex-differences in tuberculosis rates in post-communist Albania. Future studies should more vigorously explore determinants of sex-differences in tuberculosis rates in countries of the Western Balkans.
Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh
Background & objectives: There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Methods: Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012) were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Results: Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39%) used prescription opioids and 11 (36%) used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71%) women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%). Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%), cluster B traits/disorder (19%) and somatoform disorder (13%). Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of pain and to
Van Cauteren Dieter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza surveillance systems do not allow the identification of the true burden of illness caused by influenza in the community because they are restricted to consulting cases. A study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the burden of self-defined influenza, and to describe healthcare seeking behavior for self-defined influenza during the A(H1N12009 pandemic in the French population. Methods We conducted a random-based retrospective cross-sectional telephone survey between May 2009 and April 2010 among a random sample of the French population. Results For the 10 076 people included, 107 episodes of self-defined influenza were reported. The annual incidence of self-defined influenza was estimated at 13 942 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (CI95% 10 947 – 16 961, 62.1% (CI95% 50.5 – 72.5 of cases consulted a physician and 11.3% (CI95% 5.5 - 21.7 used a face mask. Following recommendations, 37.5% (CI95% 35.5 – 39.5 of people in the survey reported washing their hands more often during the pandemic season, and there was a positive association with being vaccinated against A(H1N12009 influenza, being a women, being a child ( Conclusions Self-defined influenza causes a significant burden of illness in the French population and is a frequent cause for consultation. These results allow a more accurate interpretation of influenza surveillance data and an opportunity to adapt future health education messages.
Noushon Farmanara; Marchildon, Gregory P.; Amélie Quesnel-Vallée
Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT) focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). In contrast, Canadian interventio...
Williams, C; Wilson, P; Morrison, J.; McMahon, A.; Walker, A.; Allan, L; McConnachie, A.; McNeill, Y.; Tansey, L
Background: Access to Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression is limited. One solution is CBT self-help books. Trial Objectives: To assess the impact of a guided self-help CBT book (GSH-CBT) on mood, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Hypotheses: 1. GSH-CBT will have improved mood and knowledge of the causes and treatment of depression compared to the control receiving TAU 2. Guided self-help will be acceptable to patients and staff. Methods and Findings ...
Full Text Available Background Integration of behavioural health into primary care clinics is an established model of care and important approach to eliminating mental health disparities, but demands on provider time is a barrier to mental health screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a kiosk placed in a primary care clinic to screen for multiple mental health disorders.Methods Quality improvement initiative with Plan-Do-Study-Act implementation and time series monitoring of utilisation outcomes.Results A total of 281 screens were completed identifying positive screens for depression (30% and bipolar disorder (17%. Post-traumatic stress disorder and concerning substance use were less common.Conclusions Development of health information technology to facilitate behavioural health assessment in primary care is a promising approach to integrated care and provides additional benefits of population health monitoring.
Gratification Theory Provides a Useful Framework for Understanding the Information Seeking Behaviours and Needs of Distinct Populations. A review of: Chatman, E. A. (1991. Life in a small world: Applicability of gratification theory to information‐seeking behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(6, 438‐449.
Full Text Available Objective – Apply gratification theory to the information‐seeking behaviours and use of information by a lower working class population. Design – An ethnographic study framed by social stratification literature was utilized to explore, describe and interpret the everyday information needs, information‐seeking behaviours and views of information held by lower working class individuals.Setting – A major university in the southeast United States, specifically the physical plant facilities including classrooms, bathrooms, janitorial closets, and front steps.Subjects – The participants were 52 lower working class janitorial staff at a major university. The majority of subjects were single black women in their late 30s. The women had children and were the heads of their households. The women had not completed high school and earned minimum wage; they had been at their jobs for an average of seven years. The workers’ supervisors, and others at the physical plant, were also contacted as part of the study.Methods – Ethnographic data was collected over a two‐year period, 1984‐86, through participation in the setting and interviews. A 28‐item interview guide was used to identify participants’ job‐search strategies, use of mass media, television viewing behaviours, and acceptance of information from individuals and believable sources of information.Main results – Chatman confirmed the usefulness of gratification theory as a conceptual framework to identify what defines information problems, motivations, and information seeking behaviours for an impoverished population. The results support the findings of social stratification research on the parallel between impoverished individuals’ social life and their orientation toward gratification. A focus on local present reality due to pressing economic and psychological problems orients lower working class individuals toward immediate gratification. Thus, information sources of value
Hussain, M A; Mishra, R; Kansal, S; Mishra, C P; Jha, S K; Hasan, H
The socio-cultural and economic contexts in developing countries influence the epidemiology or STIs and helps in making them an important public health priority. This study was carried out to explore the health care seeking pathway of the women suffering from RTls/STls. influence or major socio-demographic variables on treatment seeking pattern. This cross sectional study was carried out comprising or eight hundred reproductive age (15-49 years) women selected following a multistage sampling procedure. The information pertaining to health seeking behaviour were collected from them using a pre-designed pretested interview schedule. Quantum of RTIs/STIs in the study group was estimated and symptomatics were asked specially about time lag between appearance of symptoms and seeking acre; reason for not seeking care; outcome of treatment they have taken if any. Out of total 359 subjects with symptoms of RTls/STls only about one-third (37.3%) had sought treatment. Only a few (4.5%) had sought treatment within 1 month of appearance of symptoms. Considering it to be physiological about half of the subjects (45.3%) did not seek treatment. The treatment seeking pattern was highly associated with the level of education (p = 0.000). Reluctance in seeking treatment, delay in its initiation, prelerence for unqualified practitioners in first consultation and significant association between education and treatment seeking pattern emphasize BCC and service provision for control and prevention of RTls/STls. PMID:23785881
Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Simpson, Sharon; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C.
Background Smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise and a poor diet remain key causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, yet it is not clear what proportion of patients attending for routine primary care are eligible for interventions about these behaviours, the extent to which they co-occur within individuals, and which individuals are at greatest risk for multiple unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the trial was to examine ‘intervention eligibility’ and co-occurrence of the ‘...
Knowles, Serena; Lam, Lawrence T; McInnes, Elizabeth; Elliott, Doug; Hardy, Jennifer; Middleton, Sandy
Background Bowel management protocols have the potential to minimize complications for critically ill patients. Targeted implementation can increase the uptake of protocols by clinicians into practice. The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians’ intention to perform the behaviour of interest. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs’ knowledge, attitude, subjectiv...
V. Erasmus (Vicky)
textabstractHealthcare associated infections (HAI) are a threat to the health of people requiring acute or chronic care. Since HAI can often be avoided by taking preventative measures, including proper application of hand hygiene principles, the prevention of these infections has received growing at
Salpage, Nesha Dushani
The primary purpose of this study was to explore the role of variety seeking behaviour towards fish consumption frequency. Second, it aimed to investigate how personality related factors; variety seeking tendency (related to food and personality) and perceived behavioural control affect the nature of variety seeking behaviour. Third, to investigate how product and motivational related factors; attitudes, health involvement and perceived risk affect the nature of variety seeking behaviour and ...
Rohmansyah Wahyu Nurindra
Full Text Available cross sectional study was carried out to determine health seeking behaviour of dengue patient in Ciamis district. Subjects were 80 dengue patient’s care taker chosen by purposive sampling. Data was presented descriptively.The result showed based on the first place of treatment, pattern of treatment seeking behavior were identified the most common one was using public hospital as the first step. Pattern of treatment seeking behavior of the patient’s care taker that influenced decision making to take treatment alternatives included knowledge, attitude and practice about the caused, symptomp’s, virulence and transmission of dengue virus infection; the distance to treatment places and family role (husband/wife were important for caretakers to take into consideration when making treatment choices.
Chikovore, Jeremiah; Hart, Graham; Kumwenda, Moses; Chipungu, Geoffrey A.; Corbett, Liz
Background: Delay by men in seeking healthcare results in their higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment and contributes to ongoing community-level disease transmission before going on treatment.Objective: To understand masculinity’s role in delay in healthcare seeking for men, with a focus on TB-suggestive symptoms.Design: Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2012 in low-income suburbs in urban Blantyre using focus group discussions with community members (n=8...
Jeremiah Chikovore; Graham Hart; Moses Kumwenda; Chipungu, Geoffrey A.; Liz Corbett
Background: Delay by men in seeking healthcare results in their higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment and contributes to ongoing community-level disease transmission before going on treatment. Objective: To understand masculinity's role in delay in healthcare seeking for men, with a focus on TB-suggestive symptoms. Design: Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2012 in low-income suburbs in urban Blantyre using focus group discussions with community members (n...
Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Mundt, Marlon P.; Balousek, Stacey L.; Wilson, Ellen L.; Fleming, Michael F.
