Sample records for care dentistry 21st

  1. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C. Quieng


    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  2. Where will the stem cells lead us? Prospects for dentistry in the 21 st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Durga Sreenivas


    Full Text Available It is dentists′ dream to achieve bone repair with predictability, but without donor site morbidity as well as reconstruction of injured or pathologically damaged complex dental structures, however, this will no longer be a dream as these are being made into a reality using stem cell science. Stem cell science is clearly an intriguing and promising area of science. Stem cells have been isolated from a variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Dental stem cells are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs brought new enthusiasm among the researchers because of their easy accessibility, high quality and they don′t pose the same ethical concerns and controversy in comparison with embryonic stem cells. This review article provides brief insights about stem cell basics, the state of art in human dental stem cell research and its possible impact on future dentistry. Even though most of these modalities are still in infancy, it is evident that the 21 st century dentist is going to play a critical role in the field of medicine. The aim of this article is to bring awareness among the dentists about the huge potential associated with the use of stem cells in a clinical setting, as well as proper understanding of related problems.

  3. Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world. (United States)

    Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn


    Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health.

  4. Postdoctoral Education in Dentistry: Preparing Dental Practitioners To Meet the Oral Health Needs of America in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Meyerowitz, Cyril


    Reviews the history of postdoctoral programs in dentistry and medicine, focusing on postdoctoral general dentistry education, and describes the changing health-care environment in which future dental professionals will practice, relating the dental postdoctoral experience to that in medicine. A strategy is presented to prepare dental practitioners…

  5. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon. (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L


    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  6. A vision for ambulatory care in the 21st century. (United States)

    Zuckerman, A M


    The 1990's have been a remarkable decade for ambulatory care providers. Ambulatory care services have flourished in an era of rapidly increasing demands and seemingly limitless potential. Will the first decade of the next millennium continue this trend or is something new on the horizon? Ambulatory care's future prospects need to be evaluated within the context of the overall health care delivery environment of the future. At this time, three alternative "futures" seem plausible for the next decade. Managed care dominates. This scenario appears most likely at present with managed care poised to make significant inroads into Medicaid and Medicare populations. National health insurance is instituted. Some believe that this is a logical reaction to the excesses of the current competitive marketplace and is possible following the presidential election of 2004. Slow evolution of current system. This scenario may be viewed as the status quo alternative and is likely in the absence of a crisis or a better, generally agreed upon way in which to improve health care delivery.

  7. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.


    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  8. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective. (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve


    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  9. [The medical technologist as a key professional in medical care in the 21st century]. (United States)

    Iwatani, Yoshinori


    and patients, resulting in the highest level of management efficiency. For the development of such medical technologists, university education, specialist capabilities in medical technology and clinical laboratory diagnostics, and a research capability are essential. Thus, it is crucial for clinical laboratory physicians and the Japanese medical care system of the 21st century to urgently develop such an education system.

  10. The American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry: a critical resource for 21st century dental practice. (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Jeske, Arthur


    Through its website (http://, the American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry offers dental health professionals access to systematic reviews of oral health-related research findings, as well as Clinical Recommendations, which summarize large bodies of scientific evidence in the form of practice recommendations, e.g., the use of professionally-applied topical fluoride and pit-and-fissure sealants. Another feature of the site of great practical importance to the practicing dentist is the Critical Summary, which is a concise review of an individual systematic review's methodology and findings, as well as the importance and context of the outcomes, and the strengths and weaknesses of the systematic review and its implications for dental practice.

  11. Toward a 21st-century health care system: Recommendations for health care reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Arrow (Kenneth); A. Auerbach (Alan); J. Bertko (John); L.P. Casalino (Lawrence Peter); F.J. Crosson (Francis); A. Enthoven (Alain); E. Falcone; R.C. Feldman; V.R. Fuchs (Victor); A.M. Garber (Alan); M.R. Gold (Marthe Rachel); D.A. Goldman; G.K. Hadfield (Gillian); M.A. Hall (Mark Ann); R.I. Horwitz (Ralph); M. Hooven; P.D. Jacobson (Peter); T.S. Jost (Timothy Stoltzfus); L.J. Kotlikoff; J. Levin (Jonathan); S. Levine (Sharon); R. Levy; K. Linscott; H.S. Luft; R. Mashal; D. McFadden (Daniel); D. Mechanic (David); D. Meltzer (David); J.P. Newhouse (Joseph); R.G. Noll (Roger); J.B. Pietzsch (Jan Benjamin); P. Pizzo (Philip); R.D. Reischauer (Robert); S. Rosenbaum (Sara); W. Sage (William); L.D. Schaeffer (Leonard Daniel); E. Sheen; B.N. Silber (Bernie Michael); J. Skinner (Jonathan Robert); S.M. Shortell (Stephen); S.O. Thier (Samuel); S. Tunis (Sean); L. Wulsin Jr.; P. Yock (Paul); G.B. Nun; S. Bryan (Stirling); O. Luxenburg (Osnat); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); J. Cooper (Jim)


    textabstractThe coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project ( held a

  12. Toward a 21st-century health care system: recommendations for health care reform. (United States)

    Arrow, Kenneth; Auerbach, Alan; Bertko, John; Brownlee, Shannon; Casalino, Lawrence P; Cooper, Jim; Crosson, Francis J; Enthoven, Alain; Falcone, Elizabeth; Feldman, Robert C; Fuchs, Victor R; Garber, Alan M; Gold, Marthe R; Goldman, Dana; Hadfield, Gillian K; Hall, Mark A; Horwitz, Ralph I; Hooven, Michael; Jacobson, Peter D; Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus; Kotlikoff, Lawrence J; Levin, Jonathan; Levine, Sharon; Levy, Richard; Linscott, Karen; Luft, Harold S; Mashal, Robert; McFadden, Daniel; Mechanic, David; Meltzer, David; Newhouse, Joseph P; Noll, Roger G; Pietzsch, Jan B; Pizzo, Philip; Reischauer, Robert D; Rosenbaum, Sara; Sage, William; Schaeffer, Leonard D; Sheen, Edward; Silber, B Michael; Skinner, Jonathan; Shortell, Stephen M; Thier, Samuel O; Tunis, Sean; Wulsin, Lucien; Yock, Paul; Nun, Gabi Bin; Bryan, Stirling; Luxenburg, Osnat; van de Ven, Wynand P M M


    The coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project ( held a series of workshops during which physicians, health policy experts, health insurance executives, business leaders, hospital administrators, economists, and others who represent diverse perspectives came together. This group agreed that the following 8 recommendations are fundamental to successful reform: 1. Replace the current fee-for-service payment system with a payment system that encourages and rewards innovation in the efficient delivery of quality care. The new payment system should invest in the development of outcome measures to guide payment. 2. Establish a securely funded, independent agency to sponsor and evaluate research on the comparative effectiveness of drugs, devices, and other medical interventions. 3. Simplify and rationalize federal and state laws and regulations to facilitate organizational innovation, support care coordination, and streamline financial and administrative functions. 4. Develop a health information technology infrastructure with national standards of interoperability to promote data exchange. 5. Create a national health database with the participation of all payers, delivery systems, and others who own health care data. Agree on methods to make de-identified information from this database on clinical interventions, patient outcomes, and costs available to researchers. 6. Identify revenue sources, including a cap on the tax exclusion of employer-based health insurance, to subsidize health care coverage with the goal of insuring all Americans. 7. Create state or regional insurance exchanges to pool risk, so that Americans without access to employer-based or other group insurance could obtain a standard benefits package through these exchanges

  13. Educating for the 21st-Century Health Care System: An Interdependent Framework of Basic, Clinical, and Systems Sciences. (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Haidet, Paul; Papp, Klara K; Wolpaw, Daniel R; Moser, Eileen; Wittenstein, Robin D; Wolpaw, Terry


    In the face of a fragmented and poorly performing health care delivery system, medical education in the United States is poised for disruption. Despite broad-based recommendations to better align physician training with societal needs, adaptive change has been slow. Traditionally, medical education has focused on the basic and clinical sciences, largely removed from the newer systems sciences such as population health, policy, financing, health care delivery, and teamwork. In this article, authors examine the current state of medical education with respect to systems sciences and propose a new framework for educating physicians in adapting to and practicing in systems-based environments. Specifically, the authors propose an educational shift from a two-pillar framework to a three-pillar framework where basic, clinical, and systems sciences are interdependent. In this new three-pillar framework, students not only learn the interconnectivity in the basic, clinical, and systems sciences but also uncover relevance and meaning in their education through authentic, value-added, and patient-centered roles as navigators within the health care system. Authors describe the Systems Navigation Curriculum, currently implemented for all students at the Penn State College of Medicine, as an example of this three-pillar educational model. Simple adjustments, such as including occasional systems topics in medical curriculum, will not foster graduates prepared to practice in the 21st-century health care system. Adequate preparation requires an explicit focus on the systems sciences as a vital and equal component of physician education.

  14. Minutes of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century”Traditional/Complementary Medicine Session

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@The conference of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century” sponsored by Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) was convened at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, USA on June 24-29, 2001. Around 600 participants from different well-known units of patient care, research, education and administration in China, and more than 600 medical specialists from health care societies in USA participated in this conference, including Prof. WU Jie-ping (Honorary President of CMA and Vice-Chairman of Standing Committee of Chinese People's Congress), Prof. ZHANG Wen-kang (President of CMA and Minister of Chinese Ministry of Health), Mr. John Kerry (American Federal Senator from Massachusetts), Prof. Lawrence Summers (President of Harvard University), and Prof. Joseph Martin (Dean of Harvard Medical School). This conference was a historic pageant of academic exchange with the largest scale between health systems in both China and USA. The scale of Chinese delegation was only next to that of Chinese gymnastic delegation in Olympic Games. This delegation consisted of experts from over 40 specialties in Chinese medical societies including 10 academicians from Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, and academic leader of different specialties as well as well-known experts in the world.

  15. Virtual reality, robotics, and other wizardry in 21st century trauma care. (United States)

    Maniscalco-Theberge, M E; Elliott, D C


    The former Special Assistant to the Director on Biomedical Technology, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), COL RM Satava, notes "Predicting the future trends in any profession jeopardizes the credibility of the author." Thus, we have attempted to outline current systems and prototype models in testing phases. Technologic advances will enable enhanced care of trauma patients. In the acute care setting, they also will affect the educational system in theory and practice.

  16. South Africa: a 21st century apartheid in health and health care? (United States)

    Mooney, Gavin H; McIntyre, Diane E

    The current crisis in health and health care in South Africa results from a combination of factors: the legacy of apartheid; issues of poverty, income inequality and AIDS; and the more recent influence of neoliberal economic policies and globalisation. The legacy of apartheid has meant that both health and health care are skewed along racial lines, and 60% of health care expenditure goes largely to the 14% of the population who have private health insurance. A more equitable distribution of health care resources will result from the promised National Health Insurance, the details of which are still being debated. The AIDS epidemic in South Africa was exacerbated by the government not introducing antiretroviral treatment (ART) until the early 2000s. In 2005, it was estimated that more than 5.5 million South Africans were infected with HIV. Now all those with a CD4 count below 200 are eligible for ART. A better health service will not be enough to improve the health of South Africans. A whole-of-government approach is needed to address the persistent problems of poverty and inequality.

  17. Inpatient psychiatric care in the 21st century: the need for reform. (United States)

    Glick, Ira D; Sharfstein, Steven S; Schwartz, Harold I


    Driven by financial pressures, the sole focus of psychiatric inpatient treatment has become safety and crisis stabilization. Data are lacking on outcomes of ultrashort-stay hospitalizations; however, such stays may diminish opportunities for a sustained recovery. In the absence of an evidence base to guide clinicians and policy makers, mental health professionals have an ethical obligation to promote what they consider to be best practice. This Open Forum focuses on the need to reconsider the current model of inpatient hospitalization in order to maximize positive outcomes and emphasize appropriate transition to the community and less intensive levels of care. A model of care is presented based on rapid formulation of diagnosis, goals, and treatment modalities before treatment begins. Three phases are described--assessment, implementation, and resolution--with specific principles to guide length-of-stay decisions and requirements for staffing.

  18. A look into the 21st century as viewed by a Mayo Health System patient care executive. (United States)

    McBeth, A


    The 21st century needs to be dedicated to the broader vision of building healthy communities. The challenge for us as leaders in the communities in which we live and work will be to develop a nondisparate shared vision of health that serves all populations from birth to death. Disparity benchmarks and indicators will be key in order to achieve the U.S. Surgeon General's commitment to eliminate the disparities in health in this new century. Florence Nightingale's 19th century vision of creating an environment of healing--together with the Mayo brothers' primary value that the needs of the patient come first, which were set forth during the same time period--needs to guide us as we embark upon our 21st century journey.

  19. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care. (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia


    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines.

  20. Practice of preventive dentistry for nursing staff in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valeria Jimenez-Baez


    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Methods: Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. Results: The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01. Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1 than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8. Conclusions: The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  1. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare? (United States)

    Mackenzie, James


    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century - the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services - an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key part of this shift is the recognition that the health system does not operate in a vacuum and that strategic commissioning decisions must take account of wider determinants of health and well-being, and operate within the finite limits of the planet's natural resources. The sustainable development principle of balancing financial, social and environmental considerations is crucial in managing demand for health services and ensuring that the health system is resilient to risks of resource uncertainty and a changing climate. Building sustainability into the governance and contracting processes of GP commissioning consortia will help deliver efficiency savings, impact on system productivity, manage system risk and help manage demand through the health co-benefits of taking a whole systems approach to commissioning decisions. Commissioning services from providers committed to corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practices allows us to move beyond a health system that cures people reactively to one in which the health of individuals and populations is managed proactively through prevention and education. The opportunity to build sustainability principles into the culture of GP commissioning consortia upfront should be seized now to ensure the new model of commissioning endures and is fit for the future.

  2. SCDA task force on a special care dentistry residency. (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffery; Vishwanat, Lakshmi; Perry, Maureen; Messura, Judith; Dee, Kristin


    The Special Care Dentistry Association (SCDA) has acted on a proposal regarding the status of training in the care of patients with special needs. Two phases of action were undertaken. Phase 1: (a) examination of the literature on existing training and curricula in the care of patients with special needs and (b) a survey of existing postdoctoral programs in special needs. Phase 2: establish a group of experts who: (a) submitted to the Commission on Dental Accreditation a request to approve a postdoctoral general dentistry residency program in Special Care Dentistry and (b) created suggested accreditation standards for such postdoctoral programs. This article describes efforts by the SCDA to evaluate: The status of existing training of dental students in the care of patients with special needs. The number and characteristics of postdoctoral general dentistry programs offering formal training in the care of patients with special needs. Whether additional training in the care of patients with special needs is needed for dental students and -dentists. Possible actions by SCDA to impact the numbers of dentists trained each year in the care of patients with -special needs.

  3. 78 FR 26053 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a) (2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Dates and Times: May 20, 2013...

  4. 78 FR 48440 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: August 29, 2013,...

  5. 76 FR 64952 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry . Dates and Times: November 7, 2011, 8:30 a.m.... Purpose: The Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (``Advisory...

  6. There is no health without mental health: are we educating Australian nurses to care for the health consumer of the 21st century? (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne


    One in five Australians has a diagnosable mental illness and the impact of the illness on the individual, their family, and the community is significant. Since comprehensive nursing was introduced in the 1980s there have been repeated concerns raised regarding the preparedness of graduates from Australian undergraduate nursing programs to care for people who have a mental illness. In 2009, despite a recent comprehensive national review of the mental health/illness content in pre-registration curricula, these concerns remain. The nursing profession must have a responsibility to the global community to ensure that registered nurses are educated to meet evolving health challenges and the needs of the health consumer in the 21st Century. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the prevalence and impact of mental illness on health care outcomes in all settings and to challenge the profession to acknowledge that mental health nursing content must be a core area of all undergraduate curricula. A nationally coordinated response to address the long standing identified deficits in the educational preparation of comprehensive nurses is now a priority to ensure that nurses remain a major stakeholder group in the delivery of health care and key health informants and decision makers within the global health care arena.

  7. The power of servant leadership to transform health care organizations for the 21st-century economy. (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard W; Tumblin, Thomas F


    Physician leadership is emerging as a vital component in transforming the nation's health care industry. Because few physicians have been introduced to the large body of literature on leadership and organizations, we herein provide a concise review, as this literature relates to competitive health care organizations and the leaders who serve them. Although the US health care industry has transitioned to a dynamic market economy governed by a wide range of internal and external forces, health care organizations continue to be dominated by leaders who practice an outmoded transactional style of leadership and by organizational hierarchies that are inherently stagnant. In contrast, outside the health care sector, service industries have repeatedly demonstrated that transformational, situational, and servant leadership styles are most successful in energizing human resources within organizations. This optimization of intellectual capital is further enhanced by transforming organizations into adaptable learning organizations where traditional institutional hierarchies are flattened and efforts to evoke change are typically team driven and mission oriented.

  8. 76 FR 30951 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: June 13, 2011, 1 p.m... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...

  9. 77 FR 64116 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 1, 2012, 10... Jerilyn K. Glass, M.D., Ph.D., Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions,...

  10. 75 FR 14446 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary CareMedicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: April 22, 2010, 8 a.m... of Health Professions, Division of Medicine and Dentistry. In the plenary session, the...

  11. 75 FR 64318 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 15, 2010, 8... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...

  12. 77 FR 36550 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Dates and Times: July 19, 2012, 8..., 2012, will begin with an update on the Division of Medicine and Dentistry's development of...

  13. 75 FR 69686 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (United States)


    ... Administration Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry AGENCY: Health Resources and... the cancellation of the Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and...

  14. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health care system and scientific research – a vision for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani Mavis Mulaudzi


    Full Text Available Research already conducted in African countries indicates that the majority of patients still seek help from the traditional indigenous health care systems. Opsomming Navorsing wat reeds in Afrika-lande onderneem is, dui aan dat die meerderheid pasiënte steeds hulp soek vanaf die tradisioneel inheemse gesondheidsorgsisteme. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. Dentistry



    The specialty of Dental Surgery has progressed from the "blood and acrylic" of the early seventies. Dentistry has undergone a quantum leap over the past twenty-five years, with improvements in both technique and technology, bringing us the sophisticated procedures used in today's practice.

