WorldWideScience

Sample records for care dentistry 21st

  1. LIFT: 21st century health care centres

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, John; Capper, Graham; Hudson, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To examine the processes used to procure and develop new primary health care premises in the United Kingdom and in particular the use of the private finance initiative and related methods. Design/methodology/approach An in-depth study of two local improvement finance trust schemes to procure new primary health care premises. These are contrasted against the ad-hoc arrangements for the traditional procurement of general practice doctor's surgery premises. Interviews were und...

  2. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C. Quieng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  3. Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health. PMID:25201627

  4. Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health.

  5. Postdoctoral Education in Dentistry: Preparing Dental Practitioners To Meet the Oral Health Needs of America in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Meyerowitz, Cyril

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of postdoctoral programs in dentistry and medicine, focusing on postdoctoral general dentistry education, and describes the changing health-care environment in which future dental professionals will practice, relating the dental postdoctoral experience to that in medicine. A strategy is presented to prepare dental practitioners…

  6. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  7. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  8. Honey for wound care in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R

    2016-09-01

    This review is written in memory of Professor Peter Molan, who published a paper in the Journal of Wound Care in 1999 describing the therapeutic properties of honey in relation to wound care. It provides an update to show how our understanding of the mode of action of honey has changed within the past 17 years. PMID:27608516

  9. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  10. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century. PMID:9505707

  11. Toward a 21st-century health care system: Recommendations for health care reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Arrow (Kenneth); A. Auerbach (Alan); J. Bertko (John); L.P. Casalino (Lawrence Peter); F.J. Crosson (Francis); A. Enthoven (Alain); E. Falcone; R.C. Feldman; V.R. Fuchs (Victor); A.M. Garber (Alan); M.R. Gold (Marthe Rachel); D.A. Goldman; G.K. Hadfield (Gillian); M.A. Hall (Mark Ann); R.I. Horwitz (Ralph); M. Hooven; P.D. Jacobson (Peter); T.S. Jost (Timothy Stoltzfus); L.J. Kotlikoff; J. Levin (Jonathan); S. Levine (Sharon); R. Levy; K. Linscott; H.S. Luft; R. Mashal; D. McFadden (Daniel); D. Mechanic (David); D. Meltzer (David); J.P. Newhouse (Joseph); R.G. Noll (Roger); J.B. Pietzsch (Jan Benjamin); P. Pizzo (Philip); R.D. Reischauer (Robert); S. Rosenbaum (Sara); W. Sage (William); L.D. Schaeffer (Leonard Daniel); E. Sheen; B.N. Silber (Bernie Michael); J. Skinner (Jonathan Robert); S.M. Shortell (Stephen); S.O. Thier (Samuel); S. Tunis (Sean); L. Wulsin Jr.; P. Yock (Paul); G.B. Nun; S. Bryan (Stirling); O. Luxenburg (Osnat); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); J. Cooper (Jim)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project (www.fresh-thinking.org) held a

  12. Toward a 21st-century health care system: Recommendations for health care reform

    OpenAIRE

    Arrow, Kenneth; Auerbach, Alan; Bertko, John; Casalino, Lawrence Peter; Crosson, Francis; Enthoven, Alain; Falcone, E.; Feldman, R.C.; Fuchs, Victor; Garber, Alan; Gold, Marthe Rachel; Goldman, D A; Hadfield, Gillian; Hall, Mark Ann; Horwitz, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project (www.fresh-thinking.org) held a series of workshops during which physicians, health policy experts, health insurance executives, business leaders, hospital administrators, economists, and others who represent diverse perspective...

  13. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-01-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century – the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services – an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key par...

  14. Standard of care in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to negligence on the part of the professional. Knowledge on what constitutes standard of care is a pre-requisite for dental professionals in providing quality health care. This paper presents a brief overview on standard of care as applicable to dentist and its practical implications with a note on the legal issues pertaining to medical negligence as applicable in India.

  15. Standard of care in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gokul Sridharan; Prithviraj Kallahalla Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to neglig...

  16. Minutes of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century”Traditional/Complementary Medicine Session

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The conference of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century” sponsored by Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) was convened at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, USA on June 24-29, 2001. Around 600 participants from different well-known units of patient care, research, education and administration in China, and more than 600 medical specialists from health care societies in USA participated in this conference, including Prof. WU Jie-ping (Honorary President of CMA and Vice-Chairman of Standing Committee of Chinese People's Congress), Prof. ZHANG Wen-kang (President of CMA and Minister of Chinese Ministry of Health), Mr. John Kerry (American Federal Senator from Massachusetts), Prof. Lawrence Summers (President of Harvard University), and Prof. Joseph Martin (Dean of Harvard Medical School). This conference was a historic pageant of academic exchange with the largest scale between health systems in both China and USA. The scale of Chinese delegation was only next to that of Chinese gymnastic delegation in Olympic Games. This delegation consisted of experts from over 40 specialties in Chinese medical societies including 10 academicians from Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, and academic leader of different specialties as well as well-known experts in the world.

  17. South Africa: a 21st century apartheid in health and health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Gavin H; McIntyre, Diane E

    The current crisis in health and health care in South Africa results from a combination of factors: the legacy of apartheid; issues of poverty, income inequality and AIDS; and the more recent influence of neoliberal economic policies and globalisation. The legacy of apartheid has meant that both health and health care are skewed along racial lines, and 60% of health care expenditure goes largely to the 14% of the population who have private health insurance. A more equitable distribution of health care resources will result from the promised National Health Insurance, the details of which are still being debated. The AIDS epidemic in South Africa was exacerbated by the government not introducing antiretroviral treatment (ART) until the early 2000s. In 2005, it was estimated that more than 5.5 million South Africans were infected with HIV. Now all those with a CD4 count below 200 are eligible for ART. A better health service will not be enough to improve the health of South Africans. A whole-of-government approach is needed to address the persistent problems of poverty and inequality.

  18. Inpatient psychiatric care in the 21st century: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Ira D; Sharfstein, Steven S; Schwartz, Harold I

    2011-02-01

    Driven by financial pressures, the sole focus of psychiatric inpatient treatment has become safety and crisis stabilization. Data are lacking on outcomes of ultrashort-stay hospitalizations; however, such stays may diminish opportunities for a sustained recovery. In the absence of an evidence base to guide clinicians and policy makers, mental health professionals have an ethical obligation to promote what they consider to be best practice. This Open Forum focuses on the need to reconsider the current model of inpatient hospitalization in order to maximize positive outcomes and emphasize appropriate transition to the community and less intensive levels of care. A model of care is presented based on rapid formulation of diagnosis, goals, and treatment modalities before treatment begins. Three phases are described--assessment, implementation, and resolution--with specific principles to guide length-of-stay decisions and requirements for staffing.

  19. Regionalization of laboratory care: a viable option for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M

    1990-06-01

    The conversion of the hospital laboratory to a cost center under pressure of prospective payment and fixed reimbursement is increasingly forcing hospitals to consider alternative modes for delivery of laboratory care. Changes in the health care environment, amended statutes and regulations, and, particularly, dramatic developments in laboratory equipment, methodologies, and data processing technology make it advisable and feasible to contemplate the creation of regional laboratory consortia. A fundamental step in this direction is the "commercialization" of the hospital laboratory through a change in focus from being an in-house support program to becoming a regional resource. By the same token, the hospital laboratory can become an effective competitor of independent laboratories and be reconverted to a profit center. Creation of hospital laboratory consortia in a splintered, competitive environment requires a committed entrepreneurial effort and convincing evidence of potential benefits. The sequence of steps needed to achieve regional laboratory integration include concerting the goals and objectives of the interested parties, creating an appropriate committee structure, conducting a feasibility assessment, identifying alternative organizational and operational options, selecting a favorite option viewed by all parties as a win/win proposition, developing a business plan, and determining an implementation action plan. The major disadvantages of regionalization of laboratories are employee displacement, potential leveling of quality standards, and reduced hospital control. The major advantages include elimination of duplicate capital, personnel, and service costs, improved efficiency through test batching, reduced unit costs, increased technical capability through staff, instrument, and systems sharing, disengagement from hospital-imposed limitations, strengthened ability to penetrate the marketplace, freeing of hospital space for more direct patient care

  20. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century. PMID:11185874

  1. Practice of preventive dentistry for nursing staff in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valeria Jimenez-Baez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Methods: Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. Results: The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01. Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1 than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8. Conclusions: The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines.

  3. SCDA task force on a special care dentistry residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffery; Vishwanat, Lakshmi; Perry, Maureen; Messura, Judith; Dee, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    The Special Care Dentistry Association (SCDA) has acted on a proposal regarding the status of training in the care of patients with special needs. Two phases of action were undertaken. Phase 1: (a) examination of the literature on existing training and curricula in the care of patients with special needs and (b) a survey of existing postdoctoral programs in special needs. Phase 2: establish a group of experts who: (a) submitted to the Commission on Dental Accreditation a request to approve a postdoctoral general dentistry residency program in Special Care Dentistry and (b) created suggested accreditation standards for such postdoctoral programs. This article describes efforts by the SCDA to evaluate: The status of existing training of dental students in the care of patients with special needs. The number and characteristics of postdoctoral general dentistry programs offering formal training in the care of patients with special needs. Whether additional training in the care of patients with special needs is needed for dental students and -dentists. Possible actions by SCDA to impact the numbers of dentists trained each year in the care of patients with -special needs. PMID:27113992

  4. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-07-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century - the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services - an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key part of this shift is the recognition that the health system does not operate in a vacuum and that strategic commissioning decisions must take account of wider determinants of health and well-being, and operate within the finite limits of the planet's natural resources. The sustainable development principle of balancing financial, social and environmental considerations is crucial in managing demand for health services and ensuring that the health system is resilient to risks of resource uncertainty and a changing climate. Building sustainability into the governance and contracting processes of GP commissioning consortia will help deliver efficiency savings, impact on system productivity, manage system risk and help manage demand through the health co-benefits of taking a whole systems approach to commissioning decisions. Commissioning services from providers committed to corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practices allows us to move beyond a health system that cures people reactively to one in which the health of individuals and populations is managed proactively through prevention and education. The opportunity to build sustainability principles into the culture of GP commissioning consortia upfront should be seized now to ensure the new model of commissioning endures and is fit for the future.

  5. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-07-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century - the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services - an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key part of this shift is the recognition that the health system does not operate in a vacuum and that strategic commissioning decisions must take account of wider determinants of health and well-being, and operate within the finite limits of the planet's natural resources. The sustainable development principle of balancing financial, social and environmental considerations is crucial in managing demand for health services and ensuring that the health system is resilient to risks of resource uncertainty and a changing climate. Building sustainability into the governance and contracting processes of GP commissioning consortia will help deliver efficiency savings, impact on system productivity, manage system risk and help manage demand through the health co-benefits of taking a whole systems approach to commissioning decisions. Commissioning services from providers committed to corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practices allows us to move beyond a health system that cures people reactively to one in which the health of individuals and populations is managed proactively through prevention and education. The opportunity to build sustainability principles into the culture of GP commissioning consortia upfront should be seized now to ensure the new model of commissioning endures and is fit for the future. PMID:25949650

  6. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  7. 78 FR 26053 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a) (2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Dates and Times: May 20, 2013...

  8. 76 FR 30951 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: June 13, 2011, 1 p.m... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...

  9. 75 FR 14446 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary CareMedicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: April 22, 2010, 8 a.m... of Health Professions, Division of Medicine and Dentistry. In the plenary session, the...

  10. 75 FR 64318 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 15, 2010, 8... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...

  11. 77 FR 36550 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Dates and Times: July 19, 2012, 8..., 2012, will begin with an update on the Division of Medicine and Dentistry's development of...

  12. The power of servant leadership to transform health care organizations for the 21st-century economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard W; Tumblin, Thomas F

    2002-12-01

    Physician leadership is emerging as a vital component in transforming the nation's health care industry. Because few physicians have been introduced to the large body of literature on leadership and organizations, we herein provide a concise review, as this literature relates to competitive health care organizations and the leaders who serve them. Although the US health care industry has transitioned to a dynamic market economy governed by a wide range of internal and external forces, health care organizations continue to be dominated by leaders who practice an outmoded transactional style of leadership and by organizational hierarchies that are inherently stagnant. In contrast, outside the health care sector, service industries have repeatedly demonstrated that transformational, situational, and servant leadership styles are most successful in energizing human resources within organizations. This optimization of intellectual capital is further enhanced by transforming organizations into adaptable learning organizations where traditional institutional hierarchies are flattened and efforts to evoke change are typically team driven and mission oriented.