Accidents stemming from alcohol-impaired driving are the leading cause of injury and death among college students. Research has implicated certain driver personality characteristics in the majority of these motor vehicle crashes. Sensation seeking in particular has been linked to risky driving, alcohol consumption, and driving while intoxicated. This study investigated the effect of sensation-seeking on self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior in a college student population while adju...
Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Novak, David S; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In Venezuela, members of a social and sexual partner networking site for men who have sex with men (MSM) completed an online survey regarding sexual behaviours and HIV medical care. Among the 2851 respondents, self-reported HIV prevalence was 6.6%. Of participants living with HIV, 73.2% reported taking antiretroviral medication and 56.6% reported complete adherence within the past month. Participants living with HIV were more likely to be older (aOR = 1.04 per one-year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection in the previous year (aOR 3.26, 95% CI: 2.11, 5.04). These data provide further understanding of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Venezuela, and potential targets for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26378188
Gaughan, A C
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is undergoing cataclysmic change following the election of the first Labour Government in 18 years. This is primarily embodied in the implementation of the White Paper The New NHS Modern-Dependable, which has resulted in the creation of primary care groups (PCGs) and primary care trusts (PCTs). The task facing both PCGs and PCTs is a radically new and complex one, requiring a new set of leadership skills to the traditional command and control style management. Leadership theories have evolved over the past 70 years. However, it was not until the 1980s that a major change in the paradigm of thinking around what is the nature of leadership occurred. The interaction between the leader and his/her followers is explored in what has become known as transformational leadership theories, developed by Bass and Avolio. Recent studies have, however, questioned the applicability of leadership models derived in the USA, to other cultures. This paper explores the leadership behaviours required for the management boards of PCGs and PCTs. A qualitative research method "Grounded Theory" approach was chosen for this study of leadership. The Repertory Grid technique was used to collect data. There are a number of implications arising from the findings of this study for both leadership models in general, and more specifically, for the development of leadership skills in both PCGs and PCTs. PMID:11407187
Investigating the effects of medical density on health-seeking behaviours using a multiscale approach to residential and activity spaces: Results from a prospective cohort study in the Paris metropolitan area, France
Full Text Available Abstract Background When measuring neighbourhood effects on health, it is both incorrect to treat individuals as if they were static and tied to their residential neighbourhood and to consider neighbourhoods rigid places whose geographical scales can be delineated a priori. We propose here to investigate the effects of residential medical density on health-seeking behaviours, taking into account the mono/polycentric structure of individual activity space (i.e., the space within which people move in the course of their daily activities and exploring various neighbourhood units based on administrative delineations and regular grids. Methods We used data collected in the SIRS cohort study, which was carried out over a 5-year period (2005–2010 among a representative population living in 50 census blocks in the Paris metropolitan area. In the 662 women who lived in the same census blocks during the follow-up period and who had reported a recent cervical screening at baseline, we studied the association between residential medical density and individual activity space and the incidence of delayed cervical screening (> 3 years in multilevel logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Among the 662 women studied, there were 94 instances of delayed cervical screening in 2010 (14%. The women who indicated that their activity space was concentrated within their neighbourhood of residence were significantly more at risk for an incident delayed cervical screening. No significant association was found between residential medical density and the incidence of delayed cervical screening. However, we observed a significant interaction between individual activity space and residential medical density. Indeed, women living in neighbourhoods with a low medical density had a significantly higher risk of delayed screening, but only if they reported that their daily activities were centred within their neighbourhood of residence
Shaw, Rachel L; Killick, Kirsty; Damery, Sarah; Hilton, Andrea; Wilcock, Jane; Barnes, Nigel; Brown, Graeme; Gillespie, Sarah; Fox, Chris; Barton, Garry; Iliffe, Steve; Seare, Nichola
Introduction The inappropriate use of antipsychotics in people with dementia for behaviour that challenges is associated with an estimated 1800 deaths annually. However, solely focusing on antipsychotics may transfer prescribing to other equally dangerous psychotropics. Little is known about the role of pharmacists in the management of psychotropics used to treat behaviours that challenge. This research aims to determine whether it is feasible to implement and measure the effectiveness of a combined pharmacy–health psychology intervention incorporating a medication review and staff training package to limit the prescription of psychotropics to manage behaviour that challenges in care home residents with dementia. Methods/analysis 6 care homes within the West Midlands will be recruited. People with dementia receiving medication for behaviour that challenges, or their personal consultee, will be approached regarding participation. Medication used to treat behaviour that challenges will be reviewed by the pharmacist, in collaboration with the general practitioner (GP), person with dementia and carer. The behavioural intervention consists of a training package for care home staff and GPs promoting person-centred care and treating behaviours that challenge as an expression of unmet need. The primary outcome measure is the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). Other outcomes include quality of life (EQ-5D and DEMQoL), cognition (sMMSE), health economic (CSRI) and prescribed medication including whether recommendations were implemented. Outcome data will be collected at 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Pretraining and post-training interviews will explore stakeholders’ expectations and experiences of the intervention. Data will be used to estimate the sample size for a definitive study. Ethics/dissemination The project has received a favourable opinion from the East Midlands REC (15/EM/3014). If potential participants lack capacity, a personal
Grimshaw Jeremy M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behaviours and, secondly, whether the trial results were mediated by the theoretical constructs. Methods The process evaluation comprised a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random 50% sample of the randomised groups of primary care practices in Grampian (NHS Grampian, UK, who took part in a trial of the effect of enhanced feedback and brief educational reminders on test requesting behaviour. The process evaluation was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and focussed on three of the test requesting behaviours that were targeted in the trial -- ferritin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and Helicobacter Pylori serology (HPS. Results The questionnaire was completed by 131 primary care doctors (56% from 42 (98% of the sampled practices. Behavioural intention, attitude, and subjective norm were highly correlated for all the tests. There was no evidence that perceived behavioural control was correlated with any of the other measures. Simple linear regression analysis of the rate of test requests on minimum behavioural intentions had R2 of 11.1%, 12.5%, and 0.1% for ferritin, FSH, and HPS requesting, respectively. Mediational analysis showed that the trial results for ferritin and FSH were partially mediated (between 23% and 78% mediation through intentions. The HPS trial result was not mediated through intention. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a theory-based process evaluation can provide useful information on causal mechanisms that aid not
Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behaviours and, secondly, whether the trial results were mediated by the theoretical constructs. Methods The process evaluation comprised a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random 50% sample of the randomised groups of primary care practices in Grampian (NHS Grampian), UK, who took part in a trial of the effect of enhanced feedback and brief educational reminders on test requesting behaviour. The process evaluation was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and focussed on three of the test requesting behaviours that were targeted in the trial -- ferritin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and Helicobacter Pylori serology (HPS). Results The questionnaire was completed by 131 primary care doctors (56%) from 42 (98%) of the sampled practices. Behavioural intention, attitude, and subjective norm were highly correlated for all the tests. There was no evidence that perceived behavioural control was correlated with any of the other measures. Simple linear regression analysis of the rate of test requests on minimum behavioural intentions had R2 of 11.1%, 12.5%, and 0.1% for ferritin, FSH, and HPS requesting, respectively. Mediational analysis showed that the trial results for ferritin and FSH were partially mediated (between 23% and 78% mediation) through intentions. The HPS trial result was not mediated through intention. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a theory-based process evaluation can provide useful information on causal mechanisms that aid not only interpretation of
Considering the ideal nuclear properties of 99Tcsup(m), a new 99Tcsup(m)-labelled radiopharmaceutical has been developed for tumour imaging. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMS) has been chosen as ligand and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The highest uptake by tumour cells was obtained when the 99Tcsup(m) complex was in oxidation state V. This newly designed tumour-seeking agent, 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS, showed a distribution behaviour different from that of the well-known renal scanning agent, 99Tcsup(m)(III) DMS, which was considered to be in oxidation state III. Basic studies, carried out in vitro and in vivo with Ehrlich tumour cells of tumour-bearing mice, clearly substantiated the great potential of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS for clinical use. Therefore, 193 untreated patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of cancer were scanned for 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS uptake. This radiopharmaceutical was particularly useful for scanning of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullary thyroid cancers and soft-tissue tumours. Also the superior physical properties of 99Tcsup(m), which gave better images within two hours after injection, together with the easy method and the low cost, justify its use in preference to 67Ga. The great importance of the 99Tcsup(m) oxidation state with regard to its biological behaviour, and the different tumour uptake mechanisms of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS and 67Ga or 201Tl could be shown. The data collected provide a good basis for the clinical applicability of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS as a tumour-imaging agent. (author)
Dorota Włodarczyk; Anna Pawliszewska
Background: Working at intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most difficult and taxing nursing specialties. It demands not only extensive knowledge and professional skills but also specific personality-temperamental dispositions. The aim of the study was to verify if type A behavior (TAB) is a predictor of burnout and job satisfaction in ICU nurses and if this effect still exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consis...
textabstractHealthcare associated infections (HAI) are a threat to the health of people requiring acute or chronic care. Since HAI can often be avoided by taking preventative measures, including proper application of hand hygiene principles, the prevention of these infections has received growing attention over the past decades. However, the application of preventive measures in clinical practice remains problematic and the observed compliance with such measures is often poor. Hand hygiene is...
Study Describes Research Scientists’ Information Seeking Behaviour, but Methodological Issues Make Usefulness as Evidence Debatable. A Review of: Hemminger, B.M., Lu, D., Vaughan, K.T.L., & Adams, S. J. (2007. Information seeking behavior of academic scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(14, 2205‐2225.
Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the transition to electronic communication in information‐seeking behaviour of academic scientists.Design – Census survey.Setting – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a large public research university.Subjects – Nine hundred two faculty, research staff, and graduate students involved in research in basic or medical science departments. Participants self‐selected (26% from 3523 recruited. The sample reflected the larger population in terms of gender, age, university position, and department.Methods – The authors developed a web‐based survey and delivered it via PHP Survey Tool. They developed the questions to parallel similar earlier studies to allow for comparative analysis. The survey included 28 main questions with some questions including further follow‐up questions depending on the initial answer. The instrument included three initial questions designed to reveal the participant’s place and role in the university, and further coding classified participants’ department as either basic or medical science. The questions included categorical, continuous, and open‐ended types. While most questions focused on the scientists’ information seeking behaviour, the three final open‐ended questions asked about their opinions of the library and ideal searching environment. Answers were transferred into a MySQL database, then imported into SAS to generate simple descriptive statistics.Main Results – Participants reported easy access to online resources, and a strong preference for conducting research online, even when access to a physical library is convenient. Infrequent visits to the library predominantly took place to utilize materials not available online, although the third most common answer for visiting was to take advantage of the library building as a quiet reading space (14%. Additional questions revealed both type and specifics of most popular sources for research, preferred
Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham
Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy diet in those they supported. The present study examined whether the TPB was useful in predicting the intentions of 78 Scottish care staff to support...
Majaj, Linda; Nassar, Majed; De Allegri, Manuela
Background: This qualitative study sets to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring the health seeking behaviour of rural women living in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). The existing literature on the oPt has so far focused on unravelling the country’s epidemiological and health system profile, but has largely neglected the assessment of factors shaping people’s decisions on health care use. Methods: Based on a conceptual framework rooted in the Anderson behavioural model, we conduc...
Critical Care Nurses on Duty: Information‐Rich but Time‐Poor. A review of: McKnight, Michelynn. “The Information Seeking of On‐Duty Critical Care Nurses: Evidence from Participant Observation and In‐Context Interviews.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.2 (Apr. 2006): 145‐51.
Objective – To describe critical care nurses’ on‐duty information‐seeking behavior.Design – Participatory action research using ethnographic methods.Setting – A twenty‐bed critical care unit in a 275‐bed community (non‐teaching) hospital.Subjects – A purposive sample of six registered nurses (RNs) working shifts in the critical care unit.Methods – The researcher accompanied six RNs on various shifts (weekdays and weekends, day and night shifts) in the critical care unit and used participant o...
Puffelen, A.L. van; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Rijken, M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Nijpels, G.; Schellevis, F.G.
Objective: To assess illness perceptions, self-care behaviours and their relationship in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without diabetes-related complications. Design: Cross-sectional survey among 192 recently diagnosed T2DM patients of whom 23% reported the pre
Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham
Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy…
Palm-based lauryl alcohol ethoxylate was synthesized with 6 moles of ethylene oxide using an ethoxylation reactor. The 6 moles of ethylene oxide chain length was approximately the same length as the palm-based lauryl alcohol. The synthesized lauryl alcohol ethoxylate consisted of an average of 6 moles of ethylene oxide and was labeled as C12EO6. The molecular structure of lauryl alcohol ethoxylate was determined by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The ternary phase diagrams for olive or olein oil/water/C12E6 systems were investigated at 25 degree Celsius. The important features of the ternary phase diagrams are the emulsion and the concentrated emulsion phases. Optical microscope, particle size analyser and rheometer were used to characterize the different compositions of emulsions. Different consistencies of emulsions were recommended for the personal care applications. (author)
Muneer A. Bhat
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. There are more than one billion smokers in the world. Almost half of the worlds children breathe air polluted by tobacco. Aim of current study was to study the smoking trends among young doctors in a tertiary care institute in north India. Methods: A descriptive observational cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 250 doctors of a tertiary care Hospital in Jammu and Kashmir (Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, SKIMS during the two months of February-March, 2014. The predesigned tool adopted during data collection was a questionnaire that was developed at the institute with the assistance from the faculty members and other experts. Results: Among 250 participants, (20% were smokers; among smokers, (76% were regular smokers and (24% were occasional smokers. Majority of smokers were in the age group of 21-30 years (80% and started smoking between 11-20 years (70%. All of them were male (100%. No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students. Among smokers, majority (60% was in the practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year and 26% smoked for <6 months; and (14% smoked for more than 5 years .It was found more than half of the responding (60% students used to smoke 5-9 cigarettes per day; 14% is <5 and 26% consumed 10 or more per day .Among smokers, peer pressure was found in 80% cases. ( and #967;2 = 107, P <0.001. Among smokers, almost 20% had other addiction and among non-smokers only 5% had .Effect of parental smoking was significantly higher in smokers than non-smoker ( and #967;2 = 66.2, P <0.001 .It was seen that peer pressure was the most important risk factor (60% of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (20%. Majority (78.4% had no intention to quit in the next 6 months. Lack of Incentive (36.36% and Addiction (27.27% were the main reasons for not quitting. Conclusion: We
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Rickwood, Debra
Understanding help seeking intentions and behaviour is fundamental to the identification of factors that can be modified to increase engagement in counselling. Despite considerable research on these variables, integrating prior research has been impeded by a lack of consistent and psychometrically sound help-seeking measures. The General…
Barnes, David J.
Public Forum Help Seeking: The Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behaviour David J. Barnes Published in Computer Based Learning in Science '99, Editor Graham M. Chapman, ISBN 80-7042-144-4. Conference Proceedings of CBLIS '99, Twente University, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2nd July - 6th July 1999. Abstract We investigate the impact of providing anonymity to a group of undergraduate Computing students, in order to encourage them to seek help for course related questions. We...
There is a current trend to make museum collections widely accessible by digitising cultural heritage collections for the Internet. At the same time we know very little of how remote access users interact with the collections and their motivations for visiting. This talk will present results from...... visitors pursuing a long-standing interest or hobby. The second part of the talk will present preliminary findings from a study of user motivation in the context of Europeana.eu. The talk will invite to reflections and a discussion of how we can explore and evaluate motivation of virtual museum visitors....
Daniel Roque Gomes
Full Text Available Los investigadores han sido consistentes en el asesoramiento a los directivos de que inviertan en la marca del empleador de la organización, con base en el argumento de que se beneficiará la práctica del reclutamiento. Sin embargo, esta premisa ha sido mayormente sostenida siguiendo un punto de vista organizativo. Como tal, los efectos de marca del empleador sobre el comportamiento de búsqueda de empleo de los candidatos que solicitan una vacante siguen siendo indeterminados. El objetivo principal de este estudio es conocer si la marca del empleador limita la conducta de búsqueda de los solicitantes. Nosotros proponemos que los candidatos desarrollan el deseo de solicitar una vacante a través de un proceso que tiene los atributos de la organización como predictor y el atractivo como su mediador. A continuación, investigamos si y cómo la marca del empleador restringe este proceso, mediante la evaluación de su efecto moderador. Utilizando la metodología de análisis confirmatorio, encontramos que la marca del empleador modera el proceso de búsqueda de trabajo propuesto. Una marca de empleador positiva ha fortalecido el proceso conducente a la intención de solicitar una vacante, en comparación con marcas de empleador neutrales o negativas. Esto explica el deseo de los candidatos de solicitar a una vacante. En base a nuestros resultados, sugerimos recomendaciones a los profesionales, relativas a la eficacia del reclutamiento.
Soe Moe; Kyi Tha; Daw Khin Saw Naing; Maung Maung Than Htike
Introduction: Improvement in health technologies and socio economic conditions increase life expectancy of people leading to higher proportion of elderly in total population of every country worldwide. Developing countries have less comprehensive policy and elderly health agenda, and Myanmar is not an exception. The World Health Organization highlighted that aging process and problems related to elderly should be better understood so that effective elderly health prevention can be planned a...
Norbury, A. E.
Sensation-seeking is a personality trait concerned with motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences, that has been identified as risk factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost; in particular gambling and substance addictions. It has previously proved difficult to tease out neural mechanisms underlying sensation-seeking in humans, due to a lack of cognitive-behavioural paradigms probing sensation-seeking-like behaviour in the lab. The first aim of this thesis w...
Bergland, Harald; Clark, Derek J.; Pedersen, Pål Andreas
The paper deals with rent-seeking behaviour among agents competing for future shares of a common renewable natural resource. Rent-seeking might become profitable when the agents expect that the distribution of the natural resource in future periods will be dependent on the agents' extraction of the resource in the past, even though high exploitation might reduce the stock that future individual quotas will be based upon. Whether aggressive rent-seeking behaviour by one agent will encourage ot...
HANLEY, NICK; MacKenzie, Ian A.
The establishment of a tradable permit market requires the regulator to select a level of aggregate emissions and then distribute the associated permits (rent) to specific groups. In most circumstances, these decisions are often politically contentious and frequently influenced by rent seeking behaviour. In this paper, we use a contest model to analyse the effects of rent seeking effort when permits are freely distributed (grandfathered). Rent seeking behaviour can influence both the share of...
Full Text Available Background: Working at intensive care unit (ICU is one of the most difficult and taxing nursing specialties. It demands not only extensive knowledge and professional skills but also specific personality-temperamental dispositions. The aim of the study was to verify if type A behavior (TAB is a predictor of burnout and job satisfaction in ICU nurses and if this effect still exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 99 nurses (77 women, aged 24–58 (mean (M = 32.33; standard deviation (SD = 8.81 working at ICU. The following tools were used: to measure TAB – Type A Behavior Survey BWZ by Wrzesniewski; job burnout – the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory OLBI by Demerouti et al.; and job satisfaction – the Job Satisfaction Scale by Zalewska. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics, tendency for aggression was a predictor of higher exhaustion, disengagement and lower job satisfaction. Achievement striving and tendency to dominate were related to higher job satisfaction and lower exhaustion, respectively. Significant predictors of professional functioning were also: duty work system, place of living and gender. Conclusions: The results of the study confirmed that all 3 content features of TAB were significant predictors of job functioning of ICU nurses. They also indicate that considering TAB in the context of individual adjustment to the environment of the job at ICU would be a valuable direction for future research. Med. Pr. 2015;66(2:213–224
Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria
Onwujekwe Obinna E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. It is not known how user fees introduced under the Bamako Initiative (BI system affect healthcare seeking among different socio-economic groups in Nigeria for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Reliable information is needed to initiate new policy thrusts to protect the poor from the adverse effect of user fees. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1594 female household primary care givers or household head on their socio-economic and demographic status and use of malaria diagnosis and treatment services. Principal components analysis was used to create a socio-economic status index which was decomposed into quartiles and chi-square for trends was used to calculate for any statistical difference. Results The study showed that self diagnosis was the commonest form of diagnosis by the respondents. This was followed by diagnosis through laboratory tests, community health workers, family members and traditional healers. The initial choice of care for malaria was a visit to the patent medicine dealers for most respondents. This was followed by visit to the government hospitals, the BI health centres, traditional medicine healers, private clinics, community health workers and does nothing at home. Furthermore, the private health facilities were the initial choice of treatment for the majority with a decline among those choosing them as a second source of care and an increase in the utilization of public health facilities as a second choice of care. Self diagnosis was practiced more by the poorer households while the least poor used the patent medicine dealers and community health workers less often for diagnosis of malaria. The least poor groups had a higher probability of seeking treatment at the BI health centres (creating equity problem in BI, hospitals, and private clinics and in using laboratory procedures. The least
Full Text Available Background: India along with other South Asian countries significantly contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown Indians to exhibit higher prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease and coronary risk factors as compared with Caucasians. These risk factors are compounded by behavioural risk factors such as regular tobacco use, low physical activity as well as a high saturated fat intake and this places a need for effective behavioural modification. Objective: To identify behavioural risk factors among patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general medical practice and to identify if these high-risk patients were subjected to any health promotional activities to modify their risk behaviour.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at the general medical clinics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in coastal Karnataka, India. A total of 68 patients who were at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease attending these outpatient services during a two month period were recruited into the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the relevant data.Results: Seventy three percent of the participants were older than 50 years of age. Majority (79% were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. Most of the participants (66% were engaged in light physical activity, and almost 48% were observed to have a high Body Mass Index (BMI. None of the 8 smokers identified in the study had been subjected to any stage based behaviour change therapy. Although diet modification was advised in up to 95% of the cases, only 19% received a supervised diet plan. A marginal improvement in the BMI was noted among these individuals.Conclusion: These findings indicate the paucity of behavioural change intervention in the day to day care of chronic patients. A targeted behavioural counselling imparted by trained professionals is the need of the hour to bring about the desired change among patients at risk of
Bayerl, Doris S; Hönig, Jennifer N; Bosch, Oliver J
The brain neuropeptide arginine-vasopressin (AVP) mediates a wide range of social behaviours via its V1a (V1aR) but also its V1b receptor (V1bR). With respect to maternal behaviour, V1bR are still less investigated, whereas V1aR have been shown repeatedly to trigger maternal behaviour, depending on the brain region. Here, we aimed to study the role of both V1aR and V1bR within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a major source of AVP, in maternal care (lactation day (LD) 1), maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test (LD 3) and anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze (EPM; LD 5) by acute local infusion of receptor subtype-specific antagonists for V1aR (d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)AVP) or V1bR (SSR149415). Furthermore, we compared V1bR expression in the PVN of virgin versus lactating rats (LD 4). Our results demonstrate that within the PVN neither V1bR mRNA (qPCR) nor protein (Western Blot) content differed between virgin and lactating rats. Regarding behaviour, acute antagonism of V1aR, but not of V1bR, decreased the occurrence of nursing as well as anxiety-related behaviour as reflected by higher percentage of time spent on and of entries into the open arms of the EPM. Maternal motivation was not affected by any treatment. In summary, we demonstrate subtype-specific involvement of V1 receptors within the PVN in mediating various maternal behaviours. The lack of effects after V1bR blockade reveals that AVP acts mainly via V1aR in the PVN, at least in lactating rats, to mediate maternal care and anxiety. PMID:26909846
van Oppen Patricia
Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable, Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work, Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives, and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion, Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard
Schene Aart; van Meijel Berno; Koekkoek Bauke; Hutschemaekers Giel
Abstract Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementatio...
Critical Care Nurses on Duty: Information‐Rich but Time‐Poor. A review of: McKnight, Michelynn. “The Information Seeking of On‐Duty Critical Care Nurses: Evidence from Participant Observation and In‐Context Interviews.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.2 (Apr. 2006: 145‐51.
Full Text Available Objective – To describe critical care nurses’ on‐duty information‐seeking behavior.Design – Participatory action research using ethnographic methods.Setting – A twenty‐bed critical care unit in a 275‐bed community (non‐teaching hospital.Subjects – A purposive sample of six registered nurses (RNs working shifts in the critical care unit.Methods – The researcher accompanied six RNs on various shifts (weekdays and weekends, day and night shifts in the critical care unit and used participant observation and in‐context interviews to record fifty hours of the subjects’ information‐seeking behavior. Transcripts were written up and checked by the subjects for accuracy and validity. The resulting rich data was analyzed using open coding (concepts which emerged during data gathering, for example “nurse’s personal notes”; in vivo coding (participant‐supplied concepts, for example “reading on duty”; and axial coding (hierarchical, researcher developedconcepts such as “information behaviors, information sources, information uses, and information kinds” (147.Main results – The critical care nurses constantly sought information from people (patients, family members, other health careworkers, patient records, monitors, and other computer systems and noticeboards, but very rarely from published sources such as books or online databases. Barriers to information acquisition included equipment failure, illegible handwriting, unavailable people, social protocols (for example physician – nurse interaction, difficult navigation of computer systems, and mistakes caused by simultaneously using multiple complex systems.Conclusion – Critical care nurses’ information behavior is strongly patient centric. Knowledge‐based information sources are rarely consulted on duty due to time constraints and the perception that this would take time away from patient care. In seeking to meet the knowledge‐based information needs of
BACKGROUND: Millions of people have fled from their countries, due to war or conflict, in order to find a safer environment for themselves and their children. One common destination is Europe, which people can reach only through the sea from the Turkish coast to the Greek coast after walking hundreds of kilometers through the mountains. This long journey has a significant impact on refugee children’s health and that is primarily observed in the Greek islands were they can seek for emergency...
Grimshaw Jeremy M; Croal Bernard L; Thomas Ruth E; Ramsay Craig R; Eccles Martin P
Abstract Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behavi...
Martin, Emma Lavinia
Background: This study investigates whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour is a viable model to predict the intentions of care staff to support adults with a learning disability to take part in physical activity. Previous research has suggested that people with a learning disability take part in less physical activity than those without disabilities. Research also shows that people with a learning disability have additional health needs when compared to the general population. Some condition...
Samir El Alaoui; Brjánn Ljótsson; Erik Hedman; Viktor Kaldo; Evelyn Andersson; Christian Rück; Gerhard Andersson; Nils Lindefors
Objective A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for indi...
Sirwali, Robert N.; Tshitangano, Takalani
Background Voluntary HIV antibody Counselling and Testing (HCT) is a cornerstone of HIV prevention in South Africa because it has the potential to prevent HIV transmission. The government of South Africa has for a long time been investing heavily in fighting the spread of HIV and/or AIDS. However, men rarely utilise this service. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to the reluctance of men to seek HCT in the primary health facilities in Vhembe District. Setting The study was conducted at Vhembe District health offices in Limpopo, South Africa. Methods A qualitative research design, anchored on semi-structured interviews as a method of data collection, was used. Fifteen men working at Vhembe health offices were purposively sampled. Data were analysed using the TECHS’s 8 steps method. The approval from Polokwane Provincial offices was guaranteed with participants being protected and respected throughout the study. Results The response rate per question was 100% with all 15 participants willing to answer all the raised questions, though with different views and opinions. The majority of the interviewees indicated that they were aware of HCT services. Stigma as a societal reaction to disease, governmental policies, and attitudinal factors made men refrain from seeking counselling and testing from public health facilities. Conclusion There was a high level of HCT awareness among men in Vhembe District. However, attitudinal and political barriers, stigma, and cultural practices such as circumcision were cited as the reasons for the low level utilisation of HCT services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the
Baden, D.; Prasad, Swarna
The challenges presented by sustainable development are broadly accepted, yet resource use increases unabated. It is increasingly acknowledged that while technical solutions may play a part, a key issue is behaviour change. In response to this there has been a plethora of studies into how behaviour change can be enabled, predominantly from psychological and sociological perspectives. This has resulted in a substantial body of knowledge into the factors that drive behaviour change and how th...
吕扬; 李峥; 韩美英; 程艮; 安凤荣
Objective:To explore the reasons for delay in seeking for mental health care in patients with geriatric depression. Method:An individual-deeply interview was conducted with 108 geriatric depressive patients;their help-seeking history was self-reported retrospectively. Content analysis was used to interpret the data. Result:The most frequently mentioned reason for delay in seeking for mental health care timely was lack of knowledge about depression (93.5%) and dififculty of identifying depression symptoms for non-psychiatric health care providers (91.4%). In addition, prejudice towards mental disease (60.5%) and being ignored or negatively treated by family member (21.1%) were also important barrier factors. Conclusion:The under diagnosis and under treatment of geriatric depression is a public health issue, which should be obtained more concern. The information of depressive disorder should be spread among older adults;and more training about knowledge and skills related to geriatric depression should also be strengthened for primary care providers.%目的：探讨影响老年抑郁症患者及时就诊精神病专科医院的原因。方法：对108位延迟就诊的老年抑郁症患者进行个别访谈，患者以自我报告的形式回忆其就诊过程，采用内容分析法进行分析。结果：知识缺乏（93.5%)和非精神病专科医生无法识别症状（91.4%)是患者报告导致其就医延迟的最主要原因。其次，对精神疾病存在偏见（60.5%)以及家属漠视或消极应对（21.1%)也是重要的阻碍因素。结论：老年抑郁症患者延迟就医的现状堪忧，应加强老年抑郁症相关知识的公众宣传和普及工作，改善患者的就医意识与就医行为，并着重加强初级卫生保健机构的医护工作者对老年抑郁症相关知识和实践技能的培训工作。
Ching, Daniel; Forte, Denise; Aitchison, Elizabeth; Earle, Kenneth
Objectives Our aim was to assess the impact of an educational initiative for non-specialist, healthcare professionals in the community on the process and quality measures of diabetes care delivered, and changes in their learning experiences and clinical management behaviour in the short and long term. Setting Single locality of 26 primary care practices associated with one secondary centre. Participants General practitioners and practice nurses managing 4167 patients with diabetes. Intervention A rolling 10-week, experiential, interprofessional education programme delivered to 57 practitioners and observations in practice. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were changes in the proportion of patients receiving foot care, urine albumin:creatinine ratio assessments and achieving National Quality Outcome Framework targets for blood pressure (86 mmol/mol (10%) and 85 mmol/mol (10%) was significantly higher (44% vs 53% p=0.0001) and lower (12.5% vs 10%; p=0.002) respectively. There was an increase in the proportion (95% CI) of patients receiving foot care reviews (+26.0% (24.0% to 28.1%)), microalbuminuria screening (+29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%)) and who achieved targets for blood pressure (+9.6% (7.5% to 11.6%)) and total cholesterol (+14.4% (12.3% to 16.5%); p<0.001). 241 fewer patients were referred to secondary care. Increases in the healthcare professional's confidence and collaborative clinical behaviour were evident 3 years after completing the programme. Conclusions An experiential, interprofessional intervention can result in significant improvements in quality outcomes in association with a sustained impact on behaviours and practices. PMID:26747032
Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.
Full Text Available ntroduction. This exploratory study examines health information-seeking practices among Latin American newcomers to a small city in the United States. The framework locates these practices within social networks, the local institutional context and the use and non-use of information technologies. Method. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Spanish with seven immigrant workers. Interviews elicited incidents of both purposive seeking and accidental encountering of health information. Analysis. Data were coded for reference to social networks, strengths of social networks, and perceptions and uses of institutions, organizations, and technologies, treating the information incident as unit of analysis. Results. Information seeking is often assisted by both social networks and key institutions, yet the quality of the information transmitted through social networks is apt to be uneven, and newcomers are unable to obtain an adequate overview of local health care for improved decision-making. Of particular interest is the finding that the local information environment has evolved significantly in response to growing demand for Spanish-language and low-income services. Conclusion. It is particularly important for information behaviour researchers to examine the dynamic interactions among study populations and their information environments over time.
QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASESIN ZAMBIA Elisabeth Faxelid Factors which have implications for STD care in Zambia have been described andanalysed in order to find strategies for quality improvements. A total of 684 patients with STD were interviewed about health seeking behaviour,sex partners, and satisfaction with quality of care. The male patients had had moresex partners than the female patients, but both groups knew the identity pa...
Hehenkamp, Burkhard; Leininger, Wolfgang; Possajennikov, Alex
Tullock’s analysis of rent-seeking is reconsidered from an evolutionary point of view. We show that evolutionarily stable behavior in a rent-seeking contest differs from efficient rent-seeking behavior in a Nash equilibrium. We explore that implications of evolutionary stability for rent-seeking behavior and relate them to the well examined Nash equilibrium behavior. A most interesting result is an overdissipation law, which holds in evolutionary equilibrium.
Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.
Music Information Seeking Behaviour Poses Unique Challenges for the Design of Information Retrieval Systems. A Review of: Lee, J. H. (2010. Analysis of user needs and information features in natural language queries seeking music information. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 61, 1025-1045.
Full Text Available Objective – To better understand music information seeking behaviour in a real life situation and to create a taxonomy relating to this behaviour to facilitate better comparison of music information retrieval studies in the future.Design – Content analysis of natural language queries.Setting – Google Answers, a fee based online service.Subjects – 1,705 queries and their related answers and comments posted in the music category of the Google Answers website before April 27, 2005.Methods – A total of 2,208 queries were retrieved from the music category on the Google Answers service. Google Answers was a fee based service in which users posted questions and indicated what they were willing to pay to have them answered. The queries selected for this study were posted prior to April 27, 2005, over a year before the service was discontinued completely. Of the 2208 queries taken from the site, only 1,705 were classified as relevant to the question of music information seeking by the researcher. The off-topic queries were not included in the study. Each of the 1,705 queries was coded according to the needs expressed by the user and the information provided to assist researchers in answering the question. The initial coding framework used by the researcher was informed by previous studies of music information retrieval to facilitate comparison, but was expanded and revised to reflect the evidence itself. Only the questions themselves were subjected to this iterative coding process. The answers provided by the Google Answer researchers and online comments posted by other users were examined by the author, but not coded for inclusion in the study.User needs in the questions were coded for their form and topic. Each question was assigned at least one form and one topic. Form refers to the type of question being asked and consisted of the following 10 categories: identification, location, verification, recommendation, evaluation, ready reference
Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Bhalla, Ashish; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit
Understanding the characteristics of those with self-harm behaviour may help in identifying those at risk and providing targeted interventions to this group of patients, especially in the emergency services. The present study aimed to compare the suicidal intent, hopelessness, severity of depressive symptoms, and personality traits of those with and without psychiatric disorders, presenting with a self-harming behaviour to the emergency setting. For this, patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with self-harm behaviour were evaluated for presence or absence of a psychiatric diagnosis, suicidal intent, personality traits, depressive symptoms and hopelessness by using structured instruments. The present study included 132 participants. The mean age of the sample was 28.7 years and the male: female ratio of 1.28:1. At least one psychiatric diagnosis was present in 41.7% of the sample, depression and substance use disorders being most common among them. Impulsive suicide attempt was present in 40.2% of the sample. Those with a psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be older, males, married, have higher suicidal intent, more planned attempts and higher depressive symptoms as compared to those who did not have a psychiatric disorder. Impulsive suicide attempters had lower suicidal intent than non-impulsive attempters. Present study suggests that those presenting to the emergency with self-harm behaviour comprises 2 interrelated groups, differing on certain demographic features, severity of depressive symptoms, suicidal intent and impulsivity. PMID:27025463
Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012). Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1), 33-45.
Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five ...
Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information, the...... activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing on the...... collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....
Mahajan, Garima; Sikka, Meera; Rusia, Usha; Bhatia, M.S.
Iron deficiency anemia is the most frequent micronutrient deficiency in the developing countries like India especially affecting pregnant women and young children. Iron is an essential element involved in myelin formation, neurotransmitter synthesis and neuro-metabolism. Several behavioural disturbances have been reported in iron deficient children. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children with behavioural disorders and assessed the improvement ...
Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S
Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of information describing patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs using complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs and almost none distinguishing homeopathy from other CAMs. The objective of this study was to describe and compare patients with MSDs who consulted primary care physicians, either certified homeopaths (Ho or regular prescribers of CAMs in a mixed practice (Mx, to those consulting physicians who strictly practice conventional medicine (CM, with regard to the severity of their MSD expressed as chronicity, co-morbidity and quality of life (QOL. Methods The EPI3-LASER study was a nationwide observational survey of a representative sample of general practitioners and their patients in France. The sampling strategy ensured a sufficient number of GPs in each of the three groups to allow comparison of their patients. Patients completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, lifestyle and QOL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12 questionnaire. Chronicity of MSDs was defined as more than twelve weeks duration of the current episode. Diagnoses and co-morbidities were recorded by the physician. Results A total of 825 GPs included 1,692 MSD patients (predominantly back pain and osteoarthritis were included, 21.6% in the CM group, 32.4% Ho and 45.9% Mx. Patients in the Ho group had more often a chronic MSD (62.1% than the CM (48.6% or Mx (50.3% groups, a result that was statistically significant after controlling for patients' characteristics (Odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.07 - 1.89. Patients seen by homeopaths or mixed practice physicians who were not the regular treating physician, had more often a chronic MSD than those seen in conventional medicine (Odds ratios were1.75; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.50 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06 - 2.12, respectively. Otherwise patients in the three groups did not differ for co-morbidities and QOL. Conclusion MSD patients consulting primary care physicians who
Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Carter, Patrick M.; Ranney, Megan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Fred C.; Booth, Brenda M.; Goldstick, Jason; Walton, Maureen A.
IMPORTANCE Violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among youth, with more than 700 000 emergency department (ED) visits annually for assault-related injuries. The risk for violent reinjury among high-risk, assault-injured youth is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To compare recidivism for violent injury and mortality outcomes among drug-using, assault-injured youth (AI group) and drug-using, non–assault-injured control participants (non-AI group) presenting to an urban ED for care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from December 2, 2009, through September 30, 2011, at an urban level I ED and followed up for 24 months. We administered validated measures of violence and substance use and mental health diagnostic interviews and reviewed medical records at baseline and at each point of follow-up (6, 12, 18, and 24 months). EXPOSURE Follow-up over 24 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of ED services for assault or mortality measured from medical record abstraction supplemented with self-report. RESULTS We followed 349 AI and 250 non-AI youth for 24 months. Youth in the AI group had almost twice the risk for a violent injury requiring ED care within 2 years compared with the non-AI group (36.7% vs 22.4%; relative risk [RR], 1.65 [95% CI, 1.25-2.14]; P < .001). Two-year mortality was 0.8%. Poisson regression modeling identified female sex (RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.02-1.65]), assault-related injury (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.19-2.04), diagnosis of a drug use disorder (RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.65]), and posttraumatic stress disorder (RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.09-1.97]) at the index visit as predictive of ED recidivism or death within 24 months. Parametric survival models demonstrated that assault-related injury (P < .001), diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (P = .008), and diagnosis of a drug use disorder (P = .03) significantly shortened the expected waiting time until the first ED return visit for violence
McSherry Lisa A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’ and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination
Physicists and Astronomers Use Google as a Starting Point for Specific Queries, but Do Not Intentionally Use It to Search for Articles. A Review of: Jamali, H. R., & Asadi, S. (2010). Google and the scholar: The role of Google in scientists’ information seeking behaviour. Online Information Review, 34(2), 282-294.
Laura Newton Miller
Objective – To determine how Google’s general search engine impacts the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers.Design – Using purposive stratified non-random sampling, a mixed-methods study was conducted which included one-on-one interviews, information-event cards, and an online questionnaire survey.Setting – Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London.Subjects – The researchers interviewed 26 PhD students and 30 faculty members (23% of the departmen...
Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.
Seyfi, Feyza; Poudel, Krishna C.; Yasuoka, Junko; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine
Background Depression rates are high among college students in Turkey, but often students do not seek mental health care. This study aimed to examine the association between attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and intention to seek professional psychological help among such college students. We also examined the factors associated with students’ professional psychological help-seeking attitudes. We conducted this cross-sectional study among 456 conveniently sampled gradua...
Sivberg, Bengt; Lundqvist, Pia; Johanson, Ingmarie; Nordström, Berit; Persson, Bengt A.
Screening studies of a population in primary health care are sparsely reported. The aim was to describe observed atypical behaviours that may be associated with autism spectrum conditions, in a population (n?=?4,329) of infants at eight months. Observations were performed by paediatric nurses. An observational instrument, named SEEK developed for…
Full Text Available There is accumulating scientific evidence of the potential of play and playfulness to enhance human capacity to respond to adversity and cope with the stresses of everyday life. In play we build a repertoire of adaptive, flexible responses to unexpected events, in an environment separated from the real consequences of those events. Playfulness helps us maintain social and emotional equilibrium in times of rapid change and stress. Through play, we experience flow—A feeling of being taken to another place, out of time, where we have controlled of the world. This paper argues that spontaneous free play, controlled and directed by children and understood from the child’s perspective, contributes to children’s subjective experience of well-being, building a foundation for life-long social and emotional health. The paradoxical nature of young children’s spontaneous free play is explored. Adaptability, control, flexibility, resilience and balance result from the experience of uncertainty, unpredictability, novelty and non-productivity. These essential dimensions of young children’s spontaneous free play typically produce play which is experienced by adults as chaotic, nonsensical and disruptive. The article concludes with a preliminary discussion of the challenges and possibilities of providing for spontaneous free play indoors, in early childhood care and education programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatoform disorders are characterized by the presence of multiple somatic symptoms without an organic cause that completely explains their symptoms. These patients generate a high cost in health services. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT programme, administered in group and individual formats in primary care for patients who are diagnosed with abridged somatization disorder. Method/design Design: Multicentre, randomized, controlled trial involving 3 groups, one of which is the control group consisting of standardized recommended treatment for somatization disorder in primary care (Smith's norms and the 2 others, the intervention groups, consisting of cognitive-behavioural therapy (10 sessions administered in individual format (intervention group 1 or in group format (intervention group 2. Setting: 29 primary care health centres in the province of Zaragoza and 3 primary care health centres in the province of Mallorca, Spain. Sample: N = 204 patients, (68 in each of the three groups, aged 18–65 years, able to understand and read Spanish, who fulfil Escobar's criteria of Abridgged Somatization Disorder (SSI 4,6, stable with pharmacotherapy over the previous month, and who will remain stable for the next 3 months in the doctor's opinion, having signed informed consent. Intervention: Control group: Standardized recommended treatment for somatization disorder in primary care (Smith's norms. Intervention group: 10 weekly sessions of CBT, following a protocol designed by Prof. Escobar's group at UMDNJ, USA. There are 2 different treatment conditions: individual and group format. Measurements: Survey on the use of health services, number and severity of somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, quality of life and clinical global impression. The interviewers will not know which group the patient belongs to (blind. The assessments will be carried out at baseline, post
黄绪琼; 张丽; 蔡帆; 晁洁; 王颖; 张建华
Objective To investigate children′s medical-care-seeking behavior and explore the main influencing factors for children′s medical-care-seeking behavior , to guide children′s parents to conduct correct medical -care-seeking mode.Methods According to the administrative map of Guangzhou , we divided Guangzhou into three areas .Using pure random sampling method , we selected one district/county -level city from each area , and we at last selected Haizhu district , Baiyun district and Conghua district from the three different areas .In the three districts, we enrolled parents′of children as respondents by random encounter in the major gathering places for child ( in parks or at school gates ) .From April to June in 2014, a self-designed questionnaire for the status of children′s medical-care-seeking conduct in Guangzhou was adopted .The content of the questionnaire included children′s basic information , post processing mode after getting general diseases and its influencing factors, the medical setting chosen to seek medical care at the latest disease attack and its influencing factors .A total of 1 500 questionnaire were distributed , and 1 205 effective questionnaires were collected , with an effective recovery rate of 80.3%. Results For"general processing mode after finding diseases in children", there were 689 (57.2%) respondents who chose to observe first, 417 (34.6%) choose to seek for medical care immediately , 87 (7.2%) chose to purchase drugs from drugstore, and 12 (1.0%) chose to bring their children to visit doctors.The parents of children of different age ranges and with different time spent on the road from home to the nearest medical setting were significantly different in the choice of processing mode ( P<0.05 ) .In the latest disease attack in children , 424 ( 35.2%) firstly chose to seek for treatment in children hospital, 374 (31.0%) firstly chose primary hospital, 208 (17.3%) chose Grade A Class -three comprehensive hospital, 199 (16
Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith
Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…
Edlund, Mark J.; Booth, Brenda M.; Han, Xiaotong
Objective: Only a fraction of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) receive any AUD treatment during a given year. If a substantial proportion of individuals with unmet need for AUD treatment are receiving mental health treatment, accessibility of AUD treatment could potentially be improved by implementing strategies to ensure that individuals receiving mental health care are referred to the AUD sector or by increasing rates of AUD treatment in individuals receiving mental health treatment. Method: We assessed patterns and predictors of mental health treatment and AUD treatment among individuals with 12-month AUDs, using secondary data analyses from two national surveys, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; n = 4,545 individuals with AUDs) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 3,327 individuals with AUDs). Results: In both NSDUH and NESARC, 8% of individuals with AUDs reported past-year AUD treatment. Among individuals with AUDs, mental health treatment was more common than AUD treatment, with 20% of NSDUH respondents and 11% of NESARC respondents reporting receiving mental health treatment. Greater mental health morbidity increased the odds of mental health treatment, and AUD severity increased the odds of AUD treatment. Mental health morbidity also increased the odds of AUD treatment, mainly by increasing the odds of receiving the category of both AUD and mental health treatment. Conclusions: Because individuals with AUDs are more likely to receive mental health treatment than AUD treatment, a key opportunity to improve the overall accessibility of treatment for AUDs may be to focus on improving AUD treatment among individuals receiving mental health treatment. PMID:22630802
Full Text Available Antonio Hélio Vieira, Donizete Castro e Silva, Túlio Eduardo Nogueira, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles Department of Prevention and Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil Abstract: This study explored the influence of individual and social factors regarding intentions and behaviors related to prosthodontic treatment, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB. A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 225 individuals with some degree of tooth loss. A questionnaire was used containing factors that would have potential influence on the intentions and behaviors of individuals, as well as clinical and sociodemographic data. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency analysis, chi-square test for trend, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The TPB components – attitude toward the behavior (ATB, subjective norm (SN, and perceived behavioral control (PBC – showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.60–0.78. Intention and behavior were associated with TPB components and the overall scale. Similarly, positive intentions and behaviors were associated with age, upper tooth loss, anterior tooth loss, and higher social status. Multiple logistic regression showed that intention was associated with PBC (OR =1.57; P<0.016, while behavior was associated with tooth loss in both arches (OR =9.3; P<0.001, anterior tooth loss (OR =5.13; P<0.001, higher social status (OR =3.06; P<0.03, and PBC (OR =1.38; P=0.03. The presence of anterior tooth loss was the most relevant factor for prosthodontic treatment demand and utilization, while socioeconomic status and an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty in undergoing treatment played a significant, but secondary, role in behavior toward prosthodontic care. Keywords: edentulous patient, attitude to health, health services and demand, behavior
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet are the key modifiable factors contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Brief interventions in health care consultations can be effective in changing single health behaviours. General Practice holds considerable potential for primary prevention through modifying patients' multiple risk behaviours, but feasible, acceptable and effective interventions are poorly developed, and uptake by practitioners is low. Through a process of theoretical development, modeling and exploratory trials, we have developed an intervention called Behaviour Change Counselling (BCC derived from Motivational Interviewing (MI. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a training intervention (the Talking Lifestyles Programme which will enable practitioners to routinely use BCC during consultations for the above four risk behaviours. Methods/Design This cluster randomised controlled efficacy trial (RCT will evaluate the outcomes and costs of this training intervention for General Practitioners (GPs and nurses. Training methods will include: a practice-based seminar, online self-directed learning, and reflecting on video recorded and simulated consultations. The intervention will be evaluated in 29 practices in Wales, UK; two clinicians will take part (one GP and one nurse from each practice. In intervention practices both clinicians will receive training. The aim is to recruit 2000 patients into the study with an expected 30% drop out. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients making changes in one or more of the four behaviours at three months. Results will be compared for patients seeing clinicians trained in BCC with patients seeing non-BCC trained clinicians. Economic and process evaluations will also be conducted. Discussion Opportunistic engagement by health professionals potentially represents a cost effective
Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.
Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander
Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research. PMID:25162767
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial
J. Rietdijk; S. Dragt; R. Klaassen; H. Ising; D. Nieman; L. Wunderink; P. Delespaul; P. Cuijpers; D. Linszen; M. van der Gaag
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial
Rietdijk, J.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Ising, H; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Delespaul, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; Gaag, van der M.
Background: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in t
Ochako, Rhoune; Gichuhi, Wanjiru
Background A woman’s health seeking behaviour during pregnancy has been found to have significant repercussions on her wellbeing and that of her unborn child. For example, the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and maternal death is higher among women who do not receive antenatal care. Methods The study described the characteristics of women who reported wanted, unwanted and mistimed pregnancies from their last birth at the time of the survey; the linkage between frequency of antenatal care visi...
Tishby, O; Turel, M; Gumpel, O; Pinus, U; Lavy, S B; Winokour, M; Sznajderman, S
This study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Nearly fifteen hundred students in grades 7-12 participated in a comprehensive survey of attitudes, health status, and concerns, and the data were analyzed. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help-seeking attitudes. Females reported a higher level of distress and greater willingness to seek help than did males. Younger adolescents tended to state that they would turn to parents for help, whereas older adolescents increasingly preferred peers. In general, the adolescents preferred to seek help from family and peers for emotional and social problems, rather than turning to professionals. Adolescents in grades 9-10 reported the highest level of distress and were least willing to seek help for interpersonal problems and depressed mood. Overall, level of distress was not directly related to willingness to seek help. In subgroups of depressed and suicidal adolescents, an inverse relationship was found between willingness to seek help and levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Recommendations for health care services and counseling programs are discussed. PMID:11572304
Agarwal, Naresh Kumar
Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…
Lopez, José Javier Blanco; Bolívar, Juan Carlos Cejudo; Perez, Manuel Sánchez
BackgroundThe 'Snoezelen' is an approach based on stimulation and sensory stimulation proposals, giving priority to the notion of caretaking. The aim of this paper is to present the creation and validation of the COMMUNI-CARE scale. This is a new tool that allows for an evaluation of the psycho-emotional well-being that the patient with dementia shows in a 'Snoezelen' multisensory stimulation environment.MethodsIn total 429 evaluations in 143 multisensory stimulation interventions were made using the COMMUNI-CARE scale, in 16 patients between 53 and 85 years of age, diagnosed with moderate to severe dementia. The goal was to evaluate the psycho-emotional well-being the patients present.ResultsThe tool's internal consistency showed a Crombach alpha of 0.90. The concurrent validity between the COMMUNI-CARE scale and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was of r = -0.961. The Kappa index used to determine the reliability between evaluators was of K = 0.87.ConclusionsThe COMMUNI-CARE scale fulfills the basic principles of classic psychometrics of construct, and criterion validity and reliability. It does so while showing a clear idea, through its five subscales (anxiety, communication, pleasure, adaptation to the surroundings and affection), of the degree of well-being that the patient with dementia shows during such interventions. This scale embodies, through psychometrics, a very subjective human experience with a tool unavailable to date. PMID:24691272
Reagan, Louise A; Walsh, Stephen J; Shelton, Deborah
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships of self-care behavior, illness representation and diabetes knowledge with A1C (level of glycemic control) in 124 incarcerated persons. Design/methodology/approach Using a cross-sectional design, summary scores and items from the self-care inventory revised, brief illness perception questionnaire and the spoken knowledge for low literacy in diabetes were evaluated using linear regression to assess their relationship to A1C. Findings Metabolic control was suboptimal for the majority of inmates with diabetes. The final regression model was statistically significant ( F (3, 120)=9.51, p=0.001, R(2)=19.2 percent). Higher log10 HbA1C (A1C) was associated with lower personal control beliefs ( B=-0.007, t (122)=-2.42, p=structured environments with limited options for self-care, personal choices and readily available health care may give some incarcerated persons with diabetes no motivation to improve diabetes control even if they have an understanding of what to do. Originality/value While there is abundant research in the community describing how these factors influence A1C levels, research of this nature with incarcerated persons with diabetes is limited. Findings will inform diabetes programming during incarceration to better prepare inmates for reentry. PMID:27548018
Michele Boldrin(UniBO); Levine, David K.
Innovations and their adoption are the keys to growth and development. Innovations are less socially useful, but more profitable for the innovator, when they are adopted slowly and the innovator remains a monopolist. For this reason, rent-seeking, both public and private, plays an important role in determining the social usefulness of innovations. This paper examines the political economy of intellectual property, analyzing the trade-off between private and public rent-seeking. While it is tr...
Mubyazi, Godfrey M.; Bloch, Paul; Magnussen, Pascal;
the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. CONCLUSION: A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by...
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial
Delespaul Philippe; Wunderink Lex; Nieman Dorien; Ising Helga; Klaassen Rianne; Dragt Sara; Rietdijk Judith; Cuijpers Pim; Linszen Don; van der Gaag Mark
Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CB...
Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012. Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1, 33-45.
Full Text Available Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five parts: general information (including gender, age, education, position, and professional experience; questions on computer and Internet accessibility; questions regarding individual information needs; questions on information-seeking obstacles; and a question regarding the satisfaction with the current degree of information availability in the hospital. The last question was ranked using a 5-point Likert scale. Each questionnaire was distributed with a cover letter explaining the anonymity and consent of the respondent. Hospital members were randomly selected using a number generator and respondents returned completed surveys to the hospital personnel office in a sealed envelope within a specified time frame. The sampled group was representative of the overall population of the hospital.Main Results – The authors discuss demographic data of respondents: 65.7% were women; 56.7% were over 40 years old; 29.0% were graduates of higher technological institutes; 28.3% were university graduates; 9.7% held a postgraduate degree; 8.3% had a PhD; and 1.4% had only secondary education. As for the remainder of the survey questions: 64% of respondents had access to the Internet both at home and at work, while only 8.2% had no access to the Internet at all; most respondents noted using the Internet for seeking scientific information (83.0% and e-mail communication (65.3%; the main obstacle respondents noted experiencing when seeking information was the lack of
Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy...
Lisa C. Kooistra
Discussion: Although no conclusions can be drawn based on the current study, our observations suggest that a blended CBT approach might shorten treatment duration and has the potential to be a valuable treatment option for patients with severe depression in specialized mental health care settings. Further exploration of the effectiveness of our bCBT protocol by means of a randomized controlled trial is warranted.
Full Text Available Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities have higher rates of mental ill-health and problem behaviors than the general population.Method: In this study, we present data on trends in challenging behavior in residential care centers in Israel from 1998-2008 and further data on trends in employment of psychiatrists from 1998-2009 and psychotropic medication use from 1998–2008. Data was collected from annual questionnaires sent out to all residential care centres in Israel, from the Office of the Medical Director, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services.Results: Rates of challenging behaviors in people with intellectual disabilities living in residential care centres in Israel continues to rise. Alongside this, trends in regular psychotropic medication use also continues to increase. Conclusion: Consideration of biological, psychological, social and environmental factors in the assessment and management of people with challenging behaviors is important. This is best conducted using a multidisciplinary approach. This may include psychiatric assessment and consideration of medication, although non-pharmacological interventions should always be considered either alongside, or instead of medication.
Information systems that are available today do not optimally address the information-seeking behaviour of scholars, particularly those who belong to scientific communities; as a result, scholarly discovery is often cumbersome and incomplete. The hypothesis of this study is that an information-seeking system that is designed to address the nature of scholarly materials and the information seeking behaviour of scholars, particularly the members of one scientific community, will increase the ef...
Barron, Andrew B.; Eirik Søvik; Cornish, Jennifer L.
Motile animals actively seek out and gather resources they find rewarding, and this is an extremely powerful organiser and motivator of animal behaviour. Mammalian studies have revealed interconnected neurobiological systems for reward learning, reward assessment, reinforcement and reward seeking; all involving the biogenic amine dopamine. The neurobiology of reward-seeking behavioural systems is less well understood in invertebrates, but in many diverse invertebrate groups, reward learning ...
The Sleep Or Mood Novel Adjunctive therapy (SOMNA) trial: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating an internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy program for insomnia on outcomes of standard treatment for depression in men
Cockayne, Nicole L; Christensen, Helen M; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Naismith, Sharon L.; Hickie, Ian B.; Thorndike, Frances P.; Ritterband, Lee M.; Glozier, Nick S
Background Insomnia is a significant risk factor for depression onset, can result in more disabling depressive illness, and is a common residual symptom following treatment cessation that can increase the risk of relapse. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia has demonstrated efficacy and acceptability to men who are less likely than women to seek help in standard care. We aim to evaluate whether internet delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia as an adjunct t...
Physicists and Astronomers Use Google as a Starting Point for Specific Queries, but Do Not Intentionally Use It to Search for Articles. A Review of: Jamali, H. R., & Asadi, S. (2010. Google and the scholar: The role of Google in scientists’ information seeking behaviour. Online Information Review, 34(2, 282-294.
Laura Newton Miller
Full Text Available Objective – To determine how Google’s general search engine impacts the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers.Design – Using purposive stratified non-random sampling, a mixed-methods study was conducted which included one-on-one interviews, information-event cards, and an online questionnaire survey.Setting – Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London.Subjects – The researchers interviewed 26 PhD students and 30 faculty members (23% of the department’s 242 faculty and students, and 24 of those participants completed information-event cards. A total of 114 respondents (47.1% of the department members participated in the online survey.Methods – The researchers conducted 56 interviews which lasted an average of 44 minutes each. These were digitally recorded, fully transcribed, and coded. The researchers asked questions related to information-seeking behaviour and scholarly communication. Four information-event cards were given to volunteer interviewees to gather critical incident information on their first four information-seeking actions after the interview. These were to be completed preferably within the first week of receiving the cards, with 82 cards completed by 24 participants. Once initial analysis of the interviews was completed, the researchers sent an online survey to the members of the same department.Main Results – This particular paper examined only the results related to the scholars’ information-seeking behaviour in terms of search engines and web searching. Details of further results are examined in Jamali (2008 and Jamali and Nicholas (2008. The authors reported that 18% of the respondents used Google on a daily basis to identify articles. They also found that 11% searched subject databases, and 9% searched e-journal websites on a daily basis. When responses on daily searching were combined with those from participants who searched two to three times per week, the most
Terry A. DiLorenzo
Conclusion: This relatively brief, psychometrically sound measure of attitudes toward medical help seeking can be used to identify individuals who may be reluctant to seek health care and to assess the effectiveness of health education programs.
Flynn, Maura G
BACKGROUND: Hospital clinicians are increasingly expected to practice evidence-based medicine (EBM) in order to minimize medical errors and ensure quality patient care, but experience obstacles to information-seeking. The introduction of a Clinical Informationist (CI) is explored as a possible solution. AIMS: This paper investigates the self-perceived information needs, behaviour and skill levels of clinicians in two Irish public hospitals. It also explores clinicians\\' perceptions and attitudes to the introduction of a CI into their clinical teams. METHODS: A questionnaire survey approach was utilised for this study, with 22 clinicians in two hospitals. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Analysis showed that clinicians experience diverse information needs for patient care, and that barriers such as time constraints and insufficient access to resources hinder their information-seeking. Findings also showed that clinicians struggle to fit information-seeking into their working day, regularly seeking to answer patient-related queries outside of working hours. Attitudes towards the concept of a CI were predominantly positive. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the factors that characterise and limit hospital clinicians\\' information-seeking, and suggests the CI as a potentially useful addition to the clinical team, to help them to resolve their information needs for patient care.
Aim This thesis explores the seeking of help from a General Practitioner in the event of psychological distress. The study explores help-seeking, lay understanding around mental health, and the relationship between the two. Background Help-seeking has been shown to vary according to different demographic factors, and is not necessarily correlated with need. Frequently, those who need help most do not seek it, whilst those with low need are more likely to enter care; help-seeking is...
Hurt, C. S.; Burns, A; Brown, R G; Barrowclough, C.
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common among older adults, often causing significant distress and showing strong relationships to future cognitive decline. However, low rates of help-seeking for memory complaints are well documented. Little is known about the reasons behind the decision to seek or not to seek help with memory problems. The common-sense model of illness perception proposes that the beliefs people hold about their health underlie help-seeking behaviour. The present stud...
Gulliver Amelia; Griffiths Kathleen M; Christensen Helen; Brewer Jacqueline L
Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-...