  16. Americans with Disabilities Act: Its Importance in Special Care Dentistry. (United States)

    Surabian, Stanley R


    This article focuses on understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act and developmental disabilities for health care providers in special care dentistry. Essential to this awareness is a comprehension of statutory and regulatory requirements and how state disability acts can be more rigorous in application. Developmental disabilities are re-examined in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). Understanding of intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and cerebral palsy is necessary because the management of oral health considerations for special care patients has become ever more complex and indispensable.

  17. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches


    Jovana Rančić; Nemanja Rančić; Nemanja Majstorović; Vladimir Biočanin; Marko Milosavljević; Mihajlo Jakovljević


    Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was...

  18. Evidence Based Dental Care: Integrating Clinical Expertise with Systematic Research



    Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the “gold standard” in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21st century, more and more p...

  19. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Rančić


    Full Text Available Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was adopted. Sample size was 752 complete episodes of treatment in 250 patients, selected in 2012/2013 throughout several specialist state- and private-owned dental clinics in Serbia. All direct costs of dental care were taken into account and expressed in Euros (€.Results: Mean total costs of dental care were € 46 ± 156 per single dentist visit while total costs incurred by this population sample were € 34,424. Highest unit utilization of services belongs to conservative dentistry (31.9%, oral surgery (19.5% and radiology (17.4%, while the resource with the highest monetary value belongs to implantology € 828 ± 392, orthodontics € 706 ± 667 and prosthetics € 555 ± 244. The most frequently treated diagnosis was tooth decay (33.8% unit services provided, pulpitis (11.2% and impacted teeth (8.5%, while most expensive to treat were anomalies of tooth position (€ 648 ± 667, abnormalities of size and form of teeth (€ 508 ± 705 and loss of teeth due to accident, extraction or local periodontal disease (€ 336 ± 339.Conclusion: Although the range of dental costs currently falls behind EU average, Serbia’s emerging economy is likely to expand in the long run while market demand for dental services will grow. Due to threatened financial sustainability of current health insurance patterns in Western Balkans, getting acquainted with true size and structure of dental care costs could essentially support informed decision making in future

  20. Developing an undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry - by consensus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dougall, A


    It has been reported that healthcare providers often lack the skills set to provide care for people with disabilities, leading to inequalities in health and reduced access to health care. Newly graduating dentists are likely to see a significant number of patients with special healthcare needs in the course of their practicing lives. However, there is evidence of national and international variation in the availability of education and training at the undergraduate level in this important, emerging area. The quality and content of undergraduate education in Special Care Dentistry has been shown to correlate with students\\' confidence and their expressed willingness, towards providing care for patients with special healthcare needs in their future practice. The aim of this study was to use information from a three-round Delphi process, continued into a face-to-face meeting, to establish consensus on what constitutes the essential core knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a newly qualified dentist so that they are able to deliver patient care to diverse populations following graduation. A high level of agreement was established amongst an international panel of experts from 30 countries. The final core items identified by the panel showed a paradigm shift away from the traditional emphasis on medical diagnosis within a curriculum towards an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) with patient-centred treatment planning for people with disabilities and special healthcare needs according to function or environment. Many of the core skills identified by the panel are transferable across a curriculum and should encourage a person-centred approach to treatment planning based on the function, needs and wishes of the patient rather than their specific diagnosis.

  1. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae


    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... (UW). Other obstacles such as resolving tensions in U.S. statutory law between traditional military and intelligence activities, bridging the gap with non-security Departments and Agencies, and developing the necessary trust with bilateral and multilateral partners are components that need...

  2. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Weill, Jean-Christophe


    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.


    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  4. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era. (United States)

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L


    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered.

  5. Science diplomacy in the 21st century. (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V


    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  6. Fossil fuels in the 21st century. (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F


    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  7. Building a clinical leadership community to drive improvement: a multi-case educational study to inform 21st century clinical commissioning, professional capability and patient care. (United States)

    Lynch, Marion; Verner, Elizabeth


    The new NHS requires transformational leadership; people with the knowledge and motivation to make effective change combined with an understanding of the system they work in. The aim of the Practice Leaders' Programme (PLP) is to generate the conditions needed to focus the energy and collaborative creativity required for innovation to enhance leadership skills across the health economy improving patient care. The PLP engaged 60 local leaders from central England in a new approach enabling them to influence others. It has informed educational policy and practice and helped change professional behaviours. Each participant implemented improvements in care and participated in six action learning sets (ALS) and up to six coaching sessions. Evidence of progress, learning and impact was identified in project reports, reflective diaries and evaluations. The ALS brought together key individuals from clinical and management disciplines across a diverse organisation to redesign a system by developing a shared vision for improving the quality of patient care. The links forged, the projects initiated, and the skills cultivated through the PLP produced ongoing benefits and outcomes beyond the course itself. Coaching sessions helped participants focus their efforts to achieve maximum impact and to become resilient in managing service change effectively. The programme has evolved over four years, building on recommendations from external evaluation which identified statistically significant increases in leadership competences. Further enhancement of this programme secured an International Health Improvement Award. Three key findings of positive impact have emerged; personal growth, service improvement, and legacy and sustainability.

  8. Australian health professionals' social media (Web 2.0) adoption trends: early 21st century health care delivery and practice promotion. (United States)

    Usher, Wayne T


    This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey ( was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies

  9. Advanced general dentistry program directors' attitudes on physician involvement in pediatric oral health care. (United States)

    Raybould, Ted P; Wrightson, A Stevens; Massey, Christi Sporl; Smith, Tim A; Skelton, Judith


    Childhood oral disease is a significant health problem, particularly for vulnerable populations. Since a major focus of General Dentistry Program directors is the management of vulnerable populations, we wanted to assess their attitudes regarding the inclusion of physicians in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of childhood oral disease. A survey was mailed to all General Practice Residency and Advanced Education in General Dentistry program directors (accessed through the ADA website) to gather data. Spearman's rho was used to determine correlation among variables due to nonnormal distributions. Overall, Advanced General Dentistry directors were supportive of physicians' involvement in basic aspects of oral health care for children, with the exception of applying fluoride varnish. The large majority of directors agreed with physicians' assessing children's oral health and counseling patients on the prevention of dental problems. Directors who treated larger numbers of children from vulnerable populations tended to strongly support physician assistance with early assessment and preventive counseling.

  10. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott


    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  11. Nursing theory: the 21st century. (United States)

    Randell, B P


    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  12. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T


    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  13. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond. (United States)

    Singh, Meharban


    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  14. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management. (United States)

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'


    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  15. The 21st Century Information Environment. (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  16. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin


    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  17. Toward the 21st Century for Women (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.


    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  18. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  19. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew


    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  20. Soaring into the 21st Century. (United States)

    Burke, John


    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  1. [Evaluation of preventive care in the dentistry department clinics of the University Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar]. (United States)

    Diouf, M; Faye, A; Cisse, D; Faye, D; Lo, C M M


    This was a cross-sectional study of 295 patients treated by dentistry students that aimed to evaluate the preventive care received by patients attending clinics of the dentistry department of the University Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, clinic specialty, patients' brushing technique and the other preventive care was recorded. The study sample comprised 48.5% men and 76.6% adults. Over 32% of the patients were from the conservative dentistry clinic. For 52.2% of the patients, no preventive action was provided. The use of visual aids when teaching oral hygen ne was observed for 17.4% of cases. Attitudes and practices of the dentistry students in relation to care require more vigilance and emphasis on prevention.

  2. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis


    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  3. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)


    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  4. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  5. Proactive intervention dentistry: a model for oral care through life. (United States)

    Goldstep, Fay


    Tools and techniques are available to oral care providers that have been found to be effective in reversing and controlling the caries process. In addition to fluoride, these tools include new remineralization therapies that can be incorporated into solutions, creams, and dentifrices, and bioactive restorative materials that work effectively with dental hard tissues. By incorporating such "proactive interventions" into their practice and educating patients on maintaining a daily oral hygiene regimen, clinicians can inhibit the multifactorial disease process of demineralization and caries before more extensive treatment becomes necessary.

  6. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  7. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John


    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  8. The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faulks, D


    People with disability are subject to inequality in oral health both in terms of prevalence of disease and unmet healthcare needs. Over 18% of the global population is living with moderate to severe functional problems related to disability, and a large proportion of these persons will require Special Care Dentistry at some point in their lifetime. It is estimated that 90% of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be able to access treatment in a local, primary care setting. Provision of such primary care is only possible through the education and training of dentists. The literature suggests that it is vital for the dental team to develop the necessary skills and gain experience treating people with special needs in order to ensure access to the provision of oral health care. Education in Special Care Dentistry worldwide might be improved by the development of a recognised academic and clinical discipline and by providing international curricula guidelines based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, WHO). This article aims to discuss the role and value of promoting and harmonising education in Special Care Dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

  9. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century. (United States)

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M


    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  10. Urgency in Pediatric Dentistry: Care Profile of the Integrated Pediatric Clinic of FOUFAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Albuquerque AMORIM


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the profile of the urgency care provided atthe Integrated Pediatric Clinic of the School of Dentistry of theFederal University of Alagoas (FOUFAL.Method: 221 patient files were analyzed between April toNovember 2006 and the following data were analyzed by descriptivestatistics: patient identification, type of urgency, involved tooth(teeth, diagnosis and proposed treatment. Only complete files wereincluded.Results: Urgency care was most frequently sought by femalechildren (55.7%; the age ranged between 2 and 14 years (meanage =7.6 years; toothache was the most common cause of urgencycare (53.84%; most cases of dental urgencies involved primarymandibular second molars (34.7%; the maxillary central incisorswere the most affected by traumatic injuries in both the primary(78.5% and permanent (76.2% dentitions; extraction (44% wasthe most common dental procedure followed by root canal therapy(34.5% and restorative treatment (24.5%; dental caries (48.3%was the diagnosis most frequently associated with toothachefollowed by irreversible pulpitis (22.8% and reversible pulpitis(16.1%.Conclusions: Most patients that sought treatment at the UrgencyService of the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at FOUFAL were femalechildren with a low socioeconomic level. Toothache was the mostfrequent reason for the urgency appointments, extraction was themost common procedure, affecting mainly the primary dentition andthe mandibular second molars.

  11. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)


    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  12. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  13. Pediatric Dentistry Specialty as Part of a Longer Continuum of Care: A Commentary. (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Rader, Rick; Sulkes, Stephen; Perlman, Steven P

    The transition of teenagers with special needs to young adulthood is a complex period for the children and their families. This transition is especially difficult when it comes to securing needed oral health care. The teenager is forced to transfer from the services of an age defined pediatric dental specialist with training to provide care for individuals with special needs, to 1) general practitioners with limited formal training and often unwillingness to provide care and 2) at a period when most states provide limited or lack of adult dental Medicaid programs. These issues and the need to expand pediatric dental specialist involvement in the general transitional period are reviewed. "Pediatric dentistry is an age-defined specialty that provides both primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, including those with special health care needs."(1) "Our system of preparing and maintaining our abilities to provide oral health services for an increasing diverse population must be brought up to date to meet the challenges posed by the treatment of young adults with disabilities."(2) "Most responding dentists (to a national study of pediatric dentists) helped adolescents with and without SHCNs (Special Health Care Needs) make the transition into adult care, but the major barrier was the availability of general dentists and specialists."(3).

  14. Boosting 21st Century Skills through Moroccan ELT Textbooks


    Hassan Ait Bouzid


    Research shows that the changing realities of the 21st century necessitate a fundamental shift in language education towards promoting 21st Century Skills. This paper investigates the extent to which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in teaching second year Baccalaureate students in public high school provide activities that help learners build skills that match the needs of the 21st century. It also explores the types of activities that are used to promote these skills and eventual...

  15. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century (United States)

    Pepper, L. J.


    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  17. The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report. (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R


    The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 23-25, 2014, in Carlsbad, CA. This event is the world's foremost scientific meeting focusing on prostate cancer and brings together leading basic, translational and clinical researchers in prostate cancer and other diverse disciplines to discuss the newest findings most likely to advance the understanding of prostate cancer and the clinical care of prostate cancer patients. This year's meeting highlighted themes including: (i) research integrity and standards for scientific reproducibility; (ii) prostate cancer disparities; (iii) mechanisms and models of prostate cancer progression and dormancy; (iv) mechanisms of therapeutic resistance; and (v) advancements in precision medicine treatments, treatment models, and predictive and prognostic biomarkers.

  18. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century. (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina


    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  19. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson


    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  20. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline


    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  1. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)


    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  2. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  3. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.


    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  4. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (United States)


    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  5. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century (United States)

    Shapiro, James


    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  6. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in India. (United States)

    Purwar, M; Kunnawar, N; Deshmukh, S; Singh, A; Mulik, I; Taori, V; Tayade, K; Mahorkar, C; Somani, A; Saboo, K; Choudhary, A; Shembekar, C; Choudhary, S; Ketkar, M; Knight, H E; Blakey, I; Cheikh Ismail, L


    The South Asian site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was the city of Nagpur, in Maharashtra State, India, with approximately 4500 births per year among the target population with middle to high socio-economic status. These deliveries are mainly concentrated in 20 small private hospitals, most of which are in the city centre. The sample for the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) was drawn from ten of these hospitals, covering 76% of the target low-risk pregnant population. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from the largest of these institutions, Ketkar Hospital, as well as several ancillary antenatal care clinics. Special activities to encourage participation and raise awareness of the study at this site included translating patient information leaflets into local languages and securing local media interest. Among the unique challenges of the Indian site was the coordination of the large number of hospitals involved in NCSS, a task that required careful planning and organisation by the field teams.

  7. Policies and guidelines outside the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry: influencing oral health care for persons with special health care needs. (United States)

    Keels, Martha Ann


    Organizations other than the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) have produced policies and guidelines regarding oral health care for persons with special health care needs (PSHCN). These organizations may be classified as: (1) educational groups; (2) legislative groups; (3) research-oriented groups; (4) industry groups; and (5) parent support groups. The other dental organization heavily advocating for oral health for PSHCN is the Special Care Dentistry Association. Diagnosis-based associations, such as the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia, also provide caregiver and patient support. Legislative agendas at the state and federal levels are aimed at improving the oral health of PSHCN. The purpose of this paper is to review the policies and guidelines outside AAPD influencing oral health care for PSHCN. AAPD should be aware of these activities and develop such policies in concert with other organizations where feasible.

  8. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  9. 21st Colloquium on African Geology——CAG21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lopo Vasconcelos


    @@ Under the auspices of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), the Geological Mining Association of Mozambique (AGMM) organized the 21st Colloquium on African Geology under the theme "Geoscience for Poverty Relief.

  10. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.


    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  11. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.


    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  12. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century (United States)


    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  13. Power and Influence: Global Dynamics in the 21st Century (United States)


    publications/WorkingPapers/WP165.pdf>. Nuńez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace...2005) Sheth, Jagdish N. and Rajendra S. Sisodia. Tectonic Shift: The Geoeconomic Realignment of Globalizing Markets. Thousand Oaks: Response, 2006...Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, and Soft Power. Carlisle Barracks: U.S

  14. Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force (United States)


    SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...outsiders, inclusion of cultural diversity and intergenerational fellowship.43 Sam Harris saw the benefit of faith and worship and contends that we need

  15. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    CERN Document Server


    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  16. Incorporating Experiential Learning Techniques to Improve Self-Efficacy in Clinical Special Care Dentistry Education. (United States)

    Watters, Amber L; Stabulas-Savage, Jeanine; Toppin, James D; Janal, Malvin N; Robbins, Miriam R


    The New York University College of Dentistry has introduced a clinical rotation for fourth-year dental students that focuses on treating people with special health care needs (PSN). The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that clinical experience in treating patients with special health care needs during predoctoral education is associated with increased self-assessed student ability and comfort and therefore self-efficacy. The study also investigated whether other characteristics, such as prior personal or volunteer experience with this population, service-mindedness, and/or the inclination to treat underserved populations, were associated with comfort in treating PSN. A survey was used to assess changes in students' perceived knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding treating PSN before and after the clinical experience for July 2012-June 2013. The survey included questions about students' service-mindedness, comfort, perceptions of abilities of PSN and educational importance of learning to treat PSN, desire for clinical experience, and future intent or interest in treating PSN. Out of 364 students invited to participate, 127 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 34.9%. The results showed statistically significant increases on six items following training: impressions about the importance of oral health among PSN, comfort in treating people with cognitive disabilities and with medical complexities, intent to treat PSN in future practice, interest in including PSN in postgraduate training, and belief that PSN could be treated in the private practice setting. These students reported preferring to learn in the clinical setting over didactic instruction. This clinical experience was associated with improved self-efficacy in treating PSN and increased intentions to treat this population in future practice. Improvements were particularly evident among those with the least prior experience with PSN and were independent of other aspects of the

  17. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  18. [Clinical laboratory in the 21st century]. (United States)

    Kawai, T


    Alvin Toffler has predicted that the "Third Wave" will be a society which be decentralized, diversified and customized, computer-dependent. Medical care and also clinical laboratory will be revolutionalized in a more or less similar direction to that predicted by him. Laboratory physicians and scientists should try to improve laboratory services, particularly establishment of adequate normal values, common expression of various laboratory results, introduction of medical decision making and recommended guideline for laboratory use in primary health care.

  19. Evidence-based Dentistry and Its Role in Caring for Special Needs Patients. (United States)

    Queen, Alan N


    Evidence-based dentistry is a concept ideally suited and applicable to special needs dentistry. As the special needs of patients varies according to the individual, so should the way we evaluate our patient, prescribe a course of treatment, and implement that treatment plan. Future generations of dental students and residents should be trained in these concepts not just for patients with special needs, but also for the general patient population. It is imperative that the dental community not retreat in the face of what many deem to be "difficult" patients with special needs. Knowledge and training can overcome many barriers to treatment.

  20. Cosmetic Dentistry (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  1. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  2. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah


    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  3. 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V.; Wang, Yongqiang; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Rout, Bibhudutta


    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA – 2013). This conference was held in Marriott Waterfront in Seattle, Washington, USA during June 23–28, 2013.

  4. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies (United States)

    Rheingold, Howard


    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  5. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank


    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  6. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century (United States)

    Siegle, Del


    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  7. School Business Management in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  8. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.


    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  9. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.


    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  10. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Peter


    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  11. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  12. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  13. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.


    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  14. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.


    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  15. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.


    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  16. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  17. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa


    -based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual...

  18. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition (United States)

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan


    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  19. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria


    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  20. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.


    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  1. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.


    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  2. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green


    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  3. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle


    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  4. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.


    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  5. Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care. (United States)

    Behbehani, J M


    The Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, was designated as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care (POHC) in 2011. This article aimed to describe the following: (1) the background for this nomination, (2) the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC, its terms of reference and 5 activities, (3) the primary health care concept as it was established in Alma-Ata, (4) the oral health situation in Kuwait and in the Middle-East region and, finally, (5) how POHC policy should be implemented in Kuwait and this region. It can be concluded that, because the caries experience is very high in Kuwait and in the other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, good POHC programmes should be designed and implemented in this region. The Faculty of Dentistry will strengthen its research tradition and as a WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC will try to collect information and experience from POHC in this region and exchange ideas between POHC experts in this region on how these programmes could be further developed. This will happen according to the terms of reference and activity plans of the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC approved by the WHO Global Oral Health Programme.

  6. Space Biology in the 21st century (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.


    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  7. U.S. predoctoral education in pediatric dentistry: its impact on access to dental care. (United States)

    Seale, N Sue; Casamassimo, Paul S


    This study sought to identify faculty, organization, patient pool, and procedures taught in predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs using a questionnaire sent to all fifty-five U.S. dental schools in 2001. Forty-eight (87 percent) programs reported an average of 3.9 full-time and 2.1 part-time FTE faculty, resulting in a mean faculty to student ratio of 1:6.4. One-third employ general dentists to teach pediatric dentistry, and 36 percent report fewer faculty than five years ago. Two-thirds were stand-alone departments. Over half (55 percent) reported increases in patient pools, but also a lack of patients with restorative needs. Half of the programs supplemented school-based pools with special populations, and two-thirds sent students on external rotations, most often to treat high-caries children. Those not using external rotations cited lack of faculty. Accepted patients averaged about four years, with only 6 percent of the pool under three years. Low-income or Medicaid-covered children accounted for 88 percent of school patient pools. Half of the schools felt the pool inadequate to meet competencies, attributable to lack of patients' restorative needs or inadequate intake numbers. Fewer than half of the programs (48 percent) provided hands-on experience with disabled patients, and one-third afforded every student with this experience. Pediatric dentistry was mentioned in fewer than half of the competency documents. Results suggest that U.S. pediatric dentistry predoctoral programs have faculty and patient pool limitations that affect competency achievement and adversely affect training and practice.

  8. Infectious diseases in the 21st century. (United States)

    Kumate, J


    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  9. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry. (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L


    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.

  10. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  11. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server


    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  12. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  13. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century]. (United States)

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  14. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative (United States)


    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  15. Strategic Leader Development for a 21st Century Army (United States)


    Fall of Strategic Planning. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. Northouse , Peter G. Leadership : Theory and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage...the 21st-Century Army,” Parameters, (Autumn 2001), 18. 40 Elliott Jaques and Stephen D. Clement, Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to...Stephen D. Clement. Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1994. Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and

  16. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  17. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja


    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  19. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  20. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century. (United States)

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik


    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  1. Minimal intervention dentistry - a new frontier in clinical dentistry. (United States)

    Mm, Jingarwar; Nk, Bajwa; A, Pathak


    Minimally invasive procedures are the new paradigm in health care. Everything from heart bypasses to gall bladder, surgeries are being performed with these dynamic new techniques. Dentistry is joining this exciting revolution as well. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralisation and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations. Minimally invasive dentistry reaches the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues. This paper reviews in brief the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry.

  2. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine. (United States)

    Carmalt, James L


    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance.

  3. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George


    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  4. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media]. (United States)

    Harashima, H


    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  5. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century (United States)


    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  7. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century


    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  8. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  9. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)


    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  10. Emerging infectious diseases at the beginning of the 21st century. (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R


    The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases involves many interrelated factors. Global interconnectedness continues to increase with international travel and trade; economic, political, and cultural interactions; and human-to-human and animal-to-human interactions. These interactions include the accidental and deliberate sharing of microbial agents and antimicrobial resistance and allow the emergence of new and unrecognized microbial disease agents. As the 21st century begins, already new agents have been identified, and new outbreaks have occurred. Solutions to limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases will require cooperative efforts among many disciplines and entities worldwide. This article defines emerging infectious diseases, summarizes historical background, and discusses factors that contribute to emergence. Seven agents that have made a significant appearance, particularly in the 21st century, are reviewed, including: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, human monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus, and avian influenza. The article provides for each agent a brief historical background, case descriptions, and health care implications.

  11. Evidence-based toxicology for the 21st century: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Andersen, Melvin; Becker, Richard A; Betts, Kellyn; Boekelheide, Kim; Carney, Ed; Chapin, Robert; Devlin, Dennis; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Fowle, John R; Harlow, Patricia; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Holsapple, Michael; Jacobs, Abigail; Judson, Richard; Naidenko, Olga; Pastoor, Tim; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowan, Andrew; Scherer, Roberta; Shaikh, Rashid; Simon, Ted; Wolf, Douglas; Zurlo, Joanne


    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on "Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges" in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathway-based testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century" as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that effort forward. The workshop served to clarify evidence-based approaches and to provide food for thought on substantive and administrative activities for the EBTC. Priority activities include conducting pilot studies to demonstrate the value of evidence-based approaches to toxicology, as well as conducting educational outreach on these approaches.

  12. Evaluation of patients' satisfaction from dental care services: TUMS, school of dentistry, 1385-86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidi D


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Association between patient satisfaction and success of the treatment determines the quality of health care. Measuring the level of satisfaction is an important factor for improving the quality of services provided by a system, so it is necessary to determine the expectations of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient satisfaction from services provided by the dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 385 patients were randomly selected from different departments of dental faculty including prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics, operative dentistry, radiology and oral medicine. A two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics of patients and satisfaction from reception process, infection control, student and personnel behavior, and the outcome of treatment was filled out by patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: The most dissatisfying factor was the time wasted in paying the cost and the most satisfying factor was student behavior. General satisfaction form the process was evaluated (complete satisfaction 51.9%, partial satisfaction 38.4% and dissatisfaction 9.6%, and 62.9% of patients were completely agree with introducing dental faculty to others."nConclusion: The most satisfying item was student behavior which indicates that this factor is of great importance in increasing the quality of treatment. The deficiencies determined by patient can provide reliable data for determination and regulation of health care policies.

  13. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  14. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Dawkins


    of the footprint exceeding 20 ms−1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms−1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms−1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715 exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  15. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon


    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  16. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu


    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  17. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health


    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  18. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century (United States)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.


    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  19. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian


    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  20. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui


    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  1. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin


    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  2. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners? (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain


    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  3. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin


    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  4. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century. (United States)

    Patel, Mehool


    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  5. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyewon


    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  6. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science (United States)

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori


    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  7. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.


    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  8. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes


    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  9. 21st International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Martin; Halpern, Laurence; Pichot, Géraldine; Sassi, Taoufik; Widlund, Olof


    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 21st international conference on domain decomposition methods in science and engineering held in Rennes, France, June 25-29, 2012. Domain decomposition is an active and interdisciplinary research discipline, focusing on the development, analysis and implementation of numerical methods for massively parallel computers. Domain decomposition methods are among the most efficient solvers for large scale applications in science and engineering. They are based on a solid theoretical foundation and shown to be scalable for many important applications. Domain decomposition techniques can also naturally take into account multiscale phenomena. This book contains the most recent results in this important field of research, both mathematically and algorithmically and allows the reader to get an overview of this exciting branch of numerical analysis and scientific computing.

  10. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century. (United States)

    Murphy, D L


    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented.

  11. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan


    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  12. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... (Buhl and Ejsing-Duun, 2013), along with other current apps. In a case study we take them as examples of how technology facilitates our meeting with the world though the senses and how we decode and negotiate social aesthetic expressions. The intent of the article is to suggest and discuss an aesthetic...

  13. A land untouched by dentistry - singapore brings dental care to afghanistan. (United States)

    Tan, Peng Hui; Chew, Bertrand; Wee, Wee Chee; Tan, Bernard


    In 2007, the Singapore Armed Forces deployed a Dental Project Team (DPT) to the capital city of the Bamiyan Province in Afghanistan. The team set up the province's first modern dental facility. Besides providing primary dental care to the 60,000 population there, the Singaporeans also trained and prepared a team of Afghan dentist and dental assistants. The Afghan dental team took over the dental clinic and continued to provide care when it was time for the DPT to depart for home. Braving challenging security and austere living conditions, the DPT completed its mission successfully.

  14. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting (United States)


    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  15. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  16. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  17. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting (United States)


    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  18. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century (United States)

    Casey, Heather


    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  19. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.


    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  20. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson (United States)

    Golston, Syd


    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  1. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura


    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  2. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xurong


    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  3. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee


    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  4. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra


    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  5. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.


    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  6. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India (United States)

    Jabbarifar, Taghi


    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  7. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students (United States)

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle


    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  8. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014


    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  9. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project: the Federal Government perspective. (United States)

    Bazell, Carol; Davis, Howard; Glass, Jerilyn; Rodak, John; Bastacky, Stanford M


    The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was implemented by the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to encourage medical schools to collaborate with managed care organizations and others. The purpose of the collaboration was to ensure that medical students are prepared to provide quality patient care and manage that care in an integrated health care system in which the cost of care and use of empirically justified care are important elements. The UME-21 project represents a continuation of HRSA's interest in the managed care arena. The UME-21 project involved the collaboration of eight partner schools and 10 associate partner schools, together with 50 external partners, to develop innovative curricula that integrated UME-21 content from nine special areas as learning objectives. This project demonstrated that concerted efforts by the leadership in medical education can bring about innovative change in medical school curricula. It ís also demonstrated that faculty of the three primary care disciplines of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics were able to cooperate to accomplish such change by working together to allocate clerkship time and content. An important lesson learned in this project was that significant innovations in medical school curricula could be accomplished with a broadbased commitment and involvement of both faculties across the three primary care disciplines and top administrative officials of the medical school. It is uncertain, however, if the innovations achieved will produce further changes or if those changes achieved can be sustained without continued funding.

  10. Salivary Diagnostics—Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake


    Full Text Available Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic technologies, and is among the main goals of oral fluid researchers. The analysis of the disease-specific oral and systemic biomarkers in saliva and oral fluids (i.e., mouth-rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and peri-implantitis sulcular fluid (PISF is demanding. Several factors influence their expression and release; these factors include the intracellular location, the molecular size and the flow characteristics of the biological fluid. The type of saliva/oral fluid utilized for the diagnostics affects the analysis. High sensitivity together with sophisticated methods and techniques are essential to get a useful outcome. We describe here a recently developed mouth-rinse that is practical, convenient and inexpensive, as well as PISF chair-side/point of care (PoC lateral-flow active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8 immunoassays to detect, predict and monitor the course and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis.

  11. 21st Century innovators. Interview by Joe Flower. (United States)

    Newbold, P; Linton, P


    Last spring, The Healthcare Forum and 3M together announced the 21st Century Innovator Awards. They hoped to spotlight examples of the most forward-thinking organizations in American healthcare--organizations that could demonstrate readiness for the next century through the process of rebuilding their systems and structures. THF and 3M were looking for models for success with: (1) an organizational vision for the future, (2) an integrated planning process which reflected that vision, and (3) a measurable future benefit to the communities they served. The call elicited responses from more than 40 organizations across the country. THF and 3M were overwhelmed by both their range and quality. Choosing was difficult. But last September two winners were unveiled at the THF-3M Visionary Leadership conference in Hilton Head, South Carolina. Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Indiana, took the large, urban, regional, and national award for its progress in the long, tough process of revisioning itself according to a strategic concept CEO Phil Newbold calls "Quality Through People." The small, rural, and suburban prize went to Yavapai Regional Medical Center in Prescott, Arizona, where CEO Pat Linton is attempting to shape a "Total Healing Environment." We asked Joe Flower to visit both sites and send back an eyewitness report on what makes these two progressive organizations models for healthcare in the '90s and beyond.

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos


    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  13. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga


    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  14. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus


    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  15. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  16. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  17. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L


    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  18. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology. (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L


    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website,, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.

  19. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela


    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  20. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century. (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A


    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  1. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century. (United States)

    Sunagawa, Kenji


    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  2. Pediatric behavior guidance in the 21st century workshop C report - advocacy and policy. (United States)

    Quinonez, Rocio B; Nelson, Travis


    This report outlines a series of recommendations derived from an advocacy and policy workshop at the 2013 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) Behavior Guidance Symposium. The committee charge was to address two questions: (1) what should be done to change public and media perception of behavior guidance, if anything, and: (2) what should be done to insure that needed behavior guidance techniques will be available for practicing pediatric dentists in the future. Members of the workshop voiced a wide variety of opinions and impressions of how public perception and media promotion of behavior guidance affect the practice of pediatric dentistry. A diverse assortment of strategies to promote the availability of these techniques in the future was suggested. This report will serve to inform policy and advocacy efforts by AAPD to improve children's oral health and promote excellence in patient care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NEAGU


    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.

  4. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century. (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V


    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  5. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova


    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  7. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.


    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  8. L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila A.


    Full Text Available Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments: The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes” are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs, which have an independent history of development within a culture; and The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions. Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

  9. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar


    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  10. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini


    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  11. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (United States)


    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  12. 76 FR 38348 - Notice of Appointment of Committee Members to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st... (United States)


    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. SUMMARY: The Office of the Under... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (``AC21''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  13. Nursing Ethics and the 21st-Century Armed Conflict: The Example of Ciudad Juárez. (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen


    The purpose of this article is to call attention to the lack of caregiver safety in conflict settings; to bring awareness to nurses and health care professionals of new challenges, specifically the deliberate targeting of health care professionals, that they may encounter in local armed conflict situations; and to address a gap in knowledge about the social and cultural factors surrounding 21st-century armed conflict that directly affect the provision of health care. I argue that these are of interest to transcultural nursing in that violent actors belong to a dangerous subculture, the understanding of which is important to transcultural nursing practice and caregiver safety. The article calls for increased focus on the protection of the nursing workforce and renewed attention on international humanitarian law and the Geneva Conventions that mandate the safety of global health care workers.

  14. Minimally Invasive Dentistry (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  15. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology


    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  16. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  17. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  18. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia


    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  19. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.


    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  20. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy - ICOLS 2013 (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Häffner, Hartmut; Müller, Holger


    The 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS) took place at Berkeley, California on 9-14 June 2013. Following the tradition of previous meetings in this series, the conference featured about thirty invited talks broadly covering this burgeoning field of science that refuses to show any sign of saturation after more than half a century of continuous boom. In addition to the invited talks, there were two informative poster sessions, where the more than 300 ICOLS participants had an opportunity to exchange the latest scientific news and ideas while enjoying the gorgeous view of the San Francisco Bay from the vista of the Claremont Hotel, the meeting's venue. The heights of the cultural program of the meeting were excursions to several of the Bay Area gems (including the Lick observatory), as well as the conference banquet where the participants were treated to addresses by an inventor of the laser Professor Charles H Townes, a nonlinear optics pioneer Professor Erwin L Hahn, and one of the previous ICOLS chairs Professor Y R Shen. While the field of Laser Spectroscopy and the series of the bi-annual ICOLS meetings are as 'healthy' as one could imagine, the same cannot be said about the concept of published conference proceedings. With new ways to publish scientific articles and preprints, submitting papers to conference proceedings seems to be rapidly losing popularity. For this meeting, the great interest in attendance and opportunities to present is sharply contrasted with a somewhat sluggish response to the call for submission of the proceedings papers. The present collection represents a dozen or so contributions from the 'hero' invited speakers, to whom we are deeply grateful for submitting their work. We hope that this selection will faithfully convey to the readers the excitement of modern laser spectroscopy. In addition to these papers, we draw the reader's attention to the audio recordings and selected viewgraphs from the invited talks, and

  1. World Future Mapping and Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vareikis Egidijus


    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe the methods of future studies, its possibilities and limitations, as well as to make some predictions about the real picture of the development of the 21st century. However, the planning is still not very reliable, and far from a “road map” framework. Thus, future studies are still balancing between science and scientific/artistic fiction. The set of methods of future investigation permits one to compose a few or even up to dozens of medium term or long term scenarios of the world’s future. There are a few well-proven laws of social and economic development as well as some partially predictable phenomena in the area of environment, biology, human ethic, etc. No future planning is secure from unpredictable phenomena – “black swans” – and their impact, nor secure from “political decisions” that destroy natural developments in society. So no one scenario can pretend to be absolutely right. The most frequent future scenarios are based on the wish to implement a copy of an existing “happy nation”, to fight undesirable trends, and create some kind of “dream society” while stimulating positives and inhibiting negative trends. The final version of a scenario depends also upon the “human factors”, e.g. knowledge, stereotypes of thinking, as well as the wishes of those who are financing the project. Generally they are “happy end” projects. This makes scenarios rather useless. Only the independent experts that present more realistic and reliable scenarios can help in the planning of medium term and long term futures. Currently many scenarios foresee the so-called American or European way of development, which is in fact the continuation of the existing world order. There is a growing number of publications about the emergence of China (and Russia as a great power as well as possibilities of a New Caliphate, New Messiah or new Orwellian style regimes.

  2. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.


    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  3. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil


    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  4. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph


    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  5. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinez-Rey


    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  6. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes


    Bamber, J.; Riva, R.


    The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009). This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL) reduction for much of North Weste...

  7. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson


    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  8. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science (United States)


    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  9. Teaching in a 21st Century Educational Context: A Case Study to Explore the Alignment between Vision, Instruction and the Needs of a 21st Century Workplace (United States)

    Lendis, Evagkelia Irene


    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how one secondary school, known for its high quality educational program, is infusing the pedagogical elements that are conducive for a 21st century education. The administration's vision along with teacher interviews and classroom observations were used to understand if the school was…

  10. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century. (United States)

    McGaghie, William C


    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  11. Epidemiology of stroke in Europe and trends for the 21st century. (United States)

    Béjot, Yannick; Bailly, Henri; Durier, Jérôme; Giroud, Maurice


    Despite major improvements in primary prevention and acute treatment over the last decades, stroke is still a devastating disease. At the beginning of the 21st century, the age-standardized incidence of stroke in Europe ranged from 95 to 290/100,000 per year, with one-month case-fatality rates ranging from 13 to 35%. Approximately 1.1 million inhabitants of Europe suffered a stroke each year, and ischemic stroke accounted for approximately 80% of cases. Although global stroke incidence is declining, rates observed in young adults are on the rise, thus suggesting a need for strategies to improve prevention. In addition, because of the ageing population, the absolute number of stroke is expected to dramatically increase in coming years: by 2025, 1.5 million European people will suffer a stroke each year. Beyond vital prognosis, stroke patients are also at increased risk of poor outcome within the first year of the event including re-hospitalisation (33%), recurrent event (7 to 13%), dementia (7 to 23%) mild cognitive disorder (35 to 47%), depression (30 to 50%), and fatigue (35% to 92%), all of them contributing to affect health related quality of life. Given these observations, an urgent development of acute care provision, as well as resources for post-stroke therapeutic strategies, is needed.

  12. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century. (United States)

    Small, Peter M


    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century.

  13. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  14. USAR Recruiting and Manpower in the 21st Century (United States)


    Statistical Area Projections of Income, Employment. and Population to the Year 2000," Survey of Current Business , Vol. 70, October 1990. Changes in...a community of adequate public safety or health care. Careful planning between reserve recruiting and community and business leaders should be a...Congressional Budget Office, October 1989, pp 69-73 38 Table 17. Family Income and Enlistment Probability Enlistment Probability Probability Farmily When Youth

  15. The need for leadership and vision in dentistry. A personal view. (United States)

    Holt, Vernon P


    This paper considers how dentistry has developed in the United Kingdom (UK) over the last 60 years and concludes that dentists have failed to be proactive and to shape the systems for the delivery of an optimal level of care to the population. It suggests that there is a need for far better leadership and for dentists, as individuals and as a profession, to rediscover the sense of vision that they once had and to shape their destinies, rather than accepting the current situation. The author goes on to explain how this might be done. Since the inception of the National Health Service (NHS), the dental profession in the UK has, to a large extent, been dominated by the politics of the NHS, by changing fee structures and contracts, by reports from the Review Body on Doctors' and Dentists' Remuneration (DDRB), and by strategies adopted by successive governments, especially during the last two decades. These strategies have resulted in cohorts of disillusioned dental practitioners reducing their commitment to, or opting out of, NHS contracts and committing themselves, to a greater or lesser extent, to private practice. It is now over three years since, for the first time, the proportion of dentistry provided under private contact in the UK, as measured by gross fees, exceeded that provided under NHS contract. The profession has shown a remarkable lack of imagination in organising itself to provide the best kind of care for patients. Instead of being proactive and visionary, it has allowed itself to become a political football. This has led to the progressive deskilling of many practitioners, and a manifest failure to secure the long-term oral health of patients. This paper considers how the situation could be improved and looks at four aspects, which are: 1. 21st century dentistry: state of the art versus reality? The contrast between what is clinically possible and what the profession currently delivers. 2. What are we here for? The need for a new vision for dentistry

  16. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  17. Physical therapy in the 21st century (Part I): toward practice informed by epidemiology and the crisis of lifestyle conditions. (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth


    Part I of this two-part introduction to this Special Issue on the practice of physical therapy in the 21st century outlines the epidemiological basis and rationale for evidence-informed physical therapy practice for addressing contemporary health priorities. This evidence emanates from the definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), and WHO and other international databases on the prevalence of lifestyle conditions. Lifestyle conditions include ischemic heart disease, smoking-related conditions, hypertension and stroke, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Epidemiological data combined with evidence supporting the effectiveness of noninvasive interventions related to physical therapy to address these priorities (e.g., health education and exercise) are highly consistent with the promotion of health and wellness and the ICF. Given their commitment to exploiting effective noninvasive interventions, physical therapists are in a preeminent position to focus on prevention of these disabling and lethal conditions in every client or patient, their cure in some cases, as well as their management. Thus, a compelling argument can be made that clinical competencies in 21st century physical therapy need to include assessment of smoking and smoking cessation (or at least its initiation), basic nutritional assessment and counseling, recommendations for physical activity and exercise, stress assessment and basic stress reduction recommendations, and sleep assessment and basic sleep hygiene recommendations. The physical therapist can then make an informed clinical judgment regarding whether a client or patient needs to be referred to another professional related to one or more of these specialty areas. The prominence of physical therapy as an established health care profession and its unique pattern of practice (prolonged visits over prolonged periods of time) attest further to the fact that physical therapists

  18. 21st Century Policing: The Institutionalization of Homeland Security in Local Law Enforcement Organizations (United States)


    hard to identify before they act, and hard to track down afterwards.”27 One example of a “lone wolf” operation is Timothy McVeigh’s bombing of the...1534. 76 Warren E. Leary , “Devising 21st-Century Escape Routes for Creative Exits,” New York Times, October 9, 2001, F4 . 45 organization should...University Press, 1992. 53 Lacqueur, Walter. Terrorism. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company, 1977. Leary , Warren E. “Devising 21st-Century Escape

  19. Mosquitoes: A Viable 21st-Century Soft Power Tool (United States)


    doctors and nurses to conduct clinics and give medical educa- tion and training programs in patient care and surgical management. The U.S. Naval...program might take, five common dilemmas inherent to soft power medical programs will need ongoing and thoughtful consideration. Military per- sonnel

  20. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference. (United States)


    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  1. Feminism: a perspective for the 21st century. (United States)

    Gary, F; Sigsby, L M; Campbell, D


    This article details some of the key elements related to feminism in American society. It suggests that the meaning and significance of a feminist perspective need to be reexamined for their importance and utility in this dynamic and rapidly changing society. A discussion of the meaning of feminism provides a framework for the article. Issues related to cultural diversity and the need for competent health care delivery for all people are some major themes. The other emphasis is related to research and women. Numerous challenges are outlined. A feminist perspective is recommended as a conceptual model through which health care reform can be enhanced. If feminism were embraced, the health status of people would be improved.

  2. Customer value & business success in the 21st century. (United States)

    Szablowski, P A


    Many health care organizations are realizing the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of customers and prospective customers, coupled with developing services that best meet and exceed those expectations. These concepts represent an innovative yet fundamental approach to building success beyond the clinical aspects. To create, build on, and measure the "customer value factor" in its bottom line, health care organizations must (1) understand how meeting and exceeding the needs and expectations of customers will become the most significant differentiator of true business value, (2) learn how to develop realistic, measurable, and successful customer value processes within complex organizations, (3) understand how customer value can link with the power of strategic communications to become the new currency for the next millennium.

  3. Parastomal Hernia: Avoidance and Treatment in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Glasgow, Sean C; Dharmarajan, Sekhar


    Despite medical and surgical advances leading to increased ability to restore or preserve gastrointestinal continuity, creation of stomas remains a common surgical procedure. Every ostomy results in a risk for subsequent parastomal herniation, which in turn may reduce quality of life and increase health care expenditures. Recent evidence-supported practices such as utilization of prophylactic reinforcement, attention to stoma placement, and laparoscopic-based stoma repairs with mesh provide opportunities to both prevent and successfully treat parastomal hernias.

  4. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  5. The politics of plasticity: Sex and gender in the 21st century brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, A.V.


    The Politics of Plasticity examines how sex and gender are imag(in)ed in the 21st century brain. At the beginning of this century, the idea that the brain is plastic (i.e. that its structure and function change throughout life) began to replace the idea that adult brains are fixed. The claim that se

  6. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century (United States)

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.


    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  7. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education (United States)

    Sandell, Renee


    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  8. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life (United States)

    Lu, Lilly


    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  9. Enhancing 21st Century Skills with AR: Using the Gradual Immersion Method to Develop Collaborative Creativity (United States)

    Sanabria, Jorge C.; Arámburo-Lizárraga, Jesús


    As 21st century skills (e.g., creativity and collaboration) are informally developed by tech-savvy learners in the Digital Age, technology-based strategies to develop such skills in non-formal and formal contexts are necessary to reduce the gap between academic and business organizations on the one hand, and the revolutionary wave of self-taught…

  10. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher? (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter


    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  11. Educating for the 21st Century: Beyond Racist, Sexist, and Ecologically Violent Futures. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Francis P.


    Discusses resources of hope in educating for the 21st century, arguing the importance of active listening to children's voices and resistance to fatalistic fallacies regarding negative trends. The discussion examines principles from critical futurism and contemporary movements of educational innovation (including peace, multicultural, nonsexist,…

  12. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  13. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.


    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  14. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function. (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  15. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon


    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  16. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars


    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  17. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century (United States)

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir


    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  18. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad


    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  19. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.


    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  20. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon


    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  1. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists. (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  2. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever,; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.


    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  3. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya? (United States)

    Katitia, David Melita Ole


    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  4. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.


    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  5. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse (United States)

    Logsdon, Leann F.


    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  6. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation (United States)

    Kaufman, Kristina J.


    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  7. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique (United States)

    David, Miriam E.


    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  8. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R


    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  9. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner" (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne


    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  10. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars


    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark ...

  11. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms (United States)

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi


    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  12. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft (United States)

    Popovich, George


    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  13. A Confrontation with Diversity: Communication and Culture in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Calloway-Thomas, Carolyn; Garner, Thurmon


    Explores the framework of "creolization" and its implications for the communication discipline. Examines social and cultural factors that could shape the nature and content of persuasion in the 21st century. Emphasizes the intersection between deterritorialization and diversity. Proposes a research agenda that will include collections of…

  14. Recruiting the Strategic Corporal in the 21st Century (Through the Year 2010) (United States)


    troubling age of national aggression, transnational threats, and terrorism spurred by ethnic conflict.5 With the demise of the Soviet Union, the...U.S. feminism and social power. Woulfe, J. (1998). Into the Crucible: Making Marines for the 21st Century. California: Presidio Press.

  15. Friends in low places: The impact of locations and companions on 21st birthday drinking. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Tomkins, Mary M; DiBello, Angelo M; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton


    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends' houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents' homes, and Fraternity/Sorority houses. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, Fraternity/Sorority members, and none (alone). Participants consumed an average of 7.6 drinks and reached an average eBAC of .15 during their 21st birthday celebrations. Locations accounted for 20%/18% of the variance in number of drinks and eBAC, respectively, whereas companions accounted for 23%/20% of the variance. Drinking with romantic partners was associated with less drinking, whereas drinking with Fraternity/Sorority members was associated with more drinking. Stepwise regressions combining locations and companions suggested that, overall, celebrating in a bar setting and with Fraternity and Sorority members were the strongest variables associated with drinking. With the exception of a bar setting, companions were the most important contextual factors associated with 21st birthday drinking.

  16. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang


    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  17. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam


    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  18. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes


    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  19. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickas, M.L.; Nota, L.; Rossier, J.; Dauwalder, J.P.; Duarte, M.E.; Guichard, J.; Soresi, S.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.


    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovat

  20. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.


    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  1. Salamanca as Simbolyc Reference: the 21st Century City in Tierra Violenta de Luciano Egido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín


     It is a city that, apparently, lives in the past but that isn't immune to the mechanisms rule the 21st century. In this approach, the literary text is a source of different analytical lines for understanding the urban temporalities and the dialectics of both the public project and the urban heritage.

  2. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education (United States)

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug


    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  3. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD


    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  4. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.


    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  5. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century (United States)


    ... 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public symposium. SUMMARY: To focus on the United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety concerns and the United States Patent and Trademark...

  6. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.


    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  7. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.


    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized collec

  8. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex


    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (, in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States

  9. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers? (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina


    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  10. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.


    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  11. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space (United States)

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.


    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  12. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security (United States)


    aspects of national security. With guidance from the President and Congress, strategic direction and investment priorities for national security science ...interconnected, fast- evolving science and technology landscape that presents new threats and opportunities, the policy directions called for in this...A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE , TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR AMERICA’S NATIONAL SECURITY PRODUCT OF THE Committee on Homeland and National

  13. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  14. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning (United States)

    Prensky, Marc


    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  15. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum? (United States)

    Higgins, Steve


    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  16. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.


    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  17. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century (United States)

    Ballard, Susan


    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.


    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  19. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse


    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  20. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21(st) Century: Synthesis and Applications. (United States)

    Fairbanks, Antony J


    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 (st) Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar-based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  1. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21st Century: Synthesis and Applications†


    Antony J. Fairbanks


    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 st Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar‐based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  2. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices (United States)

    McLachlan, Kurt


    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  3. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century (United States)

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha


    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  4. CONNECT: Linking Energy, Security, and Prosperity in the 21st Century - JISEA 2017 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report demonstrates 2016 highlights of the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis' (JISEA's) work. The Annual Report overviews JISEA's research and analysis accomplishments in natural gas and methane emissions; nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems; the 21st Century Power Partnership; and more.

  5. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie


    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  6. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning (United States)

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura


    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  7. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei


    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  8. Breaking the poor health-poverty link in the 21st Century: do health systems help or hinder? (United States)

    Whitehead, M; Bird, P


    It is depressing but true that, at the beginning of the 21st Century, poverty and ill-health are still closely interrelated. This review traces the current pathways from poor health to poverty in low- and middle-income countries, first at the national level, then at the household level. Ill health can have a substantial impact on gross domestic product, holding countries back from economic development, the fruits of which could be used to improve population health. At the household level, people may be pushed into poverty as a result of paying for health care. Households are forced to pay for the direct and indirect costs of health care at precisely the time when their incomes may be lowered by ill health. For this reason, many forego care, or rely on self-care or informal care, which may hasten the decline in their health and reduce their productivity. Sick people face a double jeopardy: their ill-health puts them at greater risk of poverty, and their poverty is likely to damage their health still further. The review goes on to discuss the role of health systems in the generation of poverty, before concluding with pointers as to how health systems can become part of the solution, rather than part of the problem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bazylevych


    Full Text Available We consider important aspects of Kyiv climate change because of natural influences (growing population and level of household consumption accompanied with mounting volumes of waste and anthropogenic factors (shrinking forests and green spaces, inefficient use of natural resources, increased use of fossil fuels, uneconomical use of energy and water for production and business activities, outdated production technology. The study exposes major negative effects of the climate change, examines the dynamics of trends and the relationship among population growth, consumption of energy resources, emissions of substances to air and waste production in Kyiv during 2000-2013. The environmental conditions in the city are under careful examination and compared with the environmental situation in the largest European capitals. The key scientific and methodological, organizational, economic, technological steps are outlined in the context of Ukraine's integration into the European economic space to counteract climate change in Kyiv.

  10. Alarmingly High Maternal Mortality in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur, Vaneet Kaur, Veronica Irene Yuel


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the maternal mortality rate (MMR, various factors affecting itand possible prevention of maternal deaths in Christian Medical College & Hospital, a tertiary careinstitute during the past five years (2001- 2005. The individual record of maternal deaths was studiedregarding their socio-demographic features, causes, modes of management and ultimate outcome. TheMaternal Mortality rate was 1470 per lac live births. The major obstetrical complications accounted formore than three fourth of maternal deaths with hemorrhage (33%, sepsis (21.7% and eclampsia (7.5%playing an important role. Anemia (44.3% and jaundice (16.0% were two important indirect causes ofmaternal deaths. Un-booked cases accounted for majority of maternal deaths. Only two maternal mortalitypatients were showing regularly in our institute, rest all of the patients either had no antenatal check-up orwere having ANC in private clinics and were referred as an emergency in critical condition. More than90% of maternal deaths hailed from rural and urban slum areas. 61 (57.8% cases received primary carefrom untrained birth attendants and 11 (10.4% did not receive primary care in any form. There wasdelayed referral by the untrained personnel, 49 (46.2% patients were referred after more than 48 hours ofacute emergency, 51 (48.1% died between 24 to 48 hours and 25 (23.6% died within 24 hours ofadmission in spite of all resuscitative measures. It is concluded that providing good antenatal care, findingappropriate ways of preventing and dealing with the consequences of unwanted pregnancies, and improvingthe way society looks after pregnant women are three most important ways to reduce maternal mortality.

  11. Preparing Teachers and Librarians to Collaborate to Teach 21st Century Skills: Views of LIS and Education Faculty (United States)

    Latham, Don; Gross, Melissa; Witte, Shelbie


    This article discusses the results of an exploratory research project in which library and information studies (LIS) faculty and education faculty were asked about their views on teaching pre-service school librarians and teachers 21st Century Skills (as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills) and librarian-teacher collaboration.…

  12. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought (United States)

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.


    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  13. Main Dynamics of Turkish-African Relations in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therence Atabong Njuafac


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an overview of Turkey’s increased engagement towards Africa, especially in terms of its potentials, future perspectives and limits of the relations. It portrays and examines the main essence of Turkey’s foreign policy in Africa, and equally analyses the main reason or aspects behind the relations with Africa within the 21st century. It tries to answer the questions of why Turkey has so much interest in Africa now. In other words, it explores more the economic interaction (diplomacy that fosters the relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century. It equally shows the economic aspects as key instrument in building relations between Turkey and Africa. This continent known as Africa in the 90s was never a concern to Turkey as it is in this 21st century, since Turkey paid more attention to its relations with the West, and its close neighbors like Middle East, Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It discusses some of the main political, economic, religious, cultural and strategic motivations behind Turkey’s interest in Africa, as well as some of the challenges face along the line in the 21st century. This paper consists of three main sections. The first section presents the relations between Turkey and Africa during Ottoman Empire, Turkish foreign policy toward Africa in Cold War period. It also gives an overview of Turkey’s relations with Africa, Turkey’s policy in Africa and the main elements shaping relations between Turkey and Africa. Then, the various approaches, mainly economic diplomacy approach in maintaining relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century are presented.Turkey’s increasing use of soft power strategies drive a great desire to tie both the economy of Turkey and Africa more closely. From the aforementioned, Turkey’s soft power content ranges from professional and cultural exchange, agriculture, and humanitarian assistance.

  14. Contraceptive strategies for young women in the 21st century. (United States)

    Ruusuvaara, L; Johansson, E D


    Safe, effective and affordable contraceptives have been available for a few decades, yet, in many countries, the struggle for reproductive rights continues. Children, still, are forced to give birth to children in many nations. In most industrialized countries, where contraceptive counselling and abortions have been options, fertility rates have reached all time lows. Effective contraception improves health and well-being as well and may be used for conditions other than birth control. Young girls often initially take oral contraceptives primarily to reduce menstrual pain and blood loss; they also welcome a contraceptive that eliminates menstrual bleeding. Women using oral contraceptives and Norplant experience about 50% reduction in menstrual blood; 90% reduction in blood loss is achieved with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena). Teenagers and their parents are often misinformed about the side-effects of oral contraceptives and birth control in general, which may adversely affect compliance. Adequate, user-friendly and supportive information about contraception is necessary to ensure proper use of the pill and other birth control methods. In addition, emergency contraceptives should be easily accessible. The mortality and morbidity of young women would be dramatically reduced by the global use of medical abortion as well. Only a combined effort by policy makers, educators, parents and health-care providers can enhance the reproductive (and future!) health of both young females and males.

  15. 21st Century Lightning Protection for High Altitude Observatories (United States)

    Kithil, Richard


    One of the first recorded lightning insults to an observatory was in January 1890 at the Ben Nevis Observatory in Scotland. In more recent times lightning has caused equipment losses and data destruction at the US Air Force Maui Space Surveillance Complex, the Cerro Tololo observatory and the nearby La Serena scientific and technical office, the VLLA, and the Apache Point Observatory. In August 1997 NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory at Mauna Loa Observatory was out of commission for a month due to lightning outages to data acquisition computers and connected cabling. The University of Arizona has reported "lightning strikes have taken a heavy toll at all Steward Observatory sites." At Kitt Peak, extensive power down protocols are in place where lightning protection for personnel, electrical systems, associated electronics and data are critical. Designstage lightning protection defenses are to be incorporated at NSO's ATST Hawaii facility. For high altitude observatories lightning protection no longer is as simple as Franklin's 1752 invention of a rod in the air, one in the ground and a connecting conductor. This paper discusses selection of engineered lightning protection subsystems in a carefully planned methodology which is specific to each site.

  16. 21st Century Connections: Making Sense of Social Media Tools (United States)

    Fujiech, Maura C.


    Twitter? Blog? Facebook? In an environment of complex project teams and demanding timelines, you may wonder whether any of these new-fangled social media tools that are in the news will help you and your team do a better job delivering project results. What in the world is Facebook and why would I ever want to use it? What does a blog have to do with a NASA project? Aside from my teenager, who cares about Twitter? This introduction to social media is a great way to get your feet wet with some of these new terms and tools. For example, we'll talk about what the difference is between a blog and Facebook. We'll look at some examples of NASA projects that benefit from using blogs, Facebook or Twitter. Most importantly, we'll spend some time talking about how a small or medium-sized project might evaluate whether to use one, many or none of these new ideas. Although there are many commercial tools available and in use across the agency, this talk emphasizes NASA-sponsored tools that are freely available within the Agency.

  17. Operational environmental satellite archives in the 21st Century (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bates, John J.; Privette, Jeff; Vizbulis, Rick


    NASA, NOAA, and USGS collections of Earth science data are large, federated, and have active user communities and collections. Our experience raises five categories of issues for long-term archival: *Organization of the data in the collections is not well-described by text-based categorization principles *Metadata organization for these data is not well-described by Dublin Core and needs attention to data access and data use patterns *Long-term archival requires risk management approaches to dealing with the unique threats to knowledge preservation specific to digital information *Long-term archival requires careful attention to archival cost management *Professional data stewards for these collections may require special training. This paper suggests three mechanisms for improving the quality of long-term archival: *Using a maturity model to assess the readiness of data for accession, for preservation, and for future data usefulness *Developing a risk management strategy for systematically dealing with threats of data loss *Developing a life-cycle cost model for continuously evolving the collections and the data centers that house them.

  18. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das


    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  19. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula


    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  20. Clinical documentation in the 21st century: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians. (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomson; Basch, Peter; Barr, Michael; Yackel, Thomas


    Clinical documentation was developed to track a patient's condition and communicate the author's actions and thoughts to other members of the care team. Over time, other stakeholders have placed additional requirements on the clinical documentation process for purposes other than direct care of the patient. More recently, new information technologies, such as electronic health record (EHR) systems, have led to further changes in the clinical documentation process. Although computers and EHRs can facilitate and even improve clinical documentation, their use can also add complexities; new challenges; and, in the eyes of some, an increase in inappropriate or even fraudulent documentation. At the same time, many physicians and other health care professionals have argued that the quality of the systems being used for clinical documentation is inadequate. The Medical Informatics Committee of the American College of Physicians has undertaken this review of clinical documentation in an effort to clarify the broad range of complex and interrelated issues surrounding clinical documentation and to suggest a path forward such that care and clinical documentation in the 21st century best serve the needs of patients and families.

  1. Nutrition intervention in general dentistry. (United States)

    Sintes, J L


    This article presents a nutrition program in general dentistry following an oral health nutrition care process, and provides a guideline for identifying patients at risk of developing marginal malnutrition as a result of oral health procedures. The program highlights the importance of assessing nutritional status by segregating high-risk patients from low-risk patients. A case report demonstrates the therapeutic dietary management of a patient whose jaws were immobilized as a result of trauma.

  2. Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini A


    Full Text Available Adriana Gini,1,2,* Denis Larrivee,2,3,* Michele Farisco,4,5 Vittorio Alessandro Sironi6 1Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2International Neuroethics Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Dioceses of Charleston, SC, USA; 4Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Biogem Genetic Research Center, Ariano Irpino, Italy; 6Research Center on the History of Biomedical Thought, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and

  3. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag


    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  4. Managing medical groups: 21st century challenges and the impact of physician leadership styles. (United States)

    Martin, William E; Keogh, Timothy J


    Physician group managers and administrators charged with leading medical groups in the 21st century face a set of old and new challenges and opportunities. Leadership is assumed to make the difference between a successful and not-so-successful medical group. Yet, there is little research about how physician manager leadership styles contribute to the success of medical group practices. This article is a study of physician leadership styles using the DiSC, based upon a sample of 232 physician managers. Dominance (D) and conscientiousness (C) were the two dominant styles found in this study. Moreover, the two dominant combination leadership styles fall under the categories of the "creative" and the 'perfectionist." The article formulates practical recommendations for both physician managers and administrators for leading medical groups to respond more effectively to the challenges and opportunities facing medical groups in the 21st century.

  5. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  6. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata


    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  7. Problem-based learning: a strategic learning system design for the education of healthcare professionals in the 21st century. (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng


    -making process. Implementation of PBL can be a daunting task and will require detailed and careful planning, together with a significant commitment on the part of educators given the responsibility to implement PBL in an institution. PBL can offer a more holistic, value-added, and quality education to energize student learning in the healthcare professions in the 21st century. Successful implementation of PBL can therefore help to nurture in students the development of desired "habits of mind, behavior, and action" to become the competent, caring, and ethical healthcare professionals of the 21st century. Thus, PBL can contribute to the improvement of the healthcare of a nation by healthcare professionals, but we need to do it right.



    Chandra Reka Ramachandiran; Malissa Maria Mahmud; Nazean Jomhari


    Learning has changed in the 21st Century. The learning process is no longer confined to the classroom alone, but extends to a global classroom. Students now use instructional technologies to synthesize newly acquired knowledge, collaborate with peers, solve problems, and formulate correct decisions. Therefore, communication becomes a vital process to ensure that learning takes place. Although it has been shown that effective two-way communication between the instructor and the learner is impo...

  9. There Is More to Love: Meeting and Mating in The 21st Century


    Carbino, Jessica M.


    This dissertation explores how individuals meet and mate in the 21st Century. Technology has always influenced the way we date, but meeting a partner online is increasingly common. I employ a mixed methods approach to understand the complex online dating space. Using three unique data sources, I explore how facial attractiveness, gender, and third parties structure online dating interactions. In chapter one, I examine the influence of facial attractiveness and demographic factors on initiati...

  10. Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis; Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg


    BIN Norden conference 2014 Accepted panel ________________________________________ Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century Participants in the panel are: Associate professor Herdis Toft, University of Southern Denmark (organizer), Professor Beth Juncker, University of Copenhagen, A...... and gender? • How do you conceive the concept of play in relation to concepts of ‘the magic circle’ and of atmosphere (mood) and aesthetics (mode)?...

  11. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard


    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills....... The second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  12. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  13. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  14. The Teacher Candidates’ Views Concerning the 21st Century Literacy Education Project (LEP)


    ARSLAN, Rumiye; NALİNCİ, Gülbin Zeren


    AbstractToday, the concept of “Literacy” represents reading and writing in various forms of texts which embody knowledge and a range of skills.  Different literacies are essential for human to live, work and produce in the society. In order to use communication technologies in educational and teaching processes appropriately, individuals are not only required to become scientifically and technologically literate but also multimedia literate. Within this respect, a Project called “The 21st Cen...

  15. Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century (United States)


    increasingly restrictive default rules” for creative, digital works (see http://www. The digital preservation program of the...Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century54 Hodge, Gail, and Evelyn Frangakis. 2004. Digital Preservation and Permanent Access to...Information Managers Group, focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in science and technology (S&T). It considers the wide range of

  16. A Bold 21st Century Strategy for U.S. Airborne ISR (United States)


    Staff G-2, United States Army , 7 April 2004,14-20. 27 Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990 to 2005...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT A BOLD 21ST CENTURY STRATEGY FOR U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE ISR by Mr. Jack L...Kimberly Department of Army Civilian Colonel John H. Schnibben Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of

  17. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  18. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning. (United States)

    Berry, Barnett


    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  19. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference


    Jikkemien Vertonghen; Marianne Dortants


    The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey) on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact) martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of m...

  20. 21st Century Skills In The Teaching Of Foreign Languages At Primary And Secondary Schools


    Cruz, Mário; Orange, Edite


    Taking an experiential communicative approach (Fernández-Corbacho, 2014) into account, enriched by gamifi-cation strategies (Foncubierta & Rodríguez, 2015), in this paper we intend to disseminate teaching practices in English and Spanish as Foreign Languages at primary/secondary schools, which account for the development of 21st Century Skills, namely: collaboration and communication, creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving. Therefore, we will present practices...

  1. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles


    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  2. The role of methane in projections of 21st century stratospheric water vapour (United States)

    Revell, Laura E.; Stenke, Andrea; Rozanov, Eugene; Ball, William; Lossow, Stefan; Peter, Thomas


    Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) is an important component of the Earth's atmosphere as it affects both radiative balance and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Key processes driving changes in SWV include dehydration of air masses transiting the cold-point tropopause (CPT) and methane oxidation. We use a chemistry-climate model to simulate changes in SWV through the 21st century following the four canonical representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Furthermore, we quantify the contribution that methane oxidation makes to SWV following each of the RCPs. Although the methane contribution to SWV maximizes in the upper stratosphere, modelled SWV trends are found to be driven predominantly by warming of the CPT rather than by increasing methane oxidation. SWV changes by -5 to 60 % (depending on the location in the atmosphere and emissions scenario) and increases in the lower stratosphere in all RCPs through the 21st century. Because the lower stratosphere is where water vapour radiative forcing maximizes, SWV's influence on surface climate is also expected to increase through the 21st century.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI


    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  5. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong


    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  6. Color: Implications in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikri Vimal


    Full Text Available The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

  7. Defining and Assessing Knowledge and Skill Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry Education. (United States)

    Hanes, Carole M.


    Methods of assessing the general goals for the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry are discussed. Goals are: (1) to prepare dentists to provide comprehensive dental care for the pediatric patient; (2) to create positive attitudes toward pediatric dentistry; (3) to encourage students to seek to…

  8. 77 FR 48948 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The notice...

  9. Public Lecture: Minister Malusi Gigaba on Critical infrastructure needed to confront the challenges of the 21st century



    Malusi Gigaba, Minister of Public Enterprises gave a public lecture on “CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDED TO CONFRONT THE CHALLENGES OF THE 21ST CENTURY”. Prof. Marwala welcomed and hosted the minister while Prof. Amanda Dempsey facilitated the discussion.

  10. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul


    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000......IMPORTANCE: This study introduces how the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) international birth weight standards alter our previous understanding and interpretations of fetal growth restriction as represented by small for gestational age (SGA...

  11. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini


    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  12. O papel da odontologia na equipe interdisciplinar: contribuindo para a atenção integral ao idoso The role of dentistry in the interdisciplinary team: contributing to comprehensive health care for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Sadami Arai Shinkai


    Full Text Available Este trabalho bibliográfico teve por objetivo discutir a atuação da odontologia na atenção integral à saúde do idoso, considerando-se a necessidade da abordagem interdisciplinar. É apresentada a atual situação da odontologia geriátrica e os problemas que ocorrem no Brasil pela falta de estudos específicos e de recursos humanos capacitados em geriatria e gerontologia dentro da odontologia. São destacadas as interações entre as diversas profissões de saúde e a odontologia, para a promoção de saúde, prevenção específica e reabilitação de pacientes idosos, com ênfase na importância da comunicação e troca de informações.This literature review focuses on dentistry's role in comprehensive health care for the elderly. The authors discuss the need for an interdisciplinary approach. They begin by analyzing the current situation in geriatric dentistry and related problems in Brazil, relating primarily to the lack of specific studies and human resources with training in geriatrics and gerontology. The authors emphasize interactions between dentistry and other health professions for health promotion, specific prevention, and rehabilitation of elderly patients, with special attention to the importance of communication and information exchange.

  13. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka


    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  14. Sleep Apnea through journal articles included in the Web of Science in the first decade of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Quevedo-Blasco


    Full Text Available Sleep Apnea is characterized by cessation (apnea or semi-cessation of breathing (hipopnea while asleep. The most important effect of Sleep Apnea is the daily somnolence which is one of the most important causes of traffic accidents. Thus, it is crucial to conduct research on the topic to analyze different parameters, such as where it is conducted, who are the most productive scientists, in which journals it is published, and whether the number of studies on the subject is rising. The purpose of the current study was to analyze these parameters on the Web of Science in the first decade of the 21st Century. It was found that the number of studies on the topic is increasing; the countries with the highest number of studies were the USA, Germany and Canada. The most productive authors were David Gozal (USA, T. Douglas Bradley (Canada y Patrick Levy (France. The journals with the highest number of articles were Sleep, Chest and American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

  15. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.


    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  16. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER


    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  17. Projections of 21st century climate of the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Mote, Philip W.


    Simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 provide projections of 21st century climate in the Columbia River Basin under scenarios of anthropogenic activity given by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The multi-model ensemble 30-year mean annual temperature increases by 2.8 °C (5.0 °C) by late 21st century under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) over the 1979-1990 baseline, with 18% (24%) more warming in summer. By late 21st century, annual precipitation increases by 5% (8%), with an 8% (14%) winter increase and a 4% (10%) summer decrease, but because some models project changes of opposite sign, confidence in these sign changes is lower than those for temperature. Four questions about temperature and precipitation changes were addressed: (1) How and why do climate projections vary seasonally? (2) Is interannual variability in seasonal temperature and precipitation projected to change? (3) What explains the large inter-model spread in the projections? (4) Do projected changes in climate depend on model skill? Changes in precipitation and temperature vary seasonally as a result of changes in large-scale circulation and regional surface energy budget, respectively. Interannual temperature variability decreases slightly during the cool seasons and increases in summer, while interannual precipitation variability increases in all seasons. The magnitude of regional warming is linked to models' global climate sensitivity, whereas internal variability dominates the inter-model spread of precipitation changes. Lastly, GCMs that better reproduce historical climate tend to project greater warming and larger precipitation increases, though these results depend on the evaluation method.

  18. Herbs in dentistry. (United States)

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan


    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research.

  19. Lope de Vega and History on the Stages of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificació Mascarell


    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, on the one hand, the presence of Lope’s historical dramas on contemporary stage to confirm their continuity; and, on the other, to reflect on the distinctive features of the staging of these dramas from a specific corpus of performances dating from the last decades. The goal is to observe the current relevance of these dramas and performances, to study under what ethical and aesthetic assumptions characters are now represented and the historical episodes that Lope used in the creation of his fictions, as well as to analyze the possible connections between History, Lope and the audience of the 21st century.

  20. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  1. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan


    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  2. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming


    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...

  3. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China]. (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong


    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  4. Future trends and geographical distribution of potential evapotranspiration in Germany throughout the 21st century (United States)

    Rauch, E.; Panferov, O.; Doering, C.


    Recent climate projections for the 21st century (e.g. ECHAM5-MPIOM) show strong changes of the global climate. Forests in Germany are exposed to these changes, which include increase of temperature, changes of seasonal precipitation patterns and possibly the increase of frequency of extreme meteorological events as droughts, rain and wind storms. Present study focuses on the characterization of possible future developments of potential evapotranspiration (PET) throughout the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The FAO-56-Penman-Monteith (ALLEN et al., 1998) was implemented. Climate scenario data were downscaled by the regional climate model Climate Local Model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of about 0.2°*0.2° and used to calculate PET for Germany. The spatial and temporal variability of PET in Germany during the 21st century is examined and causes of variation discussed. Areas within Germany with particularly stronger - hot spots - and weaker - cold spots - changes in PET are identified and analyzed in detail. Two hot spots, the Saarland and the Black Forest, and a cold spot, East Brandenburg, were identified. The deviating development of the hot/cold spots are traced back to the stronger or weaker development of the energy balance, which is higher in the hot spots and lower in the cold spot. The spatially differential development of PET could be traced back to the regionally different development of the meteorological variables. The contributions of various meteorological variables to the temporal trend detected in the PET are then determined. Clear trends in the annual sums or means could be described for several component variables of PET. Some variables do not show any noteworthy trend in annual mean but changes in their seasonal variability. The annual PET sums do not increase so much as expected when seen in relation to the temperature increase predicted for the 21st century, particularly in SRES A1B. PET in B1 does not evolve as

  5. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)


    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  6. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Molanes


    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  7. English Continues to Be the World StandardLanguage in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The world is in various stages of social, economic, and demographic transition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competitive and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So, do we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century? According to The Economist (1996), English continues to be the world standard language, and there is no major threat to the language or to its global popularity. But, changes are coming.

  8. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian


    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  9. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian


    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  10. The Impact of Technological Change on Military Manpower in the 21st Century (United States)


    11ners. flat data bases volume. equity operatuial planning "TIhe Federaiin" h,--h r-,hn I her’stchial, Man s.imiar A,, uilgarchv Duplicated opera!ing... foot soldier who will continue to be the key to future combat operations. In addition Wickham emph sed the importance of command, control...G.J., "Moving C3 Into the 21st Century," Signal, pp. 91-94, August 1989. Mannle, T.E., and Risser , D.T., Estimating the Manpower, Personnel, and

  11. Allen Terhaar: Future Development of Cotton for the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2011 China International Cotton Conference, organized by China Cotton Association (CCA), Research Centre for Rural Economy (RCRE) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) as well as the China National Cotton Exchange (CNCE), took place June 15-16 in the beautiful coastal city of Dalian this year. Allen Terhaar, Executive President of Cotton Council International (CCI), delivered a speech with the name of Cotton in the 21st Century: Sustaining Our Industry's Future. In the following part, let's share his opinions and suggestions.

  12. [Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock - trends at the beginning of 21st century]. (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard


    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a clinical syndrome of different etiology and several clinical presentations. Cardiogenic shock patients have highest long-term mortality. In contrast to chronic heart failure, we have no evidence of therapeutic benefit for any treatment strategy from randomized clinical trials. Search for new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies is ongoing. Both causal and symptomatic treatment of AHF episode should be initiated as soon as possible. This review is focused on trends in acute heart failure therapy at the beginning of 21st century.

  13. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni


    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  14. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi


    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  15. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital


    DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Markéta


    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  16. Ethical advertising in dentistry. (United States)

    Graskemper, Joseph P


    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.

  17. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan


    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  18. A multidisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry. (United States)

    Spear, Frank M; Kokich, Vincent G


    Today's dentist does not just repair teeth to make them better for chewing. Increasingly, his or her work involves esthetics. With patients demanding more attractive teeth, dentists now must become more familiar with the formerly independent disciplines of orthodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery. This article provides a systematic method of evaluating dentofacial esthetics in a logical, interdisciplinary manner. In today's interdisciplinary dental world, treatment planning must begin with well-defined esthetic objectives. By beginning with esthetics, and taking into consideration the impact on function, structure, and biology, the clinician will be able to use the various disciplines in dentistry to deliver the highest level of dental care to each patient.

  19. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  20. Magnets in prosthetic dentistry. (United States)

    Riley, M A; Walmsley, A D; Harris, I R


    Magnetic retention is a popular method of attaching removable prostheses to either retained roots or osseointegrated implants. This review chronicles the development of magnets in dentistry and summarizes future research in their use. The literature was researched by using the Science Citation Index and Compendex Web from 1981 to 2000. Articles published before 1981 were hand researched from citations in other publications. Articles that discussed the use of magnets in relation to prosthetic dentistry were selected.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Reka Ramachandiran


    Full Text Available Learning has changed in the 21st Century. The learning process is no longer confined to the classroom alone, but extends to a global classroom. Students now use instructional technologies to synthesize newly acquired knowledge, collaborate with peers, solve problems, and formulate correct decisions. Therefore, communication becomes a vital process to ensure that learning takes place. Although it has been shown that effective two-way communication between the instructor and the learner is important to attain sustainability in the learning environment, it is a difficult task to meet. Different learning rates and styles were identified as the core factors that led to this difficulty. Hence, the need arises to meet the demand of the 21st Century Learning via the implementation of an effective learning tool. In response to these changes, this research aims to assess the student’s performance and the association between the learner’s performance and positive communication skills. A total of 18 undergraduate students from an Institutions of Higher Education (IHE participated in this case study. The results of the study indicated that Morfo can efficiently assess communication skills in an introductory computing course. It is also reported that the respondents were able to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation via Morfo reflecting their individuality and enhancing their communication skills. Besides that, the findings also suggest that there is a significant association between the communication skills and the learner’s individual performance.

  2. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century (United States)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.


    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  3. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis


    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  4. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited) (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.


    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  5. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought. (United States)

    Moran, M Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Huete, Alfredo; McClaran, Mitchel P; Zhang, Yongguang; Hamerlynck, Erik P; Augustine, David J; Gunter, Stacey A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Peters, Debra P C; Starks, Patrick J; Hernandez, Mariano


    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The early 21st-century drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that are similar to those expected with future climate change. We investigated the impact of the early 21st-century drought on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of six desert and plains grasslands dominated by C4 (warm season) grasses in terms of significant deviations between observed and expected ANPP. In desert grasslands, drought-induced grass mortality led to shifts in the functional response to annual total precipitation (P(T)), and in some cases, new species assemblages occurred that included invasive species. In contrast, the ANPP in plains grasslands exhibited a strong linear function of the current-year P(T) and the previous-year ANPP, despite prolonged warm drought. We used these results to disentangle the impacts of interannual total precipitation, intra-annual precipitation patterns, and grassland abundance on ANPP, and thus generalize the functional response of C4 grasslands to predicted climate change. This will allow managers to plan for predictable shifts in resources associated with climate change related to fire risk, loss of forage, and ecosystem services.

  6. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bamber


    Full Text Available The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009. This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL reduction for much of North Western Europe and Eastern Canada. RSL rise from this source is concentrated around South America. Losses in West Antarctica marginally compensate for this and produce maxima along the coastlines of North America, Australia and Oceania. The combined far-field pattern of wastage from all ice melt sources, is dominated by losses from the ice sheets and results in maxima at latitudes between 20° N and 40° S across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, affecting particularly vulnerable land masses in Oceania. The spatial pattern of RSL variations due to the observed ice mass loss is temporally invariant. Thus, sea level rise, based on the land ice losses considered here, will be amplified for this sensitive region.

  7. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.

  8. Stratospheric Temperature Changes and Ozone Recovery in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; XIA Yan; GAO Mei; LU Daren


    Increasing greenhouse gases and likely ozone recovery will be the two most important factors influencing changes in stratospheric temperatures in the 21st century. The radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases will cause cooling in the stratosphere, while ozone recovery will lead to stratospheric warming. To investigate how stratospheric temperatures change under the two opposite forcings in the 21st century, we use observed ozone and reanalysis data as well as simulation results from four coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulation models (GISS-ER, GFDL-CM20, NCAR-CCSM3, and UKMO-HadCM3) used in the IPCC (Intergovernment Panel for Climate Change) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Observational analysis shows that total column ozone and lower stratospheric temperatures all show increasing in the past 10 years, while middle stratospheric temperatures demonstrate cooling. IPCC AR4 simulations show that greenhouse forcing alone will lead to stratospheric cooling. However, with forcing of both increasing greenhouse gases and ozone recovery, the middle stratosphere will be cooled, while the lower stratosphere will be warmed. Warming magnitudes vary from one model to another. UKMO-HadCM3 generates relatively strong warming for all three greenhouse scenarios, and warming extends to 40 hPa. GFDL-CM20 and NCAR-CCSM3 produce weak warming, and warming mainly exists at lower levels, below about 60 hPa. In addition, we also discuss the effect of temperature changes on ozone recovery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI


    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  10. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research. (United States)

    Langley, Gill; Austin, Christopher P; Balapure, Anil K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bucher, John R; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Fowle, John R; Kavlock, Robert J; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A; Muotri, Alysson R; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine


    Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov


    Full Text Available The article looks at the various aspects of appropriating the Christian traditions by Russian fantasy writing. We show that the Christian tradition has most significantly revealed itself in the genre of fantasy writing which is in high demand among early 21st century readers. Both the content and the formal poetics of this tradition have been taken into account here. One of the typical fantasy protagonists is a hero yearning for God, which is a familiar staple of Russian literature. By default fantasy deals with demonolog, thus becoming closely linked to Christian tradition of the struggle against evil. Demon (or devil being a popular character in fantasy writing, the forgotten traditions of Old Russian literature get re-actualized in 20th and early 21st century and the demonological image includes both the demonic and the human. We conclude that contemporary fantasy authors develop their own versions of the Christian tradition, removing the conflict between the “faith” and “invention” typical for fantasy writing.

  12. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid


    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  13. Special Patient Care in Dentistry


    笠原, 浩


    The handicapped is defined in the Fundemental Act for the Handicapped (1970) as "any person who has a considerable and long-pending limitation in one's daily life or social activities with a physical impairment of moving, seeing, hearing, balancing, voice or speech; a fixed organic disorder of the heart, respiratory system, and the like; or mental impairment such as mental deficiency". In those people, the dental health has much more importance than in the other normal people. For a person wh...

  14. Evidence-based dentistry: what's new? (United States)

    Ballini, A; Capodiferro, S; Toia, M; Cantore, S; Favia, G; De Frenza, G; Grassi, F R


    The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the "paradigm shift" towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  15. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi


    Full Text Available The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the “paradigm shift” towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  16. High-Confidence Medical Devices: Cyber-Physical Systems for 21st Century Health Care (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The U.S. market for medical devices is the largest in the world. At an estimated $83 billion in 2006, this market represents nearly half the global total and is...

  17. Orthovoltage energies for palliative care in the 21st century: Is there a need?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alimonte, Laura, E-mail: Laura.Dalimonte@sunnybrook.c [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sinclair, Emily [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Seed, Sharon [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Objective: The primary objective was to describe the patterns of practice for patients with rib metastases who were treated with radiation therapy for pain relief. The secondary objective was to determine if wait times and better access to radiation treatment for this patient population could be improved with the utilization of an orthovoltage treatment machine. Methods and Materials: Cancer registry data for patients with rib disease and radiation therapy technique were collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The data was examined to establish the utilization rate of orthovoltage treatment. Results: The data demonstrated that orthovoltage treatment was an underutilized technique for the palliative treatment of rib disease. More than half of the patients were treated with high energy (6 MV) photon beam with either a single direct photon field (16.2%) or a two field photon technique (47.4%). Electron beam technique represented 35.1% of treatments while orthovoltage constituted only 1.2% of rib treatments. Conclusion: The use of orthovoltage X-ray beams has been demonstrated to be an underutilized radiotherapy treatment technique at this institution. Orthovoltage treatment is a simple radiotherapy technique with a short setup time that may be a solution for minimizing treatment burden for an already overburdened patient population.

  18. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?


    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi


    The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care ...

  19. British Society of Paediatric Dentistry: a policy document on consent and the use of physical intervention in the dental care of children. (United States)

    Nunn, June; Foster, Martin; Master, Selina; Greening, Sue


    This policy document was prepared by J Nunn, M Foster, S Master and S Greening on behalf of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry (BSPD). Policy documents produced by the BSPD represent a majority view, based on a consideration of currently available evidence. They are produced to provide guidance with the intention that the policy be regularly reviewed and updated to take account of changing views and developments.

  20. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.


    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  1. Earthquake: Game-based learning for 21st century STEM education (United States)

    Perkins, Abigail Christine

    To play is to learn. A lack of empirical research within game-based learning literature, however, has hindered educational stakeholders to make informed decisions about game-based learning for 21st century STEM education. In this study, I modified a research and development (R&D) process to create a collaborative-competitive educational board game illuminating elements of earthquake engineering. I oriented instruction- and game-design principles around 21st century science education to adapt the R&D process to develop the educational game, Earthquake. As part of the R&D, I evaluated Earthquake for empirical evidence to support the claim that game-play results in student gains in critical thinking, scientific argumentation, metacognitive abilities, and earthquake engineering content knowledge. I developed Earthquake with the aid of eight focus groups with varying levels of expertise in science education research, teaching, administration, and game-design. After developing a functional prototype, I pilot-tested Earthquake with teacher-participants (n=14) who engaged in semi-structured interviews after their game-play. I analyzed teacher interviews with constant comparison methodology. I used teachers' comments and feedback from content knowledge experts to integrate game modifications, implementing results to improve Earthquake. I added player roles, simplified phrasing on cards, and produced an introductory video. I then administered the modified Earthquake game to two groups of high school student-participants (n = 6), who played twice. To seek evidence documenting support for my knowledge claim, I analyzed videotapes of students' game-play using a game-based learning checklist. My assessment of learning gains revealed increases in all categories of students' performance: critical thinking, metacognition, scientific argumentation, and earthquake engineering content knowledge acquisition. Players in both student-groups improved mostly in critical thinking, having

  2. Climate change and malaria risk in Russia in 21st century (United States)

    Malkhazova, S.; Shartova, N.


    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for Russia in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "А2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: - define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; - creating of maps of malaria risk; - analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets are presented in the grid 2х20. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift of the beginning of malaria transmission

  3. Climate change and malaria risk in the European part of Russia in 21st century (United States)

    Shartova, N.; Malkhazova, S.


    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for European part of Russia (EPR) in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "A2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; creating of maps of malaria risk; analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia (particularly for EPR) the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets for EPR are presented in the grid 2x2. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift

  4. Implications of changes in freshwater flux from the Greenland ice sheet for the climate of the 21st century


    Fichefet, T.; Poncin, C.; Goosse, H.; Huybrechts, Philippe; Janssens, I.; Le Treut, H.


    Two simulations of the 21st century climate have been carried out using, on the one hand, a coarse resolution climate general circulation model and, on the other hand, the same model coupled to a comprehensive model of the Greenland ice sheet. Both simulations display a gradual global warming up to 2080. In the experiment that includes an interactive ice sheet component, a strong and abrupt weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation occurs at the end of the 21st century. This fe...

  5. Social development of 21st century and reform of China's elementary education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Lan


    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation.The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society.The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present education.For 10 years,the"New Elementary Education",based on the background of Chinese society,and the demand for school education reform clearly puts forward the necessity of education reform in the period of social transformation,in other words,education should achieve its transformational development.This paper presents a deep research of globalization and informationalization,which are the background of Chinese social transformation.On this basis,the paper examines the implication of"school transformational reform"of the present-day Chinese elementary education,and finally proposes some steps for achieving"school transformational reform".

  6. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)


    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  7. Immunomics: a 21st century approach to vaccine development for complex pathogens. (United States)

    De Sousa, Karina P; Doolan, Denise L


    Immunomics is a relatively new field of research which integrates the disciplines of immunology, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics to characterize the host-pathogen interface. Herein, we discuss how rapid advances in molecular immunology, sophisticated tools and molecular databases are facilitating in-depth exploration of the immunome. In our opinion, an immunomics-based approach presides over traditional antigen and vaccine discovery methods that have proved ineffective for highly complex pathogens such as the causative agents of malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis that have evolved genetic and immunological host-parasite adaptations over time. By using an integrative multidisciplinary approach, immunomics offers enormous potential to advance 21st century antigen discovery and rational vaccine design against complex pathogens such as the Plasmodium parasite.

  8. Preface: Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21) (United States)

    Juaristi, J. I.; Alducin, M.


    This special issue contains the Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21). The conference series started in 1976 and focuses on fundamental aspects of interactions of atoms, molecules, clusters and ions with surfaces. The main research themes are (a) energy loss of particles at surfaces, (b) charge exchange between particles and surfaces, (c) electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces, (d) ion induced desorption, electronic and kinetic sputtering, (e) defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring, (f) laser induced desorption, (g) scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters, (h) sputtering, fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS, and (i) cluster/molecular and highly charged ion beams.

  9. [Public health in Quebec at the dawn of the 21st century]. (United States)

    Colin, C


    This paper summarises the status of public health in Quebec at the dawn of the 21st century. After introducing the current definition, the author lays out five basic functions of public health in Quebec: knowledge and surveillance of populations health and wellbeing, health protection; prevention of disease, trauma and social problems that influence health; health and wellbeing promotion; and service organization and evaluation. The organization of public health services is then described at the local level (CLSC), regional level (Public health units) and national level (Ministry, Public health directorate and National Institute of Public Health). Finally, the trends and priorities elaborated over the last ten years, as well as the National Public Health Program to be implemented over the next ten years are described.

  10. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    CERN Document Server


    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  11. [Surgery and the Japan Surgical Society at the beginning of the 21st century]. (United States)

    Hatakeyama, K


    Numerous advances in medicine occurred during the latter half of the 20th century, and progress will accelerate in the 21st century. In particular, research in molecular biology has made significant advances, and it was reported that the human genome was almost completely deciphered in June 2000. This will contribute greatly to genetic research in malignant diseases. The development of regenerative medicine, such as cell transplantation using differentiated embryonic or mesenchymal stem cell, will have a significant effect on the field of surgery. The Japan Surgical Society must apply the new knowledge being made available to realize the concept of integrative medicine, in which surgery will play a major role. Substantial changes in postgraduate and continuing education and training of surgeons may be necessary. Other topics for discussion include risk management in the case of surgical accidents and medical ethics based on the Declaration of Helsinki.

  12. GCM Projections for the Pacific Decadal Oscillation under Greenhouse Forcing for the 21st Century (United States)

    Lapp, S. L.; St. Jacques, J.; Barrow, E.; Sauchyn, D.


    The climatology and hydrology of the Pacific Northwest display strong periodic cycles which are correlated with the low-frequency Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The PDO’s signature is seen throughout the North Pacific region, with significant associations with hydrology and ecology in Alaska, northeastern Siberia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. Therefore, the status of the PDO in a warmer world caused by anthropogenic climate change is of great interest. We developed 21st century projections of the PDO, using data from archived runs of the most recent high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The capacities of the current highest-resolution GCMs to project the future status of the PDO are just beginning to be explored. In this presentation, we examine the potential for the mean climate of the North Pacific to shift to more positive or negative PDO phase-like conditions.

  13. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This booklet is an introduction to several new strategies for designing, developing, and retrofitting energy-efficient laboratories. It is the result of a collaboration among staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), several national laboratories, and their contractors. They are collaborating to meet the goals of a joint EPA-DOE initiative, 'Laboratories for the 21st Century,' which was established to help government and private-sector laboratory designers, engineers, owners, and operators work together to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs. This booklet describes many energy-efficient strategies that can be done during laboratory planning and programming; design; engineering; and commissioning, operation, and maintenance. There is also a discussion of on-site power generation and clean sources of electricity from renewable energy.

  14. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  15. Public health in South-East Asia in the 21st century. (United States)


    This paper presents the proceedings of the Regional Conference on Public Health in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century, held in Calcutta, India, on November 22-24, 1999. Organized by the WHO, the conference reviewed the progress in Public Health education and training, practice and research in the countries of the region. Discussions were focused on the quality of the Schools of Public Health, professional capacities, societal commitment, shrinking resources for health and the resultant need for greater efficiency of interventions and the realization of national Public Health goals. It also stressed the importance of Public Health for national, socioeconomic and political development. Moreover, the participants identified key strategies and initiatives for strengthening Public Health in the region. These measures include focusing on the promotion of health in all settings; social mobilization and community action; strengthening the scientific and ethical foundation for evidence-based policy formulation in Public Health; and the creation of an Executive Management Team.

  16. Primates in 21st century ecosystems: does primate conservation promote ecosystem conservation? (United States)

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Boinski, Sue; Forget, Pierre-Michel


    Contributors to this issue of the American Journal of Primatology were among the participants in an invited symposium at the 2008 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation meeting in Paramaribo, Suriname. They were asked to assess how essential primates are to tropical ecosystems and, given their research interests, discuss how primate research contributes to the broader understanding about how ecosystems function. This introduction to the issue is divided into three parts: a review of the roles that nonhuman primates play in tropical ecosystems; the implementation of large-scale landscape methods used to identify primate densities; and concerns about the increasingly porous boundaries between humans, nonhuman primates, and pathogens. Although 20th century primate research created a rich database on individual species, including both theoretical and descriptive approaches, the dual effects of high human population densities and widespread habitat destruction should warn us that creative, interdisciplinary and human-related research is needed to solve 21st century problems.

  17. Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event (United States)

    Gettys, Nancy S.


    On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

  18. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek


    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  19. A Decade of 21st-Century Dinosaur Research at IVPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corwin Sullivan


    @@ In the first decade of the 21st century,a larger number of important new dinosaur specimens have come from China than from any other country.The Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology(IVPP)has been at the forefront of the scientific effort to document and analyze these fossils,in collaboration with a wide range of other institutions in China and around the world.Recently discovered Chinese specimens,described by IVPP researchers and their collaborators,have shed considerable new light on the evolution of several important dinosaur groups and on various aspects of dinosaur biology.Some of the findings of these studies would have seemed even twenty or thirty years ago to be closer to the realm of science fiction than paleontological reality.

  20. Opportunities and challenges of strengthening veterinary toxicology in Africa in the 21st century. (United States)

    Rumbeiha, W K


    Veterinary toxicology is the specialty of veterinary medicine dealing with the study, diagnosis and treatment of effects of natural and man-made chemicals, forms of energy, and gasses in the animal kingdom. Historically, veterinary toxicology has been narrowly defined as the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning in domesticated animals and poultry, but the profession has grown to include food safety and environmental toxicology. Veterinary toxicology is most well-developed and recognized as a specialty in North America where professional societies and specialty board certification exist. In many parts of Africa, perhaps with the exception of South Africa, veterinary toxicology has not evolved in more than 40 years. The importance of veterinary toxicology in the modern era can not be over emphasized. This report examines the status of veterinary toxicology in Africa at the beginning of the 21st century and offers arguments why it is important for African governments to devote more resources to strengthen it.

  1. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century. (United States)

    Isnard, Sandrine; Silk, Wendy K


    We provide an overview of research on climbing plants from Charles Darwin to the present day. Following Darwin's interests, this review will focus on functional perspectives including attachment mechanisms and stem structure and function. We draw attention to a number of unsolved problems inviting future research. These include the mechanism for establishment of the twining habit, a quantitative description following the development of a tissue element through space and time, the chemistry of sticky exudates, the microstructure of xylem and the capacity for water storage, the vulnerability to embolism, and the mechanism for embolism repair. In conclusion we cite evidence that, in response to increasing CO(2) concentration, anthropic perturbation and/ or increasing forest fragmentation, lianas are increasing relative to tree species. In the 21st century, we are returning to the multiscale, multidisciplinary approach taken by Darwin to understand natural history.

  2. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikkemien Vertonghen


    Full Text Available The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country (i.e., France, Flanders (Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic. Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context.

  3. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, R.; Randin, C.F.; Thuiller, W.


    Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...... microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100 m) species samples...... by 2070–2100. While our high-resolution analyses consistently indicate marked levels of threat to cold-adapted mountain florae across Europe, they also reveal unequal distribution of this threat across the various mountain ranges. Impacts on florae from regions projected to undergo increased warming...

  4. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes (United States)

    Thorpe, Livia; Andrews, Timothy


    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day-1, while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day-1) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked.

  5. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bopp


    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth System Models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration parthways (RCP over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in 2090s (compared to 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 °C, −0.33 pH unit, −3.45% and −8.6%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 °C, −0.07 pH unit, −1.81% and −2.0% respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of sub-surface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity.

  6. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America. (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R


    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  7. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco


    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  8. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections (United States)

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  9. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  10. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders


    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five GCMs and four emission scenarios (RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime, has a substantial influence on future hydrological drought characteristics.

  11. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime (United States)

    Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Wanders, Niko; Wada, Yoshihide


    Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5o globally for 1971-2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs) and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs), from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM) was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971-2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt) is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40-52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4 %), compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20 %). The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a substantial

  12. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders


    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  13. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21st Century (United States)

    Claxton, Larry D.; de A. Umbuzeiro, Gisela; DeMarini, David M.


    Objectives According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-First Century, modern methods (e.g., “omics,” in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay has been central to the field of genetic toxicology since the 1970s. Here we document the paradigm shifts engendered by the assay, the validation and applications of the assay, and how the assay is a model for future in vitro toxicology assays. Data sources We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge using key words relevant to the Salmonella assay and additional genotoxicity assays. Data extraction We merged the citations, removing duplicates, and categorized the papers by year and topic. Data synthesis The Salmonella assay led to two paradigm shifts: that some carcinogens were mutagens and that some environmental samples (e.g., air, water, soil, food, combustion emissions) were mutagenic. Although there are > 10,000 publications on the Salmonella assay, covering tens of thousands of agents, data on even more agents probably exist in unpublished form, largely as proprietary studies by industry. The Salmonella assay is a model for the development of 21st century in vitro toxicology assays in terms of the establishment of standard procedures, ability to test various agents, transferability across laboratories, validation and testing, and structure–activity analysis. Conclusions Similar to a stethoscope as a first-line, inexpensive tool in medicine, the Salmonella assay can serve a similar, indispensable role in the foreseeable future of 21st century toxicology. PMID:20682480

  14. Spatial distribution of temperature extremes changes in Poland in 21st century (United States)

    Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna


    There is a general agreement that changes in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather and climate events have profound impacts on both human society and the economy. In the recent years a numerous weather events have affected human health and caused enormous economic losses. A long-lasting heat waves influence society far more than rare occurred extreme high temperature. On the other hand a winter warming and frequent exceedance of 0°C during winter will be disruptive i.e. for the wheel transport and roads condition in Poland. This work is focused on the study of the spatial diversity of minimum and maximum temperature in 21st century in Poland. Firstly the shift in distribution (PDF) and cumulative distribution (CDF) of the daily maximum temperature in summer and minimum temperature in winter between control and scenario periods was compared among different part of the country. Secondly the changes in the characteristic percentiles of the temperature extremes were analyzed. Furthermore the spatial changes in the duration and frequency of the heat waves in Poland were studied. Moreover the future prediction of changes in characteristic days as hot days (Tmax≥30°C), summer days (Tmax≥25°C), tropical nights (Tmin≥20°C), frost days (Tmin<0°C), etc. were spatially compared. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) is expected to change remarkably in 21st century depending on the area of Poland. The daily minimum and maximum 2-meter temperature date have been obtained from seven different regional climate models and corrected by quintile mapping method afterwards. The Polish station data for the control period have been gained from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute.

  15. Lasers in aesthetic dentistry. (United States)

    Adams, Timothy C; Pang, Peter K


    This article focuses on lasers and aesthetic dentistry and their unique parallel in history from their early development to their present day usage and application. The demand for aesthetic dentistry has had a major impact not only on treatment planning but also on the choice of materials, techniques, and equipment. It is this demand that has married the use of lasers with aesthetic dentistry. A short literature review on the five basic laser types precedes the basic premise of smile design and its critical importance in attaining the desirable aesthetic end result. A short review on biologic width and biologic zone reinforces their importance when manipulating gingival tissue. Four case reports highlight the use of diode, erbium, and carbon dioxide lasers. The end results show the power of proper treatment planning and the use of a smile design guide when using these instruments and confirm a conservative, aesthetic treatment without compromising the health and function of the patients.

  16. Brexit and dentistry. (United States)

    Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S


    On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.

  17. How may the regional climate change redraw the European terrestrial wild mammals' living territory in the 21st century? (United States)

    Nagy, Julia; Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Hufnagel, Levente


    Climate is one of the abiotic factors, which controls primarily the range areas of wildlife. Animals tend to occupy geographical regions with climatic conditions, which are optimal to their specific needs. Due to the projected global warming and climate change the living territory of wild animals' may be reshaped in the future, some of the species may even suffer extinction. In this research we aim to estimate how climate change alters the distributions of European terrestrial mammal species and modifies biodiversity in the 21st century. For this purpose, first, hierarchical cluster analysis is applied to species for forming major groups. Climatic information is provided by using the E-OBS gridded database for 1961-1990. Then, carefully selecting typical species from the major groups it is possible to predict changes in area by displaying their climate indicator profile maps. For the range datasets the Atlas of European Mammals are analyzed, which was published in 1999 and is now widely used as a reference work. It contains data for pre-1970 and post-1970 presence of mammal species in Europe. Then, in order to assess future changes, available datasets of regional climate model results from the European project ENSEMBLES for 1951-2100 using the moderate SRES A1B emission scenario are considered with 25 km horizontal resolution. Simultaneous analysis of climate simulations and animal range datasets enables us to evaluate the vulnerability of European terrestrial mammal species to regional climate change. The results suggest that rapid change and significant decline in habitats and fauna redraw the wild animals' living territory and make them migrate northward.

  18. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA


    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  19. Polyamides in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Bhatia


    Full Text Available Thermoplastic resins have been used in dentistry for over 50 years. Since that time their applications have continued to grow, and the interest in nylon based materials have increased. With the development of new properties, there are certain to be additional new applications for thermoplastic resins in the future, to help patients with damaged or missing teeth. The dentists have to meet growing demands for prosthetic rehabilitation due to population aging and higher requirements on the quality of life. Herein in this article we will be discussing in detail properties of nylon based materials and their various implications in dentistry

  20. Why be an evidence-based dentistry champion? (United States)

    Clarkson, Jan E; Bonetti, Debbie


    Evidence-based dentistry champions are committed to improving the quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of dental care through the application of evidence-based principles and tools. They share knowledge and skills to promote evidence-based dentistry (EBD) in practice, guiding colleagues, patients and policy makers in the application of critical thinking skills and evidence-based decision-making. Being an evidence-based champion requires furthering an understanding of the full process and the challenges of evidence based dentistry, including the development of an evidence base, evidence synthesis and summary, the creation of best practice guidelines, as well as evidence implementation. Efforts to improve the quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of dental care need to occur at, and be coordinated across, multiple levels of dentistry, including the patient, clinician, team, organization, and policy.

  1. Reform of School Science Curriculum for the 21st Century: Science-Technology-Society Theme in Japanese Context. (United States)

    Nakayama, Genzo

    Today, on the eve of the 21st century, Japan is becoming an internationalized, information centered civilization. The sophistication of modern science and technology will create a demand for people who are highly productive in handling knowledge and sensitive in their manipulation of it. This advance of science and technology will also require an…

  2. Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries : analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheffield, J.


    We describe the analysis of global and regional drought over the second half of the 20th century from a retrospective model simulation of the terrestrial water cycle, and projected 21st century changes using multi-scenario data from multiple climate models. A global meteorological forcing dataset is

  3. Use of Technology in the Classroom as Perceived by Public School Teachers in Milwaukee during Early 21st Century (United States)

    Skinner, Sharon F.


    This project utilized descriptive methodology to examine the research question, how is technology being used in the classroom, as perceived by public school teachers in Milwaukee during early 21st century? In order to fully analyze this question, both quantitative and qualitative data were utilized. The researcher developed a survey for the…

  4. Hepatology in the 21st century - Gene transfer, hepatocyte transplantation, DNA chips, cyberspace and ... a friendly hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, PLM


    What to expect for hepatology in the 21st century? If science is allowed to proceed at its current rate, expectations can hardly be underestimated. Bound by the present day's limitations we are only able to see a glimpse of what could be available 100 years from now. For the next few decades, the gl

  5. A View from Japan. Citizenship for the 21st Century: The Role of the Social Studies. Fourth in a Series. (United States)

    Nakayama, Shuichi


    Points out problems in planning a social studies curriculum that will prepare Japanese society for the 21st Century. Claiming that the current curricula is ethnocentric, looks at objectives and teaching strategies for developing a global approach. Recommends development of a global information network to increase awareness of the interrelatedness…

  6. 21st Century Skills and the English Foreign Language Classroom: A Call for More Awareness in Colombia (United States)

    Fandiño, Yamith José


    The 21st century demands the explicit integration of learning strategies, digital competences and career abilities. Schools in general and EFL classrooms in particular should provide students with practices and processes focused on acquiring and developing, among other things, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, self-direction, and…

  7. Educating Engineers: Preparing 21st Century Leaders in the Context of New Modes of Learning--Summary of a Forum (United States)

    Olson, Steve, Ed.


    The National Academy of Engineering's 2012 forum, "Educating Engineers: Preparing 21st Century Leaders in the Context of New Modes of Learning," opened with presentations by six speakers who looked at the future of engineering and engineering education from their perspectives as educators, administrators, entrepreneurs, and innovators. Each…

  8. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century (United States)

    Guimarães, Selva


    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  9. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region (United States)

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne


    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across…

  10. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills (United States)

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon


    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  11. Women's Career Investment and the Returns: Career Benefits and Barriers in the 21st Century Green Economy (United States)

    Johnson, Philomena M.


    The key to building successful strategies as a higher education practitioner promoting 21st century green economy career awareness for women attending urban universities, demands advocating for benefits, and subverting potential barriers, to positively influence career choices. Women's career investment and returns increase when proper strategies…

  12. Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret


    "Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts" focuses on planning contemporary school library spaces with user-based design strategies. The book walks school librarians and administrators through the process of gathering information from students and other stakeholders involved in…

  13. Far Away, so Close: Preservices School Library Media Specialists' Perceptions of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" (United States)

    Mardis, Marcia A.; Dickinson, Gail K.


    Preservice school library media specialists will implement the AASL Standards for the "21st Century Learner" in their new roles. Drafted in 2007, the Standards reflect principles which school library media specialist must impart to learners to prepare them to be knowledge consumers, producers, and communicators in global environments. Because many…

  14. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom through Animated Storytelling - Challenges and Potentials for Arts-integration in 21st. Century Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa


    Creativity has been termed one of the most important skills of the 21st. Century classroom. While a traditional approach to education has not had a big emphasis on creativity in most subjects, the emerging learner-centered paradigm, as well as learners’ everday use of media, is making many...

  15. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier


    OBJECTIVES: In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last ...

  16. The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century: A Case for an International Police Force (United States)


    Globalization The spread of technology that has resulted in increased information flow has also fostered the spread of global business . Multi-national...corporations are now the rule rather than the exception when it comes to 21st Century business. The reality of a global business community that

  17. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.


    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  18. National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2006


    The Association of American Universities (AAU) calls on the Administration, Congress, and academia, with the help of the business sector, to implement a 21st Century National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative aimed at meeting the economic and security challenges we will face over the next half-century. Government and America's…

  19. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C. O.


    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  20. 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41 (United States)

    Ananiadou, Katerina; Claro, Magdalean


    This paper discusses issues related to the teaching and assessment of 21st century skills and competencies in OECD countries drawing on the findings of a questionnaire study and other relevant background material such as white papers or curriculum documents. Although all OECD countries were invited to participate in the questionnaire survey,…

  1. Solo but Not Separate: Preparing 21st-Century School Library Professionals Who Can "Go It Alone" (United States)

    Pasco, Becky


    Preparing school librarians for a diverse array of 21st-century educational environments is a daunting task. Faculty in school library preparation programs send candidates out into sparsely populated rural areas, dense urban settings, and everything in between. Some candidates will provide services and resources in updated, modern facilities,…

  2. The Implementation and Assessment of a Shared 21st Century Learning Vision: A District-Based Approach (United States)

    Gunn, Thelma M.; Hollingsworth, Maurice


    Traditional educational patterns are giving way to more innovative modes and methods of learning, primarily due to radical technological changes that have increased the availability of information and improved communication. In an attempt to address this shift toward 21st century skills and learning, a single school district began a large-scale,…

  3. Plasma in dentistry


    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok


    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  4. Restorative dentistry for children. (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J


    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood.

  5. Invisalign and aesthetic dentistry. (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin


    Invisalign has been an integral part of dental practices for many years. Besides improving crowding and spacing in teeth, it is an excellent adjunct for many different aesthetic procedures. One such case is illustrated in this article, where the combination of Invisalign and minimally invasive dentistry allowed for a stellar outcome, and one very happy dental patient.

  6. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah


    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  7. Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010


    This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

  8. Is dentistry at risk? A case for interprofessional education. (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; O'Donnell, Jean A; Barry, J Mark; Galli, Dominique M; Hakim, Foroud F; Holyfield, Lavern J; Robbins, Miriam R


    The goal of interprofessional education (IPE) is to bring various professional groups together in the educational environment to promote collaborative practice and improve the health care of patients. Interest in IPE has been sparked by several factors in the health care system, including the increased awareness of oral-systemic connections, an aging population, the shift of the burden of illness from acute to chronic care, and lack of access to basic oral care. Increasingly, since the publication of the U.S. surgeon general's report in 2000, the dialogue surrounding IPE in dentistry has escalated. But how has dentistry changed regarding IPE since the report was released? This position paper argues that little has changed in the way dental students are taught and prepared to participate in IPE. The authors contend that academic dentistry and organized dentistry must take the lead in initiating and demanding IPE if dental students are to be prepared to work in the health care environment of the twenty-first century. Included are reasons why IPE is necessary and why dentistry must lead the conversation and participate in the solution to the oral health care crisis. It explores existing models and alternate approaches to IPE, barriers to implementation, and proposed strategies for academic institutions.

  9. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.

  10. Boreal snow cover variations induced by aerosol emissions in the middle of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz


    Full Text Available We used a coupled climate-chemistry model to quantify the impacts of aerosols on snow cover both for the present-day and for the middle of the 21st century. Black carbon (BC deposition over continents induces a reduction in the Mean Number of Days With Snow at the Surface (MNDWS that ranges from 0 to 10 days over large areas of Eurasia and Northern America for the present-day relative to the pre-industrial period. This is mainly due to BC deposition during the spring, a period of the year when the remaining of snow accumulated during the winter is exposed to both strong solar radiation and large amount of aerosol deposition induced themselves by a high level of transport of particles from polluted areas. North of 30° N, this deposition flux represents 222 Gg BC month−1 on average from April to June in our simulation. A large reduction in BC emissions is expected in the future in the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. Considering this scenario in our simulation leads to a decrease in the spring BC deposition down to 110 Gg month−1 in the 2050s in the RCP8.5 scenario. However, despite the reduction of the aerosol impact on snow, the MNDWS is strongly reduced by 2050, with a decrease ranging from 10 to 100 days from pre-industrial values over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction is essentially due to temperature increase, which is quite strong in the RCP8.5 scenario in the absence of climate mitigation policies. Moreover, the projected sea-ice retreat in the next decades will open new routes for shipping in the Arctic. However, a large increase in shipping emissions in the Arctic by the mid 21st century does not lead to significant changes of BC deposition over snow-covered areas in our simulation. Therefore, the MNDWS is clearly not affected through snow darkening effects associated to these Arctic ship emissions. In an experiment without nudging toward atmospheric reanalyses, we simulated

  11. Role of Triphala in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Prakash


    Full Text Available Ayurveda is considered as the "science of life," because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ′Triphala′ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM. It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry.

  12. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Fooks

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  13. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Westervelt


    Full Text Available It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3 to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m−2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d−1. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm d−1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m−2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in cloud droplet effective radius. Future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 30–40% of total climate warming by 2100 in East Asia, even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5. The expected unmasking of global warming caused

  14. GCMs-based spatiotemporal evolution of climate extremes during the 21st century in China (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yongqin David; Singh, Vijay P.


    Changes in the hydrological cycle being caused by human-induced global warming are triggering variations in observed spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and temperature extremes, and hence in droughts and floods across China. Evaluation of future climate extremes based on General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs will be of great importance in scientific management of water resources and agricultural activities. In this study, five precipitation extreme and five temperature extreme indices are defined. This study analyzes daily precipitation and temperature data for 1960-2005 from 529 stations in China and outputs of GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5). Downscaling methods, based on QQ-plot and transfer functions, are used to downscale GCMs outputs to the site scale. Performances of GCMs in simulating climate extremes were evaluated using the Taylor diagram. Results showed that: (1) the multimodel CMIP5 ensemble performs the best in simulating observed extreme conditions; (2) precipitation processes are intensifying with increased frequency and intensity across entire China. The southwest China, however, is dominated by lengthening maximum consecutive dry days and also more heavy precipitation extremes; (3) warming processes continue with increasing warm nights, decreasing frost days, and lengthening heat waves during the 21st century; (4) changes in precipitation and temperature extremes exhibit larger changing magnitudes under RCP85 scenario; (5) for the evolution of changes in extremes, in most cases, the spatial pattern keeps the same, even though changing rates vary. In some cases, area with specific changing properties extends or shrinks gradually. The directions of trends may alter during the evolution; and (6) changes under RCP85 become more and more pronounced as time elapses. Under the peak-and-decline RCP26, changes in some cases do not decrease correspondingly during 2070-2099 even though the

  15. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bopp


    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72 °C, −0.33 (±0.003 pH unit, −3.45 (±0.44% and −8.6 (±7.9%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45 °C, −0.07 (±0.001 pH unit, −1.81 (±0.31% and −2.0 (±4.1%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface

  16. A Review on Ethnic Minority Linguistic Research Since the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Wenbin


    Since the 21st century, research in the field of ethnic minority linguistics has seen new developments in China. The contents and achieve-ments of this research have mainly been concentrated in the following areas:The first being descriptive research into the eth-nic minority languages, including comprehensive de-scriptive research of some specific ethnic minority languages, especially those newly discovered ethnic minority languages, and descriptive research into a particular aspect of ethnic minority languages, inclu-ding their grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. The second being synchronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages, including comparative studies between Chinese and ethnic minority langua-ges, and comparative studies between ethnic minority languages. The third being diachronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages. These include a discussion on the generic issues of the Sino-Tibetan language family, and the reconstruction of the com-mon ancestral words in Sino-Tibetan languages. The fourth being the research into the rescue of endan-gered minority languages. In 2000, China held a seminar on endangered languages for the first time, marking the point when academic circles in China started to realize the urgency of protecting endan-gered languages. The fifth being the research into bi-lingual education in ethnic minorities. Since the ad-vent of the 21st century, research into bilingual edu-cation in ethnic minorities has progressed in leaps and bounds, and a great many papers and scholarly works related to this field have been published. The sixth being the study of the translation of ethnic mi-nority languages. This has become an important field of ethnic minority language research in China. In the new century, research papers on the translation of ethnic minority languages are fewer in number than the actual works of translation, and their main con-tent includes discussions on translation between two specific languages, or the

  17. Advances in local anesthesia in dentistry. (United States)

    Ogle, Orrett E; Mahjoubi, Ghazal


    Local pain management is the most critical aspect of patient care in dentistry. The improvements in agents and techniques for local anesthesia are probably the most significant advances that have occurred in dental science. This article provides an update on the most recently introduced local anesthetic agents along with new technologies used to deliver local anesthetics. Safety devices are also discussed, along with an innovative method for reducing the annoying numbness of the lip and tongue following local anesthesia.

  18. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015) (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.


    quickly formed, have already started, and presumably have also followed previously unpredictable directions. In this scenario, it is normal and healthy for the entire community to question itself as of whether it is a set of proceedings the best way to document and communicate to peers (present and future) the work that has been done at a precise time and the vivid and live ideas of a precise moment in the evolution of the discipline. Pointing the attention to a specific CHEP event alone does not give the right answer: in fact, the heritage value lies in the quality and continuity of the documentation work, despite the changes of times, trends and actors. The CHEP proceedings, in their variety and thanks to the condensed form of knowledge they offer, are what most likely will be more easily preserved for future generations, thanks to the outstanding efforts over digital libraries for all kinds of cultural heritage. Since 1985, this long-standing tradition continued with the 21st CHEP edition in Okinawa. The successful model that brings together high-energy and nuclear physicist and computer scientists was repeated in the Okinawa prefecture, an outstanding location consisting of a few dozen small islands in the southern half of the Nansei Shoto, the island chain which stretches over about one thousand kilometres from Kyushu to Taiwan. The OIST (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology) centre hosted the event, and offered an outstanding location and efficient facilities for the event. As for the CHEP history, contributions from 'general purpose' physics experiments mixed together with highly specialized work on the frontier of precision and intensity. The year 2015 is marked by the LHC restart in Run 2. Experimental groups at the LHC reviewed and presented their Run 1 experiences in detail, and reported the work done in acquiring the latest computing and software technologies, as well as in evolving their computing models in preparation for Run 2 (and beyond). On the

  19. [Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century]. (United States)

    Abramovay, Ricardo


    Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.

  20. Curriculum as praxis: Ensuring quality technical education in Singapore for the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiew Ming Yek


    Full Text Available Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical education and training to the overall success of the nation are often cited. Technical education and training, which is globally perceived as having a lower status than "academic" curricula, has largely overcome its "image" problem in Singapore. Singaporeans have seemingly embraced technical education and training as an accessible, attractive mode of education, which therefore enjoys a high participation rate. The success and quality of technical education and training were affirmed when its main provider, the Institute of Technical Education, became the first educational institution in Singapore to win the Singapore Quality Award in October 2005. This paper provides a review of the contemporary education system and curriculum in Singapore with a focus on technical education and training vis-à-vis a vision of education and training in and for postmodern knowledge societies. Suggestions are made on how the technical education and training sector in Singapore can further develop and thrive in the 21st century, while continuing to be accessible and of high quality.

  1. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall (United States)

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.


    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  2. Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science Experiences for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford


    Full Text Available Inter-disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science Experiences that have Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM in the undergraduate learning experiences are the learning experiences needed for the 21st century. The laboratory research experiences for my undergraduate science education students working on development of sensors to analysis of field samples changes a typical traditional classroom into a highly interactive learning environment. The inquiry-based labs are required to engage students into problem solving with the process of critical thinking skills. These problem-based skills enable students to generate, evaluate and share their research findings for their sensors developed. The students are required to design the sensor to analyze a sample collected on a field trip. The sensor(s developed to the samples collected on a field trip are analyzed by technology such as cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Raman Spectroscopy [1-3]. The results of the SWASV will be shared to show the students success at learning how to utilize and develop novel sensors in this talk related to heavy metal detection in water sampling.

  3. 21st Century Global Freshwater Security: Can it Exist and Can Scientists Communicate the Challenges? (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.


    Climate models and decades of satellite data are converging on the unfortunate reality that Earth's water cycle is changing. Paleoclimate indicators remind us that this has always been the case. Freshwater is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, land and ice reservoirs, while on land, patterns of precipitation, evapotranspiration, flooding and drought are shifting. The evolving water cycle of the 21st century will likely be stronger, more variable, and will result in broad swaths of mid-latitude drying, accelerated by the depletion of the world's major groundwater aquifers. A well-defined geography of freshwater 'haves' and 'have-nots' is clearly emerging. What does water sustainability mean under such dynamic climate and hydrologic conditions, in particular when coupled with future projections of population growth? How will water managers cope with these new normals, and how will food and energy production be impacted? The responsibility of communicating this changing global water landscape falls squarely on the shoulders of the academic-research community, yet the challenge of doing so is daunting. In this Special Lecture I will review what our latest research tells us, and I will share my personal experiences with science communication and water diplomacy.

  4. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team


    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  5. Prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century: a perspective. (United States)

    Chai, Yang; Slavkin, Harold C


    The prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century are compelling. Using the foundations of experimental embryology, developmental and molecular biology, the principles of biomimetics (the mimicking of biological processes), tooth regeneration is becoming a realistic possibility within the next few decades. The cellular, molecular, and developmental "rules" for tooth morphogenesis are rapidly being discovered. The knowledge gained from adult stem cell biology, especially associated with dentin, cartilage, and bone tissue regeneration, provides additional opportunities for eventual tooth organogenesis. The centuries of tooth development using xenotransplantation, allotransplantation, and autotransplantation have resulted in many important insights that can enhance tooth regeneration. In considering the future, several lines of evidence need to be considered: (1) enamel organ epithelia and dental papilla mesenchyme tissues contain stem cells during postnatal stages of life; (2) late cap stage and bell stage tooth organs contain stem cells; (3) odontogenic adult stem cells respond to mechanical as well as chemical "signals"; (4) presumably adult bone marrow as well as dental pulp tissues contain "odontogenic" stem cells; and (5) epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are pre-requisite for tooth regeneration. The authors express "guarded enthusiasm," yet there should be little doubt that adult stem cell-mediated tooth regeneration will be realized in the not too distant future. The prospects for tooth regeneration could be realized in the next few decades and could be rapidly utilized to improve the quality of human life in many nations around the world.

  6. 21st-Century Theories of Literature: A Critical Reflection on an Interdisciplinary Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon


    Full Text Available The authors reflect upon the successes and difficulties of developing and running 21st-Century Theories of Literature: Essence, Fiction, and Value, an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Warwick on 27-29 March 2014.The aim of the conference was to encourage a more sustained focus on the overlap between two disciplines which, prima facie, have a lot in common: philosophical aesthetics (and in particular its literary branch, the philosophy of literature and  literary studies (of which literary theory may be considered a subdivision. Because both deal with literature and have an investment in the idea of theorisation, one might have thought that there was no need to encourage active dialogue and it would arise naturally from the needs of each field. However, in the current institutional state of affairs where philosophy departments and literature departments often have little overlap, ‘aesthetics’ and ‘literary theory’ are two very distinct entities, and interaction is underdeveloped even when room for it does exist. As such, we judged that there was a need for such a prompting. This piece presents the rationale for our conference, and describes its preparation, development and outcomes.Photo credit: Wittgenstein Vector, copyright eXegesis -  J. Robles, M.D. Rose-Steel, S. M. Steele, 2014.

  7. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system. (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A


    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century.

  8. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu


    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  9. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. From alfred werner to the 21st century. (United States)

    von Zelewsky, Alex


    As a contribution to the scientific symposium, November 22nd, 2013, commemorating the Nobel Prize awarded to Alfred Werner in 1913, a presentation of the development of stereochemistry of coordination compounds during the past 120 years was given. Stereochemistry was fundamental to Werner's theory of coordination compounds. After Werner's death in 1919, stereochemistry in this field did not progress much further for almost 20 years, but then developed continuously. It was realized that stereochemical features of elements showing coordination numbers larger than four are responsible for an almost unlimited number of stereochemical possibilities, thus opening a molecular world of new structures. In the beginning of the 21st century, interest in the field rose again considerably, mainly due to the potential of stereoselective catalysis, and the self-assembly of supramolecular structures. An end of these developments is not in sight. Here an abbreviated version of the lecture is given. A PowerPoint(®) file, or a video of the presentation, can be downloaded.

  10. Assessing changes in precipitation and temperature over the Iberian Peninsula during the 21st century (United States)

    Bernardino, Mariana; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pinto, Armando


    Climate is a major factor driving the spatio-temporal distribution of most ecological systems and human activities, due to their vulnerability to inter-annual climate variability and to climate change. These systems are very sensitive to changes in traditional patterns of regional climate but also to the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. Changes in surface air temperature extremes and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula were investigated using one of the high resolution climate simulations produced by the Euro-Cordex consortium. Two sets of simulations forced with the new IPCC AR5 emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km were used to compute climate indices defined by the European Climate Assessment (ECA) project, for present (1970-2010) and for the 21st century climates. Changes in magnitude and in the spatial patterns of these indices were evaluated and once the expected impacts in different sectors are related with these changes, the results provide information to be used in sectoral adaption measures, namely in tourism, water, agriculture, human health, energy and infrastructures.

  11. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.


    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  12. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering In the 21st Century: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini


    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However, the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results.

  13. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G


    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  14. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu


    Full Text Available Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4 models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001–2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001–2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  15. Implementation of a European e-Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bob; Bird, Ian; Hemmer, Frédéric


    This document proposes an implementation plan for the vision of an e-infrastructure as described in “A Vision for a European e-Infrastructure for the 21st Century”. The objective of the implementation plan is to put in place the e-infrastructure commons that will enable digital science by introducing IT as a service to the public research sector in Europe. The rationale calls for a hybrid model that brings together public and commercial service suppliers to build a network of Centres of Excellence offering a range of services to a wide user base. The platform will make use of and cooperate with existing European e-infrastructures by jointly offering integrated services to the end-user. This hybrid model represents a significant change from the status-quo and will bring benefits for the stakeholders: end-users, research organisations, service providers (public and commercial) and funding agencies. Centres of Excellence can be owned and operated by a mixture of commercial companies and public organisations...

  16. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century. (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M


    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  17. Rorschach score validation as a model for 21st-century personality assessment. (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F


    Recent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the unique challenges in studying the Rorschach and why research in this area is important given current trends in scientific and applied psychology, I offer 3 overarching principles to maximize the construct validity of RIM scores, arguing that (a) the method that provides RIM validation measures plays a key role in generating outcome predictions; (b) RIM variables should be linked with findings from neighboring subfields; and (c) rigorous RIM score validation includes both process-focused and outcome-focused assessments. I describe a 4-step strategy for optimal RIM score derivation (formulating hypotheses, delineating process links, generating outcome predictions, and establishing limiting conditions); and a 4-component template for RIM score validation (establishing basic psychometrics, documenting outcome-focused validity, assessing process-focused validity, and integrating outcome- and process-focused validity data). The proposed framework not only has the potential to enhance the validity and utility of the RIM, but might ultimately enable the RIM to become a model of test score validation for 21st-century personality assessment.

  18. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.


    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  19. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century. (United States)

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C


    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions.

  20. Annual minimum temperature variations in early 21st century in Punjab, Pakistan (United States)

    Jahangir, Misbah; Maria Ali, Syeda; Khalid, Bushra


    Climate change is a key emerging threat to the global environment. It imposes long lasting impacts both at regional and national level. In the recent era, global warming and extreme temperatures have drawn great interest to the scientific community. As in a past century considerable increase in global surface temperatures have been observed and predictions revealed that it will continue in the future. In this regard, current study mainly focused on analysis of regional climatic change (annual minimum temperature trends and its correlation with land surface temperatures in the early 21st century in Punjab) for a period of 1979-2013. The projected model data European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) has been used for eight Tehsils of Punjab i.e., annual minimum temperatures and annual seasonal temperatures. Trend analysis of annual minimum and annual seasonal temperature in (Khushab, Noorpur, Sargodha, Bhalwal, Sahiwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali and Chinoit) tehsils of Punjab was carried out by Regression analysis and Mann-Kendall test. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was used in comparison with Model data for the month of May from the years 2000, 2009 and 2010. Results showed that no significant trends were observed in annual minimum temperature. A significant change was observed in Noorpur, Bhalwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali, Sahiwal, Chinoit and Sargodha tehsils during spring season, which indicated that this particular season was a transient period of time.