  13. Training the 21st-Century Health Care Team: Maximizing Interprofessional Education Through Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-Tyler, Elizabeth; Teitelbaum, Joel

    2016-06-01

    For too long, many stakeholders in the health care delivery system have ignored the extent to which social determinants of health (SDH) are inextricably woven into and affect individual and population health. The health care system is undergoing a relatively rapid transformation, which has included in part an increasing recognition of SDH's effects. This recognition, in turn, has led to renewed calls for changing the way that physicians are trained and has accelerated medical education curricular reforms. This Perspective focuses on one such innovative method of team-based care and the opportunities for its integration into medical education: medical-legal partnership, a health care delivery model that embeds civil legal services into the spectrum of health care services provided to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities. PMID:26445082

  14. Training the 21st-Century Health Care Team: Maximizing Interprofessional Education Through Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-Tyler, Elizabeth; Teitelbaum, Joel

    2016-06-01

    For too long, many stakeholders in the health care delivery system have ignored the extent to which social determinants of health (SDH) are inextricably woven into and affect individual and population health. The health care system is undergoing a relatively rapid transformation, which has included in part an increasing recognition of SDH's effects. This recognition, in turn, has led to renewed calls for changing the way that physicians are trained and has accelerated medical education curricular reforms. This Perspective focuses on one such innovative method of team-based care and the opportunities for its integration into medical education: medical-legal partnership, a health care delivery model that embeds civil legal services into the spectrum of health care services provided to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities.

  15. Americans with Disabilities Act: Its Importance in Special Care Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surabian, Stanley R

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act and developmental disabilities for health care providers in special care dentistry. Essential to this awareness is a comprehension of statutory and regulatory requirements and how state disability acts can be more rigorous in application. Developmental disabilities are re-examined in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). Understanding of intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and cerebral palsy is necessary because the management of oral health considerations for special care patients has become ever more complex and indispensable. PMID:27264855

  16. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    OpenAIRE

    Jovana Rančić; Nemanja Rančić; Nemanja Majstorović; Vladimir Biočanin; Marko Milosavljević; Mihajlo Jakovljević

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was...

  17. Using Implementation and Dissemination Concepts to Spread 21st-century Well-Child Care at a Health Maintenance Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Arne; Bergman, David A.; Rahm, Alanna K; Dearing, James W; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe here the use of a conceptual framework for implementing and disseminating in a Health Maintenance Organization an evidence-based model of well-child care (WCC) that includes developmental and preventive services recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Twenty-first Century WCC is a parent-centered, team-based, primary care model that combines online previsit assessments—completed by parents and caregivers regarding clinic-based weight, growth, and development assessments...

  18. 21st Century Skills Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  19. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health care system and scientific research – a vision for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani Mavis Mulaudzi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Research already conducted in African countries indicates that the majority of patients still seek help from the traditional indigenous health care systems. Opsomming Navorsing wat reeds in Afrika-lande onderneem is, dui aan dat die meerderheid pasiënte steeds hulp soek vanaf die tradisioneel inheemse gesondheidsorgsisteme. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. 77 FR 64116 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 1, 2012, 10... update on the Agency's efforts in the area of interprofessional oral health clinical competencies....

  1. 78 FR 48440 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: August 29, 2013, 9:00.... The members will also receive presentations from experts on the subject of integrating oral...

  2. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Rančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was adopted. Sample size was 752 complete episodes of treatment in 250 patients, selected in 2012/2013 throughout several specialist state- and private-owned dental clinics in Serbia. All direct costs of dental care were taken into account and expressed in Euros (€.Results: Mean total costs of dental care were € 46 ± 156 per single dentist visit while total costs incurred by this population sample were € 34,424. Highest unit utilization of services belongs to conservative dentistry (31.9%, oral surgery (19.5% and radiology (17.4%, while the resource with the highest monetary value belongs to implantology € 828 ± 392, orthodontics € 706 ± 667 and prosthetics € 555 ± 244. The most frequently treated diagnosis was tooth decay (33.8% unit services provided, pulpitis (11.2% and impacted teeth (8.5%, while most expensive to treat were anomalies of tooth position (€ 648 ± 667, abnormalities of size and form of teeth (€ 508 ± 705 and loss of teeth due to accident, extraction or local periodontal disease (€ 336 ± 339.Conclusion: Although the range of dental costs currently falls behind EU average, Serbia’s emerging economy is likely to expand in the long run while market demand for dental services will grow. Due to threatened financial sustainability of current health insurance patterns in Western Balkans, getting acquainted with true size and structure of dental care costs could essentially support informed decision making in future

  3. Developing an undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry - by consensus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dougall, A

    2013-02-01

    It has been reported that healthcare providers often lack the skills set to provide care for people with disabilities, leading to inequalities in health and reduced access to health care. Newly graduating dentists are likely to see a significant number of patients with special healthcare needs in the course of their practicing lives. However, there is evidence of national and international variation in the availability of education and training at the undergraduate level in this important, emerging area. The quality and content of undergraduate education in Special Care Dentistry has been shown to correlate with students\\' confidence and their expressed willingness, towards providing care for patients with special healthcare needs in their future practice. The aim of this study was to use information from a three-round Delphi process, continued into a face-to-face meeting, to establish consensus on what constitutes the essential core knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a newly qualified dentist so that they are able to deliver patient care to diverse populations following graduation. A high level of agreement was established amongst an international panel of experts from 30 countries. The final core items identified by the panel showed a paradigm shift away from the traditional emphasis on medical diagnosis within a curriculum towards an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) with patient-centred treatment planning for people with disabilities and special healthcare needs according to function or environment. Many of the core skills identified by the panel are transferable across a curriculum and should encourage a person-centred approach to treatment planning based on the function, needs and wishes of the patient rather than their specific diagnosis.

  4. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  5. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  6. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Weill, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  8. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  11. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  12. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  14. 75 FR 69686 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20910, which was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2010, FR Doc. 2010-26205 (75 FR 64318). Dated: November 8, 2010. Robert Hendricks, Director, Division of Policy and... Care Medicine and Dentistry AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  15. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered. PMID:26115561

  16. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  17. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  18. Building a clinical leadership community to drive improvement: a multi-case educational study to inform 21st century clinical commissioning, professional capability and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Marion; Verner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The new NHS requires transformational leadership; people with the knowledge and motivation to make effective change combined with an understanding of the system they work in. The aim of the Practice Leaders' Programme (PLP) is to generate the conditions needed to focus the energy and collaborative creativity required for innovation to enhance leadership skills across the health economy improving patient care. The PLP engaged 60 local leaders from central England in a new approach enabling them to influence others. It has informed educational policy and practice and helped change professional behaviours. Each participant implemented improvements in care and participated in six action learning sets (ALS) and up to six coaching sessions. Evidence of progress, learning and impact was identified in project reports, reflective diaries and evaluations. The ALS brought together key individuals from clinical and management disciplines across a diverse organisation to redesign a system by developing a shared vision for improving the quality of patient care. The links forged, the projects initiated, and the skills cultivated through the PLP produced ongoing benefits and outcomes beyond the course itself. Coaching sessions helped participants focus their efforts to achieve maximum impact and to become resilient in managing service change effectively. The programme has evolved over four years, building on recommendations from external evaluation which identified statistically significant increases in leadership competences. Further enhancement of this programme secured an International Health Improvement Award. Three key findings of positive impact have emerged; personal growth, service improvement, and legacy and sustainability.

  19. Building a clinical leadership community to drive improvement: a multi-case educational study to inform 21st century clinical commissioning, professional capability and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Marion; Verner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The new NHS requires transformational leadership; people with the knowledge and motivation to make effective change combined with an understanding of the system they work in. The aim of the Practice Leaders' Programme (PLP) is to generate the conditions needed to focus the energy and collaborative creativity required for innovation to enhance leadership skills across the health economy improving patient care. The PLP engaged 60 local leaders from central England in a new approach enabling them to influence others. It has informed educational policy and practice and helped change professional behaviours. Each participant implemented improvements in care and participated in six action learning sets (ALS) and up to six coaching sessions. Evidence of progress, learning and impact was identified in project reports, reflective diaries and evaluations. The ALS brought together key individuals from clinical and management disciplines across a diverse organisation to redesign a system by developing a shared vision for improving the quality of patient care. The links forged, the projects initiated, and the skills cultivated through the PLP produced ongoing benefits and outcomes beyond the course itself. Coaching sessions helped participants focus their efforts to achieve maximum impact and to become resilient in managing service change effectively. The programme has evolved over four years, building on recommendations from external evaluation which identified statistically significant increases in leadership competences. Further enhancement of this programme secured an International Health Improvement Award. Three key findings of positive impact have emerged; personal growth, service improvement, and legacy and sustainability. PMID:23356759

  20. Australian health professionals' social media (Web 2.0) adoption trends: early 21st century health care delivery and practice promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne T

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies

  1. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  2. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  3. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  4. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  5. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  6. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  7. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  8. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  9. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  10. Special Care Dentistry Curriculum at The Undergraduate Level : Students’ Prespective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natrah A. Fuad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Special needs patients (SNP have difficulty accessing dental services, partly due to reluctance of dentists to treat them. Objective: We assess didactic and clinical training experiences of final-year dental students and new graduates in managing SNP. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 123 final year dental students and new graduates, assessing their experiences and readiness in handling SNP. Results: Majority of the respondents were not confident in attending to SNP. Majority gained knowledge in handling SNP via lectures while more than half had managed patients with complex medical history. Majority mentioned a lack of clinical training to treat SNP as their dental training experience had only been in a dental school clinical setting. Most of the respondents hope their curriculum would include more education to improve clinical skills in managing SNP. Conclusion: Respondents demonstrated minimum training and lack of confidence and skills that might contribute to a lack of preparedness to manage the oral health care needs of SNP. Clinical exposure in managing SNP at the undergraduate level is still inadequate and it needs to be emphasized in the curriculum.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i3.976 

  11. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  12. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  13. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.

  14. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  15. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  16. Metropolitan Taxation in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Brunori, David

    1998-01-01

    As we enter the 21st Century, local governments will face challenges to how they raise revenue. Existing local tax systems are ill equipped to meet future basic revenue needs. Moreover, economic and technological changes will inevitably and profoundly alter tax systems of all governments. The problems with existing tax systems and future economic challenges will likely lead to an environment in which local taxation will be limited to an extent unseen in American history. The limitations will ...

  17. The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faulks, D

    2012-11-01

    People with disability are subject to inequality in oral health both in terms of prevalence of disease and unmet healthcare needs. Over 18% of the global population is living with moderate to severe functional problems related to disability, and a large proportion of these persons will require Special Care Dentistry at some point in their lifetime. It is estimated that 90% of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be able to access treatment in a local, primary care setting. Provision of such primary care is only possible through the education and training of dentists. The literature suggests that it is vital for the dental team to develop the necessary skills and gain experience treating people with special needs in order to ensure access to the provision of oral health care. Education in Special Care Dentistry worldwide might be improved by the development of a recognised academic and clinical discipline and by providing international curricula guidelines based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, WHO). This article aims to discuss the role and value of promoting and harmonising education in Special Care Dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

  18. Urgency in Pediatric Dentistry: Care Profile of the Integrated Pediatric Clinic of FOUFAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Albuquerque AMORIM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the profile of the urgency care provided atthe Integrated Pediatric Clinic of the School of Dentistry of theFederal University of Alagoas (FOUFAL.Method: 221 patient files were analyzed between April toNovember 2006 and the following data were analyzed by descriptivestatistics: patient identification, type of urgency, involved tooth(teeth, diagnosis and proposed treatment. Only complete files wereincluded.Results: Urgency care was most frequently sought by femalechildren (55.7%; the age ranged between 2 and 14 years (meanage =7.6 years; toothache was the most common cause of urgencycare (53.84%; most cases of dental urgencies involved primarymandibular second molars (34.7%; the maxillary central incisorswere the most affected by traumatic injuries in both the primary(78.5% and permanent (76.2% dentitions; extraction (44% wasthe most common dental procedure followed by root canal therapy(34.5% and restorative treatment (24.5%; dental caries (48.3%was the diagnosis most frequently associated with toothachefollowed by irreversible pulpitis (22.8% and reversible pulpitis(16.1%.Conclusions: Most patients that sought treatment at the UrgencyService of the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at FOUFAL were femalechildren with a low socioeconomic level. Toothache was the mostfrequent reason for the urgency appointments, extraction was themost common procedure, affecting mainly the primary dentition andthe mandibular second molars.

  19. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  20. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  1. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users......; access routes; dictionary structures; dictionary reviewing; subject-field classifications; data retrieval; corpus lexicography; and collocations and phraseology. The contributors, all highly regarded international scholars in the field of lexicography, show how the theory of lexicographical functions can...... situations. This volume is not only of interest to practical and theoretical lexicographers but to anyone interested in lexicography....

  2. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  3. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  4. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  5. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  6. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  7. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  8. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  9. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  10. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  11. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  12. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  13. Nuclear Reactor Empowerment in The 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios of global energy need in the 21st century are discussed. Nuclear reactors will have important roles in supplying energy need in the 21st century if its evolutionary and innovative developments are continued to achieve economical competitiveness, high safety, positive environmental impacts, and ensuring sustain ability of innovation in the future energy supply

  14. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  15. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  16. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  17. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  18. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  19. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  20. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  1. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  2. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  3. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  4. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  5. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  6. Incorporating Experiential Learning Techniques to Improve Self-Efficacy in Clinical Special Care Dentistry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Amber L; Stabulas-Savage, Jeanine; Toppin, James D; Janal, Malvin N; Robbins, Miriam R

    2015-09-01

    The New York University College of Dentistry has introduced a clinical rotation for fourth-year dental students that focuses on treating people with special health care needs (PSN). The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that clinical experience in treating patients with special health care needs during predoctoral education is associated with increased self-assessed student ability and comfort and therefore self-efficacy. The study also investigated whether other characteristics, such as prior personal or volunteer experience with this population, service-mindedness, and/or the inclination to treat underserved populations, were associated with comfort in treating PSN. A survey was used to assess changes in students' perceived knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding treating PSN before and after the clinical experience for July 2012-June 2013. The survey included questions about students' service-mindedness, comfort, perceptions of abilities of PSN and educational importance of learning to treat PSN, desire for clinical experience, and future intent or interest in treating PSN. Out of 364 students invited to participate, 127 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 34.9%. The results showed statistically significant increases on six items following training: impressions about the importance of oral health among PSN, comfort in treating people with cognitive disabilities and with medical complexities, intent to treat PSN in future practice, interest in including PSN in postgraduate training, and belief that PSN could be treated in the private practice setting. These students reported preferring to learn in the clinical setting over didactic instruction. This clinical experience was associated with improved self-efficacy in treating PSN and increased intentions to treat this population in future practice. Improvements were particularly evident among those with the least prior experience with PSN and were independent of other aspects of the

  7. Incorporating Experiential Learning Techniques to Improve Self-Efficacy in Clinical Special Care Dentistry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Amber L; Stabulas-Savage, Jeanine; Toppin, James D; Janal, Malvin N; Robbins, Miriam R

    2015-09-01

    The New York University College of Dentistry has introduced a clinical rotation for fourth-year dental students that focuses on treating people with special health care needs (PSN). The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that clinical experience in treating patients with special health care needs during predoctoral education is associated with increased self-assessed student ability and comfort and therefore self-efficacy. The study also investigated whether other characteristics, such as prior personal or volunteer experience with this population, service-mindedness, and/or the inclination to treat underserved populations, were associated with comfort in treating PSN. A survey was used to assess changes in students' perceived knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding treating PSN before and after the clinical experience for July 2012-June 2013. The survey included questions about students' service-mindedness, comfort, perceptions of abilities of PSN and educational importance of learning to treat PSN, desire for clinical experience, and future intent or interest in treating PSN. Out of 364 students invited to participate, 127 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 34.9%. The results showed statistically significant increases on six items following training: impressions about the importance of oral health among PSN, comfort in treating people with cognitive disabilities and with medical complexities, intent to treat PSN in future practice, interest in including PSN in postgraduate training, and belief that PSN could be treated in the private practice setting. These students reported preferring to learn in the clinical setting over didactic instruction. This clinical experience was associated with improved self-efficacy in treating PSN and increased intentions to treat this population in future practice. Improvements were particularly evident among those with the least prior experience with PSN and were independent of other aspects of the

  8. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, M; Kunnawar, N; Deshmukh, S; Singh, A; Mulik, I; Taori, V; Tayade, K; Mahorkar, C; Somani, A; Saboo, K; Choudhary, A; Shembekar, C; Choudhary, S; Ketkar, M; Knight, H E; Blakey, I; Cheikh Ismail, L

    2013-09-01

    The South Asian site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was the city of Nagpur, in Maharashtra State, India, with approximately 4500 births per year among the target population with middle to high socio-economic status. These deliveries are mainly concentrated in 20 small private hospitals, most of which are in the city centre. The sample for the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) was drawn from ten of these hospitals, covering 76% of the target low-risk pregnant population. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from the largest of these institutions, Ketkar Hospital, as well as several ancillary antenatal care clinics. Special activities to encourage participation and raise awareness of the study at this site included translating patient information leaflets into local languages and securing local media interest. Among the unique challenges of the Indian site was the coordination of the large number of hospitals involved in NCSS, a task that required careful planning and organisation by the field teams.

  9. 21st Colloquium on African Geology——CAG21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lopo Vasconcelos

    2006-01-01

    @@ Under the auspices of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), the Geological Mining Association of Mozambique (AGMM) organized the 21st Colloquium on African Geology under the theme "Geoscience for Poverty Relief.

  10. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  11. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  12. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  13. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  14. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  15. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Emasealu; Susan Nnadozie Umeozor

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, car...

  16. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  17. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  18. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  19. [Clinical laboratory in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T

    1991-03-01

    Alvin Toffler has predicted that the "Third Wave" will be a society which be decentralized, diversified and customized, computer-dependent. Medical care and also clinical laboratory will be revolutionalized in a more or less similar direction to that predicted by him. Laboratory physicians and scientists should try to improve laboratory services, particularly establishment of adequate normal values, common expression of various laboratory results, introduction of medical decision making and recommended guideline for laboratory use in primary health care.

  20. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  1. Guidelines of Special Care Dentistry in Patients with Chromosomal and Genetic syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Cremonesi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with dental and cranio-facial alterations. The aim of our study is to identify and describe the dental and craniofacial alterations typical of six genetic and chromosomal syndromes examined. Materials and Methods- A dental visit was performed to 195 patients referred from Sant’Orsola Hospital of Bologna, University of Bologna, to Service of Special Need Dentistry, Dental Clinic, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science, U...

  2. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  3. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  4. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  5. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  6. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  7. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  8. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  9. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  10. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  11. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  12. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  13. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  14. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  15. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  16. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  17. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  18. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  19. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  20. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  1. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  2. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  3. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  4. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  5. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  6. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  7. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  8. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  9. Minimal intervention dentistry - a new frontier in clinical dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mm, Jingarwar; Nk, Bajwa; A, Pathak

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are the new paradigm in health care. Everything from heart bypasses to gall bladder, surgeries are being performed with these dynamic new techniques. Dentistry is joining this exciting revolution as well. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralisation and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations. Minimally invasive dentistry reaches the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues. This paper reviews in brief the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry.

  10. Nanotechnology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation structures in materials that are smaller than one billionth of a meter in size. Various successful advances in nanotechnology compelled an almost universal interest in the study of nanomaterials worldwide. The diminutive size of nanomaterials that are smaller than or comparable to a virus (20-450 nm), a protein (5-50 nm), or a gene (2nm wide and 10-100 nm long) pave the way to innumerable engineering and manipulations that triggered a multitude of applications in electronics, solar energy, optics, sports, security, food, agriculture, biology, construction, water, and medicine. The structural features and properties of nanomaterials that are in between those of single atoms/molecules and continuous bulk materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer range bring physical, chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties incomparable with any other materials. Various kinds of nanomaterials possess common as well as individual properties or group properties that allow their unique applications. The broad scope of nanotechnology can be thought of as a territory within which a range of disciplines converge, including chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medicine, biology, pharmacology, biotechnology, construction, automotive and aviation, microfabrication, systems architecture for computing, and many more. Nanotechnology holds promise to change the way most things have been designed and manufactured, including drugs, vaccines, fertilizers, TV screens, light fixtures, surgery, skin care products, tennis rackets, cars, paints, and objects unimaginable at this point. Advances in nanotechnology holds promise to repair the damage we have done to our environment, capturing carbon out of the air to return it back to the earth, or using it to build light, strong, diamond-like materials that nanotech-enabled human-scale technology will depend on. Nanotechnology is revolutionizing a wide array of consumer products and

  11. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance. PMID:17616326

  12. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  13. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  14. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  15. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  16. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  17. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  18. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  19. Antinomies of Capital in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st century" has been the most important book economy in recent times. Its aim integrates the debate theories of growth, income distribution, inequality and differences between the extremes income and income of the majority. The work predicts a slow increase in the share of capital income and inequality. His proposal for a global tax on capital is a way to evaluate such tendencies.

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  1. ICT Supported Cooperative Learning - Towards Attaining 21st Century Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Rohaini; Ramli Rohaiza

    2013-01-01

    Today?s job market demands not only sound technical skills from their potential employees. When employers talk about graduates being job ready, they really mean that the graduates possess the skills of the 21st century, which include ability to seek information and critically analyze situations, ability to challenge ideas, being innovative and being able to communicate ideas. In realizing these needs, education systems have long since started to look into incorporating activities that could h...

  2. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  3. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sciences, Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical

    2014-01-01

    Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of...

  4. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  5. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  6. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  7. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  8. Evaluation of patients' satisfaction from dental care services: TUMS, school of dentistry, 1385-86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidi D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Association between patient satisfaction and success of the treatment determines the quality of health care. Measuring the level of satisfaction is an important factor for improving the quality of services provided by a system, so it is necessary to determine the expectations of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient satisfaction from services provided by the dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 385 patients were randomly selected from different departments of dental faculty including prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics, operative dentistry, radiology and oral medicine. A two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics of patients and satisfaction from reception process, infection control, student and personnel behavior, and the outcome of treatment was filled out by patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: The most dissatisfying factor was the time wasted in paying the cost and the most satisfying factor was student behavior. General satisfaction form the process was evaluated (complete satisfaction 51.9%, partial satisfaction 38.4% and dissatisfaction 9.6%, and 62.9% of patients were completely agree with introducing dental faculty to others."nConclusion: The most satisfying item was student behavior which indicates that this factor is of great importance in increasing the quality of treatment. The deficiencies determined by patient can provide reliable data for determination and regulation of health care policies.

  9. Intercultural-global competencies for the 21st century and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, Philip; Kirkpatrick, Mary K

    2015-05-01

    Increased diversity exists in Anglo-Saxon countries, such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. By 2050, no single ethnic group is expected to be in a majority in the United States. Health care reform points to an urgent need for health care professionals, such as nursing, medicine, allied health, nutrition, and other interdisciplinary health care team members, to serve a multi-ethnic population by developing intercultural-global and 21st-century competencies. Nurse educators must acknowledge the need to familiarize themselves and integrate these competencies into university and continuing education programs by evaluating and reporting outcomes. All nurses can be expected to have these competencies as global citizens through local, intercultural, and global interactions and exchanges. PMID:25955423

  10. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  11. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Laura C.; Stephenson, David B.; Lockwood, Julia F.; Maisey, Paul E.

    2016-08-01

    A decline in damaging European windstorms has led to a reduction in insured losses in the 21st century. This decline is explored by identifying a damaging windstorm characteristic and investigating how and why this characteristic has changed in recent years. This novel exploration is based on 6103 high-resolution model-generated historical footprints (1979-2014), representing the whole European domain. The footprint of a windstorm is defined as the maximum wind gust speed to occur at a set of spatial locations over the duration of the storm. The area of the footprint exceeding 20 ms-1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms-1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms-1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715) exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  12. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  13. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Mendoza, Blanca; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be...

  14. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be -0.1W/m2.

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  16. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  17. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... approach in which the process of decoding and negotiations around practices in social media is significant....

  18. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)

    2001-06-01

    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  19. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  20. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  1. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  2. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  3. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  4. The Ways to Strengthen Democracy in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shazia kiyani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the weaknesses of different democracies of the world in 21st century and suggests some solutions to them. Among the living democracies of the world all of them are not exemplary and among the mediocre ones too all of them are not too bad. Some of the countries are justifying with the splendid principle of democracy and leaving the examples of good governance, self reliance, supremacy of Law and Rule of Equality for the rest of the world. On the other hand some of the countries are still striving hard to establish or retrieve the democracy. We need an ideal of democracy which renders it possible to access to what degree a world government serving a sovereign world parliament could be democratic and independent in order to be prosperous and capable of standing on its own feet in the 21st century. A strong democratic system of government is the only way out for the self reliance and stability of the country. This paper is aimed to identify the problems faced by today’s democratic countries and their solution.

  5. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  6. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  7. 76 FR 64952 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Committee on Energy and Commerce. on policy and program development concerning certain medicine, general...; and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives. Agenda: The meeting on..., they will form a panel and respond to questions from the membership. The Affordable Care Act...

  8. Dental care and dentistry practice in the Medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, M; Amato, M; Gangemi, G; Marasco, M; Caggiano, M; Amato, A; Pisanti, S

    2016-07-22

    Even though dental care is sometimes erroneously considered a modern practice, written records from major ancient civilisation all around the world date back to several millennia BC. In particular, in the Middle Ages, among the tenth and thirteenth centuries, the illustrious Medical School of Salerno in Italy, the most important institution in the Western world for the diffusion of medical knowledge, disseminated through its precepts the importance of oral hygiene and practiced specific dental therapies for tooth decay, gingivitis, paradentosis and halitosis among others. Interestingly, several of the officinal plants and natural ingredients proposed for oral care by the school's most famous physicians recipes, notably those of the legendary Trotula De Ruggiero, considered the first female physician in history, are still in vogue in the twenty-first century. PMID:27444600

  9. [Financing in Brazilian health care system: a recent retrospective and dentistry approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Carolina Bezerra Cavalcanti; Hoffmann, Rosana Helena Schllitler; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro

    2010-06-01

    The guided policies designed to modify the health care system occurred in three stages: the first occurred at the end of the military regimen with the implantation of the Integrated Actions of Health (AIS); the second came with the implantation of the Unified and Decentralized Health System (SUDS) in 1987; and the third was the promulgation of the Constitution in 1988, when the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), an organizational structure based on principles of citizenship and social justice, was then created. With the creation of SUS, there was the need for defining objectives and strategic lines of direction for the decentralization process, concerning responsibility aspects, relations among managers, and criteria of transference from federal to state and municipal levels. Thus, the objective of this study was to accomplish a recent retrospective of the budgetary plan aimed at health care, with an approach on dental care. Data collected from the Ministry of Health (DATASUS) between 1998 and 2005 were used in this retrospective study. In conclusion, a positive situation was observed for transferred annual values, suggesting that the reorganization and financial structure of the Brazilian health system is starting to work. PMID:20640338

  10. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  11. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  12. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  13. 21st International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Martin; Halpern, Laurence; Pichot, Géraldine; Sassi, Taoufik; Widlund, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 21st international conference on domain decomposition methods in science and engineering held in Rennes, France, June 25-29, 2012. Domain decomposition is an active and interdisciplinary research discipline, focusing on the development, analysis and implementation of numerical methods for massively parallel computers. Domain decomposition methods are among the most efficient solvers for large scale applications in science and engineering. They are based on a solid theoretical foundation and shown to be scalable for many important applications. Domain decomposition techniques can also naturally take into account multiscale phenomena. This book contains the most recent results in this important field of research, both mathematically and algorithmically and allows the reader to get an overview of this exciting branch of numerical analysis and scientific computing.

  14. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  15. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  16. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  17. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  18. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    organization with conflicting goals, and the difficulty in understanding the socio-technical interfaces. Classical systems engineering approaches which focus on processes for cascading engineering requirements from higher to lower system levels is no longer suited to dealing with the global and socio......-technical aspects of the 21st century complex systems. This presentation will first explore the research challenges and opportunities in designing complex “engineered” systems, and then focus on two specific topics in this area, i.e., (1) design of multiscale systems and (2) integrating heterogeneous consumer...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  19. Coal research strategies for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a personal view of the research strategies which will be necessary to develop the new generations of equipment and new concepts and processes which will be required by the coal industry into the 21st century. It is claimed that the economics of coal supply and availability will continue to ensure that coal retains a very significant role as long as it is not targeted by taxes, regulation or penalties which are specifically intended to take it out of contention. In the author opinion, the coal industry needs to show that coal can be produced safely and with acceptable environmental impacts for future land use. These issues of community concern impact on all coal mining companies, and the need is a common one to maintain industry wide collaborative support for research to provide the technological innovation which will be an essential part of their solutions

  20. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  1. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  2. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  3. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives.

  4. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  5. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  6. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  7. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  8. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  9. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  10. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  11. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  12. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IE

  13. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xurong

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  14. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  15. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  16. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... (FR vol. 76, no. 224, pgs. 72003-72004). No comments were received. Agency: Institute of Museum and... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The information gathered...

  17. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  18. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  19. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  20. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  1. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project: the Federal Government perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, Carol; Davis, Howard; Glass, Jerilyn; Rodak, John; Bastacky, Stanford M

    2004-01-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was implemented by the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to encourage medical schools to collaborate with managed care organizations and others. The purpose of the collaboration was to ensure that medical students are prepared to provide quality patient care and manage that care in an integrated health care system in which the cost of care and use of empirically justified care are important elements. The UME-21 project represents a continuation of HRSA's interest in the managed care arena. The UME-21 project involved the collaboration of eight partner schools and 10 associate partner schools, together with 50 external partners, to develop innovative curricula that integrated UME-21 content from nine special areas as learning objectives. This project demonstrated that concerted efforts by the leadership in medical education can bring about innovative change in medical school curricula. It ís also demonstrated that faculty of the three primary care disciplines of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics were able to cooperate to accomplish such change by working together to allocate clerkship time and content. An important lesson learned in this project was that significant innovations in medical school curricula could be accomplished with a broadbased commitment and involvement of both faculties across the three primary care disciplines and top administrative officials of the medical school. It is uncertain, however, if the innovations achieved will produce further changes or if those changes achieved can be sustained without continued funding.

  2. Pediatric behavior guidance in the 21st century workshop C report - advocacy and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinonez, Rocio B; Nelson, Travis

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines a series of recommendations derived from an advocacy and policy workshop at the 2013 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) Behavior Guidance Symposium. The committee charge was to address two questions: (1) what should be done to change public and media perception of behavior guidance, if anything, and: (2) what should be done to insure that needed behavior guidance techniques will be available for practicing pediatric dentists in the future. Members of the workshop voiced a wide variety of opinions and impressions of how public perception and media promotion of behavior guidance affect the practice of pediatric dentistry. A diverse assortment of strategies to promote the availability of these techniques in the future was suggested. This report will serve to inform policy and advocacy efforts by AAPD to improve children's oral health and promote excellence in patient care.

  3. World energy strategies into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-1990s, tighter oil supply and firmer and higher price will be projected due to the declining production in non-OPEC countries. The OPEC members have the oil production capacity of 30 million barrels a day, but last year, OPEC produced 17 million barrels a day. World oil demand was down about 600,000 barrels a day due primarily to the continued substitution with natural gas, coal and nuclear power. The conclusion of the UK coal strike also contributed to the drop of the demand for residual fuel oil. Economic growth was too sluggish to offset the substitution effect. The crude oil production from non-OPEC sources has increased, but low price will reverse the trend of non-OPEC production. Energy supply will be ample to meet the projected demand through the next decade. The annual growth rate of less than 2 % was forecast for the primary energy demand in non-communist world, assuming the economic growth of 3 % a year worldwide. The trend of the use of natural gas, coal and nuclear power is discussed. At the beginning of the 21st century, world energy will be supplied 42 % by oil, 18 % by natural gas, 24 % by coal and 8 % by nuclear power. (Kako, I.)

  4. The Urbanization Pattern of China in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxin; Yao Shimou; Wang Gefang

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century is referred to as a "century for cities" or "era for cities" and China has also speeded up its process of urbanization. It is very important to choose a scientific urbanization pattern to exert the function of cities and realize our dream for China to become a powerful modernized country.It's concluded from history since 1800 that the pattern of the world urbanization has transformed from "extensive" to "intensive". However, it is still an extensive pattern in China, and there are many problems behind the splendid achievements, reflected on the urbanization process of our country since 1949. Today, sustainable development and the knowledge economy are the themes of the cities; it is inevitable to change our urbanization pattern.Based on the dialectic relationship of quality and quantity, the article points out that urbanization should not only focus on quantity but also on quality in China. High quality and multiform urbanization pattern is an inevitable choice of China, and the development of the region can also be exalted by the radiation of the cities. But what's the real meaning of the new pattern? What's its difference from the western countries'? The article discusses its content according to the reality of China.

  5. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  6. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  7. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  8. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  9. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  10. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  11. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  13. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  14. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  15. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO2, NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  16. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  17. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  18. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  19. Aviation Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  20. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: National Association of School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) developed the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice to reflect current school nurse practice. The Framework of practice was introduced in June 2015, and feedback was requested and obtained from practicing school nurses in a variety of ways. The final version of the Framework is introduced in this article. This article updates (and replaces) the articles in the July 2015 NASN School Nurse related to the Framework. Central to the Framework is student-centered nursing care that occurs within the context of the students' family and school community. Surrounding the student, family, and school community are the nonhierarchical, overlapping key principles of Care Coordination, Leadership, Quality Improvement, and Community/Public Health.These principles are surrounded by the fifth principle, Standards of Practice, which is foundational for evidence-based and clinically competent quality care. Each of these principles is further defined by practice components. Suggestions are provided regarding how the Framework can be used in a variety of settings to articulate and prioritize school nursing practice. The ultimate goal is to provide a resource to guide school nurses in their practice to help students be healthy, safe, and ready to learn. PMID:26739934

  1. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  2. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  3. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  4. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  5. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  6. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  7. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  8. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  9. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  10. Myyntikanavat ja tuotantoprosessit Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun koulutusviennissä : Case: 21st Century Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Tein opinnäytetyöni Tampereen ammattikorkeakoululle tukemaan koulutusviennin kehitystä tulevien vuosien aikana 21st Century Educators – koulutusohjelman näkökulmasta. 21st Century Educators on Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa kehitetty virtuaalisessa oppimisympäristössä toimiva pedagoginen opettajakoulutusohjelma. Koulutus on suhteellisen uusi, sillä sille on ehditty tekemään vasta yksi toteutus Yhdistyneissä Arabiemiirikunnissa. Opinnäytetyössäni selvitin 21st Century Educators – koulutus...

  11. Focus on Performance: The 21 st Century Revolution in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Davidoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries medicine was predominantly a tradition-based "trade" until the introduction of science transformed it into an intellectually rigorous discipline. That transformation contributed heavily to the dominance in medical education of learning biomedical concepts ("knowing that" over learning to translate that knowledge into clinical performance ("knowing how". The recent emergence of performance-oriented educational initiatives suggests, however, that the balance between these two complementary approaches is changing, a change that has been referred to as "the Flexnerian revolution of the 21 st century." Problem-based learning, learning the practice of evidence-based medicine, and learning to use clinical guidelines are among the important initiatives designed to develop high-level performance in the care of individual patients. Initiatives in which learners acquire skill in changing the performance of care systems are also being widely implemented. These trends have received important formal support through recent changes in residency training accreditation standards. Although it is too early to assess the impact of these initiatives or to know whether they will develop further, medical education is unlikely to reach its full potential unless it comes to grips successfully with the challenges of understanding, teaching, and measuring performance.

  12. Reframing in dentistry: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath

    2013-01-01

    The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice. PMID:24021326

  13. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  14. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  15. Education for Life and Work Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Skills, CODDLA2C; Education, CF; Assessment, BOTA; Education, DOBASSA; Council, NR

    2013-01-01

    " Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher ...

  16. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  17. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  18. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  19. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  20. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinez-Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  1. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  2. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2012), Rome, Italy: IEEE Computer Society CPS.

  3. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  4. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Supply structures in the 21st century; security of energy supply in Europe - The European Commission's Green Paper; the U.S. nuclear future; DOE initiatives to advance nuclear energy in the United States; supply reliability - contribution of renewable energy sources; role of brown coal in the futural energy mixing; gas supply for the 21st century; the contribution of nuclear power on supply reliability in Europe and a new power plant for Finland. (GL)

  5. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environm...

  6. Digital dentistry and implant dentistry--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Richard; Seitz, Stefanie; Nyugen, Donald

    2014-04-01

    In the area of fixed prosthodontics, implants have evolved to become the gold standard in terms of longevity and esthetic outcome (1). As in all of dentistry, careful diagnosis and treatment planning is a must to achieve an optimum result. When evaluating the recipient site, one must determine if any type of defect (hard or soft tissue) exists which would require augmentation. The existing occlusion must also be evaluated to ensure the dentist is aware of possible prosthetic complications. In straightforward cases, such as those without the need for augmentation, the conventional timeline requires a waiting period of 3 months following surgical placement to begin the restorative procedures. Factoring in the restorative time frame, the patient may wait up to approximately 4 months for the final implant prosthesis. Various advancements in dentistry are changing the way dentists approach implant dentistry--from diagnosis and treatment planning to final restorations. This article illustrates these advances through a case study. PMID:24937892

  7. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  8. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  9. Space activity in the 21 st century forum at unispace III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Karl H.; Zhdanovich, Olga V.

    2000-07-01

    During the 21st Century, space activity will have a profound influence on life on Earth and on the development of society. Space activity will touch ever more firmly on the provision of the necessities and qualities of life and will accelerate the movement of nations towards the concept of the global village. A study by Prospective 2100, a group identifying major global trends for the next century, ranked space activity as one of the twelve most important factors for shaping the next century, alongside such items as education, ocean cities, the planetary garden, caring and sharing. The International Space University, ISU, the International Astronautical Federation, IAF, and Prospective 2100 joined forces to study in detail how this influence of space activity would be manifested in the next century. The one-day forum at UNISPACE III was one of a number of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary fora held during the past year to consider what would be the most appropriate space activity for the next century to meet the needs of humanity. The findings and recommendations of the forum are presented in this report.

  10. [Specialties in dentistry. 4. Post-academic specialization in geriatric dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, R.M.; Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational programm

  11. Specialties in dentistry. 4. Post-academic specialization in geriatric dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, R.M.; de Baat, C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational programm

  12. Mining processes in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Mans; Reijers, H.A.; Genuchten, van, MJIM Michiel; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry, however, is the large number of independent dental professionals that are involved in the entire process. In order to reap the benefits of digital dentistry, it is essential to obtain an accurate view on ...

  13. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  14. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sadono Djamil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology has continuously improved along with the complexity of devices. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that micro-technology, which is defined as a further reduction in the size of interconnections and components, is achieved by a conventional “top-down” method. We have now moved to a new concept and approach for fabrication from small to bigger building-block elements, which is called nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the fabrication technology of tiny parts that is achieved by a “bottom-up” method. Nanotechnology has been developed in many areas of life sciences, such as in dentistry. This presentation provides some examples that illustrate the progress in technological growth, especially in the nanoscale. In the developments of nanotechnology, we are also concerned in many ways about its ethics and the laws of physics. The expansion in nanotechnology shows that much multidisciplinary research is being done in the nanoscale area. In dentistry, one of the examples is research in dental materials such as nanoleakage types in the use of various adhesives with resin composition. Nanodiagnostics are nanotechnology in applied molecular diagnostics. All these fields have applications in diagnostics and in point-of-care hand-held devices.

  15. HIV postexposure prophylaxis in the 21st century.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, D K

    2001-01-01

    The administration of postexposure prophylaxis has become the standard of care for occupational exposures to HIV. We have learned a great deal about the safety and potential efficacy of these agents, as well as the optimal management of health-care workers occupationally exposed to HIV. This article describes the current state of knowledge in this field, identifies substantive questions to be answered, and summarizes basic principles of postexposure management.

  16. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

  17. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  18. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  19. The Annual Gynecologic Examination Updated for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Joyce; Levi, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The concept of an annual gynecologic screening visit to identify disease at an early stage has long been an established component of women's health care. Women and their health care providers have historically accepted the schedule of an annual gynecologic examination with cervical cancer screening and a pelvic examination. Recently, researchers questioned the value of the annual breast and pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women and re-established the intervals for Pap test screening with the addition of human papillomavirus co-testing to establish cervical cancer risk. The updated well woman examination is now an opportunity to engage women in health education, screening for chronic disease risks, and health care concerns such as depression and violence. PMID:27287359

  20. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  1. Nutrition intervention in general dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, J L

    1990-12-01

    This article presents a nutrition program in general dentistry following an oral health nutrition care process, and provides a guideline for identifying patients at risk of developing marginal malnutrition as a result of oral health procedures. The program highlights the importance of assessing nutritional status by segregating high-risk patients from low-risk patients. A case report demonstrates the therapeutic dietary management of a patient whose jaws were immobilized as a result of trauma.

  2. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorde...

  3. Parastomal Hernia: Avoidance and Treatment in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sean C; Dharmarajan, Sekhar

    2016-09-01

    Despite medical and surgical advances leading to increased ability to restore or preserve gastrointestinal continuity, creation of stomas remains a common surgical procedure. Every ostomy results in a risk for subsequent parastomal herniation, which in turn may reduce quality of life and increase health care expenditures. Recent evidence-supported practices such as utilization of prophylactic reinforcement, attention to stoma placement, and laparoscopic-based stoma repairs with mesh provide opportunities to both prevent and successfully treat parastomal hernias. PMID:27582655

  4. Coming of age: pharmacy practice in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Donald F

    2015-01-01

    Individuals, families, health plans and governments are struggling with the growing importance of managing chronic, non-communicable diseases. People in many countries are living longer and thus are facing many years of managing hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia - often complicated by obesity, declining physical activity and changing diets. The financial burden this places on governments, employers, and individuals purchasing health care services is growing and solutions are being sought on how to both finance this care and deliver the best care possible. New ideas are emerging that look to newfound resources, and one untapped resource increasingly being utilized is the clinical pharmacist. After many years being primarily involved in medication supply-chain management, the assistance that highly skilled pharmacists can provide medical providers and their patients is now being recognized. In order to realize fully the benefits of clinical pharmacists, governments, health plans and medical providers are taking a second look at the wisdom of maintaining the long-standing policy of compensating pharmacists only for filling prescriptions. PMID:26673401

  5. Psychiatry in 21 st century: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantanava Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges.

  6. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  7. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  8. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  9. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  10. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  11. Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

  12. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  13. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  14. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  15. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  16. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  17. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  18. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  19. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to renew the Advisory Committee...

  20. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Savickas; L. Nota; J. Rossier; J.P. Dauwalder; M.E. Duarte; J. Guichard; S. Soresi; R. van Esbroeck; A.E.M. van Vianen

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovat

  1. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  2. Salamanca as Simbolyc Reference: the 21st Century City in Tierra Violenta de Luciano Egido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín

    2016-07-01

     It is a city that, apparently, lives in the past but that isn't immune to the mechanisms rule the 21st century. In this approach, the literary text is a source of different analytical lines for understanding the urban temporalities and the dialectics of both the public project and the urban heritage.

  3. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time

  4. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  5. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  6. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  7. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher…

  8. The Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…

  9. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  10. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  11. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at http://dewey.info>; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  12. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  13. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  14. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  15. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  16. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  17. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  18. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  19. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  20. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  1. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  2. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  3. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  4. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  5. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  6. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  7. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  8. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  9. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  10. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  11. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  12. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  13. Teachers' Level of Awareness of 21st Century Occupational Roles in Rivers State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Chineze M.; Kaegon, Leesi E. S. P.; Okata, Fanny Chiemezie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles in Rivers state secondary schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of study comprised of 247 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis of Rivers state which gave a…

  14. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  15. 21st-Century Literacies, Critical Media Pedagogies, and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In the second decade of the 21st century, information has been globalized, digitized, and sped up to move at the speed of thought. Being literate in this new world means programming personal websites, sending e-mails from mobile devices and spending hours communicating via virtual social networks. Our students are products of this world. However,…

  16. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Leann F.

    2013-01-01

    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  17. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  18. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  19. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  20. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  1. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the…

  2. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  3. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  4. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  5. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  6. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  7. Thyroid hormone testing in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravinder J; Kaur, Parmpreet

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid dysfunction and treatment follow up require accurate measurement of thyroid hormones. Most thyroid disease is treated on an outpatient basis; thus, assays have to be rapid and cost effective for optimal patient care. There are no rapid or point-of-care thyroid tests yet available, which could replace centralized automated thyroid testing. With the high population of thyroid dysfunction, it is important for thyroid assays to be available widely and locally. Immunoassays are most commonly used due to their ease and availability, but are limited in their accuracy. MS assays are much more specific, but are laborious with a high machine cost. Many hospitals may not be able to afford the machines and lack technical expertise. Sensitivity, specificity and standardization issues still result in substantial differences between various tests currently used for this population. To address these issues, new performance standards are being established by the professional organizations and technological advancements are being undertaken by instrument manufacturers. Automation solution is provided by various manufacturers and offers a choice for the hospital labs to select a platform which helps in their workflow and other chemistry testing. This has also resulted in decentralization and easy access to the thyroid testing. Even with these advancements, it is understandably confusing for clinicians to choose an assay for various clinical scenarios (20). As it becomes more available and standardized, LC-MS will continue to demonstrate its superiority to immunoassay. PMID:27329994

  8. Gauging Teachers' Needs with Regard to Technology- Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) of 21st Century Skills in the Classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Boon, Jo; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Several trends in society have led to a request towards schools to integrate 21st Century Skills and technology enhanced formative assessment (TEFA) in their curricula. Although there are frameworks defined at an international level, implementation of technology enhanced formative assessment of 21st

  9. Birth Environments: A Woman's Choice in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ellise D

    2016-01-01

    A woman has many important decisions to make once discovering a pregnancy. One of those decisions with significant implications is where the birth will take place. The primary consideration for the majority of pregnant women when making a decision about birth environment is safety. However, other factors such as attitudes of family and friends, religious reasons, and confidence in the body's ability to give birth play a factor in the choice of birth environment. It is recommended that birth attendants use the process of shared decision making to assist pregnant women in making choices related to the birth environment. This process empowers the pregnant woman and provides a woman-centered and evidence-based approach to choices related to obstetrical care. PMID:27465454

  10. Type 2 diabetes: A 21st century epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Siegel, Karen R; Gujral, Unjali P; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2016-06-01

    Around 415 million people around the world have diabetes (9% of adults), and the vast majority live in low- and middle-income countries. Over the next decade, this number is predicted to increase to 642 million people. Given that diabetes is a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and health care expenditures, addressing this chronic disease represents one of the greatest global health challenges of our time. The objectives of this article are three-fold: (1) to present data on the global burden of type 2 diabetes (which makes up 87-91% of the total diabetes burden), both in terms of prevalence and incidence; (2) to give an overview of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and to describe obesity and the developmental origins of disease risk in detail; and (3) to discuss the implications of the global burden and point out important research gaps. PMID:27432069

  11. Advertising in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, G

    1987-06-01

    Due to a rapid increase of unemployment among dentists in many countries, the interest in advertising as a means of stimulating the demand for dental care is increasing. In some countries (i.e. USA, Canada, Finland and Holland) campaigns have been organized and the results have been published. In order to give as complete a picture as possible of all promotional activities in the field of dentistry, the member organizations of the FDI have been asked to answer the following questions: (1) Are individual dentists in your country allowed to solicit new patients by means of advertisements? (2) Do you, as an organization, have guidelines for your members in this respect? (3) Have there been any joint promotional activities by dentists in your country aimed at increasing the demand for dental care? (a) If so, in what form (e.g. advertisements, television or radio commercials)? (b) How much money was invested in such activities? (c) What were the results achieved? The results are presented. The effectiveness of specific methods used in stimulating the demand for dental care are analysed. Moreover, a comparison is made between studies on the attitudes of dentists toward advertising in Holland and the United States. PMID:3476465

  12. Alarmingly High Maternal Mortality in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur, Vaneet Kaur, Veronica Irene Yuel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the maternal mortality rate (MMR, various factors affecting itand possible prevention of maternal deaths in Christian Medical College & Hospital, a tertiary careinstitute during the past five years (2001- 2005. The individual record of maternal deaths was studiedregarding their socio-demographic features, causes, modes of management and ultimate outcome. TheMaternal Mortality rate was 1470 per lac live births. The major obstetrical complications accounted formore than three fourth of maternal deaths with hemorrhage (33%, sepsis (21.7% and eclampsia (7.5%playing an important role. Anemia (44.3% and jaundice (16.0% were two important indirect causes ofmaternal deaths. Un-booked cases accounted for majority of maternal deaths. Only two maternal mortalitypatients were showing regularly in our institute, rest all of the patients either had no antenatal check-up orwere having ANC in private clinics and were referred as an emergency in critical condition. More than90% of maternal deaths hailed from rural and urban slum areas. 61 (57.8% cases received primary carefrom untrained birth attendants and 11 (10.4% did not receive primary care in any form. There wasdelayed referral by the untrained personnel, 49 (46.2% patients were referred after more than 48 hours ofacute emergency, 51 (48.1% died between 24 to 48 hours and 25 (23.6% died within 24 hours ofadmission in spite of all resuscitative measures. It is concluded that providing good antenatal care, findingappropriate ways of preventing and dealing with the consequences of unwanted pregnancies, and improvingthe way society looks after pregnant women are three most important ways to reduce maternal mortality.

  13. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities. PMID:27272998

  14. Survey report; health needs of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S U

    1989-01-01

    Sustainability of development assistance programs depends greatly on the perceptions of priorities by recipient countries. A written survey was sent by the Catholic University of America's Institute for International Health and Development to 66 ministers of health in low-income and middle-income countries to assess their views of priority problems in health sector development. Response rate was 33%, coming from countries with highly diverse gross national products (GNPs), growth rates, mortality rates and life expectancies. Nevertheless, there was widespread agreement about priorities: 1) meeting costs of health care; 2) improving health care management and administration; and 3) extending communicable disease control. Communicable disease control and child health programs were more important to low-income countries than to middle-income countries. Costs, management and administration and the control of noncommunicable diseases were predicted to increase in importance. In demographics, urbanization, overall population growth and shift of workers from agriculture to industry and services were seen as the major problems of the past, and urbanization and the aging of populations accompanied by increasing life expectancies the major challenges of the future. Highest predicted training needs were for system managers and paramedical personnel. Government budgets, user fees and donor agencies were seen as the most important sources of past funding, with social security systems and fee-based payments increasing in importance in the future. The role of donor agencies would increase as would the need for more responsiveness. Future uncertainties include national economic growth, environmental problems, issues in ethics and changes in disease and technology. PMID:12342422

  15. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Vijayabala, G. Sree

    2013-01-01

    With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiati...

  16. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APRIL 21 A winning approach to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry education The Venetian Hotel & Resort 33rd Annual Scientific ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  17. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  18. 21st Century Connections: Making Sense of Social Media Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiech, Maura C.

    2010-01-01

    Twitter? Blog? Facebook? In an environment of complex project teams and demanding timelines, you may wonder whether any of these new-fangled social media tools that are in the news will help you and your team do a better job delivering project results. What in the world is Facebook and why would I ever want to use it? What does a blog have to do with a NASA project? Aside from my teenager, who cares about Twitter? This introduction to social media is a great way to get your feet wet with some of these new terms and tools. For example, we'll talk about what the difference is between a blog and Facebook. We'll look at some examples of NASA projects that benefit from using blogs, Facebook or Twitter. Most importantly, we'll spend some time talking about how a small or medium-sized project might evaluate whether to use one, many or none of these new ideas. Although there are many commercial tools available and in use across the agency, this talk emphasizes NASA-sponsored tools that are freely available within the Agency.

  19. Operational environmental satellite archives in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bates, John J.; Privette, Jeff; Vizbulis, Rick

    2007-09-01

    NASA, NOAA, and USGS collections of Earth science data are large, federated, and have active user communities and collections. Our experience raises five categories of issues for long-term archival: *Organization of the data in the collections is not well-described by text-based categorization principles *Metadata organization for these data is not well-described by Dublin Core and needs attention to data access and data use patterns *Long-term archival requires risk management approaches to dealing with the unique threats to knowledge preservation specific to digital information *Long-term archival requires careful attention to archival cost management *Professional data stewards for these collections may require special training. This paper suggests three mechanisms for improving the quality of long-term archival: *Using a maturity model to assess the readiness of data for accession, for preservation, and for future data usefulness *Developing a risk management strategy for systematically dealing with threats of data loss *Developing a life-cycle cost model for continuously evolving the collections and the data centers that house them.

  20. Surgical gowns and drapes into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S R; Urech, D; Werner, H P

    1998-11-01

    of the art'. Difficult situations arise when it must be proved that one has acted equivalent to or better than the standard procedures and that no mistakes are made. Because of this risk of liability alone, the question of what surgical materials are used in the future should be considered very carefully. PMID:10076227

  1. Energy End-Use Technologies for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, S; Haegermark, H; Larsen, H; Morishita, M; Nakicenovic, N; Schock, R N; Suntola, T

    2005-04-13

    The World Energy Council's recent study examined the potential of energy end-use technologies and of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) into these technologies on a global scale. Surprises are likely, but nevertheless, current research and development offer a picture of what might happen in the future as new technologies face the competition of the marketplace. Given the breadth of energy end-use technologies and the differences between regions and economic conditions, the study focused on technologies that appear most important from today's vantage point. Globally, robust research and development followed by demonstrations of new end-use technologies can potentially save at least 110 EJ/year by 2020 and over 300 EJ/year by 2050. If achieved, this translates to worldwide energy savings of as much as 25% by 2020 and over 40% by 2050, over what may be required without these technologies. It is almost certain that no single technology, or even a small set of technologies, will dominate in meeting the needs of the globe in any foreseeable timeframe. Absent a significant joint government-industry effort on end-use technology RD&D, the technologies needed will not be ready for the marketplace in the timeframes required with even the most pessimistic scenarios. Based on previous detailed analyses for the United States, an international expenditure of $4 billion per year seems more than justified. The success of new energy end-use technologies depends on new RD&D investments and policy decisions made today. Governments, in close cooperation with industry, must carefully consider RD&D incentives that can help get technologies from the laboratory or test-bed to market. Any short-term impact areas are likely to benefit from focused RD&D. These include electricity transmission and distribution, distributed electricity production, transportation, the production of paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminum, cement and chemicals, and information and

  2. Evaluation of patients' satisfaction from dental care services: TUMS, school of dentistry, 1385-86

    OpenAIRE

    Seidi D; Farid F; Dorriz H

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Aims: Association between patient satisfaction and success of the treatment determines the quality of health care. Measuring the level of satisfaction is an important factor for improving the quality of services provided by a system, so it is necessary to determine the expectations of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient satisfaction from services provided by the dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences."nMaterials and Methods: ...

  3. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  4. Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Gini,1,2,* Denis Larrivee,2,3,* Michele Farisco,4,5 Vittorio Alessandro Sironi6 1Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2International Neuroethics Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Dioceses of Charleston, SC, USA; 4Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Biogem Genetic Research Center, Ariano Irpino, Italy; 6Research Center on the History of Biomedical Thought, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and

  5. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  6. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  7. The advent of battery-based societies and the global environment in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Susumu; Ishihara, Kaoru

    In paving the way for a new electricity-based civilization in the 21st century, we hope to find the key to solving the trilemma of securing energy and resources, maintaining economic growth, and preserving the environment. In these circumstances, secondary batteries are expected to be used on a large scale in a new field—for energy purposes and to positively affect preservation of the global environment, resulting in the advent of a new battery-based society in the 21st century. It is important to develop secondary batteries not only with high specific energy for convenience, but also with large capacity, high energy efficiency and long life cycle for effective use of primary energy resources including natural energy. Lithium secondary batteries are a promising option.

  8. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kessler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century

  9. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  10. Defining and Assessing Knowledge and Skill Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Carole M.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of assessing the general goals for the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry are discussed. Goals are: (1) to prepare dentists to provide comprehensive dental care for the pediatric patient; (2) to create positive attitudes toward pediatric dentistry; (3) to encourage students to seek to…

  11. Problem-based learning: a strategic learning system design for the education of healthcare professionals in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2009-05-01

    -making process. Implementation of PBL can be a daunting task and will require detailed and careful planning, together with a significant commitment on the part of educators given the responsibility to implement PBL in an institution. PBL can offer a more holistic, value-added, and quality education to energize student learning in the healthcare professions in the 21st century. Successful implementation of PBL can therefore help to nurture in students the development of desired "habits of mind, behavior, and action" to become the competent, caring, and ethical healthcare professionals of the 21st century. Thus, PBL can contribute to the improvement of the healthcare of a nation by healthcare professionals, but we need to do it right. PMID:19502143

  12. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills. The...... second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  13. CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS IN 20TH—21ST CENTURY RUSSIAN FANTASY WRITING (ARTICLE 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at the various aspects of appropriating the Christian traditions by Russian fantasy writing. We show that the Christian tradition has most significantly revealed itself in the genre of fantasy writing which is in high demand among early 21st century readers. Both the content and the formal poetics of this tradition have been taken into account here. One of the typical fantasy protagonists is a hero yearning for God, which is a familiar staple of Russian literature. By defaul...

  14. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  15. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2010-01-01

    Observations show a stabilization or a weak increase of the stratospheric ozone layer since the late 1990s. Recent coupled chemistry-climate model simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a results of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recove...

  16. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2011-01-01

    Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernme...

  17. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Sanjay P Zodpey; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  18. Place-Based Education: Does it Improve 21st Century Skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Motallebzadeh; Zahra Kafi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the possible significant effects of project-based instruction on the improvement of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ awareness of 21st century skills. To this end, the sample population was selected from Iranian intermediate learners studying at Zabansara Language School, Mashhad, Iran. Therefore, 50 male and female students were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups, 25 in each. For collecting the quantitative data for the study, a 21...

  19. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  20. Importance of Nitrogen Availability on Land Carbon Sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Lu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and the application of nitrogen fertilizers provide subsidies to land ecosystems that can increase nitrogen availability for vegetation production and thereby influence land carbon dynamics. In addition, enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) from warming soils and permafrost degradation may also increase nitrogen availability in Northern Eurasia. Here, we examine how changes in nitrogen availability may influence land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario (the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways or RCP 8.5) and a stabilization scenario (RCP 4.5) between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation and soil thermal dynamics on land carbon dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In these simulations, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and fertilizer applications provide an additional 3.3 Pg N (RCP 4.5) to 3.9 Pg N (RCP 8.5) to Northern Eurasian ecosystems over the 21st century. Land ecosystems retain about 38% (RCP4.5) to 48% (RCP 8.5) of this nitrogen subsidy. Net nitrogen mineralization estimated by TEM 6.0 provide an additional 1.0 Pg N to vegetation than estimated by TEM 4.4 over the 21st century from enhanced decomposition of SOM including SOM formerly protected by permafrost. The enhanced nitrogen availability in TEM 6.0 allows Northern Eurasian ecosystems to sequester 1.8x (RCP 8.5) to 2.4x (RCP 4.5) more carbon over the 21st century than estimated by TEM 4.4. Our results indicate that consideration of nitrogen subsidies and soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia will respond to future changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry, and disturbances.

  1. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  2. Restructuring leadership for 21st century schools : how transformational leadership and trust cultivate teacher leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Longwell-McKean, Paula Cheree

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature on effective leadership styles has emerged as 21st century leaders face higher student expectations, more demands on teachers and lack of support from the public. An examination of the effects of transactional and transformational leadership provides educators with indications as to the best practices with regard to transforming the direction of schools. Proponents of transformational leadership recommend this approach as the best fit for today's changing times. T...

  3. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  4. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    J. Martinez-Rey; L. Bopp; M. Gehlen; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with outp...

  5. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers

  6. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    OpenAIRE

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L.W.; V. Naik; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) sce...

  7. Faculty-Librarian Partnerships to Teach Information Skills for the 21st Century.

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    2001-01-01

    It is most important that students in higher education receive adequate education for productive work and scholarship in the technological information environment of the 21st century. Changes in the workforce, a knowledge-based economy, virtual environments, life-long learning and related factors are changing the climate within higher education around the world. Students must be prepared throughout their tenure in higher education to become productive employees and life long learners. One ver...

  8. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Kessler

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style ...

  9. Modelling soil erosion risk and its impacts in the mediterranean area for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cerdan, Olivier; Cheviron, Bruno; Darboux, Frédéric; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Soil degradation and erosion will be influenced during the 21st century both by climate and related or anthropogenic land use changes. Many current negative impacts of soil erosion may thus be amplified, and as certain soil thresholds are exceeded, potentially new and different problems could arise. Soils in the Mediterranean environment may be particularly vulnerable to such global changes because of contrasted climate, low vegetation cover and specific poor soil characteristics. It is there...

  10. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖培根

    2004-01-01

    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  11. FOR A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL TRANSITION: 21ST CENTURY ORGANISATIONS REALIGN THEMSELVES AROUND VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Associate lecturer François Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discus the changes that confronting our society. The modernity is perceived like an expression of man's control over himself and over nature through reason in a desire for unlimited expansion, therefore implying that growth could be infinite. Consequently, the new logics of the 21st century concern the globalisation of trade and the issues of sustainable development and social responsibility.

  12. Transforming students into 21st century thinkers through an ASL curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    This writing explores some of the challenges educators of deaf children are facing in classrooms across America. The 21st century has brought unprecedented levels of diversity to classrooms and deaf students are not immune to this phenomenon. Social learning is at a premium as students face challenges in their overall development. The identification of these challenges is followed by a discussion of innovative instructional methods such as : scaffolding, cooperative learning, and inquiry-base...

  13. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydro...

  14. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  15. A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of 21st Century Skills in Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chuo Hiong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to propose the conceptual framework for the integration of 21st century skills in biology education in Malaysia. An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to imbibe 21st century skills into the existing Biology curriculum. Solving complex and interdisciplinary worldwide biology problems will require students to understand what connections exist across disciplines and how to make those connections. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub disciplinary skills. The main teaching and learning strategies that apply in the BTEM subjects are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning which require the coordination of both knowledge and skills simultaneously. This is intended to enhance the students’ abilities to construct their own knowledge through the relevant hands-on and minds-on activities. The essence of engineering is production of design for the inventive problem solving. Integrating advanced information communication technologies such as e-tools and World Wide Web resources are believed to be able to fulfil the learning style needs of the current ‘Net Generation’. Mathematics plays an important role providing computational tools for biology and engineering, especially in analysing data. The expected outcomes of BTEM implementation are the inculcation of 21st century skills digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, spiritual and noble values in Malaysian students.

  16. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  17. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  18. O papel da odontologia na equipe interdisciplinar: contribuindo para a atenção integral ao idoso The role of dentistry in the interdisciplinary team: contributing to comprehensive health care for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Sadami Arai Shinkai

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho bibliográfico teve por objetivo discutir a atuação da odontologia na atenção integral à saúde do idoso, considerando-se a necessidade da abordagem interdisciplinar. É apresentada a atual situação da odontologia geriátrica e os problemas que ocorrem no Brasil pela falta de estudos específicos e de recursos humanos capacitados em geriatria e gerontologia dentro da odontologia. São destacadas as interações entre as diversas profissões de saúde e a odontologia, para a promoção de saúde, prevenção específica e reabilitação de pacientes idosos, com ênfase na importância da comunicação e troca de informações.This literature review focuses on dentistry's role in comprehensive health care for the elderly. The authors discuss the need for an interdisciplinary approach. They begin by analyzing the current situation in geriatric dentistry and related problems in Brazil, relating primarily to the lack of specific studies and human resources with training in geriatrics and gerontology. The authors emphasize interactions between dentistry and other health professions for health promotion, specific prevention, and rehabilitation of elderly patients, with special attention to the importance of communication and information exchange.

  19. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  20. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  1. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  2. Magnets in prosthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M A; Walmsley, A D; Harris, I R

    2001-08-01

    Magnetic retention is a popular method of attaching removable prostheses to either retained roots or osseointegrated implants. This review chronicles the development of magnets in dentistry and summarizes future research in their use. The literature was researched by using the Science Citation Index and Compendex Web from 1981 to 2000. Articles published before 1981 were hand researched from citations in other publications. Articles that discussed the use of magnets in relation to prosthetic dentistry were selected.

  3. Ergonomics in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dargahi H; Saraji J; Sadr J; Sadri G

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materi...

  4. Digital DICOM in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Similar to Medicine, digital communication, information processing, and x-ray imaging have changed the face of dentistry. The incorporation of digital systems into medical and dental practice has necessitated development of a standard that allows reliable transmission of information between the devices taking the images, devices storing the images, and devices displaying the images. This standard is termed as DICOM. The following article briefly reviews how DICOM came about, how dentistry is ...

  5. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  6. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  7. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  8. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  9. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  10. Is psychiatry scientific? A letter to a 21st century psychiatry resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2013-09-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  11. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the “paradigm shift” towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  12. Data of the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news of Kyodo-Reuter said that on 17 November 1976 the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), U.S.A., announced for the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from 18 November 1976 to 25 November 1976. From the results of the surveillance, a few effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rain, dry fallout, and air-borne dust. (author)

  13. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...

  14. An Analysis of Accounting Brazilian Studies Published in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ewerton Alex Avelar; Terence Machado Boina; Lívia Maria de Pádua Ribeiro; Thiago de Sousa Santos

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a research that analyzed features of studies published on the main Brazilian journals of Accounting in the 21st Century. The data were collected from 2,334 papers published in the 17 main Brazilian journals in according to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Primarily, those papers had examined using the content analysis and organized in predefined categories. After that, the data were analyzed using the following techniques: c...

  15. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  16. Strategic Importance of Energy Sources of Middle East Region for the 21st Century World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Altay, Hüseyin; Nugay, Ulaş

    2013-01-01

    The importance of energy sources which started to become the most strategic input for the countries in the 20th century gradually increases. De-spite of the increase of demand and dependence to the energy at this ratio, energy resources speedily decrease. This situation caused that all the atten-tions focused on energy regions. Middle East is one of the most important of these regions. Within this framework, this study aims to explain the impor-tance of Middle East energy sources of 21st cent...

  17. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  18. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  19. 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of the 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century are presented. The symposium was held 24-29 October 2010 in Moscow. The symposium included the following microsymposiums: Electrical double layer and electrochemical kinetics (from phenomenological to molecular level); New processes, materials and devices for successful electrochemical transformation of energy; Corrosion and protection of materials; General and local corrosion; Electroactive composition materials; Bioelectrochemistry. The Frumkin symposium includes plenary lectures, oral and poster presentations. Official language of the symposium is English

  20. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, R.; Randin, C. F.; Thuiller, W.;

    2011-01-01

    Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...... that change in precipitation, not only warming, plays an important role in determining the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation....... microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100 m) species samples...

  1. What is the role of Europe in the 21st century?

    OpenAIRE

    Busek, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Unquestionably, the 20th century was a “European century”, but there are doubts whether the 21st century is a European one or not! This depends on Europe itself and the capacity to formulate its role. Obviously, we are in a new stage of Europe. History knows Europe in different stages. It makes no sense to define all periods, but for the influence of the past you may mention some of these on contemporary Europe: - We had the Europe of aristocracy partly until World War I, wh...

  2. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  3. Air-conditioning in the 21st century: impact on human productivity and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    , even though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Elements of such a paradigm shift towards excellence are suggested. New research data document the positive impact of an excellent indoor...... environment on human productivity, health and comfort. The principles of excellence can be provided with moderate energy consumption. But the success of excellent indoor environments will increase the demand for improvement globally and the required energy supply will provide a challenge for the world...

  4. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gobiet@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: sven.kotlarski@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: martin.beniston@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: g.heinrich@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: jan.rajczak@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  5. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  6. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  7. Energy strategy of the 21st century taking advantage of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is some general concern that economic development in developing countries will hasten global warning. In terms of reducing CO2 emissions, fusion will have great potential as a primary energy in the late 21st century according to the results of WING model simulations based on scenario analysis, if the cost of fusion with hydrogen generation would become competitive compared with those of other substitutive energies. However, securing social acceptance is very important to maintain the fossil research funded by the government suffering from cumulative debt. (author)

  8. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Therapeutic Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Murray, Barbara E; Rice, Louis B; Arias, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are serious health threats due in part to their ability to persist in rugged environments and their propensity to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Enterococci have now established a home in our hospitals and possess mechanisms to defeat most currently available antimicrobials. This article reviews the history of the struggle with this pathogen, what is known about the traits associated with its rise in the modern medical environment, and the current understanding of therapeutic approaches in severe infections caused by these microorganisms. As the 21st century progresses, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to pose a daunting clinical challenge. PMID:27208766

  9. Ultra-slow muon generation by laser resonant ionization towards the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At KEK-MSL we have been pursuing the Ultra-Slow Muon Project, in which thermal muonium atoms (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ+ and an e-) are generated from the surface of a hot tungsten foil, placed at the primary 500 MeV proton beam line, and ionized by intense lasers synchronized with the emission of Mu. In the 21st century, it will be extended to the intense slow-muon facility of M-arena at the JOINT PROJECT of KEK and JAERI, where 3 GeV, 333 μA of proton beam is available, for the surface science, atomic physics, etc. (author)

  10. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, lunar laser ranging to the Apollo retroreflector arrays, which are still operational after four decades, has produced some of the best tests of General Relativity. Since the ground Observatories have improved their accuracy by a factor of 200, the lunar hardware, due to the lunar librations, now limits the ranging accuracy. The Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century program plans to deploy new packages that will improve the ranging accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in the next few years

  11. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  12. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century. PMID:26853284

  13. English Continues to Be the World StandardLanguage in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ The world is in various stages of social, economic, and demographic transition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competitive and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So, do we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century? According to The Economist (1996), English continues to be the world standard language, and there is no major threat to the language or to its global popularity. But, changes are coming.

  14. Hitachi product data management system toward the 21st century by CALS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIPDM21 (Hitachi Product Data Management System for the 21st century) is a comprehensive computer information management system which has been developed for the purpose of plant life cycle business support in terms of the electronics information exchange and sharing between the disciplines using the product data management technology. The system consists of core systems (Engineering Data Control System, Integrated Commodity Database system, and Document Management System) and business application systems. In the present development phase, the system is being enhanced to support CALS standards including EDT, SGML, and STEP, and to support information exchange and sharing with outside the company including clients, construction companies, and domestic/international vendors. (author)

  15. Allen Terhaar: Future Development of Cotton for the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 China International Cotton Conference, organized by China Cotton Association (CCA), Research Centre for Rural Economy (RCRE) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) as well as the China National Cotton Exchange (CNCE), took place June 15-16 in the beautiful coastal city of Dalian this year. Allen Terhaar, Executive President of Cotton Council International (CCI), delivered a speech with the name of Cotton in the 21st Century: Sustaining Our Industry's Future. In the following part, let's share his opinions and suggestions.

  16. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  17. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  18. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gregg H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1 expand the knowledge base; 2 increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3 create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry.

  19. INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  20. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Huete, Alfredo; McClaran, Mitchel P; Zhang, Yongguang; Hamerlynck, Erik P; Augustine, David J; Gunter, Stacey A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Peters, Debra P C; Starks, Patrick J; Hernandez, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The early 21st-century drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that are similar to those expected with future climate change. We investigated the impact of the early 21st-century drought on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of six desert and plains grasslands dominated by C4 (warm season) grasses in terms of significant deviations between observed and expected ANPP. In desert grasslands, drought-induced grass mortality led to shifts in the functional response to annual total precipitation (P(T)), and in some cases, new species assemblages occurred that included invasive species. In contrast, the ANPP in plains grasslands exhibited a strong linear function of the current-year P(T) and the previous-year ANPP, despite prolonged warm drought. We used these results to disentangle the impacts of interannual total precipitation, intra-annual precipitation patterns, and grassland abundance on ANPP, and thus generalize the functional response of C4 grasslands to predicted climate change. This will allow managers to plan for predictable shifts in resources associated with climate change related to fire risk, loss of forage, and ecosystem services.

  1. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Wetter During the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Douglass, A. R.; Oman, L.

    2014-12-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  2. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Moister During the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A.E.; Schoberl, M. R.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Oman, L.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  3. Projected Risk of Flooding Disaster over China in 21st Century Based on CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rouke; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Based on the simulations from CMIP5 models, using climate indices which have high correlation with historical disaster data, and in combination with terrain elevation data and the socio-economic data, to project the flooding disaster risk, the vulnerability of flooding hazard affected body and the risk of flooding hazard respectively during the near term(2015-2039), medium term(2045-2069) and long term(2075-2099) under RCP8.5. According to the IPCC AR5 WGII, we used risk evaluation model of disaster: R=E*H*V. R on behalf of disaster risk index. H, E and V express risk, exposure and vulnerability respectively. The results show that the extreme flooding disaster risk will gradually increase during different terms in the future, and regions with high risk level of flooding hazard are might mainly located in southeastern and eastern China. Under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the high risk of flooding disaster in future might mainly appear in eastern part of Sichuan, most of North China, and major of East China. Compared with the baseline period,21st century forward, although the occurrence of floods area changes little, the regional strong risk will increase during the end of the 21st century. Due to the coarse resolution of climate models and the methodology for determining weight coefficients, large uncertainty still exists in the projection of the flooding disaster risk.

  4. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  5. Stratospheric Temperature Changes and Ozone Recovery in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; XIA Yan; GAO Mei; LU Daren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing greenhouse gases and likely ozone recovery will be the two most important factors influencing changes in stratospheric temperatures in the 21st century. The radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases will cause cooling in the stratosphere, while ozone recovery will lead to stratospheric warming. To investigate how stratospheric temperatures change under the two opposite forcings in the 21st century, we use observed ozone and reanalysis data as well as simulation results from four coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulation models (GISS-ER, GFDL-CM20, NCAR-CCSM3, and UKMO-HadCM3) used in the IPCC (Intergovernment Panel for Climate Change) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Observational analysis shows that total column ozone and lower stratospheric temperatures all show increasing in the past 10 years, while middle stratospheric temperatures demonstrate cooling. IPCC AR4 simulations show that greenhouse forcing alone will lead to stratospheric cooling. However, with forcing of both increasing greenhouse gases and ozone recovery, the middle stratosphere will be cooled, while the lower stratosphere will be warmed. Warming magnitudes vary from one model to another. UKMO-HadCM3 generates relatively strong warming for all three greenhouse scenarios, and warming extends to 40 hPa. GFDL-CM20 and NCAR-CCSM3 produce weak warming, and warming mainly exists at lower levels, below about 60 hPa. In addition, we also discuss the effect of temperature changes on ozone recovery.

  6. Quantifying Uncertainty in Projections of Stratospheric Ozone Over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Hawkins, E.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Bodeker, G. E.; Kinnison, D. E.; Akiyoshi, H.; Frith, S. M.; Garcia, R.; Gettelman, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Nakamura, T.; Pawson, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Marchand, M.; Mancini, E.; Morgenstern, O.; Pitari, G.; Plummer, D.; Pyle, J. A.; Rozanov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an ensemble of opportunity of chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for 10 ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21 st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations 15 return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  7. Quantifying uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Charlton-Perez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs. Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an "ensemble of opportunity" of chemistry-climate model (CCM simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  8. The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Charlton-Perez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs. Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an "ensemble of opportunity" of chemistry-climate model (CCM simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  9. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hendon SHEIKH ABDULLAH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.

  10. The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGONIGLE, Ian Vincent; Benjamin, Ruha

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University. The symposium drew upon the tools and expertise from multiple disciplines and diverse geographical regions and consisted of 24 original research presentations and an interdisciplinary roundtable. Specific attention was paid to the bioethical, material and lived dimensions of recent developments in molecular technologies, and discussions interrogated the complex ways in which the 'molecular realm' is an emerging site for constituting human identities in the 21st century. Herein we summarize some of the key findings of the conference and raise three further issues for practitioners and researchers to consider in relation to the broader impact of genetics research. Namely: transnational governance of emerging biotechnologies; representation of different interest groups in policy decisions; and rights of access to emerging technologies. PMID:27376979

  11. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  12. Prospects of Nuclear Energy in Korea in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tries to project the prospects of the role of nuclear energy in Korea in the 21st century. The current status of energy situations and the future prospect of nuclear energy is reviewed, and the potential of its better production and more extensive utilization is investigated. The current government policy as well as the role of nuclear industries is reviewed and a systematic approach is suggested to materialize this anticipation. Through an evaluation of the current status of domestic and foreign technologies, the general outlook of advanced nuclear energy concepts is the future is presented by identifying underdeveloped areas and suggesting a scheme of technology development. However, the present study, by nature is limited to present a general vision of the role of nuclear energy in 2000's, which should be followed by a series of detailed studies in each respective field for implementation. As Korea opens new era of mature nuclear technology, the anticipation of effective, economic, and wide production and utilization of nuclear energy in the 21st century is expected

  13. Lasers in aesthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Timothy C; Pang, Peter K

    2004-10-01

    This article focuses on lasers and aesthetic dentistry and their unique parallel in history from their early development to their present day usage and application. The demand for aesthetic dentistry has had a major impact not only on treatment planning but also on the choice of materials, techniques, and equipment. It is this demand that has married the use of lasers with aesthetic dentistry. A short literature review on the five basic laser types precedes the basic premise of smile design and its critical importance in attaining the desirable aesthetic end result. A short review on biologic width and biologic zone reinforces their importance when manipulating gingival tissue. Four case reports highlight the use of diode, erbium, and carbon dioxide lasers. The end results show the power of proper treatment planning and the use of a smile design guide when using these instruments and confirm a conservative, aesthetic treatment without compromising the health and function of the patients.

  14. Brexit and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S

    2016-05-27

    On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy. PMID:27228927

  15. Brexit and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S

    2016-05-27

    On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.

  16. Polyamides in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Bhatia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic resins have been used in dentistry for over 50 years. Since that time their applications have continued to grow, and the interest in nylon based materials have increased. With the development of new properties, there are certain to be additional new applications for thermoplastic resins in the future, to help patients with damaged or missing teeth. The dentists have to meet growing demands for prosthetic rehabilitation due to population aging and higher requirements on the quality of life. Herein in this article we will be discussing in detail properties of nylon based materials and their various implications in dentistry

  17. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  18. Orthovoltage energies for palliative care in the 21st century: Is there a need?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alimonte, Laura, E-mail: Laura.Dalimonte@sunnybrook.c [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sinclair, Emily [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Seed, Sharon [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: The primary objective was to describe the patterns of practice for patients with rib metastases who were treated with radiation therapy for pain relief. The secondary objective was to determine if wait times and better access to radiation treatment for this patient population could be improved with the utilization of an orthovoltage treatment machine. Methods and Materials: Cancer registry data for patients with rib disease and radiation therapy technique were collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The data was examined to establish the utilization rate of orthovoltage treatment. Results: The data demonstrated that orthovoltage treatment was an underutilized technique for the palliative treatment of rib disease. More than half of the patients were treated with high energy (6 MV) photon beam with either a single direct photon field (16.2%) or a two field photon technique (47.4%). Electron beam technique represented 35.1% of treatments while orthovoltage constituted only 1.2% of rib treatments. Conclusion: The use of orthovoltage X-ray beams has been demonstrated to be an underutilized radiotherapy treatment technique at this institution. Orthovoltage treatment is a simple radiotherapy technique with a short setup time that may be a solution for minimizing treatment burden for an already overburdened patient population.

  19. High-Confidence Medical Devices: Cyber-Physical Systems for 21st Century Health Care

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The U.S. market for medical devices is the largest in the world. At an estimated $83 billion in 2006, this market represents nearly half the global total and is...

  20. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, M.; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  1. Invisalign and aesthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Invisalign has been an integral part of dental practices for many years. Besides improving crowding and spacing in teeth, it is an excellent adjunct for many different aesthetic procedures. One such case is illustrated in this article, where the combination of Invisalign and minimally invasive dentistry allowed for a stellar outcome, and one very happy dental patient.

  2. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This booklet is an introduction to several new strategies for designing, developing, and retrofitting energy-efficient laboratories. It is the result of a collaboration among staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), several national laboratories, and their contractors. They are collaborating to meet the goals of a joint EPA-DOE initiative, 'Laboratories for the 21st Century,' which was established to help government and private-sector laboratory designers, engineers, owners, and operators work together to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs. This booklet describes many energy-efficient strategies that can be done during laboratory planning and programming; design; engineering; and commissioning, operation, and maintenance. There is also a discussion of on-site power generation and clean sources of electricity from renewable energy.

  3. Human Resource Management in 21st Century: Issues & Challenges & Possible Solutions to Attain Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper report on the human resource management in 21st century: issues and challenges and its solutions to attain competitiveness. Technology has changed everything with great extent, the methods of production, the process of recruitment, the training techniques, and new equipment etc. Now it’s up to HR personnel’s to work with their functions as shown below to best manage the workforce. In these pieces of paper we have discussed those foremost issues and challenges which are confronting today Organization. To overcome these issues and challenges the HR mangers will have to build a standard structure that allows managing all different workforce alternatives. This way the organization maintains their competitive advantages. Recommendation and conclusions are given at the last of this paper.

  4. ALBUMIN AS A PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR FOR TWO DEADLY DISEASES OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Two of the most dreaded diseases of the 21st century are cancer and HIV. It brings shiver down the spines of a treating physician because of the complexity of the diseases. One important way of doing this is serum albumin which is most commonly used. In recent years, the role of malnutrition as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. As a result, it is reasonable to investigate whether serum albumin has utility as a prognostic indicator of cancer survival in cancer. This review summarizes all available epidemiological literature on the association between pretreatment serum albumin levels and survival in different types of cancer. Pretreatment serum albumin levels provide useful prognostic significance in cancer.

  5. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  6. Immunomics: a 21st century approach to vaccine development for complex pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Karina P; Doolan, Denise L

    2016-02-01

    Immunomics is a relatively new field of research which integrates the disciplines of immunology, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics to characterize the host-pathogen interface. Herein, we discuss how rapid advances in molecular immunology, sophisticated tools and molecular databases are facilitating in-depth exploration of the immunome. In our opinion, an immunomics-based approach presides over traditional antigen and vaccine discovery methods that have proved ineffective for highly complex pathogens such as the causative agents of malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis that have evolved genetic and immunological host-parasite adaptations over time. By using an integrative multidisciplinary approach, immunomics offers enormous potential to advance 21st century antigen discovery and rational vaccine design against complex pathogens such as the Plasmodium parasite.

  7. Preface: Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaristi, J. I.; Alducin, M.

    2016-09-01

    This special issue contains the Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21). The conference series started in 1976 and focuses on fundamental aspects of interactions of atoms, molecules, clusters and ions with surfaces. The main research themes are (a) energy loss of particles at surfaces, (b) charge exchange between particles and surfaces, (c) electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces, (d) ion induced desorption, electronic and kinetic sputtering, (e) defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring, (f) laser induced desorption, (g) scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters, (h) sputtering, fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS, and (i) cluster/molecular and highly charged ion beams.

  8. Social development of 21st century and reform of China's elementary education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation.The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society.The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present education.For 10 years,the"New Elementary Education",based on the background of Chinese society,and the demand for school education reform clearly puts forward the necessity of education reform in the period of social transformation,in other words,education should achieve its transformational development.This paper presents a deep research of globalization and informationalization,which are the background of Chinese social transformation.On this basis,the paper examines the implication of"school transformational reform"of the present-day Chinese elementary education,and finally proposes some steps for achieving"school transformational reform".

  9. Using Virtual Simulations in the Design of 21st Century Space Science Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Sonya L.; Alves, Jeffery R.

    1996-01-01

    Space Technology has been rapidly increasing in the past decade. This can be attributed to the future construction of the International Space Station (ISS). New innovations must constantly be engineered to make ISS the safest, quality, research facility in space. Since space science must often be gathered by crew members, more attention must be geared to the human's safety and comfort. Virtual simulations are now being used to design environments that crew members can live in for long periods of time without harmful effects to their bodies. This paper gives a few examples of the ergonomic design problems that arise on manned space flights, and design solutions that follow NASA's strategic commitment to customer satisfaction. The conclusions show that virtual simulations are a great asset to 21st century design.

  10. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikkemien Vertonghen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country (i.e., France, Flanders (Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic. Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context.

  11. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  12. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These papers comprise a peer-review selection of presentations by authors from NASA, LPI industry, and academia at the Second Conference (April 1988) on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, sponsored by the NASA Office of Exploration and the Lunar Planetary Institute. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics covered by this volume include (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon, (2) lunar base site selection, (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats, and (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  13. The second conference on lunar bases and space activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles in this report.

  14. XBT effects on the global ocean observation system in the early 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Soon; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2016-04-01

    During the early 21st century, we have experienced a transition period of global ocean observing system from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) to Argo. There has been decreasing of XBT observations, but significant increasing of Argo profiles in the global ocean. However, evaluation of the XBT observation system during this period has little been presented. Here, this study investigates the XBT effects on the global ocean observing system by using GFDL data assimilation model. After Argo period, the amount of heat content correction by XBT assimilation is significantly weaken especially in the upper ocean, but it remains in the deeper oceans below 700 m depth within a dynamic model system. This study also confirms that although XBT only provides temperature observations mostly in the upper 700 m of the northern hemisphere, it can affects both temperature and salinity fields of data assimilation system especially in the deep and southern oceans.

  15. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  16. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  17. 21-st century precipitation estimation in the Danube middle and lower basin by EVT modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Stanciu, A.

    2010-09-01

    The simulated precipitation for the 20-th and 21-st centuries at 10 stations from the Danube middle and lower basin are analysed together with the daily pressure values at sea level from March, April, May for 42 years obtained from the four GCMs (CNRM, ECHAM5-MPI, EGMAM and IPSL). For the 20-th century the period 1958-1999 was considered and for the 21-st century 2 periods of 42 years were selected: 2009-2050 and 2051-2092 from the A1B scenario. In the pressure field, the predictors from three key zones were selected as being significant for the precipitation behavior from the Danube middle and lower basin. A nonhomogeneus hidden Markov model (NHMM) with 7 states was applied for the precipitation from 10 stations, for observations and also for each of the considered scenarios, with 3 predictors defined in the key points. The precipitation values were corrected by bias and the predictors were the same for all models, calculated from pressure values corrected by bias. After the modelling of the daily precipitation through a NHMM, a simulation was done on 100 achievements each one with 42 years and 90 days each year. In this way, the daily maximum precipitation amounts during spring from 4200 years were selected. This simulation was necessary in order to increase the statistical selection volume necessary within the modelling through distribution of the extreme values. From these precipitation simulated with NHMM for 4200 years, the maximum daily amounts during spring were selected and then modelled with a generalized distribution of the extreme values (GEV). For the modelling by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) the daily precipitation values which exceed a certain threshold were selected. After testing several thresholds values, it was concluded that the most adequate is the 50 mm threshold for each of the 10 considered stations. Also it was made an average of the precipitation on the 10 considered stations and from the analysis of the different thresholds it

  18. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek

    2006-01-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  19. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.;

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal...... usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Risk assessment in the exposed human population would...... focus on avoiding significant perturbations in these toxicity pathways. Computational systems biology models would be implemented to determine the dose-response models of perturbations of pathway function. Extrapolation of in vitro results to in vivo human blood and tissue concentrations would be based...

  20. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  1. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five GCMs and four emission scenarios (RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime, has a substantial influence on future hydrological drought characteristics.

  2. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  3. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  4. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  5. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  6. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day−1, while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day−1) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked. (letters)

  7. Rising methane emissions in response to climate change in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to examine the methane (CH4) exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in Northern Eurasia from 1971 to 2100. Multiple model simulations using various wetland extent datasets and climate change scenarios were conducted to assess the uncertainty of CH4 fluxes, including emissions and consumption. On the basis of these simulations we estimate the current net emissions in the region to be 20–24 Tg CH4 yr−1 (1 Tg = 1012 g), two-thirds of which are emitted during the summer. In response to climate change over the 21st century, the annual CH4 emissions in the region are projected to increase at a rate of 0.06 Tg CH4 yr−1, which is an order of magnitude greater than that of annual CH4 consumption. Further, the annual net CH4 emissions are projected to increase by 6–51% under various wetland extent datasets and climate scenarios by the end of the 21st century, relative to present conditions. Spatial patterns of net CH4 emissions were determined by wetland extent. Net CH4 emissions were dominated by wetlands within boreal forests, grasslands and wet tundra areas in the region. Correlation analyses indicated that water table depth and soil temperature were the two most important environmental controls on both CH4 emissions and consumption in the region. Our uncertainty analyses indicated that the uncertainty in wetland extent had a larger effect on future CH4 emissions than the uncertainty in future climate. This study suggests that better characterization of the spatial distribution and the natural diversity of wetlands should be a research priority for quantifying CH4 fluxes in this region.

  8. On Recovery of the Ozone Layer in the Northern Hemisphere in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    Time recovery of the ozone layer in the latitudinal zones of 0°-85° N, 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N in the 21st century has been evaluated. Evaluations have been made using an interactive chemical dynamical radiative two-dimensional (2-D) model of the middle atmosphere Socrates (height 0-120 km). As initial data for calculations for the first time the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0 have been used. According to the scenario RCP 4.5 a stabilization of the radiative forcing must occur before the end of the twenty-first century, and according to the scenario RCP 6.0 - in the 22nd century. It has been shown that under both scenarios, the recovery of the ozone layer in the northern hemisphere (0°-85° N) can take place in 2035, and in zones of 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N does in 2020, 2030 and 2035, respectively. It has been also shown that after recovery the ozone layer will continue to grow and by the end of the 21st century will reach the stationary level exceeding undisturbed level of 1960 at 2.7% (scenario RCP 4.5) and 3.6% (scenario RCP 6.0) in zone 0°-85° N. It seems to be not smaller ecological threat than depletion of the ozone layer at the end of the twentieth century. The results obtained are in good agreement with the known literary data (see, for example, Table 3-3 in "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010"), indicating that the model Socrates and "concentration" scenarios of IPCC can successfully be used for such calculations.

  9. CESM-simulated 21st Century Changes in Large Scale Crop Water Requirements and Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, S.; Badger, A.; Drewniak, B. A.; O'Neill, B. C.; Ren, X.

    2014-12-01

    We assess potential changes in crop water requirements and corresponding yields relative to the late 20th century in major crop producing regions of the world by using the Community Land Model (CLM) driven with 21st century meteorology from RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The RCP4.5 simulation allows us to explore the potential for averted societal impacts when compared to the RCP8.5 simulation. We consider the possibility for increased yields and improved water use efficiency under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 due to the CO2 fertilization effect (also known as concentration-carbon feedback). We address uncertainty in the current understanding of plant CO2 fertilization by repeating the simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect. Simulations without CO2 fertilization represent the radiative effect of elevated CO2 (i.e., warming) without representing the physiological effect of elevated CO2 (enhanced carbon uptake and increased water use efficiency by plants during photosynthesis). