Lin Blossom Yen-Ju
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and
Bujold, Mathieu; Pluye, Pierre; Légaré, France; Haggerty, Jeannie; Gore, Genevieve C; Sherif, Reem El; Poitras, Marie-Eve; Beaulieu, Marie-Claude; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Bush, Paula L; Couturier, Yves; Débarges, Beatrice; Gagnon, Justin; Giguère, Anik; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Goulet, Serge; Hudon, Catherine; Kremer, Bernardo; Kröger, Edeltraut; Kudrina, Irina; Lebouché, Bertrand; Loignon, Christine; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Martello, Cristiano; Nguyen, Quynh; Pratt, Rebekah; Rihoux, Benoit; Rosenberg, Ellen; Samson, Isabelle; Senn, Nicolas; Li Tang, David; Tsujimoto, Masashi; Vedel, Isabelle; Ventelou, Bruno; Wensing, Michel
the IP-SDM model, normally dealing with a single decision, for PCCNs who experience cascade of decisions involving different stakeholders (theoretical contribution). Knowledge users will facilitate dissemination of the results in the Canadian primary care network. CRD42015020558. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça
The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.
Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.
“If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together”. African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members. PMID:21811361
Wald, John T; Lowery-Schrandt, Sherri; Hayes, David L; Kotsenas, Amy L
By leveraging its experience and expertise as a consultative clinical partner, the Mayo Clinic developed an innovative, scalable care model to accomplish several strategic goals: (1) create and sustain high-value relationships that benefit patients and providers, (2) foster relationships with like-minded partners to act as a strategy against the development of narrow health care networks, and (3) increase national and international brand awareness of Mayo Clinic. The result was the Mayo Clinic Care Network. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Network organisations are increasingly common in healthcare. This paper describes an example of clinically led networking, which improved end of life care (EOLC) in care homes, differentiating between a ‘network’ as a formal entity and the more informal process of ‘networking’. The paper begins with a brief discussion of networks and their development in healthcare, then an overview of EOLC policy, the case setting and methods. The paper describes four key features of this networking; (1) how it enabled discussions and implemented processes to help people address difficult taboos about dying; (2) how personal communication and ‘distributed leadership’ facilitated learning; (3) how EOLC occasionally lapsed during the handover of patient care, where personal relationship and communication were weaker; and (4) how successful learning and sharing of best practice was fragile and could be potentially undermined by wider financial pressures in the NHS. PMID:25949588
Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334
Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.
Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R
Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation.
Nikbakht-Van de Sande, C V M Vahedi; van der Rijt, C C D; Visser, A Ph; ten Voorde, M A; Pruyn, J F A
Although network formation is considered an effective method of stimulating the integrated delivery of palliative care, scientific evidence on the usefulness of network formation is scarce. In 1998 the Ministry of Health of The Netherlands started a 5-year stimulation program on palliative care by founding and funding six regional Centres for the Development of Palliative Care. These centers were structured around pivotal organizations such as university hospitals and comprehensive cancer centers. As part of the stimulation program a locoregional network model was introduced within each center for the Development of Palliative Care to integrate palliative care services in the Dutch health care system. We performed a study on network formation in the southwestern area of The Netherlands with 2.4 million inhabitants. The study aimed to answer the following questions: (1) how do networks in palliative care develop, which care providers participate and how do they function? (2) which are the achievements of the palliative care networks as perceived by their participants? (3) which are the success factors of the palliative care networks according to their participants and which factors predict the achievements? Between September 2000 and January 2004 eight local palliative care networks in the region of the Center for Development of Palliative Care-Rotterdam (southwestern area of The Netherlands) were closely followed to gain information on their characteristics and developmental course. At the start of the study semistructured interviews were held with the coordinators of the eight networks. The information from these interviews and from the network documents were used to constitute a questionnaire to assess the opinions and experiences of the network participants. According to the vast majority of responders, the most important reason to install the networks was the lack of integration between the existing local health care services. The networks were initiated to
In this article, we provide an overview of social network research in health care, with a focus on social interactions between professionals in organizations. We begin by introducing key concepts defining the social network approach, including network density, centrality, and brokerage. We then review past and current research on the antecedents of health care professionals' social networks-including demographic attributes, professional groups, and organizational arrangements-and their consequences-including satisfaction at work, leadership, behaviors, knowledge transfer, diffusion of innovation, and performance. Finally, we examine future directions for social network research in health care, focusing on micro-macro linkages and network dynamics. © The Author(s) 2014.
Casalino, Lawrence P; Pesko, Michael F; Ryan, Andrew M; Nyweide, David J; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Sun, Xuming; Mendelsohn, Jayme; Moody, James
Research on the quality and cost of care traditionally focuses on individual physicians or medical groups. Social network theory suggests that the care a patient receives also depends on the network of physicians with whom a patient's physician is connected. The objectives of the study are: (1) identify physician networks; (2) determine whether the rate of ambulatory care-sensitive hospital admissions (ACSAs) varies across networks--even different networks at the same hospital; and (3) determine the relationship between ACSA rates and network characteristics. We identified networks by applying network detection algorithms to Medicare 2008 claims for 987,000 beneficiaries in 5 states. We estimated a fixed-effects model to determine the relationship between networks and ACSAs and a multivariable model to determine the relationship between network characteristics and ACSAs. We identified 417 networks. Mean size: 129 physicians; range, 26-963. In the fixed-effects model, ACSA rates varied significantly across networks: there was a 46% difference in rates between networks at the 25th and 75th performance percentiles. At 95% of hospitals with admissions from 2 networks, the networks had significantly different ACSA rates; the mean difference was 36% of the mean ACSA rate. Networks with a higher percentage of primary-care physicians and networks in which patients received care from a larger number of physicians had higher ACSA rates. Physician networks have a relationship with ACSAs that is independent of the physicians in the network. Physician networks could be an important focus for understanding variations in medical care and for intervening to improve care.
Atwood, Alicia; Lo Sasso, Anthony T
Network design is an often overlooked aspect of health insurance contracts. Recent policy factors have resulted in narrower provider networks. We provide plausibly causal evidence on the effect of narrow network plans offered by a large national health insurance carrier in a major metropolitan market. Our econometric design exploits the fact that some firms offer a narrow network plan to their employees and some do not. Our results show that narrow network health plans lead to reductions in health care utilization and spending. We find evidence that narrow networks save money by selecting lower cost providers into the network. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article proposes a critical reflection, based on national law, scholarly, scientific, on the current development of Networks of Health Care, as a strategy for strengthening the Single Health System (SUS. Are weighted inefficiency of traditional ways of organizing care and management, the challenge of Network Health Care for comprehensive care and management mechanisms used in this process. The work provides subsidies for the care practices and health management are reflected, pointing strategies that result in disruptions of paradigms through a refocusing of attention in existing models. For networks of health care can be consolidated, is fundamental to political sensitivity of health managers with a commitment to build a new model of care, through the struggle to consolidate the SUS and the realization of the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and equity.
Kruijswijk, Wilco; da Roit, Barbara; Hoogenboom, M.J.M.
The gender gap in family care-giving is an established research finding: men dedicate less time to care-giving and provide specific gendered types of help. This article argues that in order to grasp men's contribution to care arrangements one should recognise the multifaceted nature of care and
Kruijswijk, W.; da Roit, B.; Hoogenboom, M.
The gender gap in family care-giving is an established research finding: men dedicate less time to care-giving and provide specific gendered types of help. This article argues that in order to grasp men's contribution to care arrangements one should recognise the multifaceted nature of care and
McDaniel, J. G.
There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7949966
Zalot, G N
Table 1 summarizes the role of task force members and staff for each of the main tasks of the process of planning. The number of meetings required for each stage of the process is estimated in the last column. Planning for a regional palliative care services network is a process involving "hard" and "soft" elements. Hard elements involve the organizational structure, task force meetings, information/statistical data bases and the discrete tasks summarized in Table 1. These elements are well known, if nokt always well organized in practice. It is the "softer" elements that usually mean the difference between a dull bureaucratic exercise and a creative exchange of ideas and concepts with a vision for the future. Not to be underestimated is the critical role of group development in this process. The Task Force, supported by professional staff expertise and judgment, hopes to achieve a level of group development termed "synergy," that is, where the group outperforms (in terms of quality and quantity of work) its best individual member. Not a small feat, but critical to a successful planning exercise! Any regional planning implies a commitment to change. After all, new services will be added, some phased out, others revised, and others enhanced, resulting in changes in roles and responsibilities of providers. Change should not be greeted with disdain but viewed as a natural part of the environment in which we plan and provide services. A major advantage to the process of planning is that the level of support for change is already mobilized through the various stages of the process highlighted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Mold, James W
This seventh annual practice-based research theme issue of the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine highlights primary care research conducted in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). The issue includes discussion of (1) theoretical and methodological research, (2) health care research (studies addressing primary care processes), (3) clinical research (studies addressing the impact of primary care on patients), and (4) health systems research (studies of health system issues impacting primary care including the quality improvement process). We had a noticeable increase in submissions from PBRN collaborations, that is, studies that involved multiple networks. As PBRNs cooperate to recruit larger and more diverse patient samples, greater generalizability and applicability of findings lead to improved primary care processes.
Bandeira, Luciana Alves; Santos, Maxuel Cruz Dos; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann; Bandeira, Andrea Gonçalves; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Vieira, Letícia Becker
To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.
Luciana Alves Bandeira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. Method: A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola’s Social Network. Results: The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Final considerations: Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.
Robinson, J C; Casalino, L P
This paper documents the growing linkages between primary care-centered medical groups and specialists and between physicians and hospitals under managed care. We evaluate the two alternative forms of organizational coordination: "vertical integration," based on unified ownership, and "virtual integration," based on contractual networks. Excess capacity and the need for investment capital are major short-term determinants of these vertical versus virtual integration decisions in health care. In the longer term, the principal determinants are economies of scale, risk-bearing ability, transaction costs, and the capacity for innovation in methods of managing care.
Hudson, Peter; Street, Annette; Graham, Suzanne; Aranda, Sanchia; O'Connor, Margaret; Thomas, Kristina; Jackson, Kate; Spruyt, Odette; Ugalde, Anna; Philip, Jennifer
The difficulties in conducting palliative care research have been widely acknowledged. In order to generate the evidence needed to underpin palliative care provision, collaborative research is considered essential. Prior to formalizing the development of a research network for the state of Victoria, Australia, a preliminary study was undertaken to ascertain interest and recommendations for the design of such a collaboration. Three data-collection strategies were used: a cross-sectional questionnaire, interviews, and workshops. The questionnaire was completed by multidisciplinary palliative care specialists from across the state (n = 61); interviews were conducted with senior clinicians and academics (n = 21) followed by two stakeholder workshops (n = 29). The questionnaire was constructed specifically for this study, measuring involvement of and perceptions of palliative care research. Both the interview and the questionnaire data demonstrated strong support for a palliative care research network and aided in establishing a research agenda. The stakeholder workshops assisted with strategies for the formation of the Palliative Care Research Network Victoria (PCRNV) and guided the development of the mission and strategic plan. The research and efforts to date to establish the PCRNV are encouraging and provide optimism for the evolution of palliative care research in Australia. The international implications are highlighted.
Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio
After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.
Sahay, Sandeep; Melendres-Groves, Lana; Pawar, Leena; Cajigas, Hector R
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic, progressive, life-threatening disease that requires expert multidisciplinary care. To facilitate this level of care, the Pulmonary Hypertension Association established across the United States a network of pulmonary hypertension care centers (PHCCs) with special expertise in PH, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, to raise the overall quality of care and outcomes for patients with this life-threatening disease. Since the inception of PHCCs in September 2014, to date 35 centers have been accredited in the United States. This model of care brings together physicians and specialists from other disciplines to provide care, facilitate basic and clinical research, and educate the next generation of providers. PHCCs also offer additional opportunities for improvements in PH care. The patient registry offered through the PHCCs is an organized system by which data are collected to evaluate the outcomes of patients with PH. This registry helps in detecting variations in outcomes across centers, thus identifying opportunities for improvement. Multiple tactics were undertaken to implement the strategic plan, training, and tools throughout the PHCC network. In addition, strategies to foster collaboration between care center staff and individuals with PH and their families are the cornerstone of the PHCCs. The Pulmonary Vascular Network of the American College of Chest Physicians believes this to be a positive step that will improve the quality of care delivered in the United States to patients with PH. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prusaczyk, Beth; Maki, Julia; Luke, Douglas A; Lobb, Rebecca
Rural health networks have the potential to improve health care quality and access. Despite this, the use of network analysis to study rural health networks is limited. The purpose of this study was to use network analysis to understand how a network of rural breast cancer care providers deliver services and to demonstrate the value of this methodology in this research area. Leaders at 47 Federally Qualified Health Centers and Rural Health Clinics across 10 adjacent rural counties were asked where they refer patients for mammograms or breast biopsies. These clinics and the 22 referral providers that respondents named comprised the network. The network was analyzed graphically and statistically with exponential random graph modeling. Most (96%, n = 45) of the clinics and referral sites (95%, n = 21) are connected to each other. Two clinics of the same type were 62% less likely to refer patients to the same providers as 2 clinics of different types (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.29-0.50). Clinics in the same county have approximately 8 times higher odds of referring patients to the same providers compared to clinics in different counties (OR = 7.80, CI = 4.57-13.31). This study found that geographic location of resources is an important factor in rural health care providers' referral decisions and demonstrated the usefulness of network analysis for understanding rural health networks. These results can be used to guide delivery of patient care and strengthen the network by building resources that take location into account. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.
Marston, Joan; Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia
The International Children's Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) is a global network of individuals and organizations working together to reach the estimated 21 million children with life-limiting conditions and life-threatening illnesses. The drive to establish the ICPCN was born from the recognition of the gaps in service provision for children's palliative care and the need to collaborate, network, and share resources. Established in 2005 during a meeting in Seoul, South Korea, the ICPCN has developed over the years into an established network with a global membership. The history of the organization is described, including some of the key events since its inception. Working in collaboration with others, ICPCN has five key focus areas: Communication; Advocacy; Research; Education; and Strategic development, and is the only international charity working globally for the rights of children with palliative care needs. Activities in these areas are discussed, along with the inter-connection between the five areas. Without the ICPCN, palliative care for children would not have developed as far as it has over the years and the organization is committed to ongoing work in this area until all children requiring palliative care have access to quality services, wherever they live around the world. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halley, M D; Little, A W
Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.
Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.
Maria Denise Schimith
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the negotiation and shared decision-making between professionals and users in a Family Health Unit and its influence on the continuity of care in the Health Care Network. Qualitative research created from a case study. One conducted 19 interviews, observation and document research. It was developed in a city in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2012. The results show that decisions used to happen unilaterally and that users and professionals looked for alternative ways to the continuity of care. It was not possible to identify the negotiation between professional and users and it was noticed that the user was alone looking for access. It is understood that primary care in the city researched needs to take responsibility for users and their access.
Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Ruland, Sandra; Diaz, Stephanie; Morrato, Elaine H; Jones, Eric
Care management and care managers are becoming increasingly prevalent in primary care medical practice as a means of improving population health and reducing unnecessary care. Care managers are often involved in chronic disease management and associated transitional care. In this study, we examined the communication regarding chronic disease care within 24 primary care practices in Michigan and Colorado. We sought to answer the following questions: Do care managers play a key role in chronic disease management in the practice? Does the prominence of the care manager's connectivity within the practice's communication network vary by the type of care management structure implemented? Individual written surveys were given to all practice members in the participating practices. Survey questions assessed demographics as well as practice culture, quality improvement, care management activities, and communication regarding chronic disease care. Using social network analysis and other statistical methods, we analyzed the communication dynamics related to chronic disease care for each practice. The structure of chronic disease communication varies greatly from practice to practice. Care managers who were embedded in the practice or co-located were more likely to be in the core of the communication network than were off-site care managers. These care managers also had higher in-degree centrality, indicating that they acted as a hub for communication with team members in many other roles. Social network analysis provided a useful means of examining chronic disease communication in practice, and highlighted the central role of care managers in this communication when their role structure supported such communication. Structuring care managers as embedded team members within the practice has important implications for their role in chronic disease communication within primary care.
Pawa, Jasmine; Robson, John; Hull, Sally
Primary care practices are increasingly working in larger groups. In 2009, all 36 primary care practices in the London borough of Tower Hamlets were grouped geographically into eight managed practice networks to improve the quality of care they delivered. Quantitative evaluation has shown improved clinical outcomes. To provide insight into the process of network implementation, including the aims, facilitating factors, and barriers, from both the clinical and managerial perspectives. A qualitative study of network implementation in the London borough of Tower Hamlets, which serves a socially disadvantaged and ethnically diverse population. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors, nurses, and managers, and were informed by existing literature on integrated care and GP networks. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis used to analyse emerging themes. Interviewees agreed that networks improved clinical care and reduced variation in practice performance. Network implementation was facilitated by the balance struck between 'a given structure' and network autonomy to adopt local solutions. Improved use of data, including patient recall and peer performance indicators, were viewed as critical key factors. Targeted investment provided the necessary resources to achieve this. Barriers to implementing networks included differences in practice culture, a reluctance to share data, and increased workload. Commissioners and providers were positive about the implementation of GP networks as a way to improve the quality of clinical care in Tower Hamlets. The issues that arose may be of relevance to other areas implementing similar quality improvement programmes at scale. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Knowlton, Amy R; Alexander, Kamila A; Williams, Chyvette T; Boodram, Basmattee
This article reviews the current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates, treatment access, and outcomes. Social network analysis is a valuable tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low-cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, optimizing HIV medical care, and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.
Margolis, Peter A; Peterson, Laura E; Seid, Michael
Despite significant gains by pediatric collaborative improvement networks, the overall US system of chronic illness care does not work well. A new paradigm is needed: a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N). A C3N is a network-based production system that harnesses the collective intelligence of patients, clinicians, and researchers and distributes the production of knowledge, information, and know-how over large groups of people, dramatically accelerating the discovery process. A C3N is a platform of "operating systems" on which interconnected processes and interventions are designed, tested, and implemented. The social operating system is facilitated by community building, engaging all stakeholders and their expertise, and providing multiple ways to participate. Standard progress measures and a robust information technology infrastructure enable the technical operating system to reduce unwanted variation and adopt advances more rapidly. A structured approach to innovation design provides a scientific operating system or "laboratory" for what works and how to make it work. Data support testing and research on multiple levels: comparative effectiveness research for populations, evaluating care delivery processes at the care center level, and N-of-1 trials and other methods to select the best treatment of individual patient circumstances. Methods to reduce transactional costs to participate include a Federated IRB Model in which centers rely on a protocol approved at 1 central institutional review board and a "commons framework" for organizational copyright and intellectual property concerns. A fully realized C3N represents a discontinuous leap to a self-developing learning health system capable of producing a qualitatively different approach to improving health.
M Berkan Sesen
Full Text Available Survival prediction and treatment selection in lung cancer care are characterised by high levels of uncertainty. Bayesian Networks (BNs, which naturally reason with uncertain domain knowledge, can be applied to aid lung cancer experts by providing personalised survival estimates and treatment selection recommendations. Based on the English Lung Cancer Database (LUCADA, we evaluate the feasibility of BNs for these two tasks, while comparing the performances of various causal discovery approaches to uncover the most feasible network structure from expert knowledge and data. We show first that the BN structure elicited from clinicians achieves a disappointing area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (± 0.03, whereas a structure learned by the CAMML hybrid causal discovery algorithm, which adheres with the temporal restrictions, achieves 0.81 (± 0.03. Second, our causal intervention results reveal that BN treatment recommendations, based on prescribing the treatment plan that maximises survival, can only predict the recorded treatment plan 29% of the time. However, this percentage rises to 76% when partial matches are included.
Full Text Available Government-funded systems of health and social care are facing enormous fiscal and human-resource challenges. The space for innovation in care is wide open and new disruptive patterns are emerging. These include self-management and personal budgets, participatory and integrated care, supported decision making and a renewed focus on prevention. Taking these disruptive patterns to scale can be accelerated by a technologically enabled shift to a network model of care to co-create the best outcomes for individuals, family caregivers, and health and social care organizations. The connections, relationships, and activities within an individual’s personal network lay the foundation for care that health and social care systems/policy must simultaneously support and draw on for positive outcomes. Practical tools, adequate information, and tangible resources are required to coordinate and sustain care. Tyze Personal Networks is a social venture that uses technology to engage and inform the individual, their personal networks, and their care providers to co-create the best outcomes. In this article, we demonstrate how Tyze contributes to a shift to a network model of care by strengthening our networks and enhancing partnerships between care providers, individuals, and family and friends.
Black, Erik; Light, Jennifer; Paradise Black, Nicole; Thompson, Lindsay
The majority of workers, regardless of age or occupational status, report engaging in personal Internet use in the workplace. There is little understanding of the impact that personal Internet use may have on patient care in acute clinical settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the volume of one form of personal Internet use-online social networking (Facebook)-generated by workstations in the emergency department (ED) in contrast to measures of clinical volume and severity. The research team analyzed anonymous network utilization records for 68 workstations located in the emergency medicine department within one academic medical center for 15 consecutive days (12/29/2009 to 1/12/2010). This data was compared to ED work index (EDWIN) data derived by the hospital information systems. Health care workers spent an accumulated 4349 minutes (72.5 hours) browsing Facebook, staff cumulatively visited Facebook 9369 times and spent, on average, 12.0 minutes per hour browsing Facebook. There was a statistically significant difference in the time spent on Facebook according to time of day (19.8 minutes per hour versus 4.3 minutes per hour, P<.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between EDWIN scores and time spent on Facebook (r=.266, P<.001). Facebook use constituted a substantive percentage of staff time during the 15-day observation period. Facebook use increased with increased patient volume and severity within the ED.
Rocha, T A H; da Silva, N C; Amaral, P V; Barbosa, A C Q; Rocha, J V M; Alvares, V; de Almeida, D G; Thumé, E; Thomaz, E B A F; de Sousa Queiroz, R C; de Souza, M R; Lein, A; Toomey, N; Staton, C A; Vissoci, J R N; Facchini, L A
Studies of health geography are important in the planning and allocation of emergency health services. The geographical distribution of health facilities is an important factor in timely and quality access to emergency services; therefore, the present study analyzed the emergency health care network in Brazil, focusing the analysis at the roles of small hospitals (SHs). Cross-sectional ecological study. Data were collected from 9429 hospitals of which 3524 were SHs and 5905 were high-complexity centers (HCCs). For analytical purposes, we considered four specialties when examining the proxies of emergency care capability: adult, pediatrics, neonatal, and obstetric. We analyzed the spatial distribution of hospitals, identifying municipalities that rely exclusively on SHs and the distance of these cities from HCCs. More than 14 and 30 million people were at least 120 km away from HCCs with an adult intensive care unit (ICU) and pediatric ICU, respectively. For neonatal care distribution, 12% of the population was more than 120 km away from a health facility with a neonatal ICU. The maternities situation is different from other specialties, where 81% of the total Brazilian population was within 1 h or less from such health facilities. Our results highlighted a polarization in distribution of Brazilian health care facilities. There is a concentration of hospitals in urban areas more developed and access gaps in rural areas and the Amazon region. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of emergency services in Brazil is not facilitating access to the population due to geographical barriers associated with great distances. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matheus Figuereido Nogueira
Full Text Available Objective: to build a care network for the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease from the view of nurses of the Family Health Strategy (FHS. Method: exploratory qualitative study, developed with seven nurses from the FHS in the city of Santa Cruz, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. After obtaining a favorable opinion of the Ethics Committee of the Alcides Carneiro University Hospital (CAAE nº 31307314.9.0000.5182, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to the Collective Subject Discourse. Results: for an effective care network to the elderly with Alzheimer, some elements are necessary, such as: care in the three levels of complexity, family support, complementary diagnostic center, pharmaceutical services, continuing education, intersectionality and group of caregivers. Conclusions: when the care to the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease is performed in an articulated manner between the multiples axes that compose the network, it clarifies the caring process, facilitates the decision making, directs care, guarantee a comprehensive care and greatly reduce the deficits associated with this disease. Key-Words: Alzheimer’s disease; Family Health Strategy; Health Care Network.
Full Text Available Background: Integrated health care networks (IHN are promoted in numerous countries as a response to fragmented care delivery by providing a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population. However, evidence on their effectiveness and outcome is scarce, particularly considering continuity across levels of care; that is the patient's experience of connected and coherent care received from professionals of the different care levels over time. The objective was to analyse the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients’ perceptions of continuity of clinical management and information across care levels and continuity of relation in IHN of the public health care system of Catalonia.Methods: A qualitative multiple case study was conducted, where the cases are COPD patients. A theoretical sample was selected in two stages: (1 study contexts: IHN and (2 study cases consisting of COPD patients. Data were collected by means of individual, semi-structured interviews to the patients, their general practitioners and pulmonologists and review of records. A thematic content analysis segmented by IHN and cases with a triangulation of sources and analysists was carried out.Results: COPD patients of all networks perceived that continuity of clinical management was existent due to clear distribution of roles for COPD care across levels, rapid access to care during exacerbations and referrals to secondary care when needed; nevertheless, patients of some networks highlighted too long waiting times to non-urgent secondary care. Physicians generally agreed with patients, however, also indicated unclear distribution of roles, some inadequate referrals and long waiting times to primary care in some networks. Concerning continuity of information, patients across networks considered that their clinical information was transferred across levels via computer and that physicians also used informal communication mechanisms (e-mail, telephone; whereas
Mundt, Marlon P; Gilchrist, Valerie J; Fleming, Michael F; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Beasley, John W
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Primary care teams can be best suited to improve quality of care and lower costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. This study evaluates the associations between primary care team communication, interaction, and coordination (ie, social networks); quality of care; and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Using a sociometric survey, 155 health professionals from 31 teams at 6 primary care clinics identified with whom they interact daily about patient care. Social network analysis calculated variables of density and centralization representing team interaction structures. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between team network density, centralization, and number of patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease for controlled blood pressure and cholesterol, counts of urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital days, and medical care costs in the previous 12 months. Teams with dense interactions among all team members were associated with fewer hospital days (rate ratio [RR] = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.77) and lower medical care costs (-$556; 95% CI, -$781 to -$331) for patients with cardiovascular disease. Conversely, teams with interactions revolving around a few central individuals were associated with increased hospital days (RR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.94) and greater costs ($506; 95% CI, $202-$810). Team-shared vision about goals and expectations mediated the relationship between social network structures and patient quality of care outcomes. Primary care teams that are more interconnected and less centralized and that have a shared team vision are better positioned to deliver high-quality cardiovascular disease care at a lower cost. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Barber Vicki S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866
Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia
This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.
Latkin, Carl A.; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Boodram, Basmattee
This article reviews current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Social network analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social ne...
Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Drebit, Sharla; Lindstrom, Ronald R; Archibald, Chantel; Eggers, Kim; Ho, Kendall; Khazei, Afshin; Lund, Adam; MacKinnon, Carolyn; Markham, Ray; Marsden, Julian; Martin, Ed; Christenson, Jim
As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support. This paper provides an overview of the EM Network, including its background, purpose, programs, anticipated evolution, and impact on the BC health care system.
Glonek Gary FV
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.
Huibers, Linda; Philips, Hilde; Giesen, Paul; Remmen, Roy; Christensen, Morten Bondo; Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi
European countries face similar challenges in the provision of health care. Demographic factors like ageing, population growth, changing patient behaviour, and lack of work force lead to increasing demands, costs, and overcrowding of out-of-hours (OOH) care (i.e. primary care services, emergency departments (EDs), and ambulance services). These developments strain services and imply safety risks. In the last few decades, countries have been re-organizing their OOH primary health care services. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE NETWORK: We established a European research network for out-of-hours primary health care (EurOOHnet), which aims to transfer knowledge, share experiences, and conduct research. Combining research competencies and integrating results can generate a profound information flow to European researchers and decision makers in health policy, contributing towards feasible and high-quality OOH care. It also contributes to a more comparable performance level within European regions. CONDUCTED RESEARCH PROJECTS: The European research network aims to conduct mutual research projects. At present, three projects have been accomplished, among others concerning the diagnostic scope in OOH primary care services and guideline adherence for diagnosis and treatment of cystitis in OOH primary care. Future areas of research will be organizational models for OOH care; appropriate use of the OOH services; quality of telephone triage; quality of medical care; patient safety issues; use of auxiliary personnel; collaboration with EDs and ambulance care; and the role of GPs in OOH care.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the theoretical foundations of the solidarity network concept and its perceived utility as an enabling force for social organizations to influence change. The theoretical framework presented is intended to stimulate dialogue, interest and investigation on the subject of solidarity networks.…
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To learn the conceptions and actions of health professionals on the care network for women in situations of violence. METHOD A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted between April and July 2015 with the participation of 21 health professionals from four primary health care teams in a city of the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used for data systematization. RESULTS Health professionals recognized the importance of the health care network for coping with the problem of violence against women. However, their conceptions and actions were limited by the discoordination or absence of integration among professionals and services of the care network. CONCLUSION The conceptions and actions of health professionals contribute to the discoordination among the services. It is necessary to reflect on the daily practices of care for women in situations of violence.
Correa, Gonzalo; Domènech, Miquel
This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor-network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships.
Correa, Gonzalo; Domènech, Miquel
This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships. PMID:23880730
Lampsas, Petros; Vidalis, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Christos; Vagelatos, Aristides
Modern health care is provided with close cooperation among many different institutions and professionals, using their specialized expertise in a common effort to deliver best-quality and, at the same time, cost-effective services. Within this context of the growing need for information exchange, the demand for realization of data networks interconnecting various health care institutions at a regional level, as well as a national level, has become a practical necessity. To present the technical solution that is under consideration for implementing and interconnecting regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health System. The most critical requirements for deploying such a regional health care data network were identified as: fast implementation, security, quality of service, availability, performance, and technical support. The solution proposed is the use of proper virtual private network technologies for implementing functionally-interconnected regional health care data networks. The regional health care data network is considered to be a critical infrastructure for further development and penetration of information and communication technologies in the Hellenic National Health System. Therefore, a technical approach was planned, in order to have a fast cost-effective implementation, conforming to certain specifications.
Beek, A.P.A van
Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing
Galfalvy, H C; Reddy, S M; Niewiadomska-Bugaj, M; Friedman, S; Merkin, B
Concurrent Engineering Research Center (CERC), under the sponsorship of NLM (National Library of Medicine) is in the process of developing a computerized patient record system for a clinical environment distributed in rural West Virginia. This realization of the CCN (Community Care Network), besides providing computer-based patient records accessible from a chain of clinics and one hospital, supports collaborative health care processes like referral and consulting. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system, a study was designed and is in the process of being executed. Three surveys were designed to provide subjective measures, and four experiments for collecting objective data. Data collection is taking place in several phases: baseline data are collected before the system is deployed; the process is repeated with minimal changes three, then six months later or as often as new versions of the system are installed. Results are then to be compared, using whenever possible matching techniques (i.e. the preliminary data collected on a provider will be matched with the data collected later on the same provider). Surveys are conducted through questionnaires distributed to providers and nurses and person-to-person interviews of the patients. The time spent on patient-chart related activities is measured by work-sampling, aided by a computer application running on a laptop PC. Information about missing patient record parts is collected by the providers, the frequency by which new features of the computerized system are used will be logged by the system itself and clinical outcome measures will be studied from the results of the clinics' own patient chart audits. Preliminary results of the surveys and plans for the immediate and distant future are discussed at the end of the paper.
Gupta, Reshma; Shah, Neel T; Moriates, Christopher; Wallingford, September; Arora, Vineet M
A national imperative to provide value-based care requires new strategies to teach clinicians about high-value care. We developed a virtual online learning network aimed at disseminating emerging strategies in teaching value-based care. The online Teaching Value in Health Care Learning Network includes monthly webinars that feature selected innovators, online discussion forums, and a repository for sharing tools. The learning network comprises clinician-educators and health system leaders across North America. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of all webinar presenters and the active members of the network, and we assessed program feasibility. Six months after the program launched, there were 277 learning community members in 22 US states. Of the 74 active members, 50 (68%) completed the evaluation. Active members represented independently practicing physicians and trainees in 7 specialties, nurses, educators, and health system leaders. Nearly all speakers reported that the learning network provided them with a unique opportunity to connect with a different audience and achieve greater recognition for their work. Of the members who were active in the learning network, most reported that strategies gleaned from the network were helpful, and some adopted or adapted these innovations at their home institutions. One year after the program launched, the learning network had grown to 364 total members. The learning network helped participants share and implement innovations to promote high-value care. The model can help disseminate innovations in emerging areas of health care transformation, and is sustainable without ongoing support after a period of start-up funding.
Augustin, J; Austermann, J; Erasmi, S
Background: One of the overall objectives of the legislator is to ensure an overall "homogeneous", and easily accessible medical care for the population. The physician-patient ratio can be used to describe the regional health care situation. But this method does not provide information concerning the availability of, for instance, the nearest doctor. Therefore, further parameters such as accessibility must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, network analyses are an appropriate method. The objective of this study is to present methodological tools to evaluate the healthcare situation in the metropolitan region of Hamburg, primarily focusing on accessibility using dermatologists as an example. Methods: Analyzing data of 20 counties, the geographical distribution of N=357 dermatologists and the physician-patient ratio were calculated. In a second step, a network analysis regarding accessibility was performed. In order to calculate accessibility, address data (physicians) were transformed into coordinates, consisting of defined places (N=303) and restrictions (e. g. speed, turn restrictions) of the network. The calculation of population-based accessibility is based on grid cells for the population density. Results: Despite adequacy of the overall medical situation, differences in the availability of the nearest dermatologists in the metropolitan region are remarkable, particularly when use of public transport is taken into consideration. In some counties, over 60% of the population require at least one hour to get to the nearest dermatologist using public transportation. In rural regions within the metropolitan area are particularly affected. Conclusion: The network analysis has shown that the choice and availability of transportation in combination with the location (rural/urban) is essential for health care access. Especially elderly people in rural areas with restricted mobility are at a disadvantage. Therefore, modern health care approaches (e
Background: Children with spina bifida require ongoing multidisciplinary care in order to prevent complications and improve quality of life. Bethany Crippled Children's Centre of Kenya and BethanyKids at Kijabe Hospital have been providing such care for spina bifida patients through a network of mobile clinics throughout ...
Full Text Available To model and analyse stroke care and assistance provision in the Portuguese context from the network perspective. We used the network theory as a theoretical foundation for the study. The model proposed by Frey et al. (2006 was used to elicit and comprehend possible interactions and relations between organisations expected to be involved in the provision of care and assistance to stroke patients in their pathway to rehabilitation. Providers were identified and contacted to evaluate the nature and intensity of relationships. Network analysis was performed with the NodeXL software package. Analysis of 509 entities based on about 260 000 entries indicates that stroke care provision in the evaluated context is best captured in the coalition-collaboration setting, which appears to best demonstrate the character of the network. Information from analysis of the collaboration stage was not sufficient to determine the network dynamics. Application of the network theory to understand interorganisational dynamics of the complex health care context. Empirical validation of the model proposed by Frey et al. (2006 in terms of its operationalisation and the way it actually reflects the practical context. Examination and analysis of interorganisational relationships and its contribution to management of compound health care context involving actors from various sectors.
Bainbridge, Daryl; Brazil, Kevin; Krueger, Paul; Ploeg, Jenny; Taniguchi, Alan; Darnay, Julie
There is increasing global interest in using regional palliative care networks (PCNs) to integrate care and create systems that are more cost-effective and responsive. We examined a PCN that used a community development approach to build capacity for palliative care in each distinct community in a region of southern Ontario, Canada, with the goal of achieving a competent integrated system. Using a case study methodology, we examined a PCN at the structural level through a document review, a survey of 20 organizational administrators, and an interview with the network director. The PCN identified 14 distinct communities at different stages of development within the region. Despite the lack of some key features that would facilitate efficient palliative care delivery across these communities, administrators largely viewed the network partnership as beneficial and collaborative. The PCN has attempted to recognize specific needs in each local area. Change is gradual but participatory. There remain structural issues that may negatively affect the functioning of the PCN.
Karen E. Hamilton
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods: This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results: Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were
Stc Hamilton, Karen E; Sullivan, Frank M; Donnan, Peter T; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally
To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and 'bed down'. Its primary "modus operand" was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not statistically significant. There was no difference
Tzimenatos, Leah; Kim, Emily; Kuppermann, Nathan
In this article, we review the history and progress of a large multicenter research network pertaining to emergency medical services for children. We describe the history, organization, infrastructure, and research agenda of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and highlight some of the important accomplishments since its inception. We also describe the network's strategy to grow its research portfolio, train new investigators, and study how to translate new evidence into practice. This strategy ensures not only the sustainability of the network in the future but the growth of research in emergency medical services for children in general.
Bennett, T; O'Sullivan, D
The external pressure to reduce cost while maintaining quality and services is moving the whole industry into a rapid mode of integration. Hospitals, vendors, MCOs, and now, physicians, are faced with the difficult decisions concerning how their operations will be integrated into the larger health care delivery system. These pressures have forced physicians to consolidate, build leverage, and create efficiencies to become more productive; thereby better positioning themselves to respond to the challenges and the opportunities that lie before them. This initial phase of consolidation has given many physicians the momentum to begin to wrestle back the control of health care and the courage to design the next generation of managed care: Physician Directed Managed Care. What will be the next phase? Perhaps, the next step will be fully-integrated specialty and multi-specialty groups leading to alternate delivery sites. "Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself." - Leo Tolstoy
Rahman, Farah; Guan, Jun; Glazier, Richard H.; Brown, Adalsteinn; Bierman, Arlene S.; Croxford, Ruth; Stukel, Therese A.
One of the more fundamental health policy questions is the relationship between health care quality and spending. A better understanding of these relationships is needed to inform health systems interventions aimed at increasing quality and efficiency of care. We measured 65 validated quality indicators (QI) across Ontario physician networks. QIs were aggregated into domains representing six dimensions of care: screening and prevention, evidence-based medications, hospital-community transitions (7-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician; 30-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician and specialist), potentially avoidable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, potentially avoidable readmissions and unplanned returns to the ED, and poor cancer end of life care. Each domain rate was computed as a weighted average of QI rates, weighting by network population at risk. We also measured overall and sector-specific per capita healthcare network spending. We evaluated the associations between domain rates, and between domain rates and spending using weighted correlations, weighting by network population at risk, using an ecological design. All indicators were measured using Ontario health administrative databases. Large variations were seen in timely hospital-community transitions and potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Networks with timely hospital-community transitions had lower rates of avoidable admissions and readmissions (r = -0.89, -0.58, respectively). Higher physician spending, especially outpatient primary care spending, was associated with lower rates of avoidable hospitalizations (r = -0.83) and higher rates of timely hospital-community transitions (r = 0.81) and moderately associated with lower readmission rates (r = -0.46). Investment in effective primary care services may help reduce burden on the acute care sector and associated expenditures. PMID:29614131
Peng, Tzu-Ju Ann; Lo, Fang-Yi; Lin, Chin-Shien; Yu, Chwo-Ming Joseph
At issue is whether network resources imply some resources available to all members in networks or available only to those occupying structurally central positions in networks. In this article, two conceptual models, the additive and interaction models of the firm, are empirically tested regarding the impact of hospital resources, network resources, and centrality on hospital performance in the Taiwan health care industry. The results demonstrate that: (1) in the additive model, hospital resources and centrality independently affect performance, whereas network resources do not; and (2) no evidence supports the interaction effect of centrality and resources on performance. Based on our findings in Taiwanese practices, the extent to which the resources are acquired externally from networks, we suggest that while adopting interorganizational strategies, hospitals should clearly identify those important resources that reside in-house and those transferred from network partners. How hospitals access resources from central positions is more important than what network resources can hospitals acquire from networks. Hospitals should improve performance by exploiting its in-house resources rather than obtaining network resources externally. In addition, hospitals should not only invest in hospital resources for better performance but should also move to central positions in networks to benefit from collaborations.
Kriegel, Johannes; Rebhandl, Erwin; Hockl, Wolfgang; Stöbich, Anna-Maria
The primary health care in rural areas in Austria is currently determined by challenges such as ageing of the population, the shift towards chronic and age-related illnesses, the specialist medical and hospital-related education and training of physicians' as well growing widespread difficulty of staffing doctor's office. The objective is to realize a general practitioner centered and team-oriented primary health care (PHC) approach by establishing networked primary health care in rural areas of Austria. Using literature research, online survey, expert interviews and expert workshops, we identified different challenges in terms of primary health care in rural areas. Further, current resources and capacities of primary health care in rural areas were identified using the example of the district of Rohrbach. Twelve design dimensions and 51 relevant measurement indicators of a PHC network were delineated and described. Based on this, 12 design approaches of PHC concept for the GP-centered and team-oriented primary health care in rural areas have been developed.
Cheong, Lynn H M; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z
Multidisciplinary care (MDC) has been proposed as a potential strategy to address the rising challenges of modern health issues. However, it remains unclear as to how patients' health connections may impact on multidisciplinary processes and outcomes. This research aims to gain a deeper understanding of patients' potential role in MDC: i) describe patients' health networks, ii) compare different care groups, iii) gain an understanding of the nature and extent of their interactions, and iv) identify the role of pharmacists within patient networks. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with asthma patients from Sydney, Australia. Participants were recruited from a range of standard asthma health care access points (community group) and a specialized multidisciplinary asthma clinic (clinic group). Quantitative social network analysis provided structural insight into asthma networks while qualitative social network analysis assisted in interpretation of network data. A total of 47 interviews were conducted (26 community group participants and 21 clinic group participants). Although participants' asthma networks consisted of a range of health care professionals (HCPs), these did not reflect or encourage MDC. Not only did participants favor minimal interaction with any HCP, they preferred sole-charge care and were found to strongly rely on lay individuals such as family and friends. While general practitioners and respiratory specialists were participants' principal choice of HCP, community pharmacists were less regarded. Limited opportunities were presented for HCPs to collaborate, particularly pharmacists. As patients' choices of HCPs may strongly influence collaborative processes and outcomes, this research highlights the need to consider patient perspectives in the development of MDC models in primary care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
critical path) and less important together with their time duration. The average total time spent in the hospital was 43 minutes but with effective capacity planning using network analysis the total time was reduced to 18 minutes and the critical path ...
James H McMahon
Full Text Available Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men.A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%-95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.4-98.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.1-2.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes. Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04.The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for populations with HIV.
Integrated palliative care is about professional networking rather than standardisation of care: A qualitative study with healthcare professionals in 19 integrated palliative care initiatives in five European countries.
den Herder-van der Eerden, Marlieke; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Preston, Nancy; Linge-Dahl, Lisa; Radbruch, Lukas; Van Beek, Karen; Menten, Johan; Busa, Csilla; Csikos, Agnes; Vissers, Kris; van Gurp, Jelle; Hasselaar, Jeroen
Integrated palliative care aims at improving coordination of palliative care services around patients' anticipated needs. However, international comparisons of how integrated palliative care is implemented across four key domains of integrated care (content of care, patient flow, information logistics and availability of (human) resources and material) are lacking. To examine how integrated palliative care takes shape in practice across abovementioned key domains within several integrated palliative care initiatives in Europe. Qualitative group interview design. A total of 19 group interviews were conducted (2 in Belgium, 4 in the Netherlands, 4 in the United Kingdom, 4 in Germany and 5 in Hungary) with 142 healthcare professionals from several integrated palliative care initiatives in five European countries. The majority were nurses ( n = 66; 46%) and physicians ( n = 50; 35%). The dominant strategy for fostering integrated palliative care is building core teams of palliative care specialists and extended professional networks based on personal relationships, shared norms, values and mutual trust, rather than developing standardised information exchange and referral pathways. Providing integrated palliative care with healthcare professionals in the wider professional community appears difficult, as a shared proactive multidisciplinary palliative care approach is lacking, and healthcare professionals often do not know palliative care professionals or services. Achieving better palliative care integration into regular healthcare and convincing the wider professional community is a difficult task that will take time and effort. Enhancing standardisation of palliative care into education, referral pathways and guidelines and standardised information exchange may be necessary. External authority (policy makers, insurance companies and professional bodies) may be needed to support integrated palliative care practices across settings.
Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A
The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.
Valentijn, Pim P.; Hitzert, Marit; Hermus, Marieke A.A.; Franx, Arie; de Vries, Raymond G.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.
Introduction: Integrated care is considered to be a means to reduce costs, improve the quality of care and generate better patient outcomes. At present, little is known about integrated care in maternity care systems. We developed questionnaires to examine integrated care in two different settings, using the taxonomy of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of these questionnaires. Methods: We used data collected between 2013 and 2015 from two studies: the Maternity Care Network Study (634 respondents) and the Dutch Birth Centre Study (56 respondents). We assessed the feasibility, discriminative validity, and reliability of the questionnaires. Results: Both questionnaires showed good feasibility (overall missing rate 0.70). Between-subgroups post-hoc comparisons showed statistically significant differences on integration profiles between regional networks (on all items, dimensions of integration and total integration score) and birth centres (on 50% of the items and dimensions of integration). Discussion: Both questionnaires are feasible and can discriminate between sites with different integration profiles in The Netherlands. They offer an opportunity to better understand integrated care as one step in understanding the complexity of the concept. PMID:28970747
Nathalia Teixeira Caldas Campana
Full Text Available The possibility for women to engage in professional career and the fact that men are more involved in caring for their children raise awareness to the need for research on contemporary parental practice. The aim of this study was to check for changes in the form parents take care of their children, the key challenges they face and how pediatricians and school workers participate in this process. The methodology used is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews with five middle-class heterosexual couples who have children up to three years old and their respective pediatricians and school supervisors. Results show that parenthood is transitioning from the traditional model to a more egalitarian practice. Pediatricians act as advisors and parents share with school workers the direct care for children. It is suggested that naturalistic perspectives and time for paternity leave must be questioned in order to promote an egalitarian parenthood.
Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug
Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes.
Full Text Available Access Grid (AG is an Internet2-driven, high performance audio_visual conferencing technology used worldwide by academic and government organisations to enhance communication, human interaction and group collaboration. AG technology is particularly promising for improving academic multi-centre research collaborations. This manuscript describes how the AG technology was utilised by the electronic Primary Care Research Network (ePCRN that is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH Roadmap initiative to improve primary care research and collaboration among practice- based research networks (PBRNs in the USA. It discusses the design, installation and use of AG implementations, potential future applications, barriers to adoption, and suggested solutions.
Thaís Araújo Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: to understand and identify the support network and social support from the perspective of families of children with chronic conditions. Methods: a qualitative study, with content analysis of 134 records, followed by ten semi-structured interviews. Results: the analysis has revealed that the primary caregiver, the mother, participates in a network of limited support, only with the help of her husband, children, grandparents and the child´s godparents. They also have a social network through a multidisciplinary team, which in some cases is not effective. Conclusion: families have a deficient and limited support network and the demand for care rely only on the support of the husband, grandparents, children, and godparents. Social networking refers to the philanthropic institutions, while the aid of public service, basic health unit is basic.
Márcia Cristina Rodrigues Fausto
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to analyze the itineraries of patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA in the Interstate health region in San Francisco Valley. Methods: this study uses the qualitative approach through the construction of Therapeutic Itineraries (IT. In the IT mapping the observation was prioritized on the different points and forms to access health service in search of care. Results: sixteen semi-structured interviews with healthcare users were conducted. There were diverse forms to access and provide services at the Rede Interestadual de Atenção à Saúde do Vale do Médio São Francisco-PEBA (Interstate Healthcare Network Region in the San Francisco Valley, which could be characterized by disorganized and uncoordinated care in the analyzed cases, despite the guarantee of hospital care. The Primary Health Care (APS teams are present at a care point with most of the patients' itineraries, however, little integration to the regionalized network and they were unable to perform their functions and coordinate the care. It is observed pilgrimage assistance, fragmented care and difficulties in receiving care after post hospitalization which is essential for the patients’ rehabilitation. Conclusions: traces of fragments of the regional health system are important warning signs that points out fragility in PEBA and demonstrate persistent gaps in the public health system to fulfil the responsibility and guarantee individuals’ right for health.
Full Text Available Background The use of medication is at the heart of primary care, but is also the cause for major health concerns. It is therefore important to examine the prescription of medication process.Objective This study identifies the barriers and facilitators perceived by community pharmacists and primary care physicians concerning the adoption of a nationwide electronic prescribing (e-prescribing network in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We used purposive sampling to identify the most intensive users of the e-prescribing network. We conducted phone and in-person interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and we analysed their content with NVivo, using the clinical adoption framework (CAF for the codification of the data.Results We interviewed 33 pharmacists, 2 pharmacy technicians, 11 physicians and 3 clinic managers. Adoption of the e-prescribing network was fairly low. The respondents underlined adaptation of their work environment, openness to change and perception of benefits as facilitators to the adoption of the network. However, important barriers were perceived, including system quality issues and paper prescriptions being the only legal document in the prescribing process. Even if respondents recognised that the e-prescribing network can offer substantial benefits to the prescribing process, issues still persisted and raised barriers to the full use of such a network, especially in a context where different local information systems are connected within a nationwide e-prescribing network.Conclusion This study, based on the CAF, provides a better understanding of the factors related to the adoption of a nationwide e-prescribing network connecting primary care clinics and community pharmacies.
Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S
Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada--TARGet Kids!--to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.
Catherine S. Birken
Full Text Available Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2004 to measure the connectedness between hospitals. This allowed us to reconstruct the network of hospitals in the Netherlands. We used mathematical models to assess the effect of different patient referral patterns on the potential spread of hospital-acquired infections between hospitals, and between categories of hospitals (University medical centers, top clinical hospitals and general hospitals. University hospitals have a higher number of shared patients than teaching or general hospitals, and are therefore more likely to be among the first to receive colonized patients. Moreover, as the network is directional towards university hospitals, they have a higher prevalence, even when infection control measures are equally effective in all hospitals. Patient referral patterns have a profound effect on the spread of health care-associated infections like hospital-acquired MRSA. The MRSA prevalence therefore differs between hospitals with the position of each hospital within the health care network. Any comparison of MRSA rates between hospitals, as a benchmark for hospital hygiene, should therefore take the position of a hospital within the network into account.
Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.
Shah, Sural; Yun, Katherine
Over the last decade, approximately 200,000 refugee children have resettled across the United States. This population is dispersed, resulting in limited data. Collaborative research networks, where clinicians across distinct practice sites work together to answer research questions, can improve the evidence base regarding clinical care. We distributed a web-based survey to pediatric refugee providers around North America to assess priorities, perceived barriers and benefits to collaborative research. We recruited 57 participants. Of respondents, 89 % were interested in collaborative research, prioritizing: (1) access to health care (33 %), (2) mental health (24 %) and (3) nutrition/growth (24 %). Perceived benefits were "improving clinical practice" (98 %) and "raising awareness about the needs of pediatric refugees" (94 %). Perceived barriers were "too many other priorities" (89 %) and "lack of funding for data entry" (78 %). There is widespread interest in collaborative networks around pediatric refugee healthcare. A successful network will address barriers and emphasize priorities.
Jarrett, N; Porter, K; Davis, C; Lathlean, J; Duke, S; Corner, J; Addington-Hall, J
To explore the work carried out for cancer palliative care patients in understanding and dealing with the often large network of care provision surrounding them. Qualitative thematic analysis of interviews with 24 patients (aged 48-85 years) with 15 different types/sites of cancer and palliative care needs. The main theme of 'patient work-their strategies and project management' is presented. Subthemes included: being organised and keeping records; planning ahead and coordinating care; information gathering; understanding the hierarchy and knowing who the key people are; strategies to remember names and roles; understanding and 'working the system'. Insights are given into the work carried out on patients' behalf by family, although it was unclear who would do this work if no family was available. Some of the challenges faced by patients and families are identified. These included limited information; uncertainty when care is transferred between different teams or locations; deciding who to contact and how; and negotiating through gatekeepers. The number and variety of people contributing to the care of a cancer palliative care patient can be difficult for patients and family to comprehend. Work is required by patients or family on their behalf to achieve the level of understanding required to become accomplished at navigating the system and project managing their care organisation, and is probably influenced by role expectations and previous experience. Much of this additional, often hidden, workload for patients and family could probably be reduced with clear, timely information provision by health professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Leandro Barbosa de Pinho
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the intersectoral resources in the composition of care networks for crack users. Method: Evaluative, qualitative study based on the Fourth Generation Evaluation. The participants were 10 users, 11 family members, eight workers, and seven managers from a municipality in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre/Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected in 2014 through observation and semi-structured interviews. The analysis occurred by the constant comparative method. Results: Stakeholders have discussed how the Public Prosecutor's Office and the Military Brigade are inserted in the network, since they carry out actions that often are not compatible with the psychosocial care proposal. The need for expansion and maintenance of liaisons with community resources was identified. Conclusion: It is noted the need for sector integration and participation of all social agents from different spheres in order to promote and evaluate the practices and policies of care for crack users.
Full Text Available Introduction: Health Care Networks (HCN are seen as a possibility for articulating and coordinating actions, health services and is a priority in the health system. One strategy to assure their improvement is the Tutorial Education Program (PET-Redes in the health area. Within this context, it is important to understand the challenges and strengths for the effectiveness of HCN to the network care. Objective: To identify and analyze the perceptions of professionals who are preceptors of PET-Networks (Stork/at-risk infants Network and Disabled People Network about the configuration of the network care and the challenges of professional actions related to it. Method: Qualitative study conducted through two focus groups with professionals that are preceptors of the PET-Networks. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Both networks presented the following categories related to the network care configuration: access, comprehensive health care and communication. For this care network configuration, some challenges mentioned include geographical and architectural barriers, lack of social support, lack of transportation, failure on care flow and discontinuities in the communicative process. To deal with these challenges, the following strategies were mentioned: implementation of electronic medical records and formulation of specific forums for debate and articulation of actions, among others. It is important to notice that these categories are intertwined and that more challenges than strategies to overcome them were pointed out by the participants. Conclusion: There are several challenges for effective HCN from different levels and the construction of strategies needs to be convened among all persons involved in the HCN
Dyson, Kate; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
This study examines the cost effectiveness of a model of remote area oral health service. Retrospective financial analysis. Rural and remote primary health services. Clinical activity data and associated cost data relating to the provision of a networked visiting oral health service by the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health formed the basis of the study data frameset. The cost-effectiveness of the Centre's model of service provision at five rural and remote sites in Western Australia during the calendar years 2006, 2008 and 2010 was examined in the study. Calculations of the service provision costs and value of care provided were made using data records and the Fee Schedule of Dental Services for Dentists. The ratio of service provision costs to the value of care provided was determined for each site and was benchmarked against the equivalent ratios applicable to large scale government sector models of service provision. The use of networked models have been effective in other disciplines but this study is the first to show a networked hub and spoke approach of five spokes to one hub is cost efficient in remote oral health care. By excluding special cost-saving initiatives introduced by the Centre, the study examines easily translatable direct service provision costs against direct clinical care outcomes in some of Australia's most challenging locations. This study finds that networked hub and spoke models of care can be financially efficient arrangements in remote oral health care. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So
Prevention of delirium is considered a critical part of the agenda for patient safety and an indicator of healthcare quality for older patients. As the incidence rate of delirium for older patients has increased in recent years, there has been a significant expansion in knowledge relevant to nursing care. The purposes of this study were to analyze the knowledge structure and trends in nursing care for older adults with delirium based on a keyword network analysis, and to provide a foundation for future research. Data analysis showed that knowledge structure in this area consists of three themes of research: postoperative acute care for older patients with delirium, prevention of delirium for older patients in intensive care units, and safety management for the improvement of outcomes for patients with delirium. Through research trend analysis, we found that research on care for patients with delirium has achieved both quantitative and qualitative improvements over the last decades. Concerning future research, we propose the expansion of patient- and family-centered care, community care, specific nursing interventions, and the integration of new technology into care for patients with delirium. These results provide a reference framework for understanding and developing nursing care for older adults with delirium.
Boonekamp, L C
The introduction of regulated competition in health care in several Western countries confronts health care providing organizations with changing relationships, with their environment and a need for knowledge and skills to analyse and improve their market position. Marketing receives more and more attention, as recent developments in this field of study provide a specific perspective on the relationships between an organization and external and internal parties. In doing so, a basis is offered for network management. A problem is that the existing marketing literature is not entirely appropriate for the specific characteristics of health care. After a description of the developments in marketing and its most recent key concepts, the applicability of these concepts in health-care organizations is discussed. States that for the health-care sector, dominated by complex networks of interorganizational relationships, the strategic marketing vision on relationships can be very useful. At the same time however, the operationalization of these concepts requires special attention and a distinct role of the management of health-care organizations, because of the characteristics of such organizations and the specific type of their service delivery.
Le, Aurora B; Biddinger, Paul D; Smith, Philip W; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Levy, Deborah A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J
During the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States responded by stratifying hospitals into 1 of 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated categories-based on the hospital's ability to identify, isolate, assess, and provide care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD)-in an attempt to position the US healthcare system to safely isolate and care for potential patients. Now, with the Ebola epidemic quelled, it is crucial that we act on the lessons learned from the EVD response to broaden our national perspective on infectious disease mitigation and management, build on our newly enhanced healthcare capabilities to respond to infectious disease threats, develop a more cost-effective and sustainable model of infectious disease prevention, and continue to foster training so that the nation is not in a vulnerable position once more. We propose the formal creation of a US Highly Infectious Disease Care Network (HIDCN) modeled after 2 previous highly infectious disease consensus efforts in the United States and the European Union. A US Highly Infectious Disease Care Network can provide a common platform for the exchange of training, protocols, research, knowledge, and capability sharing among high-level isolation units. Furthermore, we envision the network will cultivate relationships among facilities and serve as a means of establishing national standards for infectious disease response, which will strengthen domestic preparedness and the nation's ability to respond to the next highly infectious disease threat.
Pennafort, Viviane Peixoto Dos Santos; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante
to understand the influence of network and social support in the care of a child with type 1 diabetes. qualitative study, with assumptions of ethnonursing, conducted in a reference service specialized in the treatment of diabetes, in 2014, in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. Twenty-six members of the family and their respective school children participated in the study. The process of collection and analysis followed the observation-participation-reflection model. the analytical categories showed that the social network in the care of children with diabetes helped sharing of information and experiences, moments of relaxation and aid in the acquisition of supplies for treatment, with positive repercussions in the family context, generating well-being and confidence in the care of children with diabetes. the cultural care provided by nurses strengthens the network and social support because it encourages autonomy in the promotion of the quality of life of children with type 1 diabetes and their families.
Kim, Minji; Choi, Mona; Youm, Yoosik
As comprehensive nursing care service has gradually expanded, it has become necessary to explore the various opinions about it. The purpose of this study is to explore the large amount of text data regarding comprehensive nursing care service extracted from online news and social media by applying a semantic network analysis. The web pages of the Korean Nurses Association (KNA) News, major daily newspapers, and Twitter were crawled by searching the keyword 'comprehensive nursing care service' using Python. A morphological analysis was performed using KoNLPy. Nodes on a 'comprehensive nursing care service' cluster were selected, and frequency, edge weight, and degree centrality were calculated and visualized with Gephi for the semantic network. A total of 536 news pages and 464 tweets were analyzed. In the KNA News and major daily newspapers, 'nursing workforce' and 'nursing service' were highly rated in frequency, edge weight, and degree centrality. On Twitter, the most frequent nodes were 'National Health Insurance Service' and 'comprehensive nursing care service hospital.' The nodes with the highest edge weight were 'national health insurance,' 'wards without caregiver presence,' and 'caregiving costs.' 'National Health Insurance Service' was highest in degree centrality. This study provides an example of how to use atypical big data for a nursing issue through semantic network analysis to explore diverse perspectives surrounding the nursing community through various media sources. Applying semantic network analysis to online big data to gather information regarding various nursing issues would help to explore opinions for formulating and implementing nursing policies. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Umemoto, T; Hoshi, H; Tsuda, M; Horio, S; Itou, N; Neriki, T
JAC's LPG monitoring network system is mainly provided in mountain villages. However, by using this system, it will be possible to start a Digital Network Program for the Elderly while maintaining superior economic feasibility and public benefit using existing information infrastructures. This project also has the capabilities for the creation of a fire/disaster monitoring system, as well as a health care system by using conventional LPG monitoring systems. Telemedicine is an option for the future, as well, by connecting medical equipment and a tele-conferencing system.
Weigel, Angelika; Gumz, Antje; Kästner, Denise; Romer, Georg; Wegscheider, Karl; Löwe, Bernd
The "Health care network anorexia and bulimia nervosa", a subproject of psychenet - the Hamburg network for mental health - aims to decrease the incidence of eating disorders as well as the risk for chronic illness courses. One focal project, therefore, evaluates a school-based prevention manual in a randomized controlled trial. The other one examines the impact of a systemic public health intervention on early treatment initiation in anorexia nervosa. The present article provides an overview about study design and interventions in both focal projects as well as preliminary results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort
Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.
de La Fuente, Ma Victoria; Ros, Lorenzo
Public health is oriented to the management of an adequate health atmosphere which acts directly on health, as well as health education work and the supervision of environmental health threats. The work presented in this paper aims to reduce inequality, and give disabled people the tools to be integrated more effectively, reducing social exclusion, removing obstacles and barriers, and facilitating mobility and the use of technology. The work is planned to design a special healthcare collaborative network as the best solution for addressing the needs of the disabled self-care and health care community through the creation and implementation of an interconnected, electronic information infrastructure and adoption of open data standards.
Yousefi Nooraie, Reza; Khan, Sobia; Gutberg, Jennifer; Baker, G Ross
Although implementation models broadly recognize the importance of social relationships, our knowledge about applying social network analysis (SNA) to formative, process, and outcome evaluations of health system interventions is limited. We explored applications of adopting an SNA lens to inform implementation planning, engagement and execution, and evaluation. We used Health Links, a province-wide program in Canada aiming to improve care coordination among multiple providers of high-needs patients, as an example of a health system intervention. At the planning phase, an SNA can depict the structure, network influencers, and composition of clusters at various levels. It can inform the engagement and execution by identifying potential targets (e.g., opinion leaders) and by revealing structural gaps and clusters. It can also be used to assess the outcomes of the intervention, such as its success in increasing network connectivity; changing the position of certain actors; and bridging across specialties, organizations, and sectors. We provided an overview of how an SNA lens can shed light on the complexity of implementation along the entire implementation pathway, by revealing the relational barriers and facilitators, the application of network-informed and network-altering interventions, and testing hypotheses on network consequences of the implementation.
Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Rosenberg, John; Noonan, Kerrie
Although there is ample evidence of the risk to carers from the burden of caring, there is also evidence that a caring network can relieve the burden on the principal carer, strengthen community relationships, and increase 'Death Literacy' in the community. There is often an assumption that, in caring networks, family and service providers are central and friends and community are marginal. We examined whether this is the case in practice using SNA. To identify the relative positioning of family, friends, community, and service providers in caring networks. In interviews with carers (N = 23) and focus groups with caring networks (N = 13) participants were asked to list the people in the caring network and rate the strength of their relationships to them (0 no relationship to 3 strong relationship). SNA in UCInet was used to map the networks, examine density (number and strength of relationships) across time (when caring began to the present) and across relationship types (family, friends, community, and service providers) supplemented by qualitative data. The analysis revealed significant increases in the density of the networks over time. The density of relationships with friends was similar to that other family. Community and service providers had significantly lower density. Qualitative analysis revealed that often service providers were not seen as part of the networks. To avoid carer burnout, it is important not to make assumptions about where carers obtain support but work with each carer to mobilise any support that is available. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Odgaard, Ane Bjerre
This paper reports on a socioculturally informed design-based study concerning young children's use of tablets within the educational contexts constituting their transition from day-care to school. The study explores tablet-mediated and dialogical activities as potential means for negotiating...... connections between the different contexts which the children traverse during this transition. At several occasions, the participating 5- to 7-year-old children are invited to use tablets for producing photos, photo-collages and e-books about their everyday institutional environments, thus aiming at mediating...... these contexts are pivots of dialogue. Networked learning is thus conceptualized as a matter of networked situations and contexts for young children during their transition from day-care to primary school, and technological artefacts are viewed as potential means for mediating children's meaning making about...
Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin
of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities.Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network...... by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. METHODS AND DESIGN: HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet...... consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well...
Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu
We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers
Linde, Klaus; Rücker, Gerta; Schneider, Antonius; Kriston, Levente
We aimed to evaluate the underlying assumptions of a network meta-analysis investigating which depression treatment works best in primary care and to highlight challenges and pitfalls of interpretation under consideration of these assumptions. We reviewed 100 randomized trials investigating pharmacologic and psychological treatments for primary care patients with depression. Network meta-analysis was carried out within a frequentist framework using response to treatment as outcome measure. Transitivity was assessed by epidemiologic judgment based on theoretical and empirical investigation of the distribution of trial characteristics across comparisons. Homogeneity and consistency were investigated by decomposing the Q statistic. There were important clinical and statistically significant differences between "pure" drug trials comparing pharmacologic substances with each other or placebo (63 trials) and trials including a psychological treatment arm (37 trials). Overall network meta-analysis produced results well comparable with separate meta-analyses of drug trials and psychological trials. Although the homogeneity and consistency assumptions were mostly met, we considered the transitivity assumption unjustifiable. An exchange of experience between reviewers and, if possible, some guidance on how reviewers addressing important clinical questions can proceed in situations where important assumptions for valid network meta-analysis are not met would be desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Janet I; Long, Janet C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Brodaty, Henry
Dementia is a syndrome associated with stigma and social isolation. Forty-two percent of people with dementia in the United States and almost 40% in the United Kingdom live in assisted living and residential care facilities. Up to 90% of residents with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Currently psychotropic drugs are often used to manage BPSD, despite the drugs' limited efficacy and adverse effects. Even though psychosocial approaches are as effective as medical ones without side effects, their uptake has been slow. Social networks that investigate the structure of relationships among residents and staff may represent an important resource to increase the uptake of psychosocial approaches and facilitate improvements in care. To conduct a systematic review of social network studies set in long-term care (LTC), including residents with dementia, and identify network factors influencing the care available to residents. Peer-reviewed articles across CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from January 1994 to December 2014 inclusive, using PRISMA guidelines. Studies included those examining social networks of residents or staff in LTC. Nine articles from studies in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia met search criteria. Resident networks had few social connections. One study proposed that residents with high centrality be encouraged to welcome new residents and disseminate information. The high density in 2 staff network studies was associated with the cooperation needed to provide care to residents with dementia. Staff's boundary-spanning led to higher-status nurses becoming more involved in decision-making and problem-solving in one study. In another, the outcome was staff treating residents with more respect and actively caring for them. These studies suggest interventions using a network approach may improve care services in LTC. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The
Deakyne Davies, Sara J; Grundmeier, Robert W; Campos, Diego A; Hayes, Katie L; Bell, Jamie; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Bajaj, Lalit; Chamberlain, James M; Gorelick, Marc H; Enriquez, Rene; Casper, T Charles; Scheid, Beth; Kittick, Marlena; Dean, J Michael; Alpern, Elizabeth R
Electronic health record (EHR)-based registries allow for robust data to be derived directly from the patient clinical record and can provide important information about processes of care delivery and patient health outcomes. A data dictionary, and subsequent data model, were developed describing EHR data sources to include all processes of care within the emergency department (ED). ED visit data were deidentified and XML files were created and submitted to a central data coordinating center for inclusion in the registry. Automated data quality control occurred prior to submission through an application created for this project. Data quality reports were created for manual data quality review. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Registry, representing four hospital systems and seven EDs, demonstrates that ED data from disparate health systems and EHR vendors can be harmonized for use in a single registry with a common data model. The current PECARN Registry represents data from 2,019,461 pediatric ED visits, 894,503 distinct patients, more than 12.5 million narrative reports, and 12,469,754 laboratory tests and continues to accrue data monthly. The Registry is a robust harmonized clinical registry that includes data from diverse patients, sites, and EHR vendors derived via data extraction, deidentification, and secure submission to a central data coordinating center. The data provided may be used for benchmarking, clinical quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research. Schattauer.
The Moffitt Cancer Network's (MCN) goal is to provide up-to-date oncology related information, resources, and education to oncology health care providers and researchers for the prevention and cure of cancer...
Lewis, Joanne M; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Currow, David C; Davidson, Patricia M
Lower socioeconomic populations live and die in contexts that render them vulnerable to poorer health and wellbeing. Contexts of care at the end of life are overwhelmingly determined by the capacity and nature of formal and informal networks and relations to support care. To date, studies exploring the nature of networks and relations of support in lower socioeconomic populations at the end of life are absent. This qualitative study sought to identify the nature of individual, community and civic networks and relations that defined the contexts of care for this group. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 patients and 6 informal carers who identified that they had social and economic needs and were from a lower socioeconomic area. A social capital questionnaire identifying individual, community and civic networks and relations formed the interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Participants identified that individual and community networks and relations of support were mainly inadequate to meet care needs. Specifically, data revealed: (1) individual (informal caregivers) networks and relations were small and fragile due to the nature of conflict and crisis; (2) community trust and engagement was limited and shifted by illness and caregiving; (3) and formal care services were inconsistent and provided limited practical support. Some transitions in community relations for support were noted. Levels of civic and government engagement and support were overall positive and enabled access to welfare resources. Networks and relations of support are essential for ensuring quality end of life care is achieved. Lower socioeconomic groups are at a distinct disadvantage where these networks and relations are limited, as they lack the resources necessary to augment these gaps. Understanding of the nature of assets and limitations, in networks and relations of support, is necessary to inform
Bocquet, H; Mantovani, J; Raffy, C; Cayla, F; Clément, S
This article reports on the evaluation experience of a multiple sclerosis care network in the Midi-Pyrénées region (MIPSEP). It shows how an evaluation team composed of public health doctors and sociologists progressively and naturally evolved from having a purely external observation role towards having a collaborative role actively working with the network's members and partners. A qualitative method was chosen for the data collection through interviews with the network's actors, and the frameworks for reference were constituted from official texts which defined the networks and their missions. Coming from a curative and healing culture, the network's actors were concerned primarily about how to organise themselves in order to better respond to the needs expressed by the patients. The various professional backgrounds and cultures, faced with different perspectives from innovation and confronted with the related difficulties, participated in a collective expertise exercise and collaborated in the construction process. This example supports an open, qualitative, evolutionary evaluation approach which is done in close proximity to the field and work on the ground. The study is timely given the current explosion of debate on evaluation methods. With a great deal of exchange and reflection on suitable tools and indicators as well as the respective roles of researchers, care givers and decision-makers, the results of this study advocate to favour multidisciplinary approaches, including opening up this process to funders and planning authorities rather than over-theorising about it, which only serves to enclose and paralyse a process that, on the contrary, should aim to be more inclusive. This could be a useful way to decompartmentalise and break down existing barriers within the health system.
Andrews, James E; Pearce, Kevin A; Sydney, Carey; Ireson, Carol; Love, Margaret
To examine the current levels of information technology (IT) use in a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) in order to inform future development of its infrastructure. Every primary care practitioner who is a member of the Kentucky Ambulatory Network (KAN),as well as the office managers of each practice. Practitioners included family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants. A cross-sectional study using two survey instruments: one for office managers and one for practitioners. The office manager survey included questions related to the current state of IT within the practice, plans for enhancement and general IT issues from the perspective of managing a practice. The practitioner survey was designed to measure current IT use and attitudes of primary care practitioners. Response rates for the surveys were 46% (n = 68) for the office managers and 51% (n = 116) for practitioners. All but one practice had internet access; however, 43% had only dial-up service. Only 21% of practitioners use an electronic medical record (EMR), with dollar cost being the barrier reported most frequently (58%). More than half of the office managers were either 'somewhat interested' (45%) or 'very interested' (17%) in a low-cost, standardised EMR that was, at the time, to be sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians. For practitioners, 71% were either 'somewhat' or 'very' interested in such a system. Responses to other IT issues are reported. While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.
Johnson, Tricia J; Jones, Art; Lulias, Cheryl; Perry, Anthony
State Medicaid programs need cost-effective strategies to provide high-quality care that is accessible to individuals with low incomes and limited resources. Integrated delivery systems have been formed to provide care across the continuum, but creating a shared vision for improving community health can be challenging. Medical Home Network was created as a network of primary care providers and hospital systems providing care to Medicaid enrollees, guided by the principles of egalitarian governance, practice-level care coordination, real-time electronic alerts, and pay-for-performance incentives. This analysis of health care utilization and costs included 1,189,195 Medicaid enrollees. After implementation of Medical Home Network, a risk-adjusted increase of $9.07 or 4.3% per member per month was found over the 2 years of implementation compared with an increase of $17.25 or 9.3% per member per month, before accounting for the cost of care management fees and other financial incentives, for Medicaid enrollees within the same geographic area with a primary care provider outside of Medical Home Network. After accounting for care coordination fees paid to providers, the net risk-adjusted cost reduction was $11.0 million.
Mendoza, Roger Lee
Now considered a subspecialty of medicine and nursing, palliative care is a critical aspect of healthcare at the end of life. National and international healthcare agencies typically attribute its slow or haphazard growth in developing countries to various resource constraints. However, this study provides evidence of the substantial and widening gap between policy advocacy and patient choices in end-of-life care. It does so by establishing the incentives and risks that underlie decision-making by patients and providers against the relative scarcity of palliative care and hospices in these countries. Jamaica offers an illustrative case. It shares the socioeconomic conditions and isolated provision of hospice and palliative care that remain prevalent in many developing countries. Empirical information was collected from all Jamaican hospices, along with agency and media reports, for comparative institutional analysis. Financial and infrastructural challenges hamper hospice expansion and integration into formal healthcare systems in developing countries. Yet, other equally vital considerations are too often neglected. These include the high transaction costs of decision-making, which account for limited hospice accessibility, affordability, and efficiency, particularly to underserved populations. Risk and payoff calculations by patients and their families as well as hospices and their providers lead to two strategic options in maximizing hospice value and/or minimizing transaction costs in end-of-life care. Policy formulation and advocacy for hospice and palliative care should match aggregate demand. The socio-cultural milieu of care is critical and should be equally considered. Otherwise, providing and expanding free or subsidized palliative care at the end-of-life stage can become cost-inefficient relative to robust family and grassroots community networks.
Groenen, C.J.M.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Faber, M.J.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.
OBJECTIVE: To improve Dutch maternity care, professionals start working in interdisciplinary patient-centred networks, which includes the patients as a member. The introduction of the case manager is expected to work positively on both the individual and the network level. However, case management
Sandra M. Agudelo
Full Text Available Because of its severity, frequency and increasing social and economic impact, Diabetes Mellitus (DM is considered the third priority health problem in the world. Although to date there is no curative treatment, it does have effective measures to reduce its occurrence and limit its complications. Objective: to describe the control program of diabetes in a statewide network of health services in regard to clinical variables, the epidemiology of population served and the control actions, in order to identify strategies for improvement. Methodology: operational research based on secondary data. We reviewed the general conditions of operation of the program based on records of patient care. We studied a random sample of medical records of patients served by the control program of diabetes care units in the network.The results were validated in a meeting with officials of the institution. Results: we detected flaws and points of improvement in the performance of the control program that resulted in specific recommendations for the institutional network. Other failures are due to rules that hinder health system monitoring and control of the DM at the first level. Conclusion:the review of medical records reveals important problems about registration, monitoring and control of diabetics. Other regulatory and contractual provisions of the colombian health system were identified as restrictions that prevent the program to control hyperglycemia and early detection of renal damage. These restrictions could be affecting the programs of control of diabetes in other institutions of the country that are subject to the same rules
Krüger, Carsten; Niemi, Mauri
We reviewed our experience with the Tanzanian Telemedicine Network in supporting paediatric care at 40 small, rural hospitals in the country. The network began operating in 2008. Store and forward telemedicine was provided via the open source software iPath. The 33 volunteer consultants were based in several countries, although most of them had practical experience in Tanzania. During the first three years of network operation there were 533 referrals. There were 159 paediatric cases (median age five years). Three paediatric specialists provided most consultations (64%), but other specialists provided recommendations when required. The response time was usually less than two days (median 6 h; inter-quartile range 2-24 h). A precise recommendation was not always provided, but since all consultants had an intimate knowledge of the state of health services in Tanzania, their advice was usually well adapted to the local circumstances of the hospitals. Referral to a higher level of care was recommended in 26 cases (16%). A simple web-based telemedicine system combined with email alerts is feasible in remote locations in Tanzania, even where fast Internet connections are not available. Copyright © 2012 by the Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd
Bergersen, Tone Kristin; Storheim, Elisabeth; Gundersen, Stina; Kleven, Linn; Johnson, Maria; Sandvik, Leiv; Kvaerner, Kari Jorunn; Ørjasæter, Nils-Otto
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a wound support network model between the primary home care service and the hospital. The impact on wound healing rate, cost benefit, and transfer of knowledge was investigated. The intervention group was exposed to a wound support network (n = 32), and the control group continued standard organization of treatment (n = 21). Nonrandomized controlled study; observations were made before (baseline) and after the implementation of the intervention (12 weeks). Patients with chronic wounds (lasting >6 weeks and with wound area >1 cm) in Oslo, Norway. Closure of the observation wound; wound size; total number of wounds; presence of eczema, edema, and pain; number of dressings per week; time spent per dressing; and number of control appointments at the hospital. The economic impact is calculated for the hospital and for the community of Oslo, Norway. The number of control appointments (t = 3.80, P home care service and the hospital is cost-effective, improves clinical efficacy of the home care services' work, and reduces the need for consultations at the hospital.
Jiang, Lixiang; Giachetti, Ronald E
The total time a patient spends in an outpatient facility, called the patient cycle time, is a major contributor to overall patient satisfaction. A frequently recommended strategy to reduce the total time is to perform some activities in parallel thereby shortening patient cycle time. To analyze patient cycle time this paper extends and improves upon existing multi-class open queueing network model (MOQN) so that the patient flow in an urgent care center can be modeled. Results of the model are analyzed using data from an urgent care center contemplating greater parallelization of patient care activities. The results indicate that parallelization can reduce the cycle time for those patient classes which require more than one diagnostic and/ or treatment intervention. However, for many patient classes there would be little if any improvement, indicating the importance of tools to analyze business process reengineering rules. The paper makes contributions by implementing an approximation for fork/join queues in the network and by improving the approximation for multiple server queues in both low traffic and high traffic conditions. We demonstrate the accuracy of the MOQN results through comparisons to simulation results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network. The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff, medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (biodatabases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.
Shamim, Ejaz A; Mane, Ketan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Leviton, Alan
New opportunities are now available to improve care in ways not possible previously. Information contained in electronic medical records can now be shared without identifying patients. With network collaboration, large numbers of medical records can be searched to identify patients most like the one whose complex medical situation challenges the physician. The clinical effectiveness of different treatment strategies can be assessed rapidly to help the clinician decide on the best treatment for this patient. Other capabilities from different components of the network can prompt the recognition of what is the best available option and encourage the sharing of information about programs and electronic tools. Difficulties related to privacy, harmonization, integration, and costs are expected, but these are currently being addressed successfully by groups of organizations led by those who recognize the benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morishita, Mariko; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ohtsuru, Akira
Under the framework of the International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science (Nagasaki University 21st Century COE Program) and bearing in mind the unique history and responsibility of Nagasaki University, several projects on radiation emergency preparedness are in progress. The critical accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999 made us realize that nuclear emergencies happen anywhere radionuclides exist. In fact, nuclear accidents possibly take place in factories, research facilities, hospital and wherever radioactive materials are in transit. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective preparedness network system for potential radiation emergency that may occur in Nagasaki and nearby prefectures and to cooperate with other Japanese and worldwide networks. (author)
Morishita, Mariko; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi [Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Atomic Bomb Disease Inst., Nagasaki, Nagasaki (Japan); Ohtsuru, Akira [Nagasaki Univ., Hospital, Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki, Nagasaki (Japan)
Under the framework of the International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science (Nagasaki University 21st Century COE Program) and bearing in mind the unique history and responsibility of Nagasaki University, several projects on radiation emergency preparedness are in progress. The critical accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999 made us realize that nuclear emergencies happen anywhere radionuclides exist. In fact, nuclear accidents possibly take place in factories, research facilities, hospital and wherever radioactive materials are in transit. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective preparedness network system for potential radiation emergency that may occur in Nagasaki and nearby prefectures and to cooperate with other Japanese and worldwide networks. (author)
Kim, Changsun; Kang, Bo Seung; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Lee, Young Joo; Kang, Gu Hyun; Choi, Wook Jin; Kwon, In Ho
To examine the use of online social networking for cardiovascular care using Facebook. All posts and comments in a Facebook group between June 2011 and May 2012 were reviewed, and a survey was conducted. A total of 298 members participated. Of the 277 wall posts, 26.7% were question posts requesting rapid replies, and 50.5% were interesting cases shared with other members. The median response time for the question posts was 16 min (IQR 8-47), which tended to decrease as more members joined the group. Many members (37.4%) accessed the group more than once a day, and more than half (64%) monitored the group posts in real time with automatic notifications of new posts. Most members expressed confidence in the content posted. Facebook enables online social networking between physicians in near-real time and appears to be a useful tool for physicians to share clinical experience and request assistance in decision-making.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Methods Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT, and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE approach to self-care support. Discussion The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.
Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Green, Lee; Bahler, Brad; Lewanczuk, Richard
BACKGROUND: Primary care networks are designed to facilitate access to inter-professional, team-based care. We compared health outcomes associated with primary care networks versus conventional primary care. METHODS: We obtained data on all adult residents of Alberta who visited a primary care physician during fiscal years 2008 and 2009 and classified them as affiliated with a primary care network or not, based on the physician most involved in their care. The primary outcome was an emergency department visit or nonelective hospital admission for a Patient Medical Home indicator condition (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary disease, hypertension and diabetes) within 12 months. RESULTS: Adults receiving care within a primary care network (n = 1 502 916) were older and had higher comorbidity burdens than those receiving conventional primary care (n = 1 109 941). Patients in a primary care network were less likely to visit the emergency department for an indicator condition (1.4% v. 1.7%, mean 0.031 v. 0.035 per patient, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99) or for any cause (25.5% v. 30.5%, mean 0.55 v. 0.72 per patient, adjusted RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.93–0.94), but were more likely to be admitted to hospital for an indicator condition (0.6% v. 0.6%, mean 0.018 v. 0.017 per patient, adjusted RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.11) or all-cause (9.3% v. 9.1%, mean 0.25 v. 0.23 per patient, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.09). Patients in a primary care network had 169 fewer all-cause emergency department visits and 86 fewer days in hospital (owing to shorter lengths of stay) per 1000 patient-years. INTERPRETATION: Care within a primary care network was associated with fewer emergency department visits and fewer hospital days. PMID:29530868
Nóbrega, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro de Sousa; Domingos, Alessandra Matheus; Silveira, Ana Stella de Azevedo; Santos, Jussara Carvalho Dos
to understand how health service professionals involved in the care of users in psychic distress perceive the organization of the Psychosocial Care Network (RAPS - Rede de Atenção Psicossocial) in the western region of the city of São Paulo. qualitative approach study conducted with 123 professionals with higher education who work in the care points of the network. A semi-structured interview was performed and data were submitted to the Alceste program for lexical analysis. the network is in process of alignment with the mental health policy and the psychosocial rehabilitation strategy. However, the weaknesses in the work process of teams are related to deficits in human resources, structure, and communication, and to the limited appropriation of their guidelines. there are intense efforts of workers to weave the network, and barriers need to be overcome to support successful actions in mental health care in the territory. compreender como profissionais de serviços de saúde envolvidos no cuidado dos usuários em sofrimento psíquico percebem a organização da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial (RAPS) da região Oeste do Município de São Paulo. abordagem qualitativa realizada com 123 profissionais de nível superior que atuam nos pontos de atenção da rede. Realizou-se entrevista semiestruturada e os dados foram submetidos ao programa Alceste com aplicação de análise lexical. A rede está em processo de alinhamento com a política de saúde mental e estratégia de reabilitação psicossocial. No entanto, há fragilidades no processo de trabalho das equipes relacionadas ao déficit de recursos humanos, estruturais, de comunicação, e à apropriação limitada sobre suas diretrizes. Compreendeu-se que há intensidade de esforços dos trabalhadores para tecer a rede e que é necessário superar barreiras para fomentar ações exitosas no cuidado em saúde mental no território.
Full Text Available Background: Community care workers (CCWs in rural South Africa provide medical, personal, household, educational, and social care services to their clients. However, little understanding exists on how provision of services is approached within a household, taking into account available social support networks. Objective: The aim of this study was to generate an understanding of the processes that underpin the provision of care by CCWs in rural households and their engagement with clients, primary caregivers (PCGs, and other members of the social support network. Design: We analysed in-depth interviews conducted in a triad of participants involved in a home-based care (HBC encounter – 32 clients, 32 PCGs, and 17 CCWs. For each triad, a purposefully selected CCW was linked with a purposefully selected client and the corresponding PCG using maximum variation sampling. Three coders used an inductive content analysis method to describe participants’ references to the nuances of processes followed by CCWs in servicing HBC clients. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Findings: The results suggest that, by intuition and prior knowledge, CCWs treated each household uniquely, depending on the clients’ care needs, cooperation, availability of a social network, and the reliability and resilience of the social support system for the client. Four distinct processes took place in rural households: needs assessment for care, rationing of care, appraisal of care, and reinforcement of a social support system. However, there was no particular order or sequence established for these processes, and caregivers followed no prescribed or shared standards. Conclusions: CCWs bring a basket of services to a household, but engage in a constant, dynamic, and cyclical process of weighing needs against services provided. The service package is uniquely crafted and tailored for each household, depending on the absorptive capacity of the social
Arboit, Jaqueline; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Vieira, Letícia Becker; Paula, Cristiane Cardoso de; Costa, Marta Cocco da; Cortes, Laura Ferreira
To learn the conceptions and actions of health professionals on the care network for women in situations of violence. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted between April and July 2015 with the participation of 21 health professionals from four primary health care teams in a city of the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used for data systematization. Health professionals recognized the importance of the health care network for coping with the problem of violence against women. However, their conceptions and actions were limited by the discoordination or absence of integration among professionals and services of the care network. The conceptions and actions of health professionals contribute to the discoordination among the services. It is necessary to reflect on the daily practices of care for women in situations of violence. Conhecer as concepções e ações de profissionais de saúde sobre a rede de atenção às mulheres em situação de violência. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, realizado no período de abril a julho de 2015. Participaram 21 profissionais de saúde de quatro equipes da Atenção Primária à Saúde em um município da região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados ocorreu mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas e individuais. Para sistematização dos dados, empregou-se a análise de conteúdo. Os profissionais de saúde reconheciam a importância da rede de atenção à saúde no enfrentamento da problemática da violência contra as mulheres. Contudo, suas concepções e ações eram limitadas pela desarticulação ou ausência de integração entre os profissionais e serviços da rede de atenção. As concepções e ações dos profissionais de saúde contribuem para a desarticulação entre os serviços. Faz-se necessário refletir acerca das práticas cotidianas de cuidados
Soma, Yuki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Kitano, Naruki; Jindo, Takashi; Okura, Tomohiro
The present study examines factors affecting individuals' awareness of certain types of preventive care exercises, particularly the distance from their home to an exercise facility and their social networks. Participants were 3206 men (age, 73.0±6.2 years) and 3395 women (age, 73.2±6.4 years) aged ≥65 years who had not been certified as persons with care needs and who had responded to an inventory survey conducted in Kasama City, Japan, in 2013. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the characteristics associated with participants' awareness of two types of exercises for preventive care: "silver rehabili taisou" (SRT) and "square-stepping exercise" (SSE). Independent variables were distance from home to the exercise facility, social networks, transportation availability, physical function, cognitive function, and neighborhood population density. Older adults who were aware of the exercises lived significantly closer to an exercise facility (SRT, aware: 1,148.5±961.3 m vs. unaware: 1,284.2±1,027.4 m; SSE, aware: 1,415.9±1104.1 m vs. unaware: 1,615.7±1,172.2 m). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that participation in community activities (men, SRT-odds ratio [OR]=2.54 and SSE-OR=2.19; women, SRT-OR=4.14 and SSE-OR=3.34] and visiting friends (men, SRT-OR=1.45 and SSE-OR=1.49; women SRT-OR=1.44 and SSE-OR=1.73) were promoting factors for awareness of both types of exercises. In men and women, low physical function (SRT-OR=0.73 and SSE-OR=0.56) and dependence on another person to drive them to the destination (SRT-OR=0.79 and SSE-OR=0.78) were inhibiting factors, respectively. A distance of >500 m between their home and the facility tended to be an inhibiting factor. A shorter distance from home to an exercise facility and better social networks increased awareness of preventive care exercises in both sexes and for both types of exercise. Establishing exercise centers and devising effective methods of imparting information to
Del Vecchio, Mario; De Pietro, Carlo
The Italian National Health Service (INHS) has undergone profound changes over the past three decades. With establishment of the INHS in 1978--a tax-based public health care system with universal coverage--one of the underlying principles was integration. The recognition of health and health care as requiring integrated answers led to the creation of a single public organization, the Local Health Unit, responsible for the health status of the population of its catchment area. At the beginning of the 1990s, the scenario radically changed. The creation of hospital trusts, the development of quasi-market mechanisms and management control tools, the adoption of a prospective payment system for reimbursing health care providers--all were signs of deintegration and institutional unbundling. Two structural changes have deeply sustained this deintegration: patients' empowerment and the increased possibilities for outsourcing practices. In more recent years, a new reintegration effort has occurred, often led by regional governments and based on institutional cooperation and network relationships. However, the earlier structural changes require innovative approaches and solutions if public health care organizations want to retain their leading role.
Salgia, Reena J; Mullan, Patricia B; McCurdy, Heather; Sales, Anne; Moseley, Richard H; Su, Grace L
With the aging hepatitis C cohort and increasing prevalence of fatty liver disease, the burden on primary care providers (PCPs) to care for patients with liver disease is growing. In response, the Veterans Administration implemented initiatives for primary care-specialty referral to increase PCP competency in complex disease management. The Specialty Care Access Network-Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes (SCAN-ECHO) program initiative was designed to transfer subspecialty knowledge to PCPs through case-based distance learning combined with real-time consultation. There is limited information regarding the initiative's ability to engage PCPs to learn and influence their practice. We surveyed PCPs to determine the factors that led to their participation in this program and the educational impact of participation. Of 51 potential participants, 24 responded to an anonymous survey. More than 75% of respondents participated more than one time in a SCAN-ECHO clinic. Providers were motivated to participate by a desire to learn more about liver disease, to apply the knowledge gained to future patients, and to save their patients time traveling to another center for specialty consultation. Seventy-one percent responded that the didactic component and case-based discussion were equally important. It is important that participation changed clinical practice: 75% of providers indicated they had personally discussed the information they learned from the case presentations with their colleague(s), and 42% indicated they helped a colleague care for their patient with the knowledge learned during discussions of other participants' cases. This study shows that the SCAN-ECHO videoconferencing program between PCPs and specialists can educate providers in the delivery of specialty care from a distance and potentially improve healthcare delivery.
Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith N; Kohler, Hans-Peter
Studies indicate that social integration has a significant influence on physical and mental health. Older adults experience an increased risk of social isolation as their social networks decline with fewer traditional opportunities to add new social relationships. Deaths of similar aged friends, cognitive and functional impairments, and relocating to a nursing home (NH) or assisted-living (AL) facility contribute to difficulties in maintaining one's social network. Due to the paucity of research examining the social networks of people residing in AL and NH, this study was designed to develop and test the feasibility of using a combination of methodological approaches to capture social network data among older adults living in AL and a dementia special care unit NH. Social network analysis of both egocentric and sociocentric networks was conducted to visualize the social networks of 15 residents of an AL neighborhood and 12 residents of a dementia special care unit NH and to calculate measures network size, centrality, and reciprocity. The combined egocentric and sociocentric method was feasible and provided a robust indicator of resident social networks highlighting individuals who were socially integrated as well as isolated. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
van Beek, Adriana P A; Wagner, Cordula; Spreeuwenberg, Peter P M; Frijters, Dinnus H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Groenewegen, Peter P
The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care. We examine the structure of the networks, how they are related to the size of units and characteristics of nursing staff, and their relationship with job satisfaction. We collected social network data of 380 nursing staff of 35 units in group projects and psychogeriatric units in nursing homes and residential homes in the Netherlands. Communication and advice networks were analyzed in a social network application (UCINET), focusing on the number of contacts (density) between nursing staff on the units. We then studied the correlation between the density of networks, size of the units and characteristics of nursing staff. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationship between social networks and job satisfaction of nursing staff, taking characteristics of units and nursing staff into account. Both communication and advice networks were negatively related to the number of residents and the number of nursing staff of the units. Communication and advice networks were more dense when more staff worked part-time. Furthermore, density of communication networks was positively related to the age of nursing staff of the units. Multilevel analyses showed that job satisfaction differed significantly between individual staff members and units and was influenced by the number of nursing staff of the units. However, this relationship disappeared when density of communication networks was added to the model. Overall, communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care are relatively dense. This fits with the high level of cooperation
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E
Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.
Valente Thomas W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks are theorized as significant influences in the innovation adoption and behavior change processes. Our understanding of how social networks operate within healthcare settings is limited. As a result, our ability to design optimal interventions that employ social networks as a method of fostering planned behavior change is also limited. Through this proposed project, we expect to contribute new knowledge about factors influencing uptake of knowledge translation interventions. Objectives Our specific aims include: To collect social network data among staff in two long-term care (LTC facilities; to characterize social networks in these units; and to describe how social networks influence uptake and use of feedback reports. Methods and design In this prospective study, we will collect data on social networks in nursing units in two LTC facilities, and use social network analysis techniques to characterize and describe the networks. These data will be combined with data from a funded project to explore the impact of social networks on uptake and use of feedback reports. In this parent study, feedback reports using standardized resident assessment data are distributed on a monthly basis. Surveys are administered to assess report uptake. In the proposed project, we will collect data on social networks, analyzing the data using graphical and quantitative techniques. We will combine the social network data with survey data to assess the influence of social networks on uptake of feedback reports. Discussion This study will contribute to understanding mechanisms for knowledge sharing among staff on units to permit more efficient and effective intervention design. A growing number of studies in the social network literature suggest that social networks can be studied not only as influences on knowledge translation, but also as possible mechanisms for fostering knowledge translation. This study will contribute to building
Egbogah, Emeka E; Fapojuwo, Abraham O
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs) that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera). However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera) to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.
Abraham O. Fapojuwo
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera. However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.
Haas, E M; Volkmer, E; Holzbach, T; Wallmichrath, J; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E
Severe hand traumata have a significant impact on our health system and on insurance companies, respectively. It is estimated that 33% of all occupational injuries and 9% of all invalidity pensions are due to severe hand trauma. Unfortunately, these high numbers are not only due to the severity of the trauma but to organisational deficiencies. Usually, the patient is treated at the general surgical emergency in the first place and only then forwarded to a microsurgeon. This redirection increases the time that is required for the patient to finally arrive at an expert for hand surgery. On the one hand, this problem can be explained by the population's lack of awareness for distinguished experts for hand and microsurgery, on the other hand, the emergency network, or emergency doctors in particular are not well informed about where to take a patient with a severe hand trauma - clearly a problem of communication between the hospitals and the ambulance. It is possible to tackle this problem, but put participating hand trauma centres have to work hand in hand as a network and thus exploit synergy effects. The French system "FESUM" is a good example for such a network and even comprises centres in Belgium and Switzerland. To improve the treatment of severe hand trauma, a similar alliance was initiated in Germany just recently. The pilot project "Hand Trauma Alliance" (www.handverletzung.com) was started in April 2013 and currently comprises two hospitals within the region of upper Bavaria. The network provides hand trauma replantation service on a 24/7 basis and aims at shortening the way from the accident site to the fully qualified hand surgeon, to improve the therapy of severe hand injuries and to optimise acute patient care in general. In order to further increase the alliance's impact it is intended to extend the project's scope from regional to national coverage - nevertheless, such an endeavour can only be done in collaboration with the German Society for Hand
Schepman, Sanneke; Valentijn, Pim; Bruijnzeels, Marc; Maaijen, Marlies; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald; de Bont, Antoinette
The need for organisational development in primary care has increased as it is accepted as a means of curbing rising costs and responding to demographic transitions. It is only within such inter-organisational networks that small-scale practices can offer treatment to complex patients and continuity of care. The aim of this paper is to explore, through the experience of professionals and patients, whether, and how, project management and network governance can improve the outcomes of projects which promote inter-organisational collaboration in primary care. This paper describes a study of projects aimed at improving inter-organisational collaboration in Dutch primary care. The projects' success in project management and network governance was monitored by interviewing project leaders and board members on the one hand, and improvement in the collaboration by surveying professionals and patients on the other. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to assess the projects. These were analysed, finally, using multi-level models in order to account for the variation in the projects, professionals and patients. Successful network governance was associated positively with the professionals' satisfaction with the collaboration; but not with improvements in the quality of care as experienced by patients. Neither patients nor professionals perceived successful project management as associated with the outcomes of the collaboration projects. This study shows that network governance in particular makes a difference to the outcomes of inter-organisational collaboration in primary care. However, project management is not a predictor for successful inter-organisational collaboration in primary care.
Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users.
Eugênio Vilaça Mendes
system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.
Bill, Guillermo; Crisci, Carlos D; Canet, Tomislav
The need to guarantee equitable access to health regardless of geographic, economic, or technological barriers motivated the Member States of the Organization of American States to create the Telehealth Network of the Americas, coordinated by the Inter-American Telecommunication Committee. The Network focuses on the use of new information and communications technology applied to health, based on the values of respect, equity, and solidarity and mandated by the philosophy of primary health. Its members include government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, university forums, hospital federations, and telecommunications companies, and it has already extended its reach to other continents and to different fields in which telemedicine is being used. Among its first achievements, it has implemented an innovative tool to be used in cases of disaster or limited geographic access. This mobile telemedicine station is housed in a portable case that includes a computer, various digital devices (otoscope, ophthalmoscope, microscope, dermatoscope), a high-resolution digital camera, an X-ray film viewer, and a satellite antenna. With this tool, it is possible to provide specialized support for rural physicians and primary health care workers located far from large urban centers.
Dellal, George; Peterson, Laura E; Provost, Lloyd; Gloor, Peter A; Fore, David Livingstone; Margolis, Peter A
Background Our health care system fails to deliver necessary results, and incremental system improvements will not deliver needed change. Learning health systems (LHSs) are seen as a means to accelerate outcomes, improve care delivery, and further clinical research; yet, few such systems exist. We describe the process of codesigning, with all relevant stakeholders, an approach for creating a collaborative chronic care network (C3N), a peer-produced networked LHS. Objective The objective of this study was to report the methods used, with a diverse group of stakeholders, to translate the idea of a C3N to a set of actionable next steps. Methods The setting was ImproveCareNow, an improvement network for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. In collaboration with patients and families, clinicians, researchers, social scientists, technologists, and designers, C3N leaders used a modified idealized design process to develop a design for a C3N. Results Over 100 people participated in the design process that resulted in (1) an overall concept design for the ImproveCareNow C3N, (2) a logic model for bringing about this system, and (3) 13 potential innovations likely to increase awareness and agency, make it easier to collect and share information, and to enhance collaboration that could be tested collectively to bring about the C3N. Conclusions We demonstrate methods that resulted in a design that has the potential to transform the chronic care system into an LHS. PMID:29472173
Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Omollo, Dan; Ouma, Gor; Zoughbie, Daniel; Salmen, Marcus R; Magerenge, Richard; Tessler, Robert; Campbell, Harold; Geng, Elvin; Gandhi, Monica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
In sub-Saharan Africa, failure to initiate and sustain HIV treatment contributes to significant health, psychosocial, and economic impacts that burden not only infected individuals but diverse members of their social networks. Yet, due to intense stigma, the responsibility for managing lifelong HIV treatment rests solely, and often secretly, with infected individuals. We introduce the concept of "HIV risk induction" to suggest that social networks of infected individuals share a vested interest in improving long-term engagement with HIV care, and may represent an underutilized resource for improving HIV/AIDS outcomes within high prevalence populations. In 2012, we implemented a 'microclinic' intervention to promote social network engagement in HIV/AIDS care and treatment. A microclinic is a therapy management collective comprised of a small group of neighbors, relatives, and friends who are trained as a team to provide psychosocial and adherence support for HIV-infected members. Our study population included 369 patients on ART and members of their social networks on Mfangano Island, Kenya, where HIV prevalence approaches 30%. Here we report qualitative data from 18 focus group discussions conducted with microclinic participants (n = 82), community health workers (n = 40), and local program staff (n = 39). Participants reported widespread acceptability and enthusiasm for the microclinic intervention. Responses highlight four overlapping community transformations regarding HIV care and treatment, namely (1) enhanced HIV treatment literacy (2) reduction in HIV stigma, (3) improved atmosphere for HIV status disclosure and (4) improved material and psychosocial support for HIV-infected patients. Despite challenges, participants describe an emerging sense of "collective responsibility" for treatment among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected members of social networks. The lived experiences and community transformations highlighted by participants enrolled in this social
Şahin, Charlotte; Iseringhausen, Olaf; Hower, Kira; Liebe, Constanze; Rethmeier-Hanke, Anja; Wedmann, Bernd
Regional planning of healthcare requires special consideration for the complex needs of elderly, multimorbid people living in a domestic environment. In the District of Lippe, a hospital (Klinikum Lippe) and network of ambulatory care physicians (Ärztenetz Lippe) developed and tested a geriatric care network based on case management for geriatric patients living in a domestic environment. The establishment of the geriatric care network (e.g. promoting networking acceptance and implementation) was formatively evaluated, e. g. with qualitative methods. Data were acquired by guideline-based interviews with experts and analyzed by qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Structural effects included forming a cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary network for a functioning care network and a geriatric care pathway. The practical work of case managers (CM) is essential for communication with patients, family members and care providers as well as integrating providers into the network. A critical factor was working together with general practitioners and the close cooperation with the hospital's department of geriatric. The quality of care is improved because of exchange of information between sectors and continuity in the course of care. In the District of Lippe the quality of care was improved and structures of care were integrated by the network according to the needs of the target group. The integrative perspective was achieved in particular by the geriatric care pathway and integration of providers into the communication and care process; however, the scope of this care model could not be extended into routine care due to the rigid and subdivided health care system.
Hindia, M N; Rahman, T A; Ojukwu, H; Hanafi, E B; Fattouh, A
As the enterprise of the "Internet of Things" is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application's priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness.
Hindia, M. N.; Rahman, T. A.; Ojukwu, H.; Hanafi, E. B.; Fattouh, A.
As the enterprise of the “Internet of Things” is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application’s priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness. PMID:27152423
Gnädinger, Markus; Conen, Dieter; Herzig, Lilli; Puhan, Milo A; Staehelin, Alfred; Zoller, Marco; Ceschi, Alessandro
To describe the type, frequency, seasonal and regional distribution of medication incidents in primary care in Switzerland and to elucidate possible risk factors for medication incidents. Prospective surveillance study. Swiss primary healthcare, Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. Patients with drug treatment who experienced any erroneous event related to the medication process and interfering with normal treatment course, as judged by their physician. The 180 physicians in the study were general practitioners or paediatricians participating in the Swiss Federal Sentinel reporting system in 2015. Primary: medication incidents; secondary: potential risk factors like age, gender, polymedication, morbidity, care-dependency, previous hospitalisation. The mean rates of detected medication incidents were 2.07 per general practitioner per year (46.5 per 1 00 000 contacts) and 0.15 per paediatrician per year (2.8 per 1 00 000 contacts), respectively. The following factors were associated with medication incidents (OR, 95% CI): higher age 1.004 per year (1.001; 1.006), care by community nurse 1.458 (1.025; 2.073) and care by an institution 1.802 (1.399; 2.323), chronic conditions 1.052 (1.029; 1.075) per condition, medications 1.052 (1.030; 1.074) per medication, as well as Thurgau Morbidity Index for stage 4: 1.292 (1.004; 1.662), stage 5: 1.420 (1.078; 1.868) and stage 6: 1.680 (1.178; 2.396), respectively. Most cases were linked to an incorrect dosage for a given patient, while prescription of an erroneous medication was the second most common error. Medication incidents are common in adult primary care, whereas they rarely occur in paediatrics. Older and multimorbid patients are at a particularly high risk for medication incidents. Reasons for medication incidents are diverse but often seem to be linked to communication problems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No
Mundt, Marlon P; Agneessens, Filip; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Kamnetz, Sandra A; Gilchrist, Valerie J
Primary care teams play an important role in providing the best quality of care to patients with diabetes. Little evidence is available on how team communication networks and team climate contribute to high quality diabetes care. To determine whether primary care team communication and team climate are associated with health outcomes, health care utilization, and associated costs for patients with diabetes. A cross-sectional survey of primary care team members collected information on frequency of communication with other care team members about patient care and on team climate. Patient outcomes (glycemic, cholesterol, and blood pressure control, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital visit days, medical costs) in the past 12 months for team diabetes patient panels were extracted from the electronic health record. The data were analyzed using nested (clinic/team/patient) generalized linear mixed modeling. 155 health professionals at 6 U.S. primary care clinics participated from May through December 2013. Primary care teams with a greater number of daily face-to-face communication ties among team members were associated with 52% (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.94) fewer hospital days and US$1220 (95% CI: -US$2416, -US$24) lower health-care costs per team diabetes patient in the past 12 months. In contrast, for each additional registered nurse (RN) who reported frequent daily face-to-face communication about patient care with the primary care practitioner (PCP), team diabetes patients had less-controlled HbA1c (Odds ratio=0.83, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99), increased hospital days (RR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.03), and higher healthcare costs (β=US$877, 95% CI: US$42, US$1713). Shared team vision, a measure of team climate, significantly mediated the relationship between team communication and patient outcomes. Primary care teams which relied on frequent daily face-to-face communication among more team members, and had a single RN communicating patient care
Mundt, Marlon P.; Agneessens, Filip; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Kamnetz, Sandra A.; Gilchrist, Valerie J.
Background Primary care teams play an important role in providing the best quality of care to patients with diabetes. Little evidence is available on how team communication networks and team climate contribute to high quality diabetes care. Objective To determine whether primary care team communication and team climate are associated with health outcomes, health care utilization, and associated costs for patients with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional survey of primary care team members collected information on frequency of communication with other care team members about patient care and on team climate. Patient outcomes (glycemic, cholesterol, and blood pressure control, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital visit days, medical costs) in the past 12 months for team diabetes patient panels were extracted from the electronic health record. The data were analyzed using nested (clinic/team/patient) generalized linear mixed modeling. Participants 155 health professionals at 6 U.S. primary care clinics participated from May through December 2013. Results Primary care teams with a greater number of daily face-to-face communication ties among team members were associated with 52% (Rate Ratio=0.48, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.94) fewer hospital days and US$1220 (95% CI: -US$2416, -US$24) lower health-care costs per team diabetes patient in the past 12 months. In contrast, for each additional registered nurse (RN) who reported frequent daily face-to-face communication about patient care with the primary care practitioner (PCP), team diabetes patients had less-controlled HbA1c (Odds Ratio=0.83, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99), increased hospital days (RR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.03), and higher healthcare costs (β=US$877, 95% CI: US$42, US$1713). Shared team vision, a measure of team climate, significantly mediated the relationship between team communication and patient outcomes. Conclusions Primary care teams which relied on frequent daily face-to-face communication among more
Kelly, Erin L; Kiger, Holly; Gaba, Rebecca; Pancake, Laura; Pilon, David; Murch, Lezlie; Knox, Lyndee; Meyer, Mathew; Brekke, John S
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) create continuous collaborations among academic researchers and practitioners. Most PBRNs have operated in primary care, and less than 5% of federally registered PBRNs include mental health practitioners. In 2012 the first PBRN in the nation focused on individuals with serious mental illnesses-the Recovery-Oriented Care Collaborative-was established in Los Angeles. This column describes the development of this innovative PBRN through four phases: building an infrastructure, developing a research study, executing the study, and consolidating the PBRN. Key lessons learned are also described, such as the importance of actively engaging direct service providers and clients.
Full Text Available Objective. This paper aims at assessing the contribution of Chile’s Health Care Integrating Councils (CIRA, Spanish acronym to strengthening governance in health. Materials and methods. A literature review on the official documents related to the process of creation and development of CIRA was carried out; an ad hoc questionnaire was applied to all 29 health services of the country; finally, 35 semi-structure in-depth interviews were carried on a sample of six CIRA. Results. The CIRAs have become a tool for functional integration and a valuable space for dialogue, cooperation and learning for all of the actors of the Chilean public health network. Conclusions. In this study, we conclude that there is room for improvements of CIRA’s role regarding governance of the health care network as long as CIRA is authorized to deal with strategic topics, such as investment in infrastructure, technology and human resources, and budgeting.
Rosélia Périssé da Silva Piquet
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the workers’ health care in the Unified Health System (SUS, in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, from the creation of the Network for Integral Worker Health Care - RENAST in 2002 to 2012. Therefore, it aims at elucidating the role of Reference Centres for Occupational Health (CEREST, the number of accidents at work and occupational diseases in those ten years, as well as the organization of the Network for Integral Worker Health Care (RENAST, according to the decree of the Ministry of Health. The objective is to verify the efficiency of municipal policies regarding workers’ health through documentary sources, quantitative data, and oral sources. The survey verified the absence of data on strategic actions aimed at the workers’ health, various health care activities, and the political-electoral use of PAST (Workers’ Health Care Program and CEREST. Considering the evolution of the concepts related to health care of those who work, in some sectors, Campos dos Goytacazes has gone through a period that precedes the “industrial medicine” stage - Occupational Medicine. This reality shows bad labor relations, as the municipality is the national champion in work analogous to slave labor. In most cases, the city has to deal with regulatory standards and, in very few moments, puts into practice principles of Workers’ Health.
Li, Xiong; Niu, Jianwei; Karuppiah, Marimuthu; Kumari, Saru; Wu, Fan
Benefited from the development of network and communication technologies, E-health care systems and telemedicine have got the fast development. By using the E-health care systems, patient can enjoy the remote medical service provided by the medical server. Medical data are important privacy information for patient, so it is an important issue to ensure the secure of transmitted medical data through public network. Authentication scheme can thwart unauthorized users from accessing services via insecure network environments, so user authentication with privacy protection is an important mechanism for the security of E-health care systems. Recently, based on three factors (password, biometric and smart card), an user authentication scheme for E-health care systems was been proposed by Amin et al., and they claimed that their scheme can withstand most of common attacks. Unfortunate, we find that their scheme cannot achieve the untraceability feature of the patient. Besides, their scheme lacks a password check mechanism such that it is inefficient to find the unauthorized login by the mistake of input a wrong password. Due to the same reason, their scheme is vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) attack if the patient updates the password mistakenly by using a wrong password. In order improve the security level of authentication scheme for E-health care application, a robust user authentication scheme with privacy protection is proposed for E-health care systems. Then, security prove of our scheme are analysed. Security and performance analyses show that our scheme is more powerful and secure for E-health care systems when compared with other related schemes.
Full Text Available Body area wireless sensor networks (BAWSNs are time-critical systems that rely on the collective data of a group of sensor nodes. Reliable data received at the sink is based on the collective data provided by all the source sensor nodes and not on individual data. Unlike conventional reliability, the definition of retransmission is inapplicable in a BAWSN and would only lead to an elapsed data arrival that is not acceptable for time-critical application. Time-driven applications require high data reliability to maintain detection and responses. Hence, the transmission reliability for the BAWSN should be based on the critical time. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to measure a BAWSN's transmission reliability, based on the critical time. The proposed model is evaluated through simulation and then compared with the experimental results conducted in our existing Active Care Loop Framework (ACLF. We further show the effect of the sink buffer in transmission reliability after a detailed study of various other co-existing parameters.
McGrady, Dr Michael
To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.
John, J H; Easterby-Smith, V; Percival, K R
To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.
Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao
Recent advances in medical treatment and emergency applications, the need of integrating wireless body area network (WBAN) with cloud computing can be motivated by providing useful and real time information about patients' health state to the doctors and emergency staffs. WBAN is a set of body sensors carried by the patient to collect and transmit numerous health items to medical clouds via wireless and public communication channels. Therefore, a cloud-assisted WBAN facilitates response in case of emergency which can save patients' lives. Since the patient's data is sensitive and private, it is important to provide strong security and protection on the patient's medical data over public and insecure communication channels. In this paper, we address the challenge of participant authentication in mobile emergency medical care systems for patients supervision and propose a secure cloud-assisted architecture for accessing and monitoring health items collected by WBAN. For ensuring a high level of security and providing a mutual authentication property, chaotic maps based authentication and key agreement mechanisms are designed according to the concept of Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which depends on the CMBDLP and CMBDHP problems. Security and performance analyses show how the proposed system guaranteed the patient privacy and the system confidentiality of sensitive medical data while preserving the low computation property in medical treatment and remote medical monitoring.
Gökharman, Fatma Dilek; Aydın, Sonay; Fatihoğlu, Erdem; Koşar, Pınar Nercis
Background/aim: Head injuries are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Noncontrast enhanced cranial CT is the method of choice to detect possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concerns about ionizing radiation exposure make the evaluation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rules in predicting clinically important TBI and to determine the amount of medical resource waste and unnecessary radiation exposure.Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 1041 pediatric patients presented to the emergency department. The patients were divided into subgroups of "appropriate for cranial CT", "not appropriate for cranial CT" and "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate". To determine the effectiveness of the PECARN rules, data were analyzed according to the presence of pathological findings Results: "Appropriate for cranial CT" results can predict pathology presence 118,056-fold compared to the "not appropriate for cranial CT" results. With "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate" results, pathology presence was predicted 11,457-fold compared to "not appropriate for cranial CT" results.Conclusion: PECARN rules can predict pathology presence successfully in pediatric TBI. Using PECARN can decrease resource waste and exposure to ionizing radiation.
Daymont, Carrie; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Feudtner, Chris; Rubin, David
To compare currently available head-circumference growth curves to curves constructed from clinical measurements from patients in a large US primary care network (PCN). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 75 412 patients in an urban-suburban PCN. Patients with a birth weight of curves. The PCN curves were most similar to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) curves and were substantially different from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) curves. The overall proportion of observations above the 95th percentile was 4.9% (PCN), 6.2% (NCHS), 8.6% (CDC), and 14.0% (WHO). The proportion below the 5th percentile was 4.4% (PCN), 5.1% (NCHS), 2.9% (CDC), and 2.3% (WHO). When using the CDC curves, the proportion above the 95th percentile increased from 0.2% for children younger than 2 weeks to 11.8% for children 12 months old. When using the WHO curves, the proportion above the 95th percentile was >5% at all ages, with a maximum of 18.0% for children older than 24 months. The CDC and WHO head-circumference curves describe different distributions than the clinical measurements in our PCN population, especially for children with larger heads. The resulting percentile misclassification may delay diagnosis in children with intracranial pathology in very young infants and spur unnecessary evaluation of healthy children older than 6 months.
Full Text Available The performance analysis of the dual-polarized massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system with Internet of things (IoT devices is studied when outdoor human-care IoT devices are connected to a cellular network via a dual-polarized massive MIMO system. The research background of the performance analysis of dual-polarized massive MIMO system with IoT devices is that recently the data usage of outdoor human-care IoT devices has increased. Therefore, the outdoor human-care IoT devices are necessary to connect with 5G cellular networks which can expect 1000 times higher performance compared with 4G cellular networks. Moreover, in order to guarantee the safety of the patient for emergency cases, a human-care Iot device must be connected to cellular networks which offer more stable communication for outdoors compared to short-range communication technologies such as Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and Bluetooth. To analyze the performance of the dual-polarized massive MIMO system for human-care IoT devices, a dual-polarized MIMO spatial channel model (SCM is proposed which considers depolarization effect between the dual-polarized transmit-antennas and the receive-antennas. The simulation results show that the performance of the dual-polarized massive MIMO system is improved about 16% to 92% for 20 to 150 IoT devices compared to conventional single-polarized massive MIMO system for identical size of the transmit array.
Melkman, Eran P
The goals of the present study are to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and adult well-being among vulnerable young adults formerly placed in substitute care, and to investigate how characteristics of their social support networks mediate this association. A sample of 345 Israeli young adults (ages 18-25), who had aged out of foster or residential care, responded to standardized self-report questionnaires tapping their social support network characteristics (e.g., network size or adequacy) vis-à-vis several types of social support (emotional, practical, information and guidance), experiences of childhood adversity, and measures of well-being (psychological distress, loneliness, and life satisfaction). Structural equation modelling (SEM) provided support for the mediating role of social support in the relationship between early adversity and adult well-being. Although network size, frequency of contact with its members, satisfaction with support, and network adequacy, were all negatively related to early adversity, only network adequacy showed a major and consistent contribution to the various measures of well-being. While patterns were similar across the types of support, the effects of practical and guidance support were most substantial. The findings suggest that the detrimental long-term consequences of early adversity on adult well-being are related not only to impaired structural aspects of support (e.g., network size), but also to a decreased ability to recognize available support and mobilize it. Practical and guidance support, more than emotional support, seem to be of critical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malaz A Boustani,1–3 Amie Frame,1,2 Stephanie Munger,1,2 Patrick Healey,4 Jessie Westlund,5 Martin Farlow,6,7 Ann Hake,8 Mary Guerriero Austrom,6,9 Polly Shepard,10 Corby Bubp,10 Jose Azar,3 Arif Nazir,3 Nadia Adams,11 Noll L Campbell,1,2,12,13 Azita Chehresa,5 Paul Dexter2,31Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 2Regenstrief Institute, Inc, 3Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM, 4St Vincent Health Network, 5Community Health Network, 6Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, IUSM, 7Department of Neurology, IUSM, 8Eli Lilly and Company, 9Department of Psychiatry, IUSM, 10The Memory Clinic of Indianapolis, 11Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 12Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 13Department of Pharmacy, Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The US Institute of Medicine has recommended an integrated, locally sensitive collaboration among the various members of the community, health care systems, and research organizations to improve dementia care and dementia research.Methods: Using complex adaptive system theory and reflective adaptive process, we developed a professional network called the “Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia” (IDND. The IDND facilitates effective and sustainable interactions among a local and diverse group of dementia researchers, clinical providers, and community advocates interested in improving care for dementia patients in Indianapolis, Indiana.Results: The IDND was established in February 2006 and now includes more than 250 members from more than 30 local (central Indiana organizations representing 20 disciplines. The network uses two types of communication to connect its members. The first is a 2-hour face-to-face bimonthly meeting open to all members. The second is a web-based resource center (http://www.indydiscoverynetwork.org. To date, the network has: (1 accomplished the
Sandberg, David E; Gardner, Melissa; Callens, Nina; Mazur, Tom
Scientific discovery and clinical management strategies for Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD) have advanced in recent years. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders stated that a mental health component to care is integral to promote positive adaptation, yet the parameters of this element have not been described. The objective of this paper is threefold: to describe the psychosocial screening protocol adopted by the clinical centers of the DSD-Translational Research Network; to summarize psychosocial data collected at 1 of the 10 network sites; and to suggest how systematic behavioral health screenings can be employed to tailor care in DSD that results in better health and quality of life outcomes. Steps taken in developing the largely "noncategorical" screening protocol are described. These preliminary findings suggest that DSD, as one category of pediatric chronic conditions, is not associated with marked disturbances of psychosocial adaptation, either for the family or the child; however, screening frequently uncovered "risk factors" for individual families or patients that can potentially be addressed in the context of ongoing clinical care. Administration of the DSD-TRN psychosocial screening protocol was demonstrated to be feasible in the context of interdisciplinary team care and was acceptable to families on a longitudinal basis. The ultimate value of systematic screening will be demonstrated through a tailoring of psychosocial, medical and surgical services, based on this information that enhances the quality of patient and family-centered care and subsequent outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kemp, Candace L; Ball, Mary M; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Doyle, Patrick J; Burgess, Elisabeth O; Dillard, Joy A; Barmon, Christina E; Fitzroy, Andrea F; Helmly, Victoria E; Avent, Elizabeth S; Perkins, Molly M
In this article, we analyze the research experiences associated with a longitudinal qualitative study of residents' care networks in assisted living. Using data from researcher meetings, field notes, and memos, we critically examine our design and decision making and accompanying methodological implications. We focus on one complete wave of data collection involving 28 residents and 114 care network members in four diverse settings followed for 2 years. We identify study features that make our research innovative, but that also represent significant challenges. They include the focus and topic; settings and participants; scope and design complexity; nature, modes, frequency, and duration of data collection; and analytic approach. Each feature has methodological implications, including benefits and challenges pertaining to recruitment, retention, data collection, quality, and management, research team work, researcher roles, ethics, and dissemination. Our analysis demonstrates the value of our approach and of reflecting on and sharing methodological processes for cumulative knowledge building.
Ivonete Alves de Lima Cavaliere
Full Text Available Este trabalho examina, em caráter exploratório, experiências de isolamento social vividas por indivíduos portadores de hanseníase, internados na ex-colônia Tavares de Macedo, em Itaboraí, onde foram mantidas da década de 1930 até os dias de hoje, para problematizar noções sobre segregação e discriminação social presentes nesse meio. Para tanto, examina sociabilidades e redes sociais de cuidados estabelecidas na vida em comum nessa "ex-colônia de leprosos", quase sempre como alternativas às condições oferecidas pelos sistemas públicos de proteção social. Faz isso com base em narrativas de alguns desses sujeitos, vistos em suas diferenças - nas interseções das relações por sexos, classes, raças/etnias, gerações, e também por religiões e graus de escolaridade. Recorre à história oral, modo de oferecer novas interpretações qualitativas de processos histórico-sociais evidenciados nessas sociabilidades e redes, nem sempre visíveis como formas singulares de proteção social da vida em comum.This exploratory work examines the social isolation experienced by individuals with leprosy admitted to the former colony Tavares de Macedo, Itaboraí, where they were kept from the 1930s until the present day, to question notions of segregation and social discrimination present in this environment. So it analyzes sociabilities and social care networks established in the common life in this "ex-leper colony," usually as alternatives to the conditions offered by the public systems of social protection. The work is based on stories of some of the subjects, seen in their differences - at intersection of gender relations, classes, races/ethnicities, generations and also by religions and educational backgrouns. It adopts the oral history, so as to offer new qualitative interpretations of social and historical processes shown in these networks and sociability, not always visible as unique forms of social protection of life in groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background S. Chiara hospital is the only neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in the Province of Trento (Italy. It serves a population of about 460000 people with about 5000 infants per year, admitting the totality of the inborn and outborn VLBWI of the province. The aim of this work is to compare mortality, morbidity and neonatal treatment of the very low birth weight infants (VLBWI of Trento area with those recorded in the Vermont Oxford Network (VON during 2004. Methods In this retrospective analysis, the rates of complications and related treatments reported in VLBWI admitted in the S. Chiara NICU during the period 2000–2005 were compared with those recorded in the VON in 2004. The analysis included both the total populations and different weight groups. Results The frequency of inborn infants was significantly higher in Trento than in VON: 91% vs 84% (MH 8.56; p-value 0.003. The administration of prenatal steroids (82% vs 74%; MH 7.47 and p-value 0.006 and caesarean section were significantly more frequent in the Trento area than in VON. In Trento significantly more VLBWI with BW ≤ 1000 grams were given surfactant prophylaxis compared with VON and significantly fewer VLBWI in every Trento weight group developed RDS (MH 18.55; p-value 0.00001. Overall rates of complications (CLD, PDA, NEC, IVH were significantly lower than in the Vermont Oxford Network. In CLD and PDA the differences were marked also in infants weighting less than 1000 grams. Overall rates of PNX, PVL, severe grade of ROP and mortality were similar in the two populations. In Trento, significantly more infants were discharged on human milk than in VON, in both the overall population and in BW sub-groups. Conclusion On the basis of this analysis, a less aggressive therapeutic strategy based on perinatal prevention in global management, such as that employed in Trento area, may be associated with an improvement in clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants.
Bainbridge, Daryl; Brazil, Kevin; Krueger, Paul; Ploeg, Jenny; Taniguchi, Alan; Darnay, Julie
In many countries formal or informal palliative care networks (PCNs) have evolved to better integrate community-based services for individuals with a life-limiting illness. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a customized tool to determine the perceptions of the processes of palliative care delivery reflective of horizontal integration from the perspective of nurses, physicians and allied health professionals working in a PCN, as well as to assess the utility of this tool. The process elements examined were part of a conceptual framework for evaluating integration of a system of care and centred on interprofessional collaboration. We used the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration (IIC) as a basis of measurement. The 86 respondents (85% response rate) placed high value on working collaboratively and most reported being part of an interprofessional team. The survey tool showed utility in identifying strengths and gaps in integration across the network and in detecting variability in some factors according to respondent agency affiliation and profession. Specifically, support for interprofessional communication and evaluative activities were viewed as insufficient. Impediments to these aspects of horizontal integration may be reflective of workload constraints, differences in agency operations or an absence of key structural features.
Masia, M D; Barchitta, M; Liperi, G; Cantù, A P; Alliata, E; Auxilia, F; Torregrossa, V; Mura, I; Agodi, A
Validity is one of the most critical factors concerning surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs). This article describes the first validation study of the Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) project (SPIN-UTI) surveillance data. The objective was to validate infection data and thus to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of NI data reported on patients in the ICUs participating in the SPIN-UTI network. A validation study was performed at the end of the surveillance period. All medical records including all clinical and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively by the trained physicians of the validation team and a positive predictive value (PPV), a negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Eight ICUs (16.3%) were randomly chosen from all 49 SPIN-UTI ICUs for the validation study. In total, the validation team reviewed 832 patient charts (27.3% of the SPIN-UTI patients). The PPV was 83.5% and the NPV was 97.3%. The overall sensitivity was 82.3% and overall specificity was 97.2%. Over- and under-reporting of NIs were related to misinterpretation of the case definitions and deviations from the protocol despite previous training and instructions. The results of this study are useful to identify methodological problems within a surveillance system and have been used to plan retraining for surveillance personnel and to design and implement the second phase of the SPIN-UTI project. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asboe, Mark; Fernandes, Joao; Grönvall, Erik
This paper presents an ongoing project that focuses on improving the quality of life for senior citizens by developing IT support for independent living in their homes. We introduce a concept that explores and supports coordination within a social and care community targeting elderly people...
Hanson, Elizabeth; Magnusson, Lennart; Sennemark, Eva
This article describes an innovative practice called Blended Learning Networks (BLNs) whose aim is to enable older people, their families, and care providers to exchange knowledge, learn together, and support each other in local development work so that care is improved for older people. BLNs were established in 31 municipalities, headed up by a local facilitator. They were supported by a national themed network consisting of virtual meetings between local facilitators and national facilitators at the Swedish National Family Care Competence Centre. An evaluation was conducted to explore the utility of the BLNs so that any improvements to the model could be instigated. Focus group interviews were conducted with members of 9 BLNs, and self-evaluation questions were discussed in 16 BLNs. Limitations are that not all BLN members participated in the evaluation, and local facilitators conducting self-evaluations were not trained in focus group dynamics. Virtual focus groups were carried out with 26 of the 31 local facilitators and with the national facilitators. Participants reported an increased understanding of caregiver issues and of each group's roles. Of particular value were the stories shared by caregivers and the potential for change locally due to the involvement of decision makers. The practice demanded considerable skills of the local facilitators. An initial education for new local facilitators was deemed necessary. BLNs is a unique practice of community communications and knowledge transfer as it creates partnerships among all key stakeholder groups that act as a catalyst for improving care for older people.
Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Brandes, Andreas; Hillebrandt, Bernd; Schlüter, Catarina; Quante, Susanne
The Hamburg Network for Mental Health belongs to the healthcare regions in Germany, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research from 2011 to 2015. More than 330 partners from research, health care, health industry and government are promoting innovative health care models and products to improve mental health care in Hamburg. The main objectives comprise the sustained implementation of the Network itself and of successful health care models and products. The article describes current and future implementation possibilities and the present state of the implementation process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D
Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.
Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.
Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC and posterior (PCC cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.
Darlow, B A; Hutchinson, J L; Simpson, J M; Henderson-Smart, D J; Donoghue, D A; Evans, N J
Aim: To analyse variations in rates of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN), adjusting for sampling variability and for case mix.
Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise
The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...
Lage, Daniel E; Rusinak, Donna; Carr, Darcy; Grabowski, David C; Ackerly, D Clay
Postacute care (PAC) is an important source of cost growth and variation in the Medicare program and is critical to accountable care organization (ACO) and bundled payment efforts to improve quality and value in the Medicare program, but ACOs must often look outside their walls to identify high-value external PAC partners, including skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). As a solution to this problem, the integrated health system, Partners HealthCare System (PHS) and its Pioneer ACO launched the PHS SNF Collaborative Network in October 2013 to identify and partner with high-quality SNFs. This study details the method by which PHS selected SNFs using minimum criteria based on public scores and secondary criteria based on self-reported measures, describes the characteristics of selected and nonselected SNFs, and reports SNF satisfaction with the collaborative. The selected SNFs (n = 47) had significantly higher CMS Five-Star scores than the nonselected SNFs (n = 93) (4.6 vs 3.2, P improving care in SNFs remain daunting, this approach can serve as a first step toward greater clinical collaboration between acute and postacute settings that will lead to better outcomes for frail older adults. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Bosman, R.P.; Lukkien, J.J.; Verhoeven, R.
Wireless sensing devices containing limited processing and communication capabilities are becoming available for all sorts of purposes. An important problem is to integrate networks of these sensors with the existing CE en IT infrastructure such that a) data coming out of the sensor network can be
Camila Amaral Borghi
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to understand how social networking websites are used by adolescents and their importance during the hospitalization process. Method: A descriptive and qualitative study was supported by the virtual ethnographic method and resorted to the symbolic interactionism as theoretical framework. Eleven hospitalized adolescents were interviewed. Results: Three categories were identified based on the analysis of interviews and posts: Being able to use social networking websites during hospitalization; Using the Facebook® chat to keep connected to friends; Seeking support from friends through social networking websites. Final considerations: Facebook® was the social networking website that adolescents used the most, standing out as an important form of entertainment during hospitalization that facilitates communication and social support. Healthcare professionals should value the use of social networking websites by hospitalized adolescents and encourage access to these tools, providing hospital resources to expand and facilitate this access.
Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan
The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.
Kuhn, U; Hofmann, L; Hoff, T; Färber, N
Compared with the general population, chronic drug addicts already start showing typical aging problems by the age of 40 years. The increasing number of older drug addicts leads to questions of what an adequate health and social care should look like. This discussion particularly takes place in the context of a sufficient integration of different care systems. A sufficient integration requires an improvement in the networking of substance treatment, nursing care and medical care services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the care structure of older people who use drugs and the services involved in a social network analysis. This was a descriptive design of the pilot study. The study objective was to gain first-hand knowledge about the health and social care situation, the quality of care concerning this client group and to identify supply gaps. Therefore, the three regions Cologne, Dusseldorf and Frankfurt/Main were exemplarily examined. The data for the social network analysis was gathered by a quantitative online questionnaire. Therefore, especially central network members were contacted and asked to participate. The survey was conducted in two waves. In total, 65 practitioners of all surveyed cities participated in the second wave. The centrality measures assessed indicated that in all regions institutions of the substance abuse service network hold central positions in terms of conveying information. The moderate density values of the networks suggest that there are sufficient cooperation structures. Care deficits were identified most frequently in the areas of housing and nursing care. The results provide the first systematic insights and a description of the cooperation practice in the care system. Because of the limitations, further research and practice issues are raised.
Bordeianou, Liliana; Cauley, Christy E; Antonelli, Donna; Bird, Sarah; Rattner, David; Hutter, Matthew; Mahmood, Sadiqa; Schnipper, Deborah; Rubin, Marc; Bleday, Ronald; Kenney, Pardon; Berger, David
between standardized infection rates was 0.03 (p = 0.88). During 25 site-time period observations, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and National Healthcare Safety Network data matched for 52% of observations (13/25). κ = 0.10 (95% CI, -0.1366 to 0.3402; p = 0.403), indicating poor agreement. This study investigated hospitals located in the Northeastern United States only. Variation in Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-mandated National Healthcare Safety Network infection surveillance methodology leads to unreliable results, which is apparent when these results are compared with standardized data. High-quality data would improve care quality and compare outcomes among institutions.
Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009
The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…
Frey, Lewis J; Sward, Katherine A; Newth, Christopher J L; Khemani, Robinder G; Cryer, Martin E; Thelen, Julie L; Enriquez, Rene; Shaoyu, Su; Pollack, Murray M; Harrison, Rick E; Meert, Kathleen L; Berg, Robert A; Wessel, David L; Shanley, Thomas P; Dalton, Heidi; Carcillo, Joseph; Jenkins, Tammara L; Dean, J Michael
To examine the feasibility of deploying a virtual web service for sharing data within a research network, and to evaluate the impact on data consistency and quality. Virtual machines (VMs) encapsulated an open-source, semantically and syntactically interoperable secure web service infrastructure along with a shadow database. The VMs were deployed to 8 Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network Clinical Centers. Virtual web services could be deployed in hours. The interoperability of the web services reduced format misalignment from 56% to 1% and demonstrated that 99% of the data consistently transferred using the data dictionary and 1% needed human curation. Use of virtualized open-source secure web service technology could enable direct electronic abstraction of data from hospital databases for research purposes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rocha, C M; McGuire, S; Whyman, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M
Background: This study examined the spatial accessibility of the population of metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand to the bus network, to connect them to primary health providers, in this case doctors (GP) and dentists. Analysis of accessibility by ethnic identity and socio-economic status were also carried out, because of existing health inequalities along these dimensions. The underlying hypothesis was that most people would live within easy reach of primary health providers, or easy bus transport to such providers. An integrated geographic model of bus transport routes and stops, with population and primary health providers (medical. and dental practices) was developed and analysed. Although the network of buses in metropolitan Auckland is substantial and robust it was evident that many people live more than 150 metres from a stop. Improving the access to bus stops, particularly in areas of high primary health care need (doctors and dentists), would certainly be an opportunity to enhance spatial access in a growing metropolitan area.
Grant Richard W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI will be a reportable health measure in the United States (US through implementation of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS guidelines. We evaluated current documentation of BMI, and documentation and control of associated risk factors by BMI category, based on electronic health records from a 12-clinic primary care network. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 79,947 active network patients greater than 18 years of age seen between 7/05 - 12/06. We defined BMI category as normal weight (NW, 18-24.9 kg/m2, overweight (OW, 25-29.9, and obese (OB, ≥ 30. We measured documentation (yes/no and control (above/below of the following three risk factors: blood pressure (BP ≤130/≤85 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein (LDL ≤130 mg/dL (3.367 mmol/L, and fasting glucose Results BMI was documented in 48,376 patients (61%, range 34-94%, distributed as 30% OB, 34% OW, and 36% NW. Documentation of all three risk factors was higher in obesity (OB = 58%, OW = 54%, NW = 41%, p for trend Conclusions In a large primary care network BMI documentation has been incomplete and for patients with BMI measured, risk factor control has been poorer in obese patients compared with NW, even in those with obesity and CVD or diabetes. Better knowledge of BMI could provide an opportunity for improved quality in obesity care.
Marsolo, Keith; Margolis, Peter A; Forrest, Christopher B; Colletti, Richard B; Hutton, John J
We collaborated with the ImproveCareNow Network to create a proof-of-concept architecture for a network-based Learning Health System. This collaboration involved transitioning an existing registry to one that is linked to the electronic health record (EHR), enabling a "data in once" strategy. We sought to automate a series of reports that support care improvement while also demonstrating the use of observational registry data for comparative effectiveness research. We worked with three leading EHR vendors to create EHR-based data collection forms. We automated many of ImproveCareNow's analytic reports and developed an application for storing protected health information and tracking patient consent. Finally, we deployed a cohort identification tool to support feasibility studies and hypothesis generation. There is ongoing uptake of the system. To date, 31 centers have adopted the EHR-based forms and 21 centers are uploading data to the registry. Usage of the automated reports remains high and investigators have used the cohort identification tools to respond to several clinical trial requests. The current process for creating EHR-based data collection forms requires groups to work individually with each vendor. A vendor-agnostic model would allow for more rapid uptake. We believe that interfacing network-based registries with the EHR would allow them to serve as a source of decision support. Additional standards are needed in order for this vision to be achieved, however. We have successfully implemented a proof-of-concept Learning Health System while providing a foundation on which others can build. We have also highlighted opportunities where sponsors could help accelerate progress.
Wac, K.E.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Konstantas, D.; van Halteren, Aart; Jones, Valerie M.; Widya, I.A.; Herzog, Rainer
Health care is one of the most prominent areas for the application of wireless technologies. New services and applications are today under research and development targeting different areas of health care, from high risk and chronic patients’ remote monitoring to mobility tools for the medical
Christine M. Zachek
Full Text Available A network of pediatric environmental health specialty units (PEHSUs in the United States was formed in 1998 out of a recognized need for clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Documented trends in a rise of pediatric diseases caused or exacerbated by environmental conditions, coupled with the failure of medical schools and residency programs to cover these issues in a significant way, leaves health care providers, parents, communities, and governments at a loss for this specialized knowledge. The PEHSUs fill this gap by providing: 1 medical education, 2 general outreach and communications, and 3 consultative services to communities and health care professionals. This paper presents examples of key situations where PEHSU involvement was instrumental in improved patient outcomes or advancing clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Challenges and opportunities for future directions for the program are also discussed.
Gill, James M; Klinkman, Michael S; Chen, Ying Xia
Because comorbid depression can complicate medical conditions (eg, diabetes), physicians may treat depression more aggressively in patients who have these conditions. This study examined whether primary care physicians prescribe antidepressant medications more often and in higher doses for persons with medical comorbidities. This secondary data analysis of electronic health record data was conducted in the Centricity Health Care User Research Network (CHURN), a national network of ambulatory practices that use a common outpatient electronic health record. Participants included 209 family medicine and general internal medicine providers in 40 primary care CHURN offices in 17 US states. Patients included adults with a new episode of depression that had been diagnosed during the period October 2006 through July 2007 (n = 1513). Prescription of antidepressant medication and doses of antidepressant medication were compared for patients with and without 6 comorbid conditions: diabetes, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. 20.7% of patients had at least one medical comorbidity whereas 5.8% had multiple comorbidities. Overall, 77% of depressed patients were prescribed antidepressant medication. After controlling for age and sex, patients with multiple comorbidities were less likely to be prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96), but there was no significant difference by individual comorbidities. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were less likely to be prescribed a full dose of medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.88), but there were no differences for other comorbidities or for multiple comorbidities, and there was no difference for any comorbidities in the prescription of minimally effective doses. Patients with new episodes of depression who present to a primary care practice are not treated more aggressively if they have medical
Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R
To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.
Seyed Kazem Malakouti
Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.
Jutel, M; Angier, L; Palkonen, S; Ryan, D; Sheikh, A; Smith, H; Valovirta, E; Yusuf, O; van Wijk, R G; Agache, I
The incidence, prevalence and costs of allergy have increased substantially in recent decades in many parts of Europe. The dominant model of allergy care within Europe is at the moment specialist-based. This model will become unsustainable and undeliverable with increasing disease prevalence. One solution to increase provision of allergy services is to diversify the providers. A new model for the provision of allergy care in the community with the general practitioner at the forefront is proposed. Pre- and postgraduate allergy education and training, implementation of pathways of care, allergy specialization and political will to generate resources and support are essential to achieve this new model. In parallel the holistic view of allergic diseases should be maintained, including assessment of severity and risk, psychological factors and health-care related costs in the context of the patient-centered decision making process. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.
Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and de...
Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu
The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and developed social technology solution termed "Unite." The Unite system combines social technologies' features including push notifications, messaging, community groups, and user lists with clinical workflow and applications to construct dynamic provider networks, simplify communications, and facilitate clinical workflow optimization. Modeling Unite as a social technology may ease adoption barriers. Developing a social network that is integrated with healthcare information systems in the clinical space opens the doors to capturing and studying the way in which providers communicate. The Unite system appears to have the potential to breaking down existing communication paradigms. With Unite, a rich set of usage data tied to clinical events may unravel alternative networks that can be leveraged to advance patient care.
Ernstberger, Antonio; Koller, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Kerschbaum, Maximilian; Hilber, Franz; Diepold, Eva; Loss, Julika; Herbst, Tanja; Nerlich, Michael
Trauma is a global burden of disease and one of the main causes of death worldwide. Therefore, many countries around the world have implemented a wide range of different initiatives to minimize mortality rates after trauma. One of these initiatives is the bundling of treatment expertise in trauma centers and the establishment of trauma networks. Germany has a decentralized system of trauma care medical centers. Severely injured patients ought to receive adequate treatment in both level I and level II centers. This study investigated the effectiveness of a decentralized network and the question whether level I and level II centers have comparable patient outcome. In 2009, the first trauma network DGU® in Germany was certified in the rural area of Eastern Bavaria. All patients admitted to the 25 participating hospitals were prospectively included in this network in the framework of a study sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research between March 2012 and February 2014. 2 hospitals were level I centers (maximal care centers), 8 hospitals were level II centers, and 15 hospitals were level III centers. The criterion for study inclusion was an injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 16 for patients´ primarily admitted to a level I or a level II center. Exclusion criteria were transferal to another hospital within 48 h, an unknown revised injury severity classification II score (RISC II), or primary admittance to a level III center (n = 52). 875 patients were included in the study. Univariate analyses were used regarding the preclinical and clinical parameters, the primary endpoint mortality rate, and the secondary endpoints length of stay, organ failure, and neurological outcome (GOS). The primary endpoint was additionally evaluated by means of multivariable analysis. Indices for injury severity (GCS, AISHead, ISS, and NISS) as well as the predicted probability of death (RISC II) were higher in level I centers than in level II centers. No significant
Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula
Introduction The Dutch healthcare inspectorate (IGZ) supervises the quality and safety of healthcare in the Netherlands. Owing to the growing population of (community dwelling) older adults and changes in the Dutch healthcare system, the IGZ is exploring new methods to effectively supervise care networks that exist around frail older adults. The composition of these networks, where formal and informal care takes place, and the lack of guidelines and quality and risk indicators make supervision complicated in the current situation. Methods and analysis This study consists of four phases. The first phase identifies risks for community dwelling frail older adults in the existing literature. In the second phase, a qualitative pilot study will be conducted to assess the needs and wishes of the frail older adults concerning care and well-being, perception of risks, and the composition of their networks, collaboration and coordination between care providers involved in the network. In the third phase, questionnaires based on the results of phase II will be sent to a larger group of frail older adults (n=200) and their care providers. The results will describe the composition of their care networks and prioritise risks concerning community dwelling older adults. Also, it will provide input for the development of a new supervision framework by the IGZ. During phase IV, a second questionnaire will be sent to the participants of phase III to establish changes of perception in risks and possible changes in the care networks. The framework will be tested by the IGZ in pilots, and the researchers will evaluate these pilots and provide feedback to the IGZ. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Scientific Committee of the EMGO+institute and the Medical Ethical review committee of the VU University Medical Centre. Results will be presented in scientific articles and reports and at meetings. PMID:26307619
Roy, Christopher L; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Dighe, Anand S; Schiff, Gordon D; Graydon-Baker, Erin; Lenoci-Edwards, Jennifer; Dwyer, Cheryl; Khorasani, Ramin; Gandhi, Tejal K
The failure of providers to communicate and follow up clinically significant test results (CSTR) is an important threat to patient safety. The Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors has endorsed the creation of systems to ensure that results can be received and acknowledged. In 2008 a task force was convened that represented clinicians, laboratories, radiology, patient safety, risk management, and information systems in a large health care network with the goals of providing recommendations and a road map for improvement in the management of CSTR and of implementing this improvement plan during the sub-force sequent five years. In drafting its charter, the task broadened the scope from "critical" results to "clinically significant" ones; clinically significant was defined as any result that requires further clinical action to avoid morbidity or mortality, regardless of the urgency of that action. The task force recommended four key areas for improvement--(1) standardization of policies and definitions, (2) robust identification of the patient's care team, (3) enhanced results management/tracking systems, and (4) centralized quality reporting and metrics. The task force faced many challenges in implementing these recommendations, including disagreements on definitions of CSTR and on who should have responsibility for CSTR, changes to established work flows, limitations of resources and of existing information systems, and definition of metrics. This large-scale effort to improve the communication and follow-up of CSTR in a health care network continues with ongoing work to address implementation challenges, refine policies, prepare for a new clinical information system platform, and identify new ways to measure the extent of this important safety problem.
Nease, Donald E
Practice-based research supported by practice-based research network (PBRN) infrastructure has historically provided an important method for challenging guidelines and evidence arising from secondary and tertiary care settings. This sample of current practice-based research in this issue of the JABFM provides an opportunity to ask whether practice-based research continues to address questions relevant to primary care practices and clinicians and whether a PBRN infrastructure is instrumental to maintaining the relevance and feasibility of practice-based research. Based on this issue's articles, the current state of practice-based research seems to be good, at face value addressing relevant issues for primary care practices. Less clear is the degree to which PBRN infrastructures and relationships informed the questions asked and facilitated the implementation of the studies presented. Practice-based research-related articles that routinely report about how study questions arose-from practices and their clinicians, staff and communities, or elsewhere-could help directly answer questions of relevance. In addition, reporting how practices are recruited to practice-based research studies could inform the degree to which ongoing relationships central to PBRNs facilitate the recruitment and conduct of practice-based research. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Akay, Altug; Dragomir, Andrei; Erlandsson, Bjorn-Erik
Intelligently extracting knowledge from social media has recently attracted great interest from the Biomedical and Health Informatics community to simultaneously improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs using consumer-generated opinion. We propose a two-step analysis framework that focuses on positive and negative sentiment, as well as the side effects of treatment, in users' forum posts, and identifies user communities (modules) and influential users for the purpose of ascertaining user opinion of cancer treatment. We used a self-organizing map to analyze word frequency data derived from users' forum posts. We then introduced a novel network-based approach for modeling users' forum interactions and employed a network partitioning method based on optimizing a stability quality measure. This allowed us to determine consumer opinion and identify influential users within the retrieved modules using information derived from both word-frequency data and network-based properties. Our approach can expand research into intelligently mining social media data for consumer opinion of various treatments to provide rapid, up-to-date information for the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, and medical staff, on the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of future treatments.
Bernstein, Peter S; Farinelli, Christine; Merkatz, Irwin R
In 2002, the Institute of Medicine called for the introduction of information technologies in health care settings to improve quality of care. We conducted a review of hospital charts of women who delivered before and after the implementation of an intranet-based computerized prenatal record in an inner-city practice. Our objective was to assess whether the use of this record improved communication among the outpatient office, the ultrasonography unit, and the labor floor. The charts of patients who delivered in August 2002 and August 2003 and received their prenatal care at the Comprehensive Family Care Center at Montefiore Medical Center were analyzed. Data collected included the presence of a copy of the prenatal record in the hospital chart, the date of the last documented prenatal visit, and documentation of any prenatal ultrasonograms performed. Forty-three charts in each group were available for review. The prenatal chart was absent in 16% of the charts of patients from August 2002 compared with only 2% in August 2003 charts (P intranet-based prenatal chart significantly improves communication among providers.
Suijkerbuijk, A.W.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Brouwer, H.J.; Vanrolleghem, A.M.; Joosten, J.H.K.; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs). Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening
Sips, I.I.; Haeri Mazanderani, A.; Schneider, H.; Greeff, M.; Barten, F.J.; Moshabela, M.
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral
This article links the forces of managed care and investor-owned firms as major factors driving the industry toward consolidation into vertically integrated, merged firms, often financed with investor capital. This relentless pressure to build regional systems of health services has transformed the industry from a charitable, community orientation to one of business, market shares, and profits.
Full Text Available Background: Making perinatal care accessible to women in marginalized periurban areas poses a public health problem. Many women do not utilize institutional care in spite of physical accessibility. Home-based care by traditional birth attendants (TBA is hazardous. Inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices are common. Many barriers to perinatal care can be overcome by social mobilization and capacity building at the community level. Objectives: To determine the existing perinatal practices in an urban slum and to identify barriers to utilization of health services by mothers. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting and Participants: The high-risk periurban areas of Nabi Nagar, Aligarh has a population of 40,000 living in 5,480 households. Mothers delivering babies in September 2007 were identified from records of social mobilization workers (Community Mobilization Coordinators or CMCs already working in an NGO in the area. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed at home. Current perinatal practices and reasons for utilizing or not utilizing health services were the topics of inquiry. Statistical Analysis: Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 12. Results: Analyses revealed that 80.4% of mothers had received antenatal care. However, this did not translate into safe delivery practices as more than 60% of the women had home deliveries conducted by traditional untrained or trained birth attendants. Reasons for preferring home deliveries were mostly tradition (41.9% or related to economics (30.7%. A total of 56% of the deliveries were conducted in the squatting position and in 25% of the cases, the umbilical cord was cut using the edge of a broken cup. Although breast-feeding was universal, inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices were common. Prelacteal feeds were given to nearly 50% of the babies and feeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 8% of the cases. Several mothers had breastfeeding problems
Full Text Available Although home-based care (HBC programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs, in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs. An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25% of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Lauret, Gert-Jan; Gijsbers, Harm J H; Hendriks, Erik J M; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; de Bie, Rob A; Teijink, Joep A W
Intermittent claudication (IC) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Besides cardiovascular risk management, supervised exercise therapy (SET) should be offered to all patients with IC. Outdated guidelines, an insufficient number of specialized physiotherapists (PTs), lack of awareness of the importance of SET by referring physicians, and misguided financial incentives all seriously impede the availability of a structured SET program in The Netherlands. By initiating regional care networks, ClaudicatioNet aims to improve the quality of care for patients with IC. Based on the chronic care model as a conceptual framework, these networks should enhance the access, continuity, and (cost) efficiency of the health care system. With the aid of a national database, health care professionals will be able to benchmark patient results while ClaudicatioNet will be able to monitor quality of care by way of functional and patient reported outcome measures. The success of ClaudicatioNet is dependent on several factors. Vascular surgeons, general practitioners and coordinating central caregivers will need to team up and work in close collaboration with specialized PTs. A substantial task in the upcoming years will be to monitor the quality, volume, and distribution of ClaudicatioNet PTs. Finally, misguided financial incentives within the Dutch health care system need to be tackled. With ClaudicatioNet, integrated care pathways are likely to improve in the upcoming years. This should result in the achievement of optimal quality of care for all patients with IC.
Hill, Jason H; Burge, Sandra; Haring, Anna; Young, Richard A
The digital revolution is changing the manner in which patients communicate with their health care providers, yet many patients still lack access to communication technology. We conducted this study to evaluate access to, use of, and preferences for using communication technology among a predominantly low-income patient population. We determined whether access, use, and preferences were associated with type of health insurance, sex, age, and ethnicity. In 2011, medical student researchers administered questionnaires to patients of randomly selected physicians within 9 primary care clinics in the Residency Research Network of Texas. Surveys addressed access to and use of cell phones and home computers and preferences for communicating with health care providers. In this sample of 533 patients (77% response rate), 448 (84%) owned a cell phone and 325 (62%) owned computers. Only 48% reported conducting Internet searches, sending and receiving E-mails, and looking up health information on the Internet. Older individuals, those in government sponsored insurance programs, and individuals from racial/ethnic minority groups had the lowest levels of technology adoption. In addition, more than 60% of patients preferred not to send and receive health information over the Internet, by instant messaging, or by text messaging. Many patients in this sample did not seek health information electronically nor did they want to communicate electronically with their physicians. This finding raises concerns about the vision of the patient-centered medical home to enhance the doctor-patient relationship through communication technology. Our patients represent some of the more vulnerable populations in the United States and, as such, deserve attention from health care policymakers who are promoting widespread use of communication technology.
Thomas, P; While, A
A number of primary care research networks were set up throughout England in 1998 in order to (1) improve the quality of primary care research (2) increase the research capacity of primary care, and (3) change the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice (NHSE, 2000b). It is not clear how best to operate a network to achieve these diverse aims. This paper describes the first 30 months of a network that adopted a whole system approach in the belief that this would offer the best chance of simultaneously achieving the three aims. A cycle of activity was designed to facilitate the formation of multidisciplinary coalitions of interest for research with complementary 'top down' and 'bottom up' programmes of work co-existing. At least 330 people participated in the generation of research questions of whom one third (33%) were general practitioners, 16% community nurses, 6% practice managers and other primary care practitioners. Over two fifths (43%) were 'key allies'--academics, health authority staff, community workers and project workers. One fifth (110) of all practices (500) in the WeLReN area have collaborated in at least one research project. The ratio of doctor:nurse participation in the 24 research project teams was markedly different in the supported coalitions (2:1) compared to projects devised and led by more experienced researchers (6:1). The evidence suggests that it is possible to operate a primary care research network in a way that develops coalitions of interest from different parts of the health care system as well as both 'top down' and 'bottom up' led projects. It is too early to tell if the approach will be able to achieve its aims in the long-term but the activity data are encouraging. There is a need for more research on the theoretical basis of network operation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental
Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin; Alptekin, Köksal; Berti, Loretta; Burti, Lorenzo; Burton, Alexandra; Dernovsek, Mojca; Dragomirecka, Eva; Freidl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian; Genova, Aneta; Germanavicius, Arunas; Halis, Ulaş; Henderson, John; Hjorth, Peter; Lai, Taavi; Larsen, Jens Ivar; Lech, Katarzyna; Lucas, Ramona; Marginean, Roxana; McDaid, David; Mladenova, Maya; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Paziuc, Alexandru; Paziuc, Petronela; Priebe, Stefan; Prot-Klinger, Katarzyna; Wancata, Johannes; Kilian, Reinhold
Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii) at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental disorders must take into
Clark, Jack A; Parker, Victoria A; Battaglia, Tracy A; Freund, Karen M
Patient navigation is a widely implemented intervention to facilitate access to care and reduce disparities in cancer care, but the activities of navigators are not well characterized. The aim of this study is to describe what patient navigators actually do and explore patterns of activity that clarify the roles they perform in facilitating cancer care. We conducted field observations of nine patient navigation programs operating in diverse health settings of the national patient navigation research program, including 34 patient navigators, each observed an average of four times. Trained observers used a structured observation protocol to code as they recorded navigator actions and write qualitative field notes capturing all activities in 15-minute intervals during observations ranging from 2 to 7 hours; yielding a total of 133 observations. Rates of coded activity were analyzed using numerical cluster analysis of identified patterns, informed by qualitative analysis of field notes. Six distinct patterns of navigator activity were identified, which differed most relative to how much time navigators spent directly interacting with patients and how much time they spent dealing with medical records and documentation tasks. Navigator actions reveal a complex set of roles in which navigators both provide the direct help to patients denoted by their title and also carry out a variety of actions that function to keep the health system operating smoothly. Working to navigate patients through complex health services entails working to repair the persistent challenges of health services that can render them inhospitable to patients. The organizations that deploy navigators might learn from navigators' efforts and explore alternative approaches, structures, or systems of care in addressing both the barriers patients face and the complex solutions navigators create in helping patients.
Cooper, Sharon P.; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M.; Ryder, E. Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; del Junco, Deborah J.; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia
Introduction: The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extrac...
Alcantara, Joel; Lamont, Andrea E; Ohm, Jeanne; Alcantara, Junjoe
To characterize pediatric chiropractic and assess pediatric quality of life (QoL). A prospective cohort. Setting/Locations: Individual offices within a practice-based research network located throughout the United States. A convenience sample of children (8-17 years) under chiropractic care and their parents. Chiropractic spinal adjustments and adjunctive therapies. Survey instrument measuring sociodemographic information and correlates from the clinical encounter along with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-25 to measure QoL (i.e., depression, anxiety, and pain interference). Sociodemographic and clinical correlates were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e., frequencies/percentages, means, and standard deviations). The PROMIS-25 data were analyzed using scoring manuals, converting raw scores to T score metric (mean = 50; SD = 10). A generalized linear mixed model was utilized to examine covariates (i.e., sex, number of visits, and motivation for care) that may have played an important role on the PROMIS outcome. The original data set consisted of 915 parent-child dyads. After data cleaning, a total of 881 parents (747 females, 134 males; mean age = 42.03 years) and 881 children (467 females and 414 males; mean age = 12.49 years) comprised this study population. The parents were highly educated and presented their child for mainly wellness care. The mean number of days and patient visits from baseline to comparative QoL measures was 38.12 days and 2.74 (SD = 2.61), respectively. After controlling for the effects of motivation for care, patient visits, duration of complaint, sex, and pain rating, significant differences were observed in the probability of experiencing problems (vs. no reported problems) across all QoL domains (Wald = 82.897, df = 4, p < 0.05). Post hoc comparisons demonstrated the children were less likely to report any symptoms of depression (Wald = 6.1474, df = 1
Full Text Available Internationally, there is a move towards strengthening primary healthcare systems and encouraging community-based and socially responsible education. The development of doctors with an interest in primary healthcare and family medicine in the African region should begin during undergraduate training. Over the last few years, attention has been given to the development of postgraduate training in family medicine in the African region, but little attention has been given to undergraduate training. This article reports on the 8th PRIMAFAMED (Primary Care and Family Medicine Education network meeting held in Nairobi from 21 to 24 May 2016. At this meeting the delegates spent time presenting and discussing the current state of undergraduate training at 18 universities in the region and shared lessons on how to successfully implement undergraduate training. This article reports on the rationale for, information presented, process followed and conclusions reached at the conference.
This paper describes a comprehensive effort to develop studies regarding Brazil's Unified Healthcare System (SUS), as a result of the combination of public services in a network that follows a region-based rationale (tripartite organization). The SUS emerges from such an integration and should be organized as such. The intention is to demonstrate that this type of organization is essential, given that Brazil is organized as a Federation, and all three governmental levels are, in a broad sense, equally responsible for healthcare. Healthcare services and actions are a complex set of activities that are interconnected on behalf of citizen health, which is a global concept that cannot be split up. Services must follow this rationale and be organized as such. Thus, healthcare services must be systematically organized to serve everyone equally, regardless of where a citizen lives. This systemic organization requires permanent interaction between federative units to discuss and operationalize reference services, funding and other technical and administrative aspects. These are the essential elements that make the SUS so complex and demand it be organized regionally, as a network of healthcare services.
Robert L Grant
Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome diseases. Incontinence in people with dementia is distressing, adds to carer burden, and influences decisions to relocate people to care homes. Successful and safe management of incontinence in people with dementia presents additional challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of first diagnosis in primary care of urinary and faecal incontinence among people aged 60-89 with dementia, and the use of medication or indwelling catheters for urinary incontinence.We extracted data on 54,816 people aged 60-89 with dementia and an age-gender stratified sample of 205,795 people without dementia from 2001 to 2010 from The Health Improvement Network (THIN, a United Kingdom primary care database. THIN includes data on patients and primary care consultations but does not identify care home residents. Rate ratios were adjusted for age, sex, and co-morbidity using multilevel Poisson regression. The rates of first diagnosis per 1,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval for urinary incontinence in the dementia cohort, among men and women, respectively, were 42.3 (40.9-43.8 and 33.5 (32.6-34.5. In the non-dementia cohort, the rates were 19.8 (19.4-20.3 and 18.6 (18.2-18.9. The rates of first diagnosis for faecal incontinence in the dementia cohort were 11.1 (10.4-11.9 and 10.1 (9.6-10.6. In the non-dementia cohort, the rates were 3.1 (2.9-3.3 and 3.6 (3.5-3.8. The adjusted rate ratio for first diagnosis of urinary incontinence was 3.2 (2.7-3.7 in men and 2.7 (2.3-3.2 in women, and for faecal incontinence was 6.0 (5.1-7.0 in men and 4.5 (3.8-5.2 in women. The adjusted rate ratio for pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence was 2.2 (1.4-3.7 for both genders, and for indwelling urinary catheters was 1.6 (1.3-1.9 in men and 2.3 (1.9-2.8 in women.Compared with those without a dementia diagnosis, those with a dementia diagnosis have approximately three times the rate of
Flávia Batista Portugal
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association between emotional distress and social support networks with quality of life in primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,466 patients in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument were used. The Social Support Network Index classified patients with the highest and lowest index as socially integrated or isolated. A bivariate analysis and four multiple linear regressions were conducted for each quality of life outcome. The means scores for the physical, psychological, social relations, and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. In the multivariate analysis, the psychological domain was negatively associated with isolation, whereas the social relations and environment domains were positively associated with integration. Integration and isolation proved to be important factors for those in emotional distress as they minimize or maximize negative effects on quality of life.
Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Ribeiro Sales, Fernando José; de Araújo Novaes, Magdala
Information technologies have been applied in primary care domains to improve the delivery of health services. This article reports the telehealth network experience in Pernambuco, Brazil. Five different data sets were used, one by each service and the structural aspects of the network, collected from 2008 until August 2015. The data include solicited themes for educational activities, users' evaluation of services, numbers of sites, municipalities participating, participants in tele-education activities, teleconsultations, telediagnosis, and remote screenings. The analysis was done in absolute and percentage values using Microsoft Excel (version 2007). The indicators show high utilization of tele-education resources, followed by the teleconsultation service. The synchronous modality was the most used and the general clinical question was the most frequent type of question. Nurses are the professional category that most used the teleconsultation services (36%). Telediagnosis of electrocardiography has growth utilization, overcoming teleconsulting more recently. The satisfaction rate was 89%, and 68.5% of professionals changed their planning to patients' referrals to specialists. Telehealth has been considered effective since it avoids inappropriate referrals of the patient and provides continuous actualization to health professionals. Our results provide evidence of the feasibility and importance of using telehealth as a tool to ensure the universality, equality, and completeness in the health system.
Fiorini, Rodolfo; De Giacomo, Piero; Marconi, Pier Luigi; L'Abate, Luciano
In Healthcare Decision Support System, the development and evaluation of effective "Quality of Care" (QOC) indicators, in simulation-based training, are key feature to develop resilient and antifragile organization scenarios. Is it possible to conceive of QOC not only as a result of a voluntary and rational decision, imposed or even not, but also as an overall system "emergent phenomenon" out of a small-world network of relational synthetic actors, endowed with their own personality profiles to simulate human behaviour (for short, called "subjects")? In order to answer this question and to observe the phenomena of real emergence we should use computational models of high complexity, with heavy computational load and extensive computational time. Nevertheless, De Giacomo's Elementary Pragmatic Model (EPM) intrinsic self-reflexive functional logical closure enables to run simulation examples to classify the outcomes grown out of a small-world network of relational subjects fast and effectively. Therefore, it is possible to take note and to learn of how much strategic systemic interventions can induce context conditions of QOC facilitation, which can improve the effectiveness of specific actions, which otherwise might be paradoxically counterproductive also. Early results are so encouraging to use EPM as basic block to start designing more powerful Evolutive Elementary Pragmatic Model (E2PM) for real emergence computational model, to cope with ontological uncertainty at system level.
Lewis, Joanne M; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Currow, David C
Social relations and networks are vital for sustaining and enhancing end-of-life care. The social capital concept supports a framework to understand the association between social relations and well-being; yet, to date, there has been very limited investigation of social capital in the palliative care literature. A framework for understanding social contexts in end-of-life care is necessary. To summarize the literature on social capital, well-being, and quality of life for key outcomes to inform a model of social capital in palliative care. The electronic databases MEDLINE (1997 to March 2011), Embase (1997 to March 2011), CINAHL (1997 to March 2011), and PsycINFO (1997 to March 2011) were searched using key/MeSH search terms of "social capital," "palliative care," and "well-being" and/or "quality of life." The literature was reviewed to identify key concepts to develop and inform a palliative care social capital framework. A total of 93 articles were included in the literature review, with only two articles identifying discourse on social capital and palliative care. Four key areas integrating the social capital outcomes informed a framework for palliative care. The social capital concept provides a structure for understanding how the organization and meaning of social contexts can potentially enhance or hinder end-of-life care. Research that identifies specificity in application of social capital concepts is fundamental to issues of access to services, sustaining levels of care, quality of life, and well-being. The importance of "bridged" social capital relations and networks for improved resource acquisition and information flow was identified in the literature and outlined within the palliative care social capital framework. Differential access to social capital by disadvantaged groups provides further impetus to engage a model of social capital for palliative care. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Ariagno, Ronald L; Lee, Henry C; Stevenson, David K; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian; Escobedo, Marilyn B; Bhatt, Dilip R
Directories of contact information have evolved over time from thick paperback times such as the "Yellow Pages" to electronic forms that are searchable and have other functionalities. In our clinical specialty, the development of a professional directory helped to promote collaboration in clinical care, education, and quality improvement. However, there are opportunities for increasing the utility of the directory by taking advantage of modern web-based tools, and expanding the use of the directory to fill a gap in the area of collaborative research.
Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Addington, Jean
This paper aims to identify the ways in which youth at ultra high risk for psychosis access mental health services and the factors that advance or delay help seeking, using the Revised Network Episode Model (REV NEM) of mental health care. A case study approach documents help-seeking pathways, encompassing two qualitative interviews with 10 young people and 29 significant others. Theoretical propositions derived from the REV NEM are explored, consisting of the content, structure and function of the: (i) family; (ii) community and school; and (iii) treatment system. Although the aspects of the REV NEM are supported and shape pathways to care, we consider rethinking the model for help seeking with youth at ultra high risk for psychosis. The pathway concept is important to our understanding of how services and supports are received and experienced over time. Understanding this process and the strategies that support positive early intervention on the part of youth and significant others is critical. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Rajan, J Pandia; Rajan, S Edward
Wireless physiological signal monitoring system designing with secured data communication in the health care system is an important and dynamic process. We propose a signal monitoring system using NI myRIO connected with the wireless body sensor network through multi-channel signal acquisition method. Based on the server side validation of the signal, the data connected to the local server is updated in the cloud. The Internet of Things (IoT) architecture is used to get the mobility and fast access of patient data to healthcare service providers. This research work proposes a novel architecture for wireless physiological signal monitoring system using ubiquitous healthcare services by virtual Internet of Things. We showed an improvement in method of access and real time dynamic monitoring of physiological signal of this remote monitoring system using virtual Internet of thing approach. This remote monitoring and access system is evaluated in conventional value. This proposed system is envisioned to modern smart health care system by high utility and user friendly in clinical applications. We claim that the proposed scheme significantly improves the accuracy of the remote monitoring system compared to the other wireless communication methods in clinical system.
Marcolino, Milena S; Carvalho, Bárbara C; Lucena, Aline M; França, Ana Luiza N; Pessoa, Cristiane G; Neves, Daniel S; Alkmim, Maria Beatriz M
The Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais (TNMG) is a public telehealth service in Brazil that has performed electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis since 2005. From February to March 2014, 28% of ECGs were classified as "emergency" by the primary care tele-health sites. This quasi-experimental study aimed to investigate the reasons behind the high number of emergency ECGs being sent in, the implementation of corrective actions, and an assessment of the impact of these actions. In the 1st phase, primary care units that sent >70% of ECGs as emergency from February to March 2014 were selected. The 2nd phase consisted of the intervention. In the 3rd phase, the proportion of ECGs sent as an emergency during the 1st and 2nd months post intervention were assessed. Of the 63 cities selected during the 1st phase, 50% of the practitioners did not know the proper definition of emergency. After the intervention, 67% of the cities had a significant reduction in the proportion of ECGs sent as an emergency during the 1st month, and 17% had a significant reduction during the 2nd month.
Full Text Available This paper presents a system based on WSN technology capable of monitoring heart rate and the rate of motion of seniors within their homes. The system is capable of remotely alerting specialists, caretakers or family members via a smartphone of rapid physiological changes due to falls, tachycardia or bradycardia. This work was carried out using our workgroup’s WiSe platform, which we previously developed for use in WSNs. The proposed WSN architecture is flexible, allowing for greater scalability to better allow event-based monitoring. The architecture also provides security mechanisms to assure that the monitored and/or stored data can only be accessed by authorized individuals or devices. The aforementioned characteristics provide the network versatility and solidity required for use in health applications.
Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aguilar-Velasco, José; Buenrostro-Segura, César; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina-Cass, Aldo
This paper presents a system based on WSN technology capable of monitoring heart rate and the rate of motion of seniors within their homes. The system is capable of remotely alerting specialists, caretakers or family members via a smartphone of rapid physiological changes due to falls, tachycardia or bradycardia. This work was carried out using our workgroup's WiSe platform, which we previously developed for use in WSNs. The proposed WSN architecture is flexible, allowing for greater scalability to better allow event-based monitoring. The architecture also provides security mechanisms to assure that the monitored and/or stored data can only be accessed by authorized individuals or devices. The aforementioned characteristics provide the network versatility and solidity required for use in health applications.
Leng, Mhoira Ef
What make a good doctor is a question posed by the public and profession and is key when designing training programmes. The goal of training is to change practice not simply acquire knowledge yet too often curriculums and assessment focuses on knowledge and skills. Professional practice is underpinned by beliefs and values and therefore training may need to challenge deeply held values in order to result in a change in practice. Palliative care offers an opportunity to challenge values at a deeply personal level as it brings experiences of pain and suffering alongside clinical knowledge and skills. Palliative care is holistic and so real scenarios where physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues are evident can be presented in an interactive, learner centered environment. Training in ethics alongside clinical skills will assist the development of judgment which should also be assessed. Communication skills enable the clinician to hear and understand the needs and wishes of those facing life limiting illness. Training should include aspects of modeling and mentorship to demonstrate and integrate the learning with the realities of clinical practice and include those who lead and influence policy and advocacy.
Schweikardt, C.; Verheij, R.A.; Donker, G.A.; Coppieters, Y.
Aim: The Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network (SGPN) was founded in 1970 for disease surveillance in primary care, based on paper questionnaires. Advances in information technology offered new prospects of data collection from electronic health records (EHRs). This study investigates the
Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; Oldewarris, Karen; Span, Marijke; Jukema, Jan; Eefsting, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra
This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.
Garez, V; Devouche, E; Bobin-Bègue, A; Alecian, M; Minjollet, P; Vallerent, A; Poget, M; Oguibenine, H; Héroux, C; Medjkane, F; Apter, G
The pregnancy periods of peripartum and immediate postpartum represent moments of opportunity to access care. Both prevention and therapeutic management can be offered with a better chance of success during these periods. Our specific Consultation Liaison (CL) team PPUMMA was created in order to respond to the need for early detection of psychopathology and rapid implementation of therapeutic management and preventive measure for mother and child. The importance of urgently intervening "on site" seemed a necessity since duration of hospitalization in maternity wards is very short. Women might not know or understand their symptoms or be ready to ask for a referral for themselves but could be ready to respond positively to a team approach where the psychiatrist is part of the Ob-Gyn department. Working with an interdisciplinary approach tends to lower stress linked to the psychiatric side of the consultation and stigma related to psychological or psychiatric issues; therefore, PPUMMA intervenes within 48 to 72hours of birth. It deals with assessment and diagnosis during the peripartum period and orientation and referral for both mother and infant when necessary after birth. The Perinatal Psychiatry emergency mobile unit PPUMMA was created in order to address these issues. From 2008 to 2015, 1907 patients were assessed but data were missing for 90 patients. We therefore analyzed 1817 patient files looking at age, diagnosis origin of referral, time of referral (pre or postpartum) and delay from referral to assessment. Most patients were between 20 and 40 (81.5 %). One hundred and eighteen patients were under 20 years of age, of whom 64 were minors (3.5 %), and 218 were 40 or more (12 %). These two groups were over-represented close to threefold when comparing with national birth data records. A psychologist had first seen three out of four women. Midwives and Ob-Gyn referred 9 % and 8 % of patients while Social workers sent in 4 %. Two thirds of the
Henderson, Julie; Javanparast, Sara; MacKean, Tamara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Ziersch, Anna
This paper reports findings from 55 stakeholder interviews undertaken in six Primary Health Networks (PHNs) in Australia as part of a study of the impact of population health planning in regional primary health organisations on service access and equity. Primary healthcare planning is currently undertaken by PHNs which were established in 2015 as commissioning organisations. This was a departure from the role of Medicare Locals, the previous regional primary health organisations which frequently provided services. This paper addresses perceptions of 23 senior staff, 11 board members and 21 members of clinical and community advisory councils or health priority groups from six case study PHNs on the impact of commissioning on equity. Participants view the collection of population health data as facilitating service access through redistributing services on the basis of need and through bringing objectivity to decision-making about services. Conversely, participants question the impact of the political and geographical context and population profile on capacity to improve service access and equity through service commissioning. Service delivery was seen as fragmented, the model is at odds with the manner in which Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) operate and rural regions lack services to commission. As a consequence, reliance upon commissioning of services may not be appropriate for the Australian primary healthcare context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoffmire, Claire; Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M
The US Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA's medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014-overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA's medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA's medical records. Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA's medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems.
Eldib, Mohamed; Deboeverie, Francis; Philips, Wilfried; Aghajan, Hamid
Recent advancements in visual sensor technologies have made behavior analysis practical for in-home monitoring systems. The current in-home monitoring systems face several challenges: (1) visual sensor calibration is a difficult task and not practical in real-life because of the need for recalibration when the visual sensors are moved accidentally by a caregiver or the senior citizen, (2) privacy concerns, and (3) the high hardware installation cost. We propose to use a network of cheap low-resolution visual sensors (30×30 pixels) for long-term behavior analysis. The behavior analysis starts by visual feature selection based on foreground/background detection to track the motion level in each visual sensor. Then a hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to estimate the user's locations without calibration. Finally, an activity discovery approach is proposed using spatial and temporal contexts. We performed experiments on 10 months of real-life data. We show that the HMM approach outperforms the k-nearest neighbor classifier against ground truth for 30 days. Our framework is able to discover 13 activities of daily livings (ADL parameters). More specifically, we analyze mobility patterns and some of the key ADL parameters to detect increasing or decreasing health conditions.
Full Text Available Gert-Jan Lauret,1,2 Harm JH Gijsbers,3 Erik JM Hendriks,2 Marie-Louise Bartelink,4 Rob A de Bie,2 Joep AW Teijink1,2 On behalf of the ClaudicatioNet Study Group members1Department of Vascular Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; 2Caphri Research Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Dutch Society for Heart, Vascular and Lung Physiotherapy, Meijerslaan PG Heemstede, The Netherlands; 4Julius Center Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The NetherlandsIntroduction: Intermittent claudication (IC is a manifestation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. Besides cardiovascular risk management, supervised exercise therapy (SET should be offered to all patients with IC. Outdated guidelines, an insufficient number of specialized physiotherapists (PTs, lack of awareness of the importance of SET by referring physicians, and misguided financial incentives all seriously impede the availability of a structured SET program in The Netherlands.Description of care practice: By initiating regional care networks, ClaudicatioNet aims to improve the quality of care for patients with IC. Based on the chronic care model as a conceptual framework, these networks should enhance the access, continuity, and (cost efficiency of the health care system. With the aid of a national database, health care professionals will be able to benchmark patient results while ClaudicatioNet will be able to monitor quality of care by way of functional and patient reported outcome measures.Discussion: The success of ClaudicatioNet is dependent on several factors. Vascular surgeons, general practitioners and coordinating central caregivers will need to team up and work in close collaboration with specialized PTs. A substantial task in the upcoming years will be to monitor the quality, volume, and distribution of ClaudicatioNet PTs. Finally, misguided financial incentives
Huerta Munoz Ulises
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the “Health for All” doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. Methods This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1 – walking; Scenario 2 – walking and cycling; and Scenario 3 – walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Results Scenario 2 (walking and cycling has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation. The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking. The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle
Dam, Alieske E H; Boots, Lizzy M M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E
Access to social support contributes to feelings of independence and better social health. This qualitative study aims to investigate multi-informant perspectives on informal social support in dementia care networks. Ten spousal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) completed an ecogram, a social network card and a semi-structured interview. The ecogram aimed to trigger subjective experiences regarding social support. Subsequently, 17 network members were interviewed. The qualitative analyses identified codes, categories, and themes. Sixth themes emerged: (1) barriers to ask for support; (2) facilitators to ask for support; (3) barriers to offer support; (4) facilitators to offer support; (5) a mismatch between supply and demand of social support; and (6) openness in communication to repair the imbalance. Integrating social network perspectives resulted in a novel model identifying a mismatch between the supply and demand of social support, strengthened by a cognitive bias: caregivers reported to think for other social network members and vice versa. Openness in communication in formal and informal care systems might repair this mismatch.
Park, Elyse R; Quinn, Virginia P; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Loudin, Beverly; Cummins, Sharon; Perry, Kristin; Rigotti, Nancy A
Recruiting pregnant smokers into smoking cessation intervention trials is challenging. Changes in health care systems offer new opportunities to overcome many of the obstacles encountered by researchers attempting to address the significant harm from maternal smoking. Investigators could facilitate smoking cessation study recruitment by collaborating with health care systems that systematically collect patient smoking status and record it in a centralized, retrievable fashion. This paper reports the results of utilizing this novel approach and compares it with a typical decentralized practice-based recruitment strategy. The study was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, from 2000 to 2005. Four hundred forty-two pregnant smokers were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered smoking counseling from two sources: a network-model managed care health plan and community-based practices (CBP). At the health plan, study recruitment was built on an existing system that permitted pregnant smokers to be identified centrally. At the CBPs, identification and referral systems had to be developed at each practice specifically for the study. The two strategies were compared on the efficiency of recruitment, characteristics of enrollees, and study outcome and process measures. The health plan strategy generated referrals nearly twice as fast as the CBP strategy (30.4 vs. 17.0 per month), but because referrals were not timely, a large proportion of women from the plan were too advanced in pregnancy to be eligible to enroll in the study. As a result, the two strategies yielded a comparable enrollment rate. Participants from the health plan were older, better educated, less racially diverse, more likely to be living with the baby's father, and less likely to have smokers in their environment. These differences were largely explained by the socioeconomic diversity of women recruited from the CBPs. Smoking cessation outcomes did
In the field of wearable biomedical sensors, the convergence revolution is more than a fanciful, utopian view of the way innovation should be done. Medical-grade wearable sensors rely on it. Their development requires technical know-how, computing expertise, clinical input, and collaboration-a true meeting of the minds to permit the conversion of wearables from neat gadgets into practical and proficient tools that will propel health care to new heights. Beyond the increasing miniaturization of hardware and the shift to wireless communication technology, flexible electronics and more powerful computing capabilities, including application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), have enabled new work on body sensor networks (BSNs) that monitor, analyze, and make sense of body signals for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of health disorders. Developments in processing, such as sensor-connected nodes combined with evolving algorithms and decreasing power requirements, have also contributed. In addition, new approaches to subjective measures (pain and emotion) have opened possibilities.
Adib, Salim M.; Hamadeh, Randa; Freidi, Alia; Ammar, Walid
Introduction In 2012, the Ministry of Public Health in Lebanon piloted a service of multifactorial cardiovascular screening in the publicly subsidized Primary Health Care (PHC) Network. We present an epidemiological analysis of data produced during this pilot to justify the inclusion of this service in the package of essential services offered through PHC and to present a preliminary cardiovascular risk profile in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 4,205 participants (two-thirds of which were women) aged at least 40 years and reportedly free from diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were screened. The screening protocol used a questionnaire and direct measurements to assess 5 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors; total cardiovascular risk score was calculated according to a paper-based algorithm developed by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension. Results Approximately 25% of the sample displayed metabolic impairments (11% for impaired blood glucose metabolism and 17% for impaired systolic blood pressure), and 6.6% were classified at total cardiovascular risk of 10% or more. Just over one-quarter of the sample was obese, almost half had a substantially elevated waist circumference, and 41% were smokers. Men were significantly more likely to screen positive for metabolic impairment than women, and women were more likely to be obese. Conclusion The implementation of a multifactorial screening for CVD among asymptomatic subjects detected a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed cases of high metabolic risk, people who could now be referred to optimal medical follow-up. PMID:25032835
Yamout, Rouham; Adib, Salim M; Hamadeh, Randa; Freidi, Alia; Ammar, Walid
In 2012, the Ministry of Public Health in Lebanon piloted a service of multifactorial cardiovascular screening in the publicly subsidized Primary Health Care (PHC) Network. We present an epidemiological analysis of data produced during this pilot to justify the inclusion of this service in the package of essential services offered through PHC and to present a preliminary cardiovascular risk profile in an asymptomatic population. A total of 4,205 participants (two-thirds of which were women) aged at least 40 years and reportedly free from diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were screened. The screening protocol used a questionnaire and direct measurements to assess 5 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors; total cardiovascular risk score was calculated according to a paper-based algorithm developed by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension. Approximately 25% of the sample displayed metabolic impairments (11% for impaired blood glucose metabolism and 17% for impaired systolic blood pressure), and 6.6% were classified at total cardiovascular risk of 10% or more. Just over one-quarter of the sample was obese, almost half had a substantially elevated waist circumference, and 41% were smokers. Men were significantly more likely to screen positive for metabolic impairment than women, and women were more likely to be obese. The implementation of a multifactorial screening for CVD among asymptomatic subjects detected a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed cases of high metabolic risk, people who could now be referred to optimal medical follow-up.
Hayes, Holly; Parchman, Michael L.; Howard, Ray
Evaluating effective growth and development of a Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a logic model and how the framework has been used for planning and evaluation in a primary care PBRN. An evaluation team was formed consisting of the PBRN directors, staff and its board members. After the mission and the target audience were determined, facilitated meetings and discussions were held with stakeholders to identify the assumptions, inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and outcome indicators. The long-term outcomes outlined in the final logic model are two-fold: 1.) Improved health outcomes of patients served by PBRN community clinicians; and 2.) Community clinicians are recognized leaders of quality research projects. The Logic Model proved useful in identifying stakeholder interests and dissemination activities as an area that required more attention in the PBRN. The logic model approach is a useful planning tool and project management resource that increases the probability that the PBRN mission will be successfully implemented. PMID:21900441
Percac-Lima, Sanja; López, Lenny; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Green, Alexander R; Atlas, Steven J
The long-term effects of interventions to improve colorectal (CRC) screening in vulnerable populations are uncertain. The authors evaluated the impact of patient navigation (PN) on the equity of CRC prevention over a 5-year period. A culturally tailored CRC screening PN program was implemented in 1 community health center (CHC) in 2007. In a primary care network, CRC screening rates from 2006 to 2010 among eligible patients from the CHC with PN were compared with the rates from other practices without PN. Multivariable logistic regression models for repeated measures were used to assess differences over time. Differences in CRC screening rates diminished among patients at the CHC with PN and at other practices between 2006 (49.2% vs 62.5%, respectively; P practices (5% vs 3.4% per year; P practices, lower CRC screening rates in 2006 (47.5% vs 52.1%, respectively; P = .02) were higher by 2010 (73.5% vs 67.3%, respectively; P practices in 2006 (44.3% vs 44.7%, respectively; P = .79) were higher at the CHC by 2010 (70.6% vs 58.6%, respectively; P practices (both P < .001). A PN program increased CRC screening rates in a CHC and improved equity in vulnerable patients. Long-term funding of PN programs has the potential to reduce cancer screening disparities. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Assassi, Shervin; Baron, Murray; Bartlett, Susan J.; Costa Maia, Angela; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Furst, Daniel E.; Gottesman, Karen; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hudson, Marie; Ann Impens, PhD; Korner, Annett; Leite, Catarina; Mayes, Maureen D.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Motivala, Sarosh J.; Mouthon, Luc; Nielson, Warren R.; Plante, Diane; Poiraudeau, Serge; Poole, Janet L.; Pope, Janet; Sauve, Maureen; Steele, Russell J.; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.; Taillefer, Suzanne; van den Ende, Cornelia H.; Erin Arthurs, BSc; Bassel, Marielle; Delisle, Vanessa; Milette, Katherine; Leavens, Allison; Razykov, Ilya; Khanna, Dinesh
Systemic sclerosis (SSc), or scleroderma, is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disorder characterised by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and by the involvement of internal organs such as the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Because there is no cure, feasibly-implemented and easily accessible evidence-based interventions to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are needed. Due to a lack of evidence, however, specific recommendations have not been made regarding non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. behavioural/psychological, educational, physical/occupational therapy) to improve HRQoL in SSc. The Scleroderma Patient-centred Intervention Network (SPIN) was recently organised to address this gap. SPIN is comprised of patient representatives, clinicians, and researchers from Canada, the USA, and Europe. The goal of SPIN, as described in this article, is to develop, test, and disseminate a set of accessible interventions designed to complement standard care in order to improve HRQoL outcomes in SSc. PMID:22244687
Full Text Available Coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC is an efficient algorithm for computations of trigonometric functions. Scaling-free-CORDIC is one of the famous CORDIC implementations with advantages of speed and area. In this paper, a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS based on scaling-free CORDIC is presented. The proposed multiplier-less architecture with small ROM and pipeline data path has advantages of high data rate, high precision, high performance, and less hardware cost. The design procedure with performance and hardware analysis for optimization has also been given. It is verified by Matlab simulations and then implemented with field programmable gate array (FPGA by Verilog. The spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR is over 86.85 dBc, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is more than 81.12 dB. The scaling-free CORDIC-based architecture is suitable for VLSI implementations for the DDFS applications in terms of hardware cost, power consumption, SNR, and SFDR. The proposed DDFS is very suitable for medical instruments and body care area network systems.
Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it. Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved. Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process. Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.
Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it.Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved.Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process. Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.
Beek, A.P.A. van; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.P.M.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in
Amirkhanian, Yuri; Kelly, Jeffrey; Kuznetsova, Anna; Meylakhs, Anastasia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Musatov, Vladimir; Chaika, Nikolay
HIV treatment to reduce downstream HIV incidence and to decrease disease mortality and morbidity at a population level both require that hidden, out-of-care people living with HIV (PLH) in the community be reached and engaged to enter care. This research evaluated the feasibility of reaching out-of-care or non-adherent PLH through members of their social networks in St Petersburg, Russia. To recruit a social network sample of HIV-positive injection drug users, 16 HIV+ seeds were enrolled into the study through PLH-oriented websites and online forums using recruitment ads or approached in needle exchange sites. Interested persons called the study phone number and completed a brief eligibility interview. Seed inclusion criteria were HIV+ status, being 18 years or older, having ever injected drugs, and having not visited an HIV doctor in the past 6 months. Seeds provided blood specimens tested for HIV to confirm their self-reported status. Eligible seeds were enrolled, completed brief network elicitation interview, and were asked to invite their own HIV+ friends into the study. Incentives were provided as compensation for participants' time and additional smaller incentives were provided for inviting each HIV+ network member to also participate. The seed's PLH friends established the first ring of participants who, in turn were asked to invite their own PLH friends (second ring). All study participants completed assessment of psychosocial wellbeing and sexual and injection-related HIV risk behaviour. Blood samples were collected from all participants to confirm their HIV+ status. Through this chain referral process, the initial 16 seeds led to the enrolment of a total of 66 PLH from the community (mean=4 per initial seed), most of whom - like the seed - were not presently in HIV care or were ART non-adherent. Implementation of treatment cascade goals requires complementing conventional paths of identifying PLH with feasible and effective community-based approaches
Benthin, Cody; Pannu, Sonal; Khan, Akram; Gong, Michelle
The nature, variability, and extent of early warning clinical practice alerts derived from automated query of electronic health records (e-alerts) currently used in acute care settings for clinical care or research is unknown. To describe e-alerts in current use in acute care settings at medical centers participating in a nationwide critical care research network. We surveyed investigators at 38 institutions involved in the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical Trials Network for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Thirty sites completed the survey (79% response rate). All sites used electronic health record systems. Epic Systems was used at 56% of sites; the others used alternate commercially available vendors or homegrown systems. Respondents at 57% of sites represented in this survey used e-alerts. All but 1 of these 17 sites used an e-alert for early detection of sepsis-related syndromes, and 35% used an e-alert for pneumonia. E-alerts were triggered by abnormal laboratory values (37%), vital signs (37%), or radiology reports (15%) and were used about equally for clinical decision support and research. Only 59% of sites with e-alerts have evaluated them either for accuracy or for validity. A majority of the research network sites participating in this survey use e-alerts for early notification of potential threats to hospitalized patients; however, there was significant variability in the nature of e-alerts between institutions. Use of one common electronic health record vendor at more than half of the participating sites suggests that it may be possible to standardize e-alerts across multiple sites in research networks, particularly among sites using the same medical record platform.
Martinho Braga Batista e Silva
Full Text Available Tendo em vista o processo paulatino de responsabilização de atores e instâncias sociais pelo cuidado no contexto da Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira, percebe-se que familiares e vizinhos de pacientes psiquiátricos têm sido instigados a " participar" da política pública, principalmente no lugar de " suporte social" , embora oficialmente considerados " parceiros" . Essa reconfiguração da relação entre Estado e sociedade civil é consagrada pela diretriz governamental de tomada de responsabilidade dos serviços pelo território, uma mudança da lógica de demanda e oferta de atendimento no sentido de estimular serviços extra-hospitalares - como os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial, campo desse estudo - a se encarregarem pela população adscrita a uma área geográfica. O objetivo desse texto é investigar as tecnologias psicossociais produzidas nesse contexto político, institucional e histórico específico, tais como a mediação de trocas sociais e a arbitragem de conflitos. Um dos materiais analisados são os registros em prontuário, que podem constituir os atores e instâncias sociais citados como envolvidos no campo da saúde mental, enredando-os na malha administrativa construída como rede de suporte social.In the context of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform family members and neighbors of psychiatric patients have been urged to " participate" in the public policies, mainly as " social support" although officially considered " partners" . This reconfiguration of the relationship between State and civil society is reflected in the directive that the services have to take over the responsibility for territories, a change in the logic of supply and demand aimed at stimulating extra-hospital services such as Psychosocial Care Centers, the object of this study, to provide care to the population of a certain geographical area. The purpose of this article is to investigate the psychosocial technologies produced in this specific
Bean, Daniel M; Stringer, Clive; Beeknoo, Neeraj; Teo, James; Dobson, Richard J B
The topology of the patient flow network in a hospital is complex, comprising hundreds of overlapping patient journeys, and is a determinant of operational efficiency. To understand the network architecture of patient flow, we performed a data-driven network analysis of patient flow through two acute hospital sites of King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Administration databases were queried for all intra-hospital patient transfers in an 18-month period and modelled as a dynamic weighted directed graph. A 'core' subnetwork containing only 13-17% of all edges channelled 83-90% of the patient flow, while an 'ephemeral' network constituted the remainder. Unsupervised cluster analysis and differential network analysis identified sub-networks where traffic is most associated with A&E performance. Increased flow to clinical decision units was associated with the best A&E performance in both sites. The component analysis also detected a weekend effect on patient transfers which was not associated with performance. We have performed the first data-driven hypothesis-free analysis of patient flow which can enhance understanding of whole healthcare systems. Such analysis can drive transformation in healthcare as it has in industries such as manufacturing.
Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Samico, Isabella; Eguiguren, Pamela; Cisneros, Angelica-Ivonne; Huerta, Adriana; Muruaga, María-Cecilia; Bertolotto, Fernando
Improving coordination between primary care (PC) and secondary care (SC) has become a policy priority in recent years for many Latin American public health systems looking to reinforce a healthcare model based on PC. However, despite being a longstanding concern, it has scarcely been analyzed in this region. This paper analyses the level of clinical coordination between PC and SC experienced by doctors and explores influencing factors in public healthcare networks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a survey of doctors working in the study networks (348 doctors per country). The COORDENA questionnaire was applied to measure their experiences of clinical management and information coordination, and their related factors. Descriptive analyses were conducted and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated to assess the relationship between general perception of care coordination and associated factors. With some differences between countries, doctors generally reported limited care coordination, mainly in the transfer of information and communication for the follow-up of patients and access to SC for referred patients, especially in the case of PC doctors and, to a lesser degree, inappropriate clinical referrals and disagreement over treatments, in the case of SC doctors. Factors associated with a better general perception of coordination were: being a SC doctor, considering that there is enough time for coordination within consultation hours, job and salary satisfaction, identifying the PC doctor as the coordinator of patient care across levels, knowing the doctors of the other care level and trusting in their clinical skills. These results provide evidence of problems in the implementation of a primary care-based model that require changes in aspects of employment, organization and interaction between doctors, all key factors for coordination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published
Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Goyatá, Sueli Leiko Takamatsu; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Yamamura, Mellina; Deon, Keila Christiane; Lapão, Luis Miguel Veles; Santos Neto, Marcelino; Uchoa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre
Health systems organized as networks and coordinated by the Primary Health Care (PHC) may contribute to the improvement of clinical care, sanitary conditions, satisfaction of patients and reduction of local budget expenditures. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate a questionnaire - COPAS - to assess the coordination of Integrated Health Service Delivery Networks by the Primary Health Care. A cross sectional approach was used. The population was pooled from Family Health Strategy healthcare professionals, of the Alfenas region (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Data collection was performed from August to October 2013. The results were checked for the presence of floor and ceiling effects and the internal consistency measured through Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was verified through convergent and discriminant values following Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM) analysis. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory; as was the convergent validity, with a few correlations lower then 0.30. The discriminant validity values of the majority of items, with respect to their own dimension, were found to be higher or significantly higher than their correlations with the dimensions to which they did not belong. The results showed that the COPAS instrument has satisfactory initial psychometric properties and may be used by healthcare managers and workers to assess the PHC coordination performance within the Integrated Health Service Delivery Network.
Casanova, Angela Oliveira; Cruz, Marly Marques; Giovanella, Ligia; Alves, Glaydes Dos Reis; Cardoso, Gisela Cordeiro Pereira
This paper aims to analyze the potential, limits and challenges of regional governance in the implementation process of health care networks in three Brazilian regions: Alto Solimões (Amazonas), Belém (Pará) and an interstate region comprising Tocantins, Pará and Maranhão states (Topama). The study is based on the evaluation study on the implementation of the Quality Health Care Network Development and Improvement Project (QualiSUS-Rede). This is a qualitative multiple case study with the analysis of official documents and use of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders conducted from July to December 2014. Governance review encompassed three components: stakeholders involved, especially local steering groups and their regional coordination capacity; strategies used for strengthening regional governance, anchored on the intervention's modeling; and implementation of local health care networks. Results point that the regional managing commissions were the main governance strategy and that the QualiSUS-Rede Project strengthened regional governance and integration differently in every case, depending on stakeholders' administration and consensus capacity on regional and political priorities.
Nembhard, Ingrid M; Morrow, Christopher T; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Health care organizations often fail in their effort to implement care-improving innovations. This article differentiates role-changing innovations, altering what workers do, from time-changing innovations, altering when tasks are performed or for how long. We examine our hypothesis that the degree to which access to groups that can alter organizational learning--staff, management, and external network--facilitates implementation depends on innovation type. Our longitudinal study using ordinal logistic regression and survey data on 517 hospitals' implementation of evidence-based practices for treating heart attack confirmed our thesis for factors granting access to each group: improvement team's representativeness (of affected staff), senior management engagement, and network membership. Although team representativeness and network membership were positively associated with implementing role-changing practices, senior management engagement was not. In contrast, senior management engagement was positively associated with implementing time-changing practices, whereas team representativeness was not, and network membership was not unless there was limited management engagement. These findings advance implementation science by explaining mixed results across past studies: Nature of change for workers alters potential facilitators' effects on implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Henk van Rijswijk; Esther Stoffers; Anna Beurskens; M. Beckers; F.A. Haarsma; Albine Moser
Background and objective Public involvement in palliative care is challenging and difficult, because people in need of palliative care are often not capable of speaking up for themselves. Patient representatives advocate for their common interests. The aim of our study was to examine in depth the
Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case. A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians' Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research.
Koller, Michael; Ernstberger, Antonio; Zeman, Florian; Loss, Julika; Nerlich, Michael
The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the first certified regional trauma network in Germany, the Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria (TNO) addressing the following specific research questions: Do standard and maximum care facilities produce comparable (risk-adjusted) levels of patient outcome? Does TNO outperform reference data provided by the German Trauma Register 2008? Does TNO comply with selected benchmarks derived from the S3 practice guideline? Which barriers and facilitators can be identified in the health care delivery processes for polytrauma patients? The design is based on a prospective multicenter cohort study comparing two cohorts of polytrauma patients: those treated in maximum care facilities and those treated in standard care facilities. Patient recruitment will take place in the 25 TNO clinics. It is estimated that n = 1.100 patients will be assessed for eligibility within a two-year period and n = 800 will be included into the study and analysed. Main outcome measures include the TraumaRegisterQM form, which has been implemented in the clinical routine since 2009 and is filled in via a web-based data management system in participating hospitals on a mandatory basis. Furthermore, patient-reported outcome is assessed using the EQ-5D at 6, 12 and 24 months after trauma. Comparisons will be drawn between the two cohorts. Further standards of comparisons are secondary data derived from German Trauma Registry as well as benchmarks from German S3 guideline on polytrauma. The qualitative part of the study will be based on semi-standardized interviews and focus group discussions with health care providers within TNO. The goal of the qualitative analysis is to elucidate which facilitating and inhibiting forces influence cooperation and performance within the network. This is the first study to evaluate a certified trauma network within the German health care system using a unique combination of a quantitative (prospective cohort
Andersson, Stefan; Erlingsson, Christen; Magnusson, Lennart; Hanson, Elizabeth
Policy makers in Sweden and other European Member States pay increasing attention as to how best support working carers; carers juggling providing unpaid family care for older family members while performing paid work. Exploring perceived benefits and challenges with web-based information and communication technologies as a means of supporting working carers' in their caregiving role, this paper draws on findings from a qualitative study. The study aimed to describe working carers' experiences of having access to the web-based family care support network 'A good place' (AGP) provided by the municipality to support those caring for an older family member. Content analysis of interviews with nine working carers revealed three themes: A support hub, connections to peers, personnel and knowledge; Experiencing ICT support as relevant in changing life circumstances; and Upholding one's personal firewall. Findings indicate that the web-based family care support network AGP is an accessible, complementary means of support. Utilising support while balancing caregiving, work obligations and responsibilities was made easier with access to AGP; enabling working carers to access information, psychosocial support and learning opportunities. In particular, it provided channels for carers to share experiences with others, to be informed, and to gain insights into medical and care issues. This reinforced working carers' sense of competence, helping them meet caregiving demands and see positive aspects in their situation. Carers' low levels of digital skills and anxieties about using computer-based support were barriers to utilising web-based support and could lead to deprioritising of this support. However, to help carers overcome these barriers and to better match web-based support to working carers' preferences and situations, web-based support must be introduced in a timely manner and must more accurately meet each working carer's unique caregiving needs. © 2016 Nordic College
English, Mike; Ayieko, Philip; Nyamai, Rachel; Were, Fred; Githanga, David; Irimu, Grace
The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our 'insider' interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention. We articulate key activities that together have constituted network processes over 2.5 years and then utilise a recently published typology of implementation components to give greater granularity to this description from the perspective of those delivering the intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel we then suggest how the network may operate to achieve change and offer examples of change before making an effort to synthesise our understanding in the form of a realist context-mechanism-outcome configuration. We suggest our network is likely to comprise 22 from a total of 73 identifiable intervention components, of which 12 and 10 we consider major and minor components, respectively. At the policy level, we employed clinical guidelines, marketing and communication strategies with intervention characteristics operating through incentivisation, persuasion, education, enablement, modelling and environmental restructuring. These might influence behaviours by enhancing psychological capability, creating social opportunity and increasing motivation largely through a reflective pathway. We previously proposed a clinical network as a solution to challenges implementing recommended practices in Kenyan hospitals based on our understanding of theory and context. Here, we report how we have enacted what was proposed and use a recent typology to deconstruct the intervention into its elements and articulate how we think the network may produce change. We offer a more generalised
Chan, KTY; Wong, SYS; Chiu, BCF; Chin, WY; Lam, TP; Lam, CLK; Fong, DYT; Lo, YCY
Background This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, detection rates and management of primary care depression in Hong Kong. Methods A cross-sectional survey containing the PHQ-9 instrument was conducted on waiting room patients of 59 primary care doctors. Doctors blinded to the PHQ-9 scores reported whether they thought their patients had depression and their management. Results 10,179 patients completed the survey (response rate 81%). The prevalence of PHQ-9 positive screeni...
The size, characteristics and partnership networks of the health-related non-profit sector in three regions of South Africa: implications of changing primary health care policy for community-based care.
van Pletzen, Ermien; Zulliger, R; Moshabela, M; Schneider, H
Health-related community-based care in South Africa is mostly provided through non-profit organizations (NPOs), but little is known about the sector. In the light of emerging government policy on greater formalization of community-based care in South Africa, this article assesses the size, characteristics and partnership networks of health-related NPOs in three South African communities and explores implications of changing primary health care policy for this sector. Data were collected (2009-11) from three sites: Khayelitsha (urban), Botshabelo (semi-rural) and Bushbuckridge (semi/deep rural). Separate data sources were used to identify all health-related NPOs in the sites. Key characteristics of identified NPOs were gathered using a standardized tool. A typology of NPOs was developed combining level of resources (well, moderate, poor) and orientation of activities ('Direct service', 'Developmental' and/or 'Activist'). Network analysis was performed to establish degree and density of partnerships among NPOs. The 138 NPOs (n = 56 in Khayelitsha, n = 47 in Bushbuckridge; n = 35 in Botshabelo) were mostly local community-based organizations (CBOs). The main NPO orientation was 'Direct service' (n = 120, 87%). Well- and moderately resourced NPOs were successful at combining orientations. Most organizations with an 'Activist' orientation were urban. No poorly resourced organizations had this orientation. Well-resourced organizations with an 'Activist' orientation were highly connected in Khayelitsha NPO networks, while poorly resourced CBOs were marginalized. A contrasting picture emerged in Botshabelo where CBOs were highly connected. Networks in Bushbuckridge were fragmented and linear. The NPO sector varies geographically in numbers, resources, orientation of activities and partnership networks. NPOs may perform important developmental roles and strong potential for social capital may reside in organizational networks operating in otherwise impoverished environments
Balcou-Debussche, M; Debussche, X
This study focused on issues in the education of type 2 diabetes patients in primary care on Reunion Island which, in a medical context, is broadly similar to metropolitan France, but with a much greater prevalence of diabetes. The aim was to assess the perceptions, training, reported practices and needs of health care providers in the field of patient education in advance of the initiation of a health care management network for diabetic patients. A total of 74 physicians and 63 nurses completed a detailed questionnaire comprising 52 items divided into six parts: professional activity, initial and postgraduate training, educational practices, objectives of patient education, perceived barriers and prospects for optimization. Educational activities for patients are almost nonexistent. Information and explanations given during a face-to-face encounter with the physician or nurse that combine technical and caring approaches are the main reasons reported for patient education. The obstacles reported by professionals that need to be overcome are limited available time, patient passivity and inadequate staff training. Practitioners and nurses are poorly taught as regards patient education and self-management of chronic diseases. The suggested improvements include professional acknowledgement, more convenient and available tools and improved postgraduate training. Patient education in primary care is still mostly an illusion, with many gaps that hinder education for both patients and professionals. The training of health professionals needs to meet the challenge of chronic diseases by integrating aspects from the fields of education and the social sciences.
Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David
People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yalda Soleiman Ekhtiari
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Self-care activities during pregnancy can be effective in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Health Belief Model (HBM is one of the most applicable models in educational need assessment for planning and implementation of educational interventions. The purpose of this study was to measurement of the constructs of HBM related to self-care during pregnancy in women referred to South Tehran health network.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 270 pregnant women who referred to health centers of South Tehran Health Networks participated. Demographic, knowledge and attitude questionnaires based on constructs of HBM was used to measure the status of knowledge and attitude of women. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS18.Results: Results showed that 92.2% of women had the knowledge scores in good level. The scores of perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy and cues to action were in good level in almost of women but almost of women obtained weak point in perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and barriersConclusion: HBM can be used as an appropriate tool for assessment the status of pregnant women in the field of self-care behaviors during pregnancy and planning and implementation of educational interventions.
Caniato, M.; Tudor, T.; Vaccari, M.
Highlights: • We systematically review scientific literature about health-care waste management. • We identify and discuss gaps, trends, efforts, and key-factors. • We suggest areas for improvement and best practices reported in literature. • We include recommendations for policy makers, practitioners and researchers. • We promote a holistic and harmonized approach to health-care waste management. - Abstract: The sustainable management of waste requires a holistic approach involving a range of stakeholders. What can often be difficult is to understand the manner in which different types of stakeholder networks are composed and work, and how best to enhance their effectiveness. Using social network analysis and stakeholder analysis of healthcare waste management stakeholders in the case study region of the Gaza Strip, this study aimed to understand and examine the manner in which the networks functioned. The Ministry of Health was found to be the most important stakeholder, followed by municipalities and solid waste management councils. Some international agencies were also mentioned, with specific roles, while other local institutions had a limited influence. Finally while health-care facilities had a strong interest in waste management, they were generally poorly informed and had limited links to each other. The manner in which the networks operated was complicated and influenced by differences in perception, sharing of information, access to finance and levels of awareness. The lack of a clear legal framework generated various mistakes about roles and responsibilities in the system, and evidently regulation was not an effective driver for improvement. Finally stakeholders had different priorities according to the waste management issues they were involved with, however segregation at the source was identified as a key requirement by most. Areas for improving the effectiveness of the networks are suggested. The analysis utilized an innovative methodology
Caniato, M., E-mail: email@example.com [Research Centre on Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Management in Developing Countries (CeTAmb), University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tudor, T. [Centre for Sustainable Waste Management, School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom); Vaccari, M. [Research Centre on Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Management in Developing Countries (CeTAmb), University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)
Highlights: • We systematically review scientific literature about health-care waste management. • We identify and discuss gaps, trends, efforts, and key-factors. • We suggest areas for improvement and best practices reported in literature. • We include recommendations for policy makers, practitioners and researchers. • We promote a holistic and harmonized approach to health-care waste management. - Abstract: The sustainable management of waste requires a holistic approach involving a range of stakeholders. What can often be difficult is to understand the manner in which different types of stakeholder networks are composed and work, and how best to enhance their effectiveness. Using social network analysis and stakeholder analysis of healthcare waste management stakeholders in the case study region of the Gaza Strip, this study aimed to understand and examine the manner in which the networks functioned. The Ministry of Health was found to be the most important stakeholder, followed by municipalities and solid waste management councils. Some international agencies were also mentioned, with specific roles, while other local institutions had a limited influence. Finally while health-care facilities had a strong interest in waste management, they were generally poorly informed and had limited links to each other. The manner in which the networks operated was complicated and influenced by differences in perception, sharing of information, access to finance and levels of awareness. The lack of a clear legal framework generated various mistakes about roles and responsibilities in the system, and evidently regulation was not an effective driver for improvement. Finally stakeholders had different priorities according to the waste management issues they were involved with, however segregation at the source was identified as a key requirement by most. Areas for improving the effectiveness of the networks are suggested. The analysis utilized an innovative methodology
Ghorbanoghli, Zeinab; Jabari, Carol; Sweidan, Walid; Hammoudeh, Wail; Cortas, George; Sharara, Ala I; Abedrabbo, Amal; Hourani, Ijad; Mahjoubi, Bahareh; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Tözün, Nurdan; Ziada-Bouchaar, Hadia; Hamoudi, Waseem; Diab, Osama; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram; Lynch, Henry; Vasen, Hans
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a very high incidence in the western world. Data from registries in the Middle East showed that the incidence of CRC is relatively low in these countries. However, these data also showed that CRC incidence has increased substantially over the past three decades and that a high proportion of cases are diagnosed at an early age (Middle East was discussed and the idea was conceived to establish a network on hereditary colorectal cancer (HCCN-ME) with the goal of improving care for high-risk groups in the Middle East and (Eastern) Mediterranean Countries.
Fischbein, Rebecca; McCormick, Kenelm; Selius, Brian A; Labuda Schrop, Susan; Hewit, Michael; Baughman, Kristin; Meeker, James
The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory examination of the current state of non-malignant acute and chronic back and neck pain assessment and management among primary care providers in a multi-site, practice-based research network. Acute and chronic pain are distinct conditions that often require different assessment and management approaches, however, little research has examined assessment and management of acute and chronic pain as separate conditions. The large majority of patients with acute and chronic back and neck pain are managed in primary care settings. Given the differences between acute and chronic pain, it is necessary to identify differences in patient characteristics, practitioner evaluation, treatment and management in primary care settings. Over a two-week period, 24 practitioners in a multi-site practice-based research network completed 196 data cards about 39 patients experiencing acute back and neck pain and 157 patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain. Findings There were significant differences between the patients experiencing acute and chronic pain in regards to practitioner evaluation, current medication management and current treatment for depression. In addition, diagnostics differed between patients experiencing acute versus chronic back and neck pain. Further, primary care providers' review of online drug monitoring program reports during the current visit was associated with current medication management using short term opioids, long-term opioids or tramadol. Most research examining acute and chronic pain focuses on the low back. Additional research needs to be conducted to explore and compare acute and chronic pain across the whole spine.
Bauer, Amy M; Rue, Tessa; Keppel, Gina A; Cole, Allison M; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Katon, Wayne
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of mobile health (mHealth) use among primary care patients and examine demographic and clinical correlates. Adult patients who presented to 1 of 6 primary care clinics in a practice-based research network in the northwest United States during a 2-week period received a survey that assessed smartphone ownership; mHealth use; sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, health literacy); chronic conditions; and depressive symptoms (2-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression. Of 918 respondents (estimated response rate, 67.4%), 55% owned a smartphone, among whom 70% were mHealth users. In multivariate analyses, smartphone ownership and mHealth use were not associated with health literacy, chronic conditions, or depression but were less common among adults >45 years old (adjusted odds ratio, 0.07-0.39; P mHealth tools from their physician, and few (31%) prioritized their provider's involvement. Use of mHealth technologies is lower among older adults but otherwise is common among primary care patients, including those with limited health literacy and those with chronic conditions. Findings support the potential role of mHealth in improving disease management among certain groups in need; however, greater involvement of health care providers may be important for realizing this potential. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Agra-Varela, Y; Fernández-Maíllo, M; Rivera-Ariza, S; Sáiz-Martínez-Acitorez, I; Casal-Gómez, J; Palanca-Sánchez, I; Bacou, J
The joint action, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care: PaSQ, aims to promote patient safety (PS) in the European Union (EU) and to facilitate the exchange of experiences among Member States (MS) and stakeholders on issues related to quality of care, PS, and patient involvement. The development and preliminary results are presented here, especially as regards the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). PaSQ is developed through 7 work packages, primarily aimed at sharing good practices (GP), which were identified using specific questionnaires and selected by means of explicit criteria, as well as to implement safe clinical practices (SCP) of proven effectiveness and agreed among MS. A total of 482 GP (39% provided by Spanish professionals) were identified. The 34 events organised in the EU, 11 including Spanish participation, facilitate sharing these practices. A total of 194 Health Care centres (49% in Spain) are implementing SCP (hand hygiene, safe surgery, medication reconciliation, and paediatric early warning scores) ACHIEVEMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: PaSQ is making it possible to strengthen collaboration between organizations and professionals at EU and SNHS level regarding PS and quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Caniato, M; Tudor, T; Vaccari, M
The sustainable management of waste requires a holistic approach involving a range of stakeholders. What can often be difficult is to understand the manner in which different types of stakeholder networks are composed and work, and how best to enhance their effectiveness. Using social network analysis and stakeholder analysis of healthcare waste management stakeholders in the case study region of the Gaza Strip, this study aimed to understand and examine the manner in which the networks functioned. The Ministry of Health was found to be the most important stakeholder, followed by municipalities and solid waste management councils. Some international agencies were also mentioned, with specific roles, while other local institutions had a limited influence. Finally while health-care facilities had a strong interest in waste management, they were generally poorly informed and had limited links to each other. The manner in which the networks operated was complicated and influenced by differences in perception, sharing of information, access to finance and levels of awareness. The lack of a clear legal framework generated various mistakes about roles and responsibilities in the system, and evidently regulation was not an effective driver for improvement. Finally stakeholders had different priorities according to the waste management issues they were involved with, however segregation at the source was identified as a key requirement by most. Areas for improving the effectiveness of the networks are suggested. The analysis utilized an innovative methodology, which involved a large number of stakeholders. Such an approach served to raise interest and awareness at different levels (public authorities, health providers, supporting actors, others), stimulate the discussion about the adoption of specific policies, and identify the effective way forward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartzler, Andrea; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Powell, Christopher; Klasnja, Predrag; Pratt, Wanda
When patients share personal health information with family and friends, their social networks become better equipped to help them through serious health situations. Thus, patients need tools that enable granular control over what personal health information is shared and with whom within social networks. Yet, we know little about how well such tools support patients' complex sharing needs. We report on a lab study in which we examined the transparency of sharing interfaces that display an overview and details of information sharing with network connections in an internet-based personal health information management tool called HealthWeaver. Although participants found the interfaces easy to use and were highly confident in their interpretation of the sharing controls, several participants made errors in determining what information was shared with whom. Our findings point to the critical importance of future work that examines design of usable interfaces that offer transparent granularity in support of patients' complex information sharing practices.
Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud
Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner.
Full Text Available Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner
Estenssoro, Elisa; Alegría, Leyla; Murias, Gastón; Friedman, Gilberto; Castro, Ricardo; Nin Vaeza, Nicolas; Loudet, Cecilia; Bruhn, Alejandro; Jibaja, Manuel; Ospina-Tascon, Gustavo; Ríos, Fernando; Machado, Flavia R; Biasi Cavalcanti, Alexandre; Dubin, Arnaldo; Hurtado, F Javier; Briva, Arturo; Romero, Carlos; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bakker, Jan; Cecconi, Maurizio; Azevedo, Luciano; Hernandez, Glenn
Latin America bears an important burden of critical care disease, yet the information about it is scarce. Our objective was to describe structure, organization, processes of care, and research activities in Latin-American ICUs. Web-based survey submitted to ICU directors. ICUs located in nine Latin-American countries. Individual ICUs. None. Two hundred fifty-seven of 498 (52%) of submitted surveys responded: 51% from Brazil, 17% Chile, 13% Argentina, 6% Ecuador, 5% Uruguay, 3% Colombia, and 5% between Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay. Seventy-nine percent of participating hospitals had less than 500 beds; most were public (59%) and academic (66%). ICUs were mainly medical-surgical (75%); number of beds was evenly distributed in the entire cohort; 77% had 24/7 intensivists; 46% had a physician-to-patient ratio between 1:4 and 7; and 69% had a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1 ≥ 2.1. The 24/7 presence of other specialists was deficient. Protocols in use averaged 9 ± 3. Brazil (vs the rest) had larger hospitals and ICUs and more quality, surveillance, and prevention committees, but fewer 24/7 intensivists and poorer nurse-to-patient ratio. Although standard monitoring, laboratory, and imaging practices were almost universal, more complex measurements and treatments and portable equipment were scarce after standard working hours, and in public hospitals. Mortality was 17.8%, without differences between countries. This multinational study shows major concerns in the delivery of critical care across Latin America, particularly in human resources. Technology was suboptimal, especially in public hospitals. A 24/7 availability of supporting specialists and of key procedures was inadequate. Mortality was high in comparison to high-income countries.
Beauchet, O; Noublanche, F; Simon, R; Sekhon, H; Chabot, J; Levinoff, E J; Kabeshova, A; Launay, C P
Identification of the risk of falls is important among older inpatients. This study aims to examine performance criteria (i.e.; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy) for fall prediction resulting from a nurse assessment and an artificial neural networks (ANNs) analysis in older inpatients hospitalized in acute care medical wards. A total of 848 older inpatients (mean age, 83.0±7.2 years; 41.8% female) admitted to acute care medical wards in Angers University hospital (France) were included in this study using an observational prospective cohort design. Within 24 hours after admission of older inpatients, nurses performed a bedside clinical assessment. Participants were separated into non-fallers and fallers (i.e.; ≥1 fall during hospitalization stay). The analysis was conducted using three feed forward ANNs (multilayer perceptron [MLP], averaged neural network, and neuroevolution of augmenting topologies [NEAT]). Seventy-three (8.6%) participants fell at least once during their hospital stay. ANNs showed a high specificity, regardless of which ANN was used, and the highest value reported was with MLP (99.8%). In contrast, sensitivity was lower, with values ranging between 98.4 to 14.8%. MLP had the highest accuracy (99.7). Performance criteria for fall prediction resulting from a bedside nursing assessment and an ANNs analysis was associated with a high specificity but a low sensitivity, suggesting that this combined approach should be used more as a diagnostic test than a screening test when considering older inpatients in acute care medical ward.
Lacasta Tintorer, David; Flayeh Beneyto, Souhel; Alzaga Reig, Xavier; Mundet Tuduri, Xavier; De la Fuente, Josep Anton; Manresa, Josep Maria; Torán Monserrat, Pere; Saigí Rubió, Francesc
There has been created an online communication tool with the objective to improve the communication among different levels of care, between Primary Care clinicians and Specialists. This tool is web 2.0 based technology (ECOPIH project). It allows to review clinical cases and to share knowledge. Our study will evaluate its impact in terms of reduction on the number of referrals to three specialties two years after the use of this tool. Open, multicenter, controlled, non random intervention study over 24 months. Study population includes 131 Primary Care Physicians assigned to nine health centers. The study will compare the clinicians that use the ECOPIH with the ones that do not use the tool. Also, professionals that start to use the tool during the period time of the study will be included.The number of annual referrals during the first and second year will be analyzed and retrospectively compared with the previous year to the implementation of the tool. Moreover, it will be assessed the level of satisfaction of the professionals with the tool and to what extend the tool responds to their needs. The implementation of ECOPIH in the field of Primary Health Care can decrease the number of referrals from primary care to specialist care.It is expected that the reduction will be more noticeable in the group of professionals that use more intensively the tool. Furthermore, we believe that it can be also observed with the professionals that read the contributions of the others.We anticipate high degree of customer satisfaction as it is a very helpful resource never used before in our environment.
Woodhams, Victoria; de Lusignan, Simon; Mughal, Shakeel; Head, Graham; Debar, Safia; Desombre, Terry; Hilton, Sean; Al Sharifi, Houda
Internationally health services are facing increasing demands due to new and more expensive health technologies and treatments, coupled with the needs of an ageing population. Reducing avoidable use of expensive secondary care services, especially high cost admissions where no procedure is carried out, has become a focus for the commissioners of healthcare. We set out to identify, evaluate and share learning about interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admission across a regional Academic Health and Social Care Network (AHSN). We conducted a service evaluation identifying initiatives that had taken place across the AHSN. This comprised a literature review, case studies, and two workshops. We identified three types of intervention: pre-hospital; within the emergency department (ED); and post-admission evaluation of appropriateness. Pre-hospital interventions included the use of predictive modelling tools (PARR - Patients at risk of readmission and ACG - Adjusted Clinical Groups) sometimes supported by community matrons or virtual wards. GP-advisers and outreach nurses were employed within the ED. The principal post-hoc interventions were the audit of records in primary care or the application of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) within the admission ward. Overall there was a shortage of independent evaluation and limited evidence that each intervention had an impact on rates of admission. Despite the frequency and cost of emergency admission there has been little independent evaluation of interventions to reduce avoidable admission. Commissioners of healthcare should consider interventions at all stages of the admission pathway, including regular audit, to ensure admission thresholds don't change.
Fernando Sérgio Pereira de Sousa
Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar o matriciamento como ferramenta articuladora da rede de atenção em saúde mental. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, realizada no Nordeste brasileiro, no período de março a abril de 2010. Utilizaram-se para a coleta das informações a entrevista semiestruturada e a observação sistemática. Como participantes da pesquisa, incluíram-se 47 profissionais de saúde da Estratégia Saúde da Família e dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial, distribuídos em dois grupos. Os dados foram organizados e analisados pelos pressupostos da análise de conteúdo articulando o teórico com o empírico. Em cumprimento ao exigido, o estudo foi submetido à análise do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa adequando-se às normas da pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Segundo os resultados evidenciaram, o apoio matricial é uma estratégia potente, pois possibilita a construção de um sistema articulado em rede no SUS, não limitado às fronteiras de um dado serviço. Interconectado por uma equipe de referência, que mobiliza diversos atores para lidar com o andamento do caso, o apoio matricial sinaliza os caminhos que viabilizam a conexão de redes de cuidados em saúde mental.This study aimed to analyze the matrix support as an organizer tool of mental health care network. This is a qualitative survey, conducted in Brazilian Northeast, from March to April 2010. Systematic observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 47 health professionals from the Family Health Strategy and Psychosocial Care Centers. The collected information was organized and analyzed by content analysis. Pursuant to the requirements, the study was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee for adapting to the standards of research involving human beings. The results showed the matrix support as a powerful strategy since it enables the construction of a linkage in SUS network services, not limited to the borders of a specific service. Also
Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhancing service efficiency and quality has always been one of the most important factors to heighten competitiveness in the health care service industry. Thus, how to utilize information technology to reduce work load for staff and expeditiously improve work efficiency and healthcare service quality is presently the top priority for every healthcare institution. In this fast changing modern society, e-health care systems are currently the best possible way to achieve enhanced service efficiency and quality under the restraint of healthcare cost control. The electronic medical record system and the online appointment system are the core features in employing e-health care systems in the technology-based service encounters. Methods This study implemented the Service Encounters Evaluation Model, the European Customer Satisfaction Index, the Attribute Model and the Overall Affect Model for model inference. A total of 700 copies of questionnaires from two authoritative southern Taiwan medical centers providing the electronic medical record system and the online appointment system service were distributed, among which 590 valid copies were retrieved with a response rate of 84.3%. We then used SPSS 11.0 and the Linear Structural Relationship Model (LISREL 8.54 to analyze and evaluate the data. Results The findings are as follows: (1 Technology-based service encounters have a positive impact on service quality, but not patient satisfaction; (2 After experiencing technology-based service encounters, the cognition of the service quality has a positive effect on patient satisfaction; and (3 Network security contributes a positive moderating effect on service quality and patient satisfaction. Conclusion It revealed that the impact of electronic workflow (online appointment system service on service quality was greater than electronic facilities (electronic medical record systems in technology-based service encounters. Convenience and
Chang, Hsin Hsin; Chang, Ching Sheng
Enhancing service efficiency and quality has always been one of the most important factors to heighten competitiveness in the health care service industry. Thus, how to utilize information technology to reduce work load for staff and expeditiously improve work efficiency and healthcare service quality is presently the top priority for every healthcare institution. In this fast changing modern society, e-health care systems are currently the best possible way to achieve enhanced service efficiency and quality under the restraint of healthcare cost control. The electronic medical record system and the online appointment system are the core features in employing e-health care systems in the technology-based service encounters. This study implemented the Service Encounters Evaluation Model, the European Customer Satisfaction Index, the Attribute Model and the Overall Affect Model for model inference. A total of 700 copies of questionnaires from two authoritative southern Taiwan medical centers providing the electronic medical record system and the online appointment system service were distributed, among which 590 valid copies were retrieved with a response rate of 84.3%. We then used SPSS 11.0 and the Linear Structural Relationship Model (LISREL 8.54) to analyze and evaluate the data. The findings are as follows: (1) Technology-based service encounters have a positive impact on service quality, but not patient satisfaction; (2) After experiencing technology-based service encounters, the cognition of the service quality has a positive effect on patient satisfaction; and (3) Network security contributes a positive moderating effect on service quality and patient satisfaction. It revealed that the impact of electronic workflow (online appointment system service) on service quality was greater than electronic facilities (electronic medical record systems) in technology-based service encounters. Convenience and credibility are the most important factors of service quality
Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Furtado, Juarez Pereira
This article presents a preliminary discussion of potential methodological tools for qualitative research on the Network of Referral Centers for Psycho-Social Care (CAPS) in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The relevance of mental health within the field of public health is examined. The study focuses on the high prevalence of mental disorders and the disproportionate lack of studies on the interface between mental health and public health. The establishment of an interdisciplinary field between public health and mental health is proposed to meet common needs by achieving similar perspectives in knowledge and practice. A particular group of tools is proposed, emphasizing the importance of reclaiming and guaranteeing the roles of various social actors to shape the assessment process, the need for collecting and standardizing academic studies on the topic, and the importance of promoting a new research field focusing on public health policies to support policymakers, managers, and health teams in reshaping their practices.
Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.
Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A
Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Implementation of an integrated primary care cardiometabolic risk prevention and management network in Montréal: does greater coordination of care with primary care physicians have an impact on health outcomes?
Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic disease management requires substantial services integration. A cardiometabolic risk management program inspired by the Chronic Care Model was implemented in Montréal for patients with diabetes or hypertension. One of this study's objectives was to assess the impact of care coordination between the interdisciplinary teams and physicians on patient participation in the program, lifestyle improvements and disease control. Methods: We obtained data on health outcomes from a register of clinical data, questionnaires completed by patients upon entry into the program and at the 12-month mark, and we drew information on the program's characteristics from the implementation analysis. We conducted multiple regression analyses, controlling for patient sociodemographic and health characteristics to measure the association between interdisciplinary team coordination with primary care physicians and various health outcomes. Results: A total of 1689 patients took part in the study (60.1% participation rate. Approximately 40% of patients withdrew from the program during the first year. At the 12-month follow-up (n = 992, we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients achieving the various clinical targets. The perception by the interdisciplinary team of greater care coordination with primary care physicians was associated with increased participation in the program and the achievement of better clinical results. Conclusion: Greater coordination of patient services between interdisciplinary teams and primary care physicians translates into benefits for patients.
Implementation of an integrated primary care cardiometabolic risk prevention and management network in Montréal: does greater coordination of care with primary care physicians have an impact on health outcomes?
Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Grimard, Dominique; Pérez, José; Fournier, Michel; Lévesque, Yves; Desforges, Johanne; Tousignant, Pierre; Borgès Da Silva, Roxane
Chronic disease management requires substantial services integration. A cardiometabolic risk management program inspired by the Chronic Care Model was implemented in Montréal for patients with diabetes or hypertension. One of this study's objectives was to assess the impact of care coordination between the interdisciplinary teams and physicians on patient participation in the program, lifestyle improvements and disease control. We obtained data on health outcomes from a register of clinical data, questionnaires completed by patients upon entry into the program and at the 12-month mark, and we drew information on the program's characteristics from the implementation analysis. We conducted multiple regression analyses, controlling for patient sociodemographic and health characteristics, to measure the association between interdisciplinary team coordination with primary care physicians and various health outcomes. A total of 1689 patients took part in the study (60.1% participation rate). Approximately 40% of patients withdrew from the program during the first year. At the 12-month follow-up (n = 992), we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients achieving the various clinical targets. The perception by the interdisciplinary team of greater care coordination with primary care physicians was associated with increased participation in the program and the achievement of better clinical results. Greater coordination of patient services between interdisciplinary teams and primary care physicians translates into benefits for patients.
Aref-Eshghi, Erfan; Oake, Justin; Godwin, Marshall; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Duke, Pauline; Mahdavian, Masoud; Asghari, Shabnam
The objective of this study was to define the optimal algorithm to identify patients with dyslipidemia using electronic medical records (EMRs). EMRs of patients attending primary care clinics in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada during 2009-2010, were studied to determine the best algorithm for identification of dyslipidemia. Six algorithms containing three components, dyslipidemia ICD coding, lipid lowering medication use, and abnormal laboratory lipid levels, were tested against a gold standard, defined as the existence of any of the three criteria. Linear discriminate analysis, and bootstrapping were performed following sensitivity/specificity testing and receiver's operating curve analysis. Two validating datasets, NL records of 2011-2014, and Canada-wide records of 2010-2012, were used to replicate the results. Relative to the gold standard, combining laboratory data together with lipid lowering medication consumption yielded the highest sensitivity (99.6%), NPV (98.1%), Kappa agreement (0.98), and area under the curve (AUC, 0.998). The linear discriminant analysis for this combination resulted in an error rate of 0.15 and an Eigenvalue of 1.99, and the bootstrapping led to AUC: 0.998, 95% confidence interval: 0.997-0.999, Kappa: 0.99. This algorithm in the first validating dataset yielded a sensitivity of 97%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) = 83%, Kappa = 0.88, and AUC = 0.98. These figures for the second validating data set were 98%, 93%, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. Combining laboratory data with lipid lowering medication consumption within the EMR is the best algorithm for detecting dyslipidemia. These results can generate standardized information systems for dyslipidemia and other chronic disease investigations using EMRs.
Bakar, Coskun; Akgün, H Seval; Al Assaf, A F
The aim of this paper is to document a study, in which the SERVQUAL scale was used to evaluate hospital services, conducting a preliminary assessment of patient attitudes regarding the important aspects of service dimensions. The SERVQUAL scale was implemented into routine use at the Baskent University Hospitals Network in Baskent, Turkey. The study consisted of 550 randomly chosen patients who presented to any member hospital in that network during January and February 2006 and received treatment as inpatients or outpatients at those healthcare facilities. The SERVQUAL scale was utilised to evaluate hospital services. A questionnaire was completed by a total of 472 (86.0 per cent) patients. The perceived scores of the patients were higher than expected for an ordinary hospital but lower than expected for a high-quality hospital. The highest difference between the perceived service score and the expected service score was found at the Alanya Application and Research Center in Alanya, Turkey. The paper demonstrates the use of the SERVQUAL scale in measuring the functional quality of the hospitals assessed.
Fontaine, Patricia; Mendenhall, Tai J; Peterson, Kevin; Speedie, Stuart M
The electronic Primary Care Research Network (ePCRN) enrolled PBRN researchers in a feasibility trial to test the functionality of the network's electronic architecture and investigate error rates associated with two data entry strategies used in clinical trials. PBRN physicians and research assistants who registered with the ePCRN were eligible to participate. After online consent and randomization, participants viewed simulated patient records, presented as either abstracted data (short form) or progress notes (long form). Participants transcribed 50 data elements onto electronic case report forms (CRFs) without integrated field restrictions. Data errors were analyzed. Ten geographically dispersed PBRNs enrolled 100 members and completed the study in less than 7 weeks. The estimated overall error rate if field restrictions had been applied was 2.3%. Participants entering data from the short form had a higher rate of correctly entered data fields (94.5% vs 90.8%, P = .004) and significantly more error-free records (P = .003). Feasibility outcomes integral to completion of an Internet-based, multisite study were successfully achieved. Further development of programmable electronic safeguards is indicated. The error analysis conducted in this study will aid design of specific field restrictions for electronic CRFs, an important component of clinical trial management systems.
Heinrich, S; Laporte Uribe, F; Roes, M; Hoffmann, W; Thyrian, J R; Wolf-Ostermann, K; Holle, B
Stakeholders involved in community dementia support services often work on their own and without coordination with other services. These circumstances can result in a lack of information and support for people with dementia and their family caregivers at home. To increase the coordination between existing support services, so-called 'Dementia Care Networks' (DCNs) have been established. Most of the tasks that are performed in DCNs are based on communication strategies. Therefore, knowledge management (KM) is a key process in these networks. However, few studies have focused on this topic. This study attempted to evaluate KM strategies in DCNs across Germany as part of the DemNet-D study. A qualitative interview study design was used. Qualitative data were collected during single and group interviews with key persons associated with thirteen DCNs. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and a structured content analysis was conducted. The framework for the analysis was derived from a KM model. Information dissemination strategies for people with dementia and their informal caregivers based on actively established contacts appear to be more successful than passive strategies. General practitioners often play a key role as external gatekeepers in initiating contact between a network and a person affected by dementia. In this context, case managers can help integrate external stakeholders, such as general practitioners or pharmacists, into DCNs using different KM strategies. The systematic development of common objectives under an agency-neutral leadership seems to be an important aspect of successful KM within DCNs. The findings reported here can help DCNs optimize their KM strategies for generating tailored information and support services for people with dementia living at home and their family caregivers. In particular, the identified potential knowledge distribution barriers and facilitators will be of practical use to DCN stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 The
Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Severin, Juliëtte A; Hagenaars, Margot B H; de Goeij, Inge; Gommers, Diederik; Vos, Margreet C
Emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of global concern. We aimed to identify epidemiological relationships, the most common way of transmission, and risk factors for presence of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-positive P. aeruginosa (VIM-PA). We conducted a network analysis and matched case-control studies (1:2:2). Controls were hospital-based and matched with cases for ward, day of admission (control group 1 and 2) and time between admission and the identification of VIM-PA (control group 1). The network was visualized using Cytoscape, and risk factors were determined using conditional logistic regression. Between August 2003 and April 2015, 144 case patients and 576 control patients were recruited. We identified 307 relationships in 114 out of these 144 patients, with most relationships (84.7%) identified at the same department ratio [OR] = 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00 to 9.65 and OR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.12 to 5.49), > 10 day use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) (OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.02 to 8.68 and OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 1.22 to 17.37), and use of quinolones (OR = 3.29; 95% CI = 1.34 to 8.10 and OR = 3.95; 95% CI = 1.13 to 13.83 and OR = 4.47; 95% CI = 1.75 to 11.43) were identified as risk factors when using both control groups. The network analysis indicated that the majority of transmissions occurred on the wards, but through unidentified and presumably persistent sources, which are most likely in the innate hospital environment. Previous use of certain antibiotic regimens made patients prone to VIM-PA carriage. Additionally, gastroscopy could be considered as a high-risk procedure in patients with risk factors. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that infection control measures targeting VIM-PA should be focused on reducing antibiotics and eliminating sources in the environment.
Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Nocun, Marek; Butler, Christopher C; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza; Fleten, Nils; Kowalczyk, Anna; Melbye, Hasse
Acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most important causes of lost working hours. to explore variation and predictors in family practitioners (FPs) advice to patients with LRTIs about taking time off work in different European countries. Prospective observational study in primary care networks in 12 countries, with multilevel mixed-effects binomial logistic regression. 324 FPs recruited 1616 employed adults who presented to primary care with LRTIs. The proportion of patients advised to take time off work varied from 7.6% in the Netherlands to 89.2% in Slovakia, and of these, 88.2% overall were advised to stay off work for seven days or less. None of Finnish or Dutch patients were advised to take more than 7 days off, in contrast to 35.5% of Polish and 27.0% of Slovak patients. The strongest predictors of FPs' advice about time off work were: patient symptoms interfering with normal activities (OR 4.43; Pwork, which is not explained by differences in patients' reported illness duration, but might be explained by differences in regulations around certification and sick pay. Evidence based guidance for advising patients about taking time off work for this common condition is needed.
de Francisco, Angel L M; Kim, Joseph; Anker, Stefan D; Belozeroff, Vasily; Canaud, Bernard; Chazot, Charles; Drüeke, Tilman B; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Floege, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Macdougall, Iain C; Marcelli, Daniele; Molemans, Bart; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schernthaner, Guntram; Stenvinkel, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Fouqueray, Bruno; Aljama, Pedro
ARO, an observational study of hemodialysis (HD) patients in Europe, aims to enhance our understanding of patient characteristics and practice patterns to improve patient outcome. HD patients (n = 8,963) from 134 Fresenius Medical Care facilities treated between 2005 and 2006 were randomly selected from 9 European countries (Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovak Republic and Slovenia) and Turkey. Information was captured on demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory and dialysis parameters, and outcome. Patients were followed for 1.4 ± 0.7 years. Wide variation by country was observed for age, sex and diabetes as a cause of chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular disease was present in 73% of patients. Dialysis parameters were homogeneous across countries. Arteriovenous fistulas were frequently used (73%). More incident patients had hemoglobin <11 g/dl than prevalent patients (50 vs. 33%, respectively). Phosphatemia and intact parathyroid hormone were similar between incident and prevalent patients (4.7 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 190 vs. 213 ng/l, respectively). Medication use varied widely by country. In total, 5% of patients underwent renal transplantation. Overall death rate was 124/1,000 patient-years. ARO revealed differences in HD practice patterns and patient characteristics in the 10 participating countries. Future ARO studies will fill gaps in the knowledge about the care of European HD patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Olson Matthew D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical records that do not accurately reflect the patient’s current medication list are an open invitation to errors and may compromise patient safety. Methods This cross-sectional study compares primary care provider (PCP medication lists and pharmacy claims for 100 patients seen in 8 primary care practices and examines the association of congruence with demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics. Medication list congruence was measured as agreement of pharmacy claims with the entire PCP chart, including current medication list, visit notes, and correspondence sections. Results Congruence between pharmacy claims and the PCP chart was 65%. Congruence was associated with large chronic disease burden, frequent PCP visits, group practice, and patient age ≥45 years. Conclusion Agreement of medication lists between the PCP chart and pharmacy records is low. Medication documentation was more accurate among patients who have more chronic conditions, those who have frequent PCP visits, those whose practice has multiple providers, and those at least 45 years of age. Improved congruence among patients with multiple chronic conditions and in group practices may reflect more frequent visits and reviews by providers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally health services are facing increasing demands due to new and more expensive health technologies and treatments, coupled with the needs of an ageing population. Reducing avoidable use of expensive secondary care services, especially high cost admissions where no procedure is carried out, has become a focus for the commissioners of healthcare. Method We set out to identify, evaluate and share learning about interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admission across a regional Academic Health and Social Care Network (AHSN. We conducted a service evaluation identifying initiatives that had taken place across the AHSN. This comprised a literature review, case studies, and two workshops. Results We identified three types of intervention: pre-hospital; within the emergency department (ED; and post-admission evaluation of appropriateness. Pre-hospital interventions included the use of predictive modelling tools (PARR – Patients at risk of readmission and ACG – Adjusted Clinical Groups sometimes supported by community matrons or virtual wards. GP-advisers and outreach nurses were employed within the ED. The principal post-hoc interventions were the audit of records in primary care or the application of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP within the admission ward. Overall there was a shortage of independent evaluation and limited evidence that each intervention had an impact on rates of admission. Conclusions Despite the frequency and cost of emergency admission there has been little independent evaluation of interventions to reduce avoidable admission. Commissioners of healthcare should consider interventions at all stages of the admission pathway, including regular audit, to ensure admission thresholds don’t change.
Chinchilla, Ana Ligia; Flores, Ivo Flores; Morales, Alma Fabiola; de Gil, Marina Padilla
Honduras is one of the 17 priority countries included in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences. The priority category enables the country to request emergency funding to acquire services or commodities that could contribute toward achieving the objectives laid out in its plan of action. These objectives include improving postabortion care by increasing the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) as an outpatient procedure with minimal human and material resources. Since the Ministry of Health lacked funding, use of the emergency fund was approved for the purchase and distribution of MVA kits nationwide to ensure continuity and the hope of increasing MVA use. Eleven hospitals participating in this initiative provided data for analysis of the outcome. These data show no increase in MVA use; however, as discussed in the article, further investigation provided valuable information on the reasons behind these results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, antibiotic consumption and the usefulness of microbiological tests in very low birth weight (VLBW Polish newborns.Prospective surveillance was performed in the year 2009 by local infection control teams. The study covered 910 infants hospitalized in six Polish neonatal intensive care units. Two kinds of indicators were used for the description of antibiotic usage: the duration of treatment (days of treatment, DOTs and the defined daily dose (DDD.NEC incidence was 8.7% and fatality rate was 19%. Chorioamnionitis, late gestational age and low birth weight were identified as risk factors for NEC. Catheterization, mechanical ventilation and other selected procedures were used considerably longer in newborns with NEC than in the remaining neonates. Total usage of antibiotics reached 2.9 DDDs or 1.437 days; the average use of drugs per case of NEC amounted to 0.47 DDD or 23.2 DOTs. The level of antibiotic usage was analysed with correlation to microbiological tests performed and it was non-significantly greater in the group of children with NEC in whom the tests were performed.A high risk of developing NEC is closely associated with VLBW and with inflammation of the amnion during labour. We observed no relationship between the consumption of antibiotics in neonates with NEC and positive results of microbiological testing indicating sepsis accompanying NEC or gut colonization with pathogens.
The Spanish national health care-associated infection surveillance network (INCLIMECC): data summary January 1997 through December 2006 adapted to the new National Healthcare Safety Network Procedure-associated module codes.
Pérez, Cristina Díaz-Agero; Rodela, Ana Robustillo; Monge Jodrá, Vincente
In 1997, a national standardized surveillance system (designated INCLIMECC [Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad]) was established in Spain for health care-associated infection (HAI) in surgery patients, based on the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system. In 2005, in its procedure-associated module, the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) inherited the NNIS program for surveillance of HAI in surgery patients and reorganized all surgical procedures. INCLIMECC actively monitors all patients referred to the surgical ward of each participating hospital. We present a summary of the data collected from January 1997 to December 2006 adapted to the new NHSN procedures. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are provided by operative procedure and NNIS risk index category. Further quality indicators reported are surgical complications, length of stay, antimicrobial prophylaxis, mortality, readmission because of infection or other complication, and revision surgery. Because the ICD-9-CM surgery procedure code is included in each patient's record, we were able to reorganize our database avoiding the loss of extensive information, as has occurred with other systems.
Breton, Mylaine; Maillet, Lara; Haggerty, Jeannie; Vedel, Isabelle
Background In 2004, the Québec government implemented an important reform of the healthcare system. The reform was based on the creation of new organisations called Health Services and Social Centres (HSSC), which were formed by merging several healthcare organisations. Upon their creation, each HSSC received the legal mandate to establish and lead a Local Health Network (LHN) with different partners within their territory. This mandate promotes a 'population-based approach' based to the responsibility for the population of a local territory. Objective The aim of this paper is to illustrate and discuss how primary healthcare organisations (PHC) are involved in mandated LHNs in Québec. For illustration, we describe four examples that facilitate a better understanding of these integrated relationships. Results The development of the LHNs and the different collaboration relationships are described through four examples: (1) improving PHC services within the LHN - an example of new PHC models; (2) improving access to specialists and diagnostic tests for family physicians working in the community - an example of centralised access to specialists services; (3) improving chronic-disease-related services for the population of the LHN - an example of a Diabetes Centre; and (4) improving access to family physicians for the population of the LHN - an example of the centralised waiting list for unattached patients. Conclusion From these examples, we can see that the implementation of large-scale reform involves incorporating actors at all levels in the system, and facilitates collaboration between healthcare organisations, family physicians and the community. These examples suggest that the reform provided room for multiple innovations. The planning and organisation of health services became more focused on the population of a local territory. The LHN allows a territorial vision of these planning and organisational processes to develop. LHN also seems a valuable lever when
How transformational learning promotes caring, consultation and creativity, and ultimately contributes to sustainable development: Lessons from the Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living (PERL) network
Thoresen, Victoria Wyszynski
Oases of learning which are transformative and lead to significant behavioural change can be found around the globe. Transformational learning has helped learners not only to understand what they have been taught but also to re-conceptualise and re-apply this understanding to their daily lives. Unfortunately, as many global reports indicate, inspirational transformational learning approaches for sustainable development are rare and have yet to become the norm - despite calls for such approaches by several outstanding educators and organisations. This article examines three learning approaches developed by the network of the Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living (PERL). These approaches are structured around core elements of transformative learning for sustainable development, yet focus particularly on the ability to care, consult with others and be creative. They seem to depend on the learners' ability to articulate their perceptions of sustainable development in relation to their own values and to identify how these are actualised in their daily life. Together with other core elements of transformative learning, an almost magical (not precisely measurable) synergy then emerges. The intensity of this synergy appears to be directly related to the individual learner's understanding of the contradictions, interlinkages and interdependencies of modern society. The impact of this synergy seems to be concurrent with the extent to which the learner engages in a continual learning process with those with whom he/she has contact. The findings of this study suggest that mainstreaming transformational learning for sustainable development in ways that release the "magic synergy of creative caring" can result in the emergence of individuals who are willing and able to move from "business as usual" towards more socially just, economically equitable, and environmentally sensitive behaviour.
Lam, Raymond W; McIntosh, Diane; Wang, JianLi; Enns, Murray W; Kolivakis, Theo; Michalak, Erin E; Sareen, Jitender; Song, Wei-Yi; Kennedy, Sidney H; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; Parikh, Sagar V; Ravindran, Arun V
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. This section is the first of six guidelines articles. In Canada, the annual and lifetime prevalence of MDD was 4.7% and 11.3%, respectively. MDD represents the second leading cause of global disability, with high occupational and economic impact mainly attributable to indirect costs. DSM-5 criteria for depressive disorders remain relatively unchanged, but other clinical dimensions (sleep, cognition, physical symptoms) may have implications for depression management. e-Mental health is increasingly used to support clinical and self-management of MDD. In the 2-phase (acute and maintenance) treatment model, specific goals address symptom remission, functional recovery, improved quality of life, and prevention of recurrence. The burden attributed to MDD remains high, whether from individual distress, functional and relationship impairment, reduced quality of life, or societal economic cost. Applying core principles of care, including comprehensive assessment, therapeutic alliance, support of self-management, evidence-informed treatment, and measurement-based care, will optimize clinical, quality of life, and functional outcomes in MDD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Greeson, Johanna K P; Briggs, Ernestine C; Kisiel, Cassandra L; Layne, Christopher M; Ake, George S; Ko, Susan J; Gerrity, Ellen T; Steinberg, Alan M; Howard, Michael L; Pynoos, Robert S; Fairbank, John A
Many children in the child welfare system (CWS) have histories of recurrent interpersonal trauma perpetrated by caregivers early in life often referred to as complex trauma. Children in the CWS also experience a diverse range of reactions across multiple areas of functioning that are associated with such exposure. Nevertheless, few CWSs routinely screen for trauma exposure and associated symptoms beyond an initial assessment of the precipitating event. This study examines trauma histories, including complex trauma exposure (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, domestic violence), posttraumatic stress, and behavioral and emotional problems of 2,251 youth (age 0 to 21; M = 9.5, SD = 4.3) in foster care who were referred to a National Child Traumatic Stress Network site for treatment. High prevalence rates of complex trauma exposure were observed: 70.4% of the sample reported at least two of the traumas that constitute complex trauma; 11.7% of the sample reported all 5 types. Compared to youth with other types of trauma, those with complex trauma histories had significantly higher rates of internalizing problems, posttraumatic stress, and clinical diagnoses, and differed on some demographic variables. Implications for child welfare practice and future research are discussed.
Noh, Wonjung; Seomun, Gyeongae
This study was conducted to develop key performance indicators (KPIs) for home care nursing (HCN) based on a balanced scorecard, and to construct a performance prediction model of strategic objectives using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). This methodological study included four steps: establishment of KPIs, performance prediction modeling, development of a performance prediction model using BBN, and simulation of a suggested nursing management strategy. An HCN expert group and a staff group participated. The content validity index was analyzed using STATA 13.0, and BBN was analyzed using HUGIN 8.0. We generated a list of KPIs composed of 4 perspectives, 10 strategic objectives, and 31 KPIs. In the validity test of the performance prediction model, the factor with the greatest variance for increasing profit was maximum cost reduction of HCN services. The factor with the smallest variance for increasing profit was a minimum image improvement for HCN. During sensitivity analysis, the probability of the expert group did not affect the sensitivity. Furthermore, simulation of a 10% image improvement predicted the most effective way to increase profit. KPIs of HCN can estimate financial and non-financial performance. The performance prediction model for HCN will be useful to improve performance.
Guo, Lei; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Nana; Guo, Libo; Chi, Chunjie; Hou, Wei; Wu, Anqi; Tong, Hongshuang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Changsong; Li, Enyou
It has been shown that the application of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy can improve the prognosis of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients without ALI or ARDS is uncertain. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for these patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science for studies published up to July 2015 in which pulmonary compliance or the partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FIO2) ratio was assessed in ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, who received mechanical ventilation via different strategies. The data for study characteristics, methods, and outcomes were extracted. We assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted the data, pooled the data, and used a Bayesian fixed-effects model to combine direct comparisons with indirect evidence. Seventeen randomized controlled trials including a total of 575 patients who received one of six ventilation strategies were included for network meta-analysis. Among ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, strategy C (lower tidal volume (VT) + higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)) resulted in the highest PaO2/FIO2 ratio; strategy B (higher VT + lower PEEP) was associated with the highest pulmonary compliance; strategy A (lower VT + lower PEEP) was associated with a shorter length of ICU stay; and strategy D (lower VT + zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP)) was associated with the lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary compliance. For ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, strategy C (lower VT + higher PEEP) was associated with the highest PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Strategy B (higher VT + lower PEEP) was superior to the other strategies in improving pulmonary
Evaluating application of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance definition: a survey of pediatric intensive care and hematology/oncology units.
Gaur, Aditya H; Miller, Marlene R; Gao, Cuilan; Rosenberg, Carol; Morrell, Gloria C; Coffin, Susan E; Huskins, W Charles
To evaluate the application of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) definition in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and pediatric hematology/oncology units (PHOUs) participating in a multicenter quality improvement collaborative to reduce CLABSIs; to identify sources of variability in the application of the definition. Online survey using 18 standardized case scenarios. Each described a positive blood culture in a patient and required a yes- or-no answer to the question "Is this a CLABSI?" NHSN staff responses were the reference standard. Sixty-five US PICUs and PHOUs. Staff who routinely adjudicate CLABSIs using NHSN definitions. Sixty responses were received from 58 (89%) of 65 institutions; 78% of respondents were infection preventionists, infection control officers, or infectious disease physicians. Responses matched those of NHSN staff for 78% of questions. The mean (SE) percentage of concurring answers did not differ for scenarios evaluating application of 1 of the 3 criteria ("known pathogen," 78% [1.7%]; "skin contaminant, >1 year of age," 76% [SE, 2.5%]; "skin contaminant, ≤1 year of age," 81% [3.8%]; [Formula: see text]). The mean percentage of concurring answers was lower for scenarios requiring respondents to determine whether a CLABSI was present or incubating on admission (64% [4.6%]; [Formula: see text]) or to distinguish between primary and secondary bacteremia (65% [2.5%]; [Formula: see text]). The accuracy of application of the CLABSI definition was suboptimal. Efforts to reduce variability in identifying CLABSIs that are present or incubating on admission and in distinguishing primary from secondary bloodstream infection are needed.
Hocevar, Susan N; Edwards, Jonathan R; Horan, Teresa C; Morrell, Gloria C; Iwamoto, Martha; Lessa, Fernanda C
To describe rates and pathogen distribution of device-associated infections (DAIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients and compare differences in infection rates by hospital type (children's vs general hospitals). Neonates in NICUs participating in the National Healthcare Safety Network from 2006 through 2008. We analyzed central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), umbilical catheter-associated bloodstream infections (UCABs), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among 304 NICUs. Differences in pooled mean incidence rates were examined using Poisson regression; nonparametric tests for comparing medians and rate distributions were used. Pooled mean incidence rates by birth weight category (750 g or less, 751-1,000 g, 1,001-1,500 g, 1,501-2,500 g, and more than 2,500 g, respectively) were 3.94, 3.09, 2.25, 1.90, and 1.60 for CLABSI; 4.52, 2.77, 1.70, 0.91, and 0.92 for UCAB; and 2.36, 2.08, 1.28, 0.86, and 0.72 for VAP. When rates of infection between hospital types were compared, only pooled mean VAP rates were significantly lower in children's hospitals than in general hospitals among neonates weighing 1,000 g or less; no significant differences in medians or rate distributions were noted. Pathogen frequencies were coagulase-negative staphylococci (28%), Staphylococcus aureus (19%), and Candida species (13%) for bloodstream infections and Pseudomonas species (16%), S. aureus (15%), and Klebsiella species (14%) for VAP. Of 673 S. aureus isolates with susceptibility results, 33% were methicillin resistant. Neonates weighing 750 g or less had the highest DAI incidence. With the exception of VAP, pooled mean NICU incidence rates did not differ between children's and general hospitals. Pathogens associated with these infections can pose treatment challenges; continued efforts at prevention need to be applied to all NICU settings.
Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji
The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician provision of preventive care in a network of community-based mental health services: a study protocol of a non-randomized, multiple baseline trial.
Bartlem, Kate; Bowman, Jennifer; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula; McElwaine, Kathleen; Knight, Jenny; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John
People with a mental illness experience substantial disparities in health, including increased rates of morbidity and mortality caused by potentially preventable chronic diseases. One contributing factor to such disparity is a higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviors, such as smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of preventive care in reducing such risks, and guidelines recommend that preventive care addressing such risks be incorporated into routine clinical care. Although community-based mental health services represent an important potential setting for ensuring that people with a mental illness receive such care, research suggests its delivery is currently sub-optimal. A study will be undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the routine provision of preventive care by clinicians in community mental health settings. A two-group multiple baseline design will be utilized to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention implemented over 12 months in increasing clinician provision of preventive care. The intervention will be implemented sequentially across the two groups of community mental health services to increase provision of client assessment, brief advice, and referral for four health risk behaviors (smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Outcome measures of interest will be collected via repeated cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interviews undertaken on a weekly basis for 36 months with community mental health clients. This study is the first to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic clinical practice change intervention in increasing routine clinician provision of preventive care for chronic disease behavioral risk factors within a network of community mental health services
Brown, Jeffrey S; Holmes, John H; Shah, Kiran; Hall, Ken; Lazarus, Ross; Platt, Richard
Comparative effectiveness research, medical product safety evaluation, and quality measurement will require the ability to use electronic health data held by multiple organizations. There is no consensus about whether to create regional or national combined (eg, "all payer") databases for these purposes, or distributed data networks that leave most Protected Health Information and proprietary data in the possession of the original data holders. Demonstrate functions of a distributed research network that supports research needs and also address data holders concerns about participation. Key design functions included strong local control of data uses and a centralized web-based querying interface. We implemented a pilot distributed research network and evaluated the design considerations, utility for research, and the acceptability to data holders of methods for menu-driven querying. We developed and tested a central, web-based interface with supporting network software. Specific functions assessed include query formation and distribution, query execution and review, and aggregation of results. This pilot successfully evaluated temporal trends in medication use and diagnoses at 5 separate sites, demonstrating some of the possibilities of using a distributed research network. The pilot demonstrated the potential utility of the design, which addressed the major concerns of both users and data holders. No serious obstacles were identified that would prevent development of a fully functional, scalable network. Distributed networks are capable of addressing nearly all anticipated uses of routinely collected electronic healthcare data. Distributed networks would obviate the need for centralized databases, thus avoiding numerous obstacles.
Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana
Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05
Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I
A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.
Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Center for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Heuser, Michael [Center for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Bodis, Stephan [Center for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
Purpose: To propose a roadmap and explore the cost implications of establishing a teleradiotherapy network to provide comprehensive cancer care and capacity building in countries without access to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten low-income sub-Saharan countries with no current radiation therapy facilities were evaluated. A basic/secondary radiation therapy center (SRTC) with 2 teletherapy, 1 brachytherapy, 1 simulator, and a treatment planning facility was envisaged at a cost of 5 million US dollars (USD 5M). This could be networked with 1 to 4 primary radiation therapy centers (PRTC) with 1 teletherapy unit, each costing USD 2M. The numbers of PRTCs and SRTCs for each country were computed on the basis of cancer incidence, assuming that a PRTC and SRTC could respectively treat 450 and 900 patients annually. Results: An estimated 71,215 patients in these countries will need radiation therapy in 2020. Stepwise establishment of a network with 99 PRTCs and 28 SRTCs would result in 155 teletherapy units and 96% access to radiation therapy. A total of 310 radiation oncologists, 155 medical physicists, and 465 radiation therapy technologists would be needed. Capacity building could be undertaken through telementoring by networking to various international institutions and professional societies. Total infrastructure costs would be approximately USD 860.88M, only 0.94% of the average annual gross domestic product of these 10 countries. A total of 1.04 million patients could receive radiation therapy during the 15-year lifespan of a teletherapy unit for an investment of USD 826.69 per patient. For the entire population of 218.32 million, this equates to USD 4.11 per inhabitant. Conclusion: A teleradiotherapy network could be a cost-contained innovative health care strategy to provide effective comprehensive cancer care through resource sharing and capacity building. The network could also be expanded to include other allied specialties. The proposal calls for
Séror, Ann C
The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. to identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management.
Johnson Steven T
Full Text Available Abstract Background While strong and consistent evidence supports the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM, the best strategies for program implementation to support lifestyle modification within primary care remain to be determined. The objective of the study is to evaluate the implementation of an evidence-based self- management program for patients with T2DM within a newly established primary care network (PCN environment. Method Using a non-randomized design, participants (total N = 110 per group will be consecutively allocated in bi-monthly blocks to either a 6-month self-management program lead by an Exercise Specialist or to usual care. Our primary outcome is self-reported physical activity and pedometer steps. Discussion The present study will assess whether a diabetes self-management program lead by an Exercise Specialist provided within a newly emerging model of primary care and linked to available community-based resources, can lead to positive changes in self-management behaviours for adults with T2DM. Ultimately, our work will serve as a platform upon which an emerging model of primary care can incorporate effective and efficient chronic disease management practices that are sustainable through partnerships with local community partners. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00991380
Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries
Veen Robert ER
Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos
Tobback, E; Mariman, A; Heytens, S; Declercq, T; Bouwen, A; Spooren, D; Snoeck, P; Van Dessel, K; D'Hooghe, S; Rimbaut, S; Vogelaers, D
The organization of care for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in tertiary care referral centres from 2002 onwards, was negatively evaluated by the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre on the endpoint of socio-professional reintegration. Subsequently, the federal health authorities asked for the elaboration of a new and innovative model of stepped care, aiming at improved integration of diagnosis and treatment into primary care and between levels of health care for patients with CFS. The reference centre of the University Hospital Ghent took the initiative of recruiting partners in the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders to guarantee the care for patients with medically unexplained symptoms, in particular abnormal fatigue and CFS. A new and innovative care model, in which general practitioners play a central role, emphasizes the importance of early recognition of the patient 'at risk', correct diagnosis and timely referral. Early detection and intervention is essential in order to avoid or minimize illness progression towards chronicity, to safeguard opportunities for significant health improvement as well as to enhance successful socio-professional reintegration. This approach covers both the large sample of patients developing somatic complaints without obvious disease in an early phase as well as the more limited group of patients with chronic illness, including CFS. Cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exposure/exercise therapy are the evidence based main components of therapy in the latter. A biopsychosocial model underlies the proposed path of care.
MacDonald, Sarah; Gatto, Molly; Walker, Deb; Turchi, Renee
This is the first article in a year long series that presents the experiences of a fictitious couple, Amita and Samir, as they learn to adapt to the reality of having a premature baby with special needs. Doris, the fictitious nurse who took care of baby Anjali in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), has had ten years of experience working in…
Pivodic, L.; Block, L. van den; Pardon, K.; Miccinesi, G.; Vega, T.; Boffin, N.; Donker, G.; Cancian, M.; Lopéz-Maside, A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.
Background: Given a growing number of people with long disease trajectories and a preference for home death, need for family care is expected to increase. However, populationbased data on the prevalence of burden in family carers of people at the end of life and of care-related financial burden are
Roberta Juliane Tono de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective.Understand the conditions involved in the management of nursing care in emergency care units. Methodology. Qualitative research using the methodological framework of the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred from September 2011 to June 2012 through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants of the two emergency care units in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Results. Hindering factors to care management are: lack of experience and knowledge of professionals in emergency services; inadequate number of professionals; work overload of emergency care units in the urgent care network; difficulty in implementing nursing care systematization, and need for team meetings. Facilitating factors are: teamwork; importance of professionals; and confidence of the nursing technicians in the presence of the nurse. Conclusion. Whereas the hindering factors in care management are related to the organizational aspects of the emergency care units in the urgency care network, the facilitating ones include specific aspects of teamwork.
Tono de Oliveira, Roberta Juliane; Vieira Hermida, Patrícia Madalena; da Silva Copelli, Fernanda Hannah; Guedes Dos Santos, José Luís; Lorenzini Erdmann, Alacoque; Regina de Andrade, Selma
Understand the conditions involved in the management of nursing care in emergency care units. Qualitative research using the methodological framework of the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred from September 2011 to June 2012 through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants of the two emergency care units in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Hindering factors to care management are: lack of experience and knowledge of professionals in emergency services; inadequate number of professionals; work overload of emergency care units in the urgent care network; difficulty in implementing nursing care systematization, and need for team meetings. Facilitating factors are: teamwork; importance of professionals; and confidence of the nursing technicians in the presence of the nurse. Whereas the hindering factors in care management are related to the organizational aspects of the emergency care units in the urgency care network, the facilitating ones include specific aspects of teamwork.
Lattanzio, F; Mussi, C; Scafato, E; Ruggiero, C; Dell'Aquila, G; Pedone, C; Mammarella, F; Galluzzo, L; Salvioli, G; Senin, U; Carbonin, P U; Bernabei, R; Cherubini, A
The U.L.I.S.S.E. study is aimed at describing older patients who are cared for in hospitals, home care or nursing homes in Italy. The U.L.I.S.S.E. study is an observational multicenter prospective 1-year study. Overall, 23 acute geriatric or internal medicine hospital units, 11 home care services and 31 nursing homes participated in the study. The patient's evaluation was performed using comprehensive geriatric assessment instruments, i.e. the interRAI Minimum Data Set, while data on service characteristics were recorded using ad-hoc designed questionnaires. The older subjects who are in need of acute and long term care in Italy have similar characteristics: their mean age is higher than 80 years, they have a high level of disability in ADL, an important multimorbidity, and are treated with several drugs. The prevalence of cognitive impairment is particularly high in nursing homes, where almost 70% of residents suffer from it and 40% have severe cognitive impairment. On the other hand, there is a shortage of health care services, which are heterogeneous and fragmented. Health care services for older people in Italy are currently inadequate to manage the complexity of the older patients. An important effort should be undertaken to create a more integrated health care system.
The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA): Data on mortality, by HIV status and stage on the HIV care continuum, among the general population in seven longitudinal studies between 1989 and 2014.
Slaymaker, Emma; McLean, Estelle; Wringe, Alison; Calvert, Clara; Marston, Milly; Reniers, Georges; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark; Kwaro, Daniel; Sewe, Maquins; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Rhead, Rebecca; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Lutalo, Tom; Nabukalu, Dorean; Herbst, Kobus; Hosegood, Victoria; Zaba, Basia
Timely progression of people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the point of infection through the pathway from diagnosis to treatment is important in ensuring effective care and treatment of HIV and preventing HIV-related deaths and onwards transmission of infection. Reliable, population-based estimates of new infections are difficult to obtain for the generalised epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Mortality data indicate disease burden and, if disaggregated along the continuum from diagnosis to treatment, can also reflect the coverage and quality of different HIV services. Neither routine statistics nor observational clinical studies can estimate mortality prior to linkage to care nor following disengagement from care. For this, population-based data are required. The Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa brings together studies in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Eight studies have the necessary data to estimate mortality by HIV status, and seven can estimate mortality at different stages of the HIV care continuum. This data note describes a harmonised dataset containing anonymised individual-level information on survival by HIV status for adults aged 15 and above. Among PLHIV, the dataset provides information on survival during different periods: prior to diagnosis of infection; following diagnosis but before linkage to care; in pre-antiretroviral treatment (ART) care; in the first six months after ART initiation; among people continuously on ART for 6+ months; and among people who have ever interrupted ART.
Rowley, Robert D
We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.
Chang Ching; Chang Hsin
Abstract Background Enhancing service efficiency and quality has always been one of the most important factors to heighten competitiveness in the health care service industry. Thus, how to utilize information technology to reduce work load for staff and expeditiously improve work efficiency and healthcare service quality is presently the top priority for every healthcare institution. In this fast changing modern society, e-health care systems are currently the best possible way to achieve enh...
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Olsen, Pia Riis; Harder, Ingegerd
In the transition between dependent childhood and independent young adulthood, teenagers and young adults (TYAs) are extremely vulnerable when diagnosed with cancer and while undergoing treatment. Nurses working on a youth unit for patients aged 15 to 22 years developed a nursing program that aims at supporting these young patients and their significant others to maintain, establish, and strengthen their social network during the treatment period. This article presents a grounded theory study that explored how the network-focused program was perceived by TYAs with cancer and their significant others. A theoretical account is presented on the meanings and actions that the inherent processes and interactions created. Twelve TYAs and 19 significant others participated. Data were generated through interviews, observations, and informal conversations. Embracing the program and building strength were the 2 subcategories that linked to a core concept of keeping their world together. The findings show that nurses are in a unique position to enhance and support the efforts of these young patients and their significant others in connecting with the social network that extends beyond the family and includes the wider social network.
Orlando, Lori A; Sperber, Nina R; Voils, Corrine; Nichols, Marshall; Myers, Rachel A; Wu, R Ryanne; Rakhra-Burris, Tejinder; Levy, Kenneth D; Levy, Mia; Pollin, Toni I; Guan, Yue; Horowitz, Carol R; Ramos, Michelle; Kimmel, Stephen E; McDonough, Caitrin W; Madden, Ebony B; Damschroder, Laura J
PurposeImplementation research provides a structure for evaluating the clinical integration of genomic medicine interventions. This paper describes the Implementing Genomics in Practice (IGNITE) Network's efforts to promote (i) a broader understanding of genomic medicine implementation research and (ii) the sharing of knowledge generated in the network.MethodsTo facilitate this goal, the IGNITE Network Common Measures Working Group (CMG) members adopted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide its approach to identifying constructs and measures relevant to evaluating genomic medicine as a whole, standardizing data collection across projects, and combining data in a centralized resource for cross-network analyses.ResultsCMG identified 10 high-priority CFIR constructs as important for genomic medicine. Of those, eight did not have standardized measurement instruments. Therefore, we developed four survey tools to address this gap. In addition, we identified seven high-priority constructs related to patients, families, and communities that did not map to CFIR constructs. Both sets of constructs were combined to create a draft genomic medicine implementation model.ConclusionWe developed processes to identify constructs deemed valuable for genomic medicine implementation and codified them in a model. These resources are freely available to facilitate knowledge generation and sharing across the field.
Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Isolde Woittiez
Original title: Zorgen voor Zorg. The Dutch population will become increasingly older over the coming decades. This will have consequences for the use of care and consequently the demand for staff, especially in the nursing and care sectors (home care, nursing homes and residential care
West, David R; James, Katherine A; Fernald, Douglas H; Zelie, Claire; Smith, Maxwell L; Raab, Stephen S
The majority of errors in laboratory medicine testing are thought to occur in the pre- and postanalytic testing phases, and a large proportion of these errors are secondary to failed handoffs. Because most laboratory tests originate in ambulatory primary care, understanding the gaps in handoff processes within and between laboratories and practices is imperative for patient safety. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand, based on information from primary care practice personnel, the perceived gaps in laboratory processes as a precursor to initiating process improvement activities. A survey was used to assess perceptions of clinicians, staff, and management personnel of gaps in handoffs between primary care practices and laboratories working in 21 Colorado primary care practices. Data were analyzed to determine statistically significant associations between categorical variables. In addition, qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended survey questions was conducted. Primary care practices consistently reported challenges and a desire/need to improve their efforts to systematically track laboratory test status, confirm receipt of laboratory results, and report results to patients. Automated tracking systems existed in roughly 61% of practices, and all but one of those had electronic health record-based tracking systems in place. One fourth of these electronic health record-enabled practices expressed sufficient mistrust in these systems to warrant the concurrent operation of an article-based tracking system as backup. Practices also reported 12 different procedures used to notify patients of test results, varying by test result type. The results highlight the lack of standardization and definition of roles in handoffs in primary care laboratory practices for test ordering, monitoring, and receiving and reporting test results. Results also identify high-priority gaps in processes and the perceptions by practice personnel that practice improvement
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs) will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February 27, 2008] PMID
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
van der Velde Gabrielle
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February
Bayesian Networks: An Introduction provides a self-contained introduction to the theory and applications of Bayesian networks, a topic of interest and importance for statisticians, computer scientists and those involved in modelling complex data sets. The material has been extensively tested in classroom teaching and assumes a basic knowledge of probability, statistics and mathematics. All notions are carefully explained and feature exercises throughout. Features include:.: An introduction to Dirichlet Distribution, Exponential Families and their applications.; A detailed description of learni
Loo, Boon Thau
Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla
Objectives To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. Design A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Method Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred on the core construct of gaps across organisational social structures that uncovered 842 empirical articles of which 116 met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and content analysis via data mining techniques were performed on these articles. Results The research involved subjects in 40 countries, with 32 studies enrolling participants in multiple countries. There were 40 studies conducted wholly or partly in the USA, 46 wholly or partly in continental Europe, 29 wholly or partly in Asia and 12 wholly or partly in Russia or Russian federated countries. Methods employed included 30 mixed or triangulated social science study designs, 39 qualitative studies, 13 experimental studies and 34 questionnaire-based studies, where the latter was mostly to gather data for social network analyses. Four recurring factors underpin a model for promoting networked behaviours and fortifying cross-group cooperation: appreciating the characteristics and nature of gaps between groups; using the leverage of boundary-spanners to bridge two or more groups; applying various mechanisms to stimulate interactive relationships; and mobilising those who can exert positive external influences to promote connections while minimising the impact of those who exacerbate divides. Conclusions The literature assessed is rich and varied. An evidence-oriented model and strategies for promoting more networked systems are now available for application to healthcare. While caution needs to be exercised in translating
Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish
Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.
Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie
End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Owen, Rhiannon K; Cooper, Nicola J; Quinn, Terence J; Lees, Rosalind; Sutton, Alex J
Network meta-analyses (NMA) have extensively been used to compare the effectiveness of multiple interventions for health care policy and decision-making. However, methods for evaluating the performance of multiple diagnostic tests are less established. In a decision-making context, we are often interested in comparing and ranking the performance of multiple diagnostic tests, at varying levels of test thresholds, in one simultaneous analysis. Motivated by an example of cognitive impairment diagnosis following stroke, we synthesized data from 13 studies assessing the efficiency of two diagnostic tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), at two test thresholds: MMSE accounting for the correlations between multiple test accuracy measures from the same study. We developed and successfully fitted a model comparing multiple tests/threshold combinations while imposing threshold constraints. Using this model, we found that MoCA at threshold decision making. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR
We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.
Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter
The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...
can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.
Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián
Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.
Durham, Spencer H; Badowski, Melissa E; Liedtke, Michelle D; Rathbun, R Chris; Pecora Fulco, Patricia
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) admitted to the hospital have complex antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens with an increased medication error rate upon admission. This report provides a resource for clinicians managing HIV-infected patients and ART in the inpatient setting. A survey of the authors was conducted to evaluate common issues that arise during an acute hospitalization for HIV-infected patients. After a group consensus, a review of the medical literature was performed to determine the supporting evidence for the following HIV-associated hospital queries: admission/discharge orders, antiretroviral hospital formularies, laboratory monitoring, altered hepatic/renal function, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), enteral administration, and therapeutic drug monitoring. With any hospital admission for an HIV-infected patient, a specific set of procedures should be followed including a thorough admission medication history and communication with the ambulatory HIV provider to avoid omissions or substitutions in the ART regimen. DDIs are common and should be reviewed at all transitions of care during the hospital admission. ART may be continued if enteral nutrition with a feeding tube is deemed necessary, but the entire regimen should be discontinued if no oral access is available for a prolonged period. Therapeutic drug monitoring is not generally recommended but, if available, should be considered in unique clinical scenarios where antiretroviral pharmacokinetics are difficult to predict. ART may need adjustment if hepatic or renal insufficiency ensues. Treatment of hospitalized patients with HIV is highly complex. HIV-infected patients are at high risk for medication errors during various transitions of care. Baseline knowledge of the principles of antiretroviral pharmacotherapy is necessary for clinicians managing acutely ill HIV-infected patients to avoid medication errors, identify DDIs, and correctly dose medications if organ
Richards, G A; Brink, A J; Messina, A P; Feldman, C; Swart, K; van den Bergh, D
Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) remains a major international problem. The 'Best Care Always!' (BCA) campaign was launched in South Africa to reduce preventable HCAI, including central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The intervention took place in 43 Netcare Private Hospitals, increasing later to 49 with 958 intensive care units (ICUs) and 439 high-care (HC) beds and 1207 ICUs and 493 HC beds, respectively. Phase 1, April 2010 to March 2011, ICU infection prevention and control (IPC) nurse-driven change: commitment from management and doctors and training of IPC nurses. Bundle compliance and infections per 1000 central-line-days were incorporated as standard IPC measures and captured monthly. Phase 2, April 2011 to March 2012, breakthrough collaborative method: multiple regional learning sessions for nursing leaders, IPC nurses and unit managers. Phase 3, April 2012 to May 2016: sustained goal-setting, benchmarks, ongoing audits. A total of 1,119,558 central-line-days were recorded. Bundle compliance improved significantly from a mean of 73.1% [standard deviation (SD): 11.2; range: 40.6-81.7%] in Phase 1 to a mean of 90.5% (SD: 4.7; range: 76.5-97.2%) in Phase 3 (P = 0.0004). The CLABSI rate declined significantly from a mean of 3.55 (SD: 0.82; range: 2.54-5.78) per 1000 central-line-days in Phase 1 to a mean of 0.13 (SD: 0.09; range: 0-0.33) (P hospitals resulted in significant decreases in CLABSI. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Verbakel Jan Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing serious infections in children is challenging, because of the low incidence of such infections and their non-specific presentation early in the course of illness. Prediction rules are promoted as a means to improve recognition of serious infections. A recent systematic review identified seven clinical prediction rules, of which only one had been prospectively validated, calling into question their appropriateness for clinical practice. We aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of these rules in multiple ambulatory care populations in Europe. Methods Four clinical prediction rules and two national guidelines, based on signs and symptoms, were validated retrospectively in seven individual patient datasets from primary care and emergency departments, comprising 11,023 children from the UK, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The accuracy of each rule was tested, with pre-test and post-test probabilities displayed using dumbbell plots, with serious infection settings stratified as low prevalence (LP; 20% . In LP and IP settings, sensitivity should be >90% for effective ruling out infection. Results In LP settings, a five-stage decision tree and a pneumonia rule had sensitivities of >90% (at a negative likelihood ratio (NLR of Conclusions None of the clinical prediction rules examined in this study provided perfect diagnostic accuracy. In LP or IP settings, prediction rules and evidence-based guidelines had high sensitivity, providing promising rule-out value for serious infections in these datasets, although all had a percentage of residual uncertainty. Additional clinical assessment or testing such as point-of-care laboratory tests may be needed to increase clinical certainty. None of the prediction rules identified seemed to be valuable for HP settings such as emergency departments.
Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam
Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.
Risk stratification and stroke prevention therapy care gaps in Canadian atrial fibrillation patients (from the Co-ordinated National Network to Engage Physicians in the Care and Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation chart audit).
Patel, Ashish D; Tan, Mary K; Angaran, Paul; Bell, Alan D; Berall, Murray; Bucci, Claudia; Demchuk, Andrew M; Essebag, Vidal; Goldin, Lianne; Green, Martin S; Gregoire, Jean C; Gross, Peter L; Heilbron, Brett; Lin, Peter J; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Skanes, Allan; Wheeler, Bruce H; Goodman, Shaun G
The objectives of this national chart audit (January to June 2013) of 6,346 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF; ≥18 years without a significant heart valve disorder) from 647 primary care physicians were to (1) describe the frequency of stroke and bleed risk assessments in patients with nonvalvular AF by primary care physicians, including the accuracy of these assessments relative to established predictive indexes; (2) outline contemporary methods of anticoagulation used; and (3) report the time in the therapeutic range among patients prescribed warfarin. An annual stroke risk assessment was not undertaken in 15% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 33%; agreement with CHADS2 score estimation was seen in 87% of patients. Major bleeding risk assessment was not undertaken in 25% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 47%; agreement with HAS-BLED score estimation was observed in 64% with physician overestimation in 26% of patients. Antithrombotic therapy included warfarin (58%), dabigatran (22%), rivaroxaban (14%), and apixaban (risk for stroke. There is apparent overestimation of bleeding risk in many patients. Warfarin was the dominant stroke prevention treatment; however, the suggested TTR target was achieved in only 55% of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katia de Souza Amorim
's first period in a day care thus implies the emergence and creation of new meanings which are attributed to, assumed by, confronted to and negotiated in the interactions established by all participants. A model was developed to analyse this process based on a research project on the insertion of 26 infants (5 to 18 months old into a day care. Video recordings, observational reports, as well as interviews with mothers, caregivers and technicians were made during the babies' first year at an university day care centre. The model focus on three main personages: mother, child and caregiver and on their mutual relationships which create three interconnected fields. The mother-child field is inserted in a larger network, the family scenery. The other two, caregiver-child and mother-caregiver fields are located in the day-care scenery. Both scenarios are impregnated by a wider social-historical matrix created in complex cultural, economic and political systems. The various elements are interconnected in a semiotic network of meanings, which continuously transforms and structures human development, allowing varied paths of behavior for each individual.
Parchman, Michael L; Munoz, Abel
To examine skin and soft tissue infections presenting at 4 primary care clinics and assess if historical risk factors and examination findings were associated with a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) culture. During the 10-month observational study (April 2007 through January 2008), physicians in 5 practices across South Texas collected history, physical examination findings, culture results, and antibiotic(s) prescribed for all patients presenting with a skin or soft tissue infection. Analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between historical indicators, location of lesions, and examination findings with a positive MRSA culture. Across 4 practices, 164 cases of skin and soft tissue infections were collected during 10 months. Of the 94 with a culture, 63 (67%) were MRSA positive. Patients working in or exposed to a health care setting were more likely to have a culture positive for MRSA, as were those presenting with an abscess. MRSA-positive lesions were also significantly smaller in size. Because of the high prevalence of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections among patients presenting to family physicians, presumptive treatment for MRSA may be indicated. However, increasing levels of resistance to current antibiotics is concerning and warrants development of alternative management strategies.
Liliane Brandão Carvalho
which were psychologists working in the state public health network. Data was obtained by means of non-directive interviews which were taped and transcribed. Categories were obtained from the discourses based on a hermeneutical approach by means of which an interpretive network was constructed. ANALISYS OF RESULTS: The interpretative network indicated that psychologists recognize their insertion in the field of public health as distinct from the professional field in which they obtained their training and, consequently, as a challenge. The predominant conceptions of care were circumscribed to the technical dimension, although other dimensions, closer to ethical concerns and to those related to respect for the "other" were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: In the daily routine of assistance within the public health network, care is perceived as a technical attitude. It involves control and nullification of alterity, being more closely aligned to the traditional models of biomedicine and clinical psychology. However, other practices were observed that overcome this attitude. These emerging practices assume a new configuration, oriented towards affection, dialogue between professionals and those seeking assistance and an ethical commitment forged within a political and socio-cultural perspective.
Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co
McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nicholas; Hulme, Jonathan; Cormack, Stef; Hussain, Nageena; Ludwig, Frank; Wheaton, Steve
In the West Midlands region of the UK, delivery of pre-hospital care has been remodelled through introduction of a 24 h Medical Emergency Response Incident Team (MERIT). Teams including physicians and critical care paramedics (CCP) are deployed to incidents on land-based and helicopter-based platforms. Clinical practice, including delivery of rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia (RSI), is underpinned by standard operating procedures (SOP). This study describes the first 12 months experience of prehospital RSI in the MERIT scheme in the West Midlands. Retrospective review of the MERIT clinical database for the 12 months following the launch of the scheme. Data was collected relating to the number of RSIs performed; indication for RSI; number of intubation attempts; grade of view on laryngoscopy and the base speciality/grade of the operator performing intubation. MERIT teams were activated 1619 times, attending scene in 1029 cases. RSI was performed 142 times (13.80% of scene attendances). There was one recorded case of failure to intubate requiring insertion of a supraglottic airway device (0.70%). In over a third of RSI cases, CCPs performed laryngoscopy and intubation (n=53, 37.32%). Proficiency of obtaining Grade I view at laryngoscopy was similar for physicians (74.70%) and CCPs (77.36%). Intubation was successful at the first attempt in over 90% of cases. This study demonstrates that operation within a system that provides high levels of exposure, underpinned by comprehensive and robust training and governance frameworks, promotes levels of performance in successful prehospital RSI regardless of base speciality or profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Leimer, Michael E.
Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics
The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...
This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.
Tuti, Timothy; Bitok, Michael; Paton, Chris; Makone, Boniface; Malla, Lucas; Muinga, Naomi; Gathara, David; English, Mike
To share approaches and innovations adopted to deliver a relatively inexpensive clinical data management (CDM) framework within a low-income setting that aims to deliver quality pediatric data useful for supporting research, strengthening the information culture and informing improvement efforts in local clinical practice. The authors implemented a CDM framework to support a Clinical Information Network (CIN) using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), a noncommercial software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools. It was used for collection of standardized data from case records of multiple hospitals' pediatric wards. R, an open-source statistical language, was used for data quality enhancement, analysis, and report generation for the hospitals. In the first year of CIN, the authors have developed innovative solutions to support the implementation of a secure, rapid pediatric data collection system spanning 14 hospital sites with stringent data quality checks. Data have been collated on over 37 000 admission episodes, with considerable improvement in clinical documentation of admissions observed. Using meta-programming techniques in R, coupled with branching logic, randomization, data lookup, and Application Programming Interface (API) features offered by REDCap, CDM tasks were configured and automated to ensure quality data was delivered for clinical improvement and research use. A low-cost clinically focused but geographically dispersed quality CDM (Clinical Data Management) in a long-term, multi-site, and real world context can be achieved and sustained and challenges can be overcome through thoughtful design and implementation of open-source tools for handling data and supporting research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Alzate, Elvis Siprián Castro; Martínez, Alejandro Castillo
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the aftermaths of suicide attempts are the sixth leading cause of poor health and disability in the world. Establish the level of disability and related factors in terms of restrictions regarding participation and activity limitations in cases of suicidal attempts attended by the Public Service Network Health of Santiago de Cali, from September 2009 to June 2010. A cross-section, observational study was applied to 126 people between 15 and 65 who had attempted suicide and were treated at the Public Health Service in Santiago de Cali. A Spanish version of the Disability Assessment Scale of the World Health Organization 30 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated together with a disability prevalence of 95.3%. 4.6% of the sample did not show disability while 41.27% had mild disability, 38.1%, moderate disability, and 15.87%, severe disability. Factors related with disability were: Age, occupation, presence of mental illness, current depressive symptoms, lethal methods, use of psychiatric drugs, activity limitations, participation restrictions and lack of religious practice. The prevalence of disability in people who have committed suicidal attempts treated at the public health services in Santiago de Cali, was 95.3%. The results are consistent with the study of global burden of disease that establishes a high score for mental disorders in suicidal attempts. The presence of a deficiency after the suicide attempt increases the burden of disability. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Li Min Li
úde, com ênfase inclusive no apoio psicológico e inserção social dos pacientes portadores de epilepsia.OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and beliefs concerning epilepsy held by physicians and allied health professionals who work in the primary care network in Brazil. METHODS: The data were collected during a national family and community medicine conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 2004, which was attended by 1 200 health professionals from throughout the country. Two questionnaires were used, one for physicians and another for nonphysician health workers. RESULTS: A total of 598 conference participants (345 physicians and 253 nonphysician health professionals completed a questionnaire. Both the physicians and the nonphysician health professionals had acceptable personal attitudes towards persons with epilepsy.According to data from 286 physicians who provided information, the estimated mean percentage of individuals with epilepsy in the populations cared for by the physicians' health care systems in the preceding year was 0.78% (range, 0 to 8%; median = 0.37%. The estimated mean percentage of seizure-free patients was 60%. The estimated mean percentage of persons on monotherapy was 55%. The estimated mean percentage of referrals to a neurologist was 59%. The estimated mean percentage of patients who were working or studying was 56%. Of the 345 physicians, 252 of them (73% reported not feeling confident about managing individuals with epilepsy, whereas 84 (24% felt confident, and 9 (3% were not sure. Of the 252 physicians who did not feel confident, 226 (90% said that they would participate in a training program to improve the quality of the care provided to individuals with epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: The professionals participating in the study indicated that the primary care system has the essential elements needed to provide comprehensive epilepsy care, including professional personnel who want to improve their skills. However, establishing an efficient, effective program
A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group
A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group
Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care ... Before you leave the hospital, health care providers will teach you how ... and suction the tube Keep the air you breathe moist Clean ...
Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press.
... or treatment provided to a plan member. Coverage : decision making process that identifies what services or products are ... themselves and pay a monthly premium for it. Mental health care : medical ... abuse. Mixed model or network HMO : a managed care plan that ...
Comparison of tissue plasminogen activator administration management between Telestroke Network hospitals and academic stroke centers: the Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care in Bavaria/Germany.
Audebert, Heinrich J; Kukla, Christian; Vatankhah, Bijan; Gotzler, Berthold; Schenkel, Johannes; Hofer, Stephan; Fürst, Andrea; Haberl, Roman L
Systemic thrombolysis is the only therapy proven to be effective for ischemic stroke. Telemedicine may help to extend its use. However, concerns remain whether management and safety of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration after telemedical consultation are equivalent in less experienced hospitals compared with tPA administration in academic stroke centers. During the second year of the ongoing Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care, all systemic thrombolyses in stroke patients of the 12 regional clinics and the 2 stroke centers were recorded prospectively. Patients' demographics, stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), frequency of administration, time management, protocol violations, and safety were included in the analysis. In 2004, 115 of 4727 stroke or transient ischemic attack patients (2.4%) in the community hospitals and 110 of 1889 patients in the stroke centers (5.8%) received systemic thrombolysis. Prehospital latencies were shorter in the regional hospitals despite longer distances. Door to needle times were shorter in the stroke centers. Although blood pressure was controlled more strictly in community hospitals, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rate (7.8%) was higher (P=0.14) than in stroke centers (2.7%) but still within the range of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trial. In-hospital mortality rate was low in community hospitals (3.5%) and in stroke centers (4.5%). Although with a lower rate of systemic thrombolysis, there was no evidence of lower treatment quality in the remote hospitals. With increasing numbers of tPA administration and growing training effects, the telestroke concept promises better coverage of systemic thrombolysis in nonurban areas.
Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry
This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.
Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...
OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...
Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...
"Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the
Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W
Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.
In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG
Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.
Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...
Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.
Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.
Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank
A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.
Yuen, J. H.
This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.
Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe
Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...
M.Shankar; Dr.M.Sridar; Dr.M.Rajani
Few security mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been implemented, and even fewer have been applied in real deployments. The limited resources of each sensor node makes security in WSNs hard, as the tradeoff between security and practicality must be carefully considered. These complex systems include in their design different types of information and communication technology systems, such as wireless (mesh) sensor networks, to carry out control processes in real time. This fact...
... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...
Palliative care is treatment of the discomfort, symptoms, and stress of serious illness. It provides relief from distressing symptoms ... of the medical treatments you're receiving. Hospice care, care at the end of life, always includes ...
Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...
... Comprehensive Care Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Comprehensive Care Understand the importance of comprehensive MS care ... In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a ...
Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte
of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....
This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying
Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...
In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG
Bauer, M; Bach, A
Managed care, i.e., the integration of health insurance and delivery of care under the direction of one organization, is gaining importance in the USA health market. The initial effects consisted of a decrease in insurance premiums, a very attractive feature for employers. Managed care promises to contain expenditures for health care. Given the shrinking public resources in Germany, managed care seems attractive for the German health system, too. In this review the development of managed care, the principal elements, forms of organisation and practical tools are outlined. The regulation of the delivery of care by means of controlling and financial incentives threatens the autonomy of physicians: the physician must act as a "double agent", caring for the interest for the individual patient and being restricted by the contract with the managed care organisation. Cost containment by managed care was achieved by reducing the fees for physicians and hospitals (and partly by restricting care for patients). Only a fraction of this cost reduction was handed over to the enrollee or employer, and most of the money was returned with profit to the shareholders of the managed care organisations. The preeminent role of primary care physicians as gatekeepers of the health network led to a reduced demand for specialist services in general and for university hospitals and anesthesiologists in particular. The paradigm of managed care, i.e., to guide the patient and the care giver through the health care system in order to achieve cost-effective and high quality care, seems very attractive. The stress on cost minimization by any means in the daily practice of managed care makes it doubtful if managed care should be an option for the German health system, in particular because there are a number of restrictions on it in German law.
Vedsted, Peter; Kallestrup, Per
International Perspectives on Primary Care Research examines how the evidence base from primary care research can strengthen health care services and delivery, tackle the growing burden of disease, improve quality and safety, and increase a person-centred focus to health care. Demonstrating...... the inter-professional nature of the discipline, the book also features a section on cross-nation organisations and primary care networks supporting research. National perspectives are offered from researchers in 20 countries that form part of the World Organization of Family Doctors, providing case...... histories from research-rich to resource-poor nations that illustrate the range of research development and capacity building. This book argues the importance of primary care research, especially to policy makers, decision makers and funders in informing best practice, training primary health care providers...
Eliane Tatsch Neves
Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo que objetivó describir la red de cuidados de niños con necesidades especiales en salud en los diferentes niveles de atención después del alta hospitalaria. Los datos fueron producidos con la aplicación de la dinámica de creatividad y sensibilidad, el mapa hablante y del método creativo sensible, con cinco familias de estos niños entre 2009 y 2011. Los discursos de la familia señalaron que la red de cuidados se compone de las dimensiones institucional y familiar. La primera se mostró amplia y diversa, aunque dispersa, compuesto por profesionales de salud y educación. Y en la segunda, la asistencia es exclusivamente familiar, con miembros, todas mujeres, como madres y abuelas. Se recomienda la ampliación y consolidación de la red de cuidado con abordaje multidisciplinar, facilitando el acceso a la atención de salud y la calidad de vida estos niños y sus familiares cuidadores.
Harrison, P; Schenk, D
Right now, managed care is a vast cosmic soup. But whether its ultimate form is the result of a bureaucratic big bang or a series of small industry explosions, one thing seems clear: telecommunications is the framework upon which managed care will be built. Managed care's primary players--purchasers, providers and payors--have already discovered the unifying power of telecommunications within their respective worlds. However, as the three worlds collide, an entirely new set of special telecommunications needs arises. And most of these needs can be distilled into three basic requirements: bigger networks, faster networks and smarter networks.
With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th
Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt
This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....
Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.
Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations
Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Saul, Jessie E; Barker, Brittany
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the World Health Organization's Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance (GHWA). Based on a commissioned evaluation of GHWA, it applies network theory and key concepts from systems thinking to explore network emergence, effectiveness, and evolution to over a ten-year period. The research was designed to provide high-level strategic guidance for further evolution of global governance in human resources for health (HRH). Design/methodology/approach Methods included a review of published literature on HRH governance and current practice in the field and an in-depth case study whose main data sources were relevant GHWA background documents and key informant interviews with GHWA leaders, staff, and stakeholders. Sampling was purposive and at a senior level, focusing on board members, executive directors, funders, and academics. Data were analyzed thematically with reference to systems theory and Shiffman's theory of network development. Findings Five key lessons emerged: effective management and leadership are critical; networks need to balance "tight" and "loose" approaches to their structure and processes; an active communication strategy is key to create and maintain support; the goals, priorities, and membership must be carefully focused; and the network needs to support shared measurement of progress on agreed-upon goals. Shiffman's middle-range network theory is a useful tool when guided by the principles of complex systems that illuminate dynamic situations and shifting interests as global alliances evolve. Research limitations/implications This study was implemented at the end of the ten-year funding cycle. A more continuous evaluation throughout the term would have provided richer understanding of issues. Experience and perspectives at the country level were not assessed. Practical implications Design and management of large, complex networks requires ongoing attention to key issues like leadership
Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari
A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered
Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie
This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...
In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.
... for Patients and Families What Is Palliative Care? Definition Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh-tiv) is specialized medical care for people with serious illness. This type of care is focused on providing relief from the symptoms and stress of a serious illness. The goal is to ...
Swetz, Keith M; Kamal, Arif H
Palliative care prioritizes symptom management and quality of life throughout the course of serious illness. Regardless of whether care is inpatient or outpatient, primary or subspecialty, a solid understanding of the basics of effective communication, symptom management, and end-of-life care is crucial. This article reviews these essentials and provides an overview of current evidence to support patient-centered palliative care.
Daniel S. Levine
Full Text Available Neural network methods have facilitated the unification of several unfortunate splits in psychology, including nature versus nurture. We review the contributions of this methodology and then discuss tentative network theories of caring behavior, of uncaring behavior, and of how the frontal lobes are involved in the choices between them. The implications of our theory are optimistic about the prospects of society to encourage the human potential for caring.
The thesis tries and models a neural network in a way which, at essential points, is biologically realistic. In a biological context, the changes of the synapses of the neural network are most often described by what is called `Hebb's learning rule'. On careful analysis it is, in fact, nothing but a
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real
Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F
Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution
Bromer, Juliet; Bibbs, Tonya
Family child care (FCC) providers often experience isolation from other early childhood and child care professionals. Yet, research suggests that providers who network with other providers, engage with community resources, and belong to support groups tend to offer higher quality child care. For example, the Family Child Care Network Impact Study…
Etaner-Uyar, A Sima
The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many
Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An
Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj
It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...
The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.
The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.
and professional growth of women through networking, mentoring and training. We strive to ensure that will be used. National Processing Center Seniors Leader: Jo Anne Hankins Champion: Eric Milliner NO
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
, as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...
N. U. Ahmed
Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.
Lucieli Dias Pedreschi Chaves
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. Method: A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Results: Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Final considerations: Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks.
Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis
The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive
Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.
The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...
Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning
The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....
Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta
In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...
La red de atención a la salud mental correspondiente al hospital universitario Príncipe de Asturias en Madrid (España The network of mental health care in the hospital universitário Principe de Asturias in Madrid (Spain
Alberto Fernández Liria
Full Text Available Se describe la estructura y funcionamiento de una red pública de atención a la salud mental que cubre una población de 450.000 habitantes de la zona metropolitana este de Madrid. Se trata de una red que funciona como parte de un sistema público, universal y gratuito en el momento del pago, aunque tiene varios financiadores y parte de los proveedores son instituciones de titularidad privada que se financian mediante un concierto con la administración pública. Integra 26 dispositivos en los que trabajan 229 profesionales asignados a equipos interprofesionales. Además de las funciones asistenciales, la red desarrolla labores de docencia e investigación.We describe the structure and functioning of a public mental health care network that covers a population of 450.000 inhabitants in the metropolitan east area of Madrid. It is a network that operates as part of a public, universal and without payment at the time of being attended National Health Service, although it is granted from several different public founders and some of the providers are private institutions employed by the public system. It includes 229 mental health professionals work in 26 integrated inter-professional teams. In addition to the functions of care, the network develops teaching and research work.
Gaito, Sabrina; Quattrociocchi, Walter; Sala, Alessandra
This book highlights cutting-edge research in the field of network science, offering scientists, researchers and graduate students a unique opportunity to catch up on the latest advances in theory and a multitude of applications. It presents the peer-reviewed proceedings of the fifth International Workshop on Complex Networks & their Applications (COMPLEX NETWORKS 2016), which took place in Milan during the last week of November 2016. The carefully selected papers are divided into 11 sections reflecting the diversity and richness of research areas in the field. More specifically, the following topics are covered: Network models; Network measures; Community structure; Network dynamics; Diffusion, epidemics and spreading processes; Resilience and control; Network visualization; Social and political networks; Networks in finance and economics; Biological and ecological networks; and Network analysis.
Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne
of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... the performance of specific home care services by means of video conversations rather than physical visits in the citizens’ homes. As scholars within the STS tradition maintain, technologies do not simply replace a human function; they rather transform care work, redistributing tasks between citizens, technology...... point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....
Berchtold, Peter; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle
The Swiss health care system is characterized by its decentralized structure and high degree of local autonomy. Ambulatory care is provided by physicians working mainly independently in individual private practices. However, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) acting on the principles of gatekeeping. The share of insured choosing an alternative (managed care) type of basic health insurance and therefore restrict their choice of doctors in return for lower premiums increased continuously since 1990. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84%) have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e., to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. Swiss physician networks and HMOs were all established solely by initiatives of physicians and health insurance companies on the sole basis of a healthcare legislation (Swiss Health Insurance Law, KVG) which allows for such initiatives and developments. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.
Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink)
Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut
Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324
Smith, Patrick I.
Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process . It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing
Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina
We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…
Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco
We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.
Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B
Care organizations in the Dutch region Apeldoorn want to collaborate more in order to improve the care provision to elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. In order to support the collaboration they intend to create a regional digital healthcare network. The research was focused on the relevance of a regional healthcare network for care providers. Eleven semi-structured interviews based on the USE IT-model, were conducted with care providers and staff members. Results show that care providers need to tune their activities for this target group and create an agreement on integrated care. The relevance of a digital communication and collaboration platform is high. The regional healthcare network should support the collaboration between care providers by: 1. Offering a communication platform to replace the time consuming communication by telephone; 2. Making patient information available for patient and care provider at patients' homes; 3. Giving insight in who is giving what care to whom; and 4. Giving access to knowledge about the target group: elderly and psychiatric patients living independently.
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Anette
The paper is a about planning and empowerment in care work at public nursing homes and the role of action research. It is based on ongoing work in the “Center for Demokratisk Samfundsudvikling og Aktionsforskning” at Roskilde University and the transnational research network KATARSIS, which works...
Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée
– are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....
Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian
Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.
Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard
In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... threats to the critical infrastructure. Finally, before our conclusions and outlook, we give a brief overview of some key activities in the field and what research directions are currently investigated....
On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.
S M Hadi Hosseini
Full Text Available In recent years, coordinated variations in brain morphology (e.g., volume, thickness have been employed as a measure of structural association between brain regions to infer large-scale structural correlation networks. Recent evidence suggests that brain networks constructed in this manner are inherently more clustered than random networks of the same size and degree. Thus, null networks constructed by randomizing topology are not a good choice for benchmarking small-world parameters of these networks. In the present report, we investigated the influence of choice of null networks on small-world parameters of gray matter correlation networks in healthy individuals and survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Three types of null networks were studied: 1 networks constructed by topology randomization (TOP, 2 networks matched to the distributional properties of the observed covariance matrix (HQS, and 3 networks generated from correlation of randomized input data (COR. The results revealed that the choice of null network not only influences the estimated small-world parameters, it also influences the results of between-group differences in small-world parameters. In addition, at higher network densities, the choice of null network influences the direction of group differences in network measures. Our data suggest that the choice of null network is quite crucial for interpretation of group differences in small-world parameters of structural correlation networks. We argue that none of the available null models is perfect for estimation of small-world parameters for correlation networks and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the selected model should be carefully considered with respect to obtained network measures.
Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kesler, Shelli R.
In recent years, coordinated variations in brain morphology (e.g., volume, thickness) have been employed as a measure of structural association between brain regions to infer large-scale structural correlation networks. Recent evidence suggests that brain networks constructed in this manner are inherently more clustered than random networks of the same size and degree. Thus, null networks constructed by randomizing topology are not a good choice for benchmarking small-world parameters of these networks. In the present report, we investigated the influence of choice of null networks on small-world parameters of gray matter correlation networks in healthy individuals and survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Three types of null networks were studied: 1) networks constructed by topology randomization (TOP), 2) networks matched to the distributional properties of the observed covariance matrix (HQS), and 3) networks generated from correlation of randomized input data (COR). The results revealed that the choice of null network not only influences the estimated small-world parameters, it also influences the results of between-group differences in small-world parameters. In addition, at higher network densities, the choice of null network influences the direction of group differences in network measures. Our data suggest that the choice of null network is quite crucial for interpretation of group differences in small-world parameters of structural correlation networks. We argue that none of the available null models is perfect for estimation of small-world parameters for correlation networks and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the selected model should be carefully considered with respect to obtained network measures. PMID:23840672
This book systematically synthesizes research achievements in the field of fuzzy neural networks in recent years. It also provides a comprehensive presentation of the developments in fuzzy neural networks, with regard to theory as well as their application to system modeling and image restoration. Special emphasis is placed on the fundamental concepts and architecture analysis of fuzzy neural networks. The book is unique in treating all kinds of fuzzy neural networks and their learning algorithms and universal approximations, and employing simulation examples which are carefully designed to he
Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.
Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.
Dekker, Jeroen J. H.
In the first half of nineteenth-century Europe, the founding fathers of the philanthropic network developed a specific network for the care of children at risk. This network eventually resulted in institutionalized solutions for the care of these children. In this article, three topics are looked
Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian
Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of networkbehaviour, knowing how to manage this relation becomes essential, especiallyduring the development of new strategies....
Pedersen, Morten Videbæk
the initial development of systems and protocols and show that the potential is there. However, I also find that network coding needs to be implemented with care and protocols have to be designed with consideration to make use of this novel technique. 2) The final aspect of this PhD investigates different...... ways that cooperative models may be implemented to cover a wide range of applications. This addresses the development of user cooperative protocols and how we in Device To Device (D2D) communication may reward users that contribute more to the network than they gain. In this area I suggest the use...
Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone
Abstract Objective To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. Participants A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Main outcome measures Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Results Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Conclusion Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC. PMID:24235195
Community Care of North Carolina's 14 networks use data analysis to provide relevant solutions that are responsive to unique regional environments. This article describes some of the ways that these networks use data to improve patient self-management, to meet providers' needs, to improve quality of care, and to control costs.
Palley, H A; Oktay, J S
Home and community based care services constitute a public initiative in the development of a long term care service network. One such home based initiative is the personal care service program of Medicaid. The authors conducted a national survey of administrators of this program. They received a response from 16 administrators of such programs in 1987-1988. The responses raise significant issues regarding training, access to and equity of services, quality of services, administrative oversight and the coordination of home-based care in a network of available services. Based on administrator responses, the authors draw several conclusions.
Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Bashan, Amir; Gao, Jianxi; Kenett, Dror Y.
Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a Network Of Networks (NONs) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (first-order) phase transition, unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. Moreover, although networks with broader degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are more robust when analyzed as single networks, they become more vulnerable in a NON. We also review the effect of space embedding on network vulnerability. It is shown that for spatially embedded networks any finite fraction of dependency nodes will lead to abrupt transition
Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper
the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....
Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper
the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....
The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...
Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…
Sandifer, Q D
The terms 'managed care' and 'disease management' are gaining common usage in the health service but their meaning is not widely understood. Managed care is a generic term describing any health care system that integrates the financing and delivery of medical care. Its growth in the United States has been driven by pressure to control costs, and there is circumstantial evidence that costs are slowing as a result of better management of resources. However, it is not clear how much of this is due to managed care, the selection of more favourable enrollees to health plans or other factors. Research evidence is limited, and that available is constrained by the rapidly changing nature of managed care. In the United States a bewildering variety of managed care arrangements have emerged, although several common characteristics can be identified: limited choice of physician providers; controlled access to secondary care; selective contracting; financial incentives; quality management; and utilization management. All are present in the National Health Service (NHS), which exemplifies a nationalized managed care system. Disease management is an extension of managed care that takes a global approach to patient care by attempting to co-ordinate resources across the entire health care delivery system throughout the life cycle of the disease. This is poorly developed in the NHS, so that the attention of commercial organizations has been attracted. However, concern has been expressed about the implications of commercial involvement: the fragmentation of general medical services; effect of for-profit status; and use of patient-based data. Recent policy developments could allow disease management to develop within the NHS.
The theme of the bachelor's thesis is the issue of employee care and related provision of employee benefits. The main objective is to analyze the effective legislation and characterize the basic areas of employee care. First of all, the thesis focuses on the matter of employee care and related legislation analyzing the working conditions, professional growth of the employees, catering of employees and special conditions for some employees. Furthermore, the special attention is paid to the vol...
Prasanna, Prasanth M; Seagull, F Jacob; Nagy, Paul
Online social networking is an immature, but rapidly evolving industry of web-based technologies that allow individuals to develop online relationships. News stories populate the headlines about various websites which can facilitate patient and doctor interaction. There remain questions about protecting patient confidentiality and defining etiquette in order to preserve the doctor/patient relationship and protect physicians. How much social networking-based communication or other forms of E-communication is effective? What are the potential benefits and pitfalls of this form of communication? Physicians are exploring how social networking might provide a forum for interacting with their patients, and advance collaborative patient care. Several organizations and institutions have set forth policies to address these questions and more. Though still in its infancy, this form of media has the power to revolutionize the way physicians interact with their patients and fellow health care workers. In the end, physicians must ask what value is added by engaging patients or other health care providers in a social networking format. Social networks may flourish in health care as a means of distributing information to patients or serve mainly as support groups among patients. Physicians must tread a narrow path to bring value to interactions in these networks while limiting their exposure to unwanted liability.
Thayane Pereira da Silva Ferreira
Full Text Available O estudo propõe um debate sobre o cuidado em saúde mental na atenção básica, partindo do entendimento de que a produção do cuidado se dá em redes, não apenas institucionais, mas redes vivas e de potência criativa. O percurso metodológico se deu por meio da cartografia, de modo que foi possível rastrear o território para além dos serviços de saúde. Como meio de produção de dados utilizaram-se os diários de campo produzidos na vigência de doze meses do projeto de extensão: Saúde Mental na atenção básica- desafio e necessidade, desenvolvido em uma unidade integrada de saúde da família de um município do estado da Paraíba. A vivência e atuação no território se deram inicialmente pelo mapeamento das redes de cuidado territoriais, como também a problematização das ações de cuidado na atenção básica, com o intuito de ampliar o debate sobre o papel das redes vivas no cuidado em saúde. Tal discussão possibilitou o desenvolvimento de ações em saúde pautadas na integralidade do cuidado, coesão social, produção de vida. Estes resultados apontam para a necessidade em se pensar ações compartilhadas e inseridas no território, tendo em vista que a saúde envolve também os territórios existenciais pelos quais os sujeitos circulam e produzem relações. A terapia ocupacional tem contribuído significativamente na consolidação deste cuidado. The study proposes a debate on mental health care in primary care, based on the understanding that the production of care takes place in networks, not only institutional, but also living networks and creative power. The methodological approach was through the mapping, so it was possible to trace the territory beyond the health services. As a means of production, data field diaries were produced in the presence of twelve months of the extension project: Mental Health in the primary care - challenge and need, developed in an integrated health unit family in a
Bao, Wei [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Li, Qinghua
With the integration of advanced communication technologies, the power grid is expected to greatly enhance efficiency and reliability of future power systems. However, since most electrical devices in power grid substations are connected via communication networks, cyber security of these communication networks becomes a critical issue. Real-World incidents such as Stuxnet have shown the feasibility of compromising a device in the power grid network to further launch more sophisticated attacks. To deal with security attacks of this spirit, this paper aims to hide critical targets from compromised internal nodes and hence protect them from further attacks launched by those compromised nodes. In particular, we consider substation networks and propose to add carefully-controlled dummy traffic to a substation network to make critical target nodes indistinguishable from other nodes in network traffic patterns. This paper describes the design and evaluation of such a scheme. Evaluations show that the scheme can effectively protect critical nodes with acceptable communication cost.
Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.
Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but
Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.
Zamir, Amir R.; Wu, Te-Lin; Sun, Lin; Shen, William; Malik, Jitendra; Savarese, Silvio
Currently, the most successful learning models in computer vision are based on learning successive representations followed by a decision layer. This is usually actualized through feedforward multilayer neural networks, e.g. ConvNets, where each layer forms one of such successive representations. However, an alternative that can achieve the same goal is a feedback based approach in which the representation is formed in an iterative manner based on a feedback received from previous iteration's...
Sander, K F
Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies
Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing
Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.
Kenett, Dror Y.; Perc, Matjaž; Boccaletti, Stefano
Graphical abstract: Interdependent network reciprocity. Only those blue cooperative domains that are initially present on both networks survive. Abstract: This is an introduction to the special issue titled “Networks of networks” that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. Recent research and reviews attest to the fact that networks of networks are the next frontier in network science [1–7]. Not only are interactions limited and thus inadequately described by well-mixed models, it is also a fact that the networks that should be an integral part of such models are often interconnected, thus making the processes that are unfolding on them interdependent. From the World economy and transportation systems to social media, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might significantly affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has a certain relevance and meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Networks of networks, interdependent networks, or multilayer networks are therefore a much better and realistic description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, percolation, diffusion, synchronization, collective behavior, and evolutionary games on networks of networks. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of networks of networks, regardless of background and motivation, is very welcome.
Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina
This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...
Gonçalves, Bruno; Menezes, Ronaldo; Sinatra, Roberta
The last decades have seen the emergence of Complex Networks as the language with which a wide range of complex phenomena in fields as diverse as Physics, Computer Science, and Medicine (to name just a few) can be properly described and understood. This book provides a view of the state of the art in this dynamic field and covers topics ranging from network controllability, social structure, online behavior, recommendation systems, and network structure. This book includes the peer-reviewed list of works presented at the 7th Workshop on Complex Networks CompleNet 2016 which was hosted by the Université de Bourgogne, France, from March 23-25, 2016. The 28 carefully reviewed and selected contributions in this book address many topics related to complex networks and have been organized in seven major groups: (1) Theory of Complex Networks, (2) Multilayer networks, (3) Controllability of networks, (4) Algorithms for networks, (5) Community detection, (6) Dynamics and spreading phenomena on networks, (7) Applicat...
Alex Sánchez, María Dolores
The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have an increasing influence on the way we relate and in shaping personal identity. The phenomenon of online social networking emerges strongly and contributes to the development of new spaces breaking with the official discourse that marks the scientific evidence on health. This paper analyzes the impact of ICT in relation to the identity of the digital natives and eating disorders (ED). Particular attention to how the network society determines the response of young people in situations of social tension is dedicated. To do this, provides a perspective on the concept of interaction from the analysis of the discourse on anorexia and bulimia in the network, and how to care nurses should consider these factors to improve efficiency and quality in clinical care and patient care.
Mills, David L
Carefully coordinated, reliable, and accurate time synchronization is vital to a wide spectrum of fields-from air and ground traffic control, to buying and selling goods and services, to TV network programming. Ill-gotten time could even lead to the unimaginable and cause DNS caches to expire, leaving the entire Internet to implode on the root servers.Written by the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol on Earth and in Space, Second Edition addresses the technological infrastructure of time dissemination, distrib
Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.
In recent years, wireless sensor network technology is developing at a surprisingly high speed. More and more fields have started to use the wireless sensor network technology and find the advantages of WSN, such as military applications, environmental observing and forecasting system, medical care, smart home, structure monitoring. The world Environmental Summit in Copenhagen on 2010 has just concluded that environment has become the world’s main concern. But regrettably the summit did no...
Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini
This study is the result of the project: networks care and social entrepreneurship: the autonomy and social commitment of nurses. The purpose of this qualitative study is to comprehend the meaning of nursing care as a social enterprising practice. The Grounded Theory was used as a methodological reference and the interview, conducted with 35 participants as technique of data collection. Data codification led to the central theme: Viewing Nursing Care as a Social Enterprising Practice. This theme is complemented by the category, characterized the cause condition: the social integration through the creation a political identity that expresses your involvement. The results showed that is necessary to learn and have a deep dialogic knowledge. In order to consolidate popular participation as a citizenship ideal, a critical professional attitude, base don the combination of care with liberty, participation end autonomy.
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An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death.
Gries, Cynthia J; White, Douglas B; Truog, Robert D; Dubois, James; Cosio, Carmen C; Dhanani, Sonny; Chan, Kevin M; Corris, Paul; Dark, John; Fulda, Gerald; Glazier, Alexandra K; Higgins, Robert; Love, Robert; Mason, David P; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Shapiro, Ron; Shemie, Sam; Tracy, Mary Fran; Travaline, John M; Valapour, Maryam; West, Lori; Zaas, David; Halpern, Scott D
Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) has the potential to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Because consent and management of potential donors must occur before death, DCDD raises unique ethical and policy issues. To develop an ethics and health policy statement on adult and pediatric DCDD relevant to critical care and transplantation stakeholders. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders was convened to develop an ethics and health policy statement. The panel consisted of representatives from the American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, and the United Network of Organ Sharing. The panel reviewed the literature, discussed important ethics and health policy considerations, and developed a guiding framework for decision making by stakeholders. A framework to guide ethics and health policy statement was established, which addressed the consent process, pre- and post mortem interventions, the determination of death, provisions of end-of-life care, and pediatric DCDD. The information presented in this Statement is based on the current evidence, experience, and clinical rationale. New clinical research and the development and dissemination of new technologies will eventually necessitate an update of this Statement.
Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L
State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.
Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients increasingly receive care from multiple providers in a variety of settings. They expect management continuity that crosses boundaries and bridges gaps in the healthcare system. To our knowledge, little research has been done to assess coordination across organizational and professional boundaries from the patients' perspective. Our objective was to assess whether greater local health network integration is associated with management continuity as perceived by patients. Method: We used the data from a research project on the development and validation of a generic and comprehensive continuity measurement instrument that can be applied to a variety of patient conditions and settings. We used the results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 with 256 patients in two local health networks in Quebec, Canada. We compared four aspects of management continuity between two contrasting network types (highly integrated vs. poorly integrated. Results: The scores obtained in the highly integrated network are better than those of the poorly integrated network on all dimensions of management continuity (coordinator role, role clarity and coordination between clinics, and information gaps between providers except for experience of care plan. Conclusion: Some aspects of care coordination among professionals and organizations are noticed by patients and may be valid indicators to assess care coordination.
Time, Cost, Information Seeking Skills and Format of Resources Present Barriers to Information Seeking by Primary Care Practitioners in a Research Environment. A review of: Andrews James E., Kevin A. Pearce, Carol Ireson, and Margaret M. Love. “Information‐Seeking Behaviors of Practitioners in a Primary Care Practice‐Based Research Network (PBRN.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 93.2 (Apr. 2005: 206‐12.
Martha Ingrid Preddie
Full Text Available Objective – To determine the information seeking behaviors of primary care practitioners in order to inform future efforts towards the design of information services that would support quality inprimary care.Design – A cross‐sectional survey.Setting – A primary care practice based research network (PBRN of caregivers who serve a broad population while simultaneously studying and disseminating innovations aimed at improvements in quality, efficiency and/or safety of primaryhealth care in the United States.Subjects – All primary care practitioners in the PBRN including family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants.Methods – A questionnaire comprising twenty‐six questions was distributed to 116 practitioners. Practitioners attached to academic centres (who were also members of the PBRN were excluded in order “to achieve a sample of practices more representative of the primary care practising population” (208. Descriptive data were collected and analyzed. SPSS v11.5 was used for statistical analyses.Main results – There was a response rate of 51% (59 of 116. Fifty‐eight percent of the respondents stated that they sought information (excluding drug dosing or drug interactions information to support patient care several times a week. Sixty‐eight per cent sought this information while the patient waited. Almost half of therespondents had access to a small medical library (48% or a hospital library (46%, while 21% used a university medical library.Approximately 14% had no immediate access to a medical library. Almost 60% of practitioners stated that they had an e‐mail account. Thirty‐four percent agreed that the use of e‐mail to communicate with patients enhanced medical practice, while 24% disagreed. There was frequent prescribing of Internet‐based consumer health information to patients by only 16% of the practitioners, while Internet support groups were frequently recommended
Dunn, Adam G; Westbrook, Johanna I
Social network analysis is an increasingly popular sociological method used to describe and understand the social aspects of communication patterns in the health care sector. The networks studied in this area are special because they are small, and for these sizes, the metrics calculated during analysis are sensitive to the number of people in the network and the density of observed communication. Validation is of particular value in controlling for these factors and in assisting in the accurate interpretation of network findings, yet such approaches are rarely applied. Our aim in this paper was to bring together published case studies to demonstrate how a proposed validation technique provides a basis for standardised comparison of networks within and across studies. A validation is performed for three network studies comprising ten networks, where the results are compared within and across the studies in relation to a standard baseline. The results confirm that hierarchy, centralisation and clustering metrics are highly sensitive to changes in size or density. Amongst the three case studies, we found support for some conclusions and contrary evidence for others. This validation approach is a tool for identifying additional features and verifying the conclusions reached in observational studies of small networks. We provide a methodological basis from which to perform intra-study and inter-study comparisons, for the purpose of introducing greater rigour to the use of social network analysis in health care applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The social network of children with special healthcare needs in the (invisibility of nursing care La red social de niños con necesidades especiales de salud en la (in visibilidad del cuidar de enfermería A rede social de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde na (invisibilidade do cuidado de enfermagem
Juliana Rezende Montenegro Medeiros de Moraes
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the (invisibility of nursing care and discuss ways of (disarticulating this care with family care in the social network of children with special healthcare needs. A qualitative research was performed with health professionals at a pediatric hospital, four units of the Family Medical Program (FMP, and children’s relatives living in Niterói (RJ. The field work was put in practice after IRB approval (HESFA/EEAN, consisting of five semi-structured interviews and two group dynamics. Critical Discourse Analysis indicated that nursing care is visible in the child’s social network through the nurse’s educational and care activities and home visits by the nurisng aide of the FMP. Due to errors in the national health system’s referral and counter-referral, mothers articulate the network and not the health service; thus, the reorganization of the system in the State would foster social networks that are less wearing for their families.El objetivo fue identificar la (in visibilidad del cuidado de enfermería y discutir los modos de (des articulación de ese cuidado con el cuidado familiar en red social de niños con necesidades especiales de salud. Investigación cualitativa con profesionales de salud de un hospital pediátrico, de cuatro unidades del Programa Médico de Familia (PMF, y familiares residentes en Niterói (RJ. Trabajo de campo fue ejecutado después de aprobación por el Comité de Ética (HESFA/EEAN, consistiendo de cinco entrevistas seme-estructuradas y dos dinámicas grupales. Análisis Critica del Discurso apuntó que cuidado de enfermería es visible en red social del niño por actividades cuidadoras y educativas de enfermera y por visita domiciliar del auxiliar de enfermería del PSF. Debido a fallos en la referencia y contra referencia del sistema de salud, la madre, articula red y no servicio de salud; por tanto la reorganización del sistema en el Estado promovería redes sociales menos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency departments (EDs are high pressure health care settings involving complex interactions between staff members in providing and organising patient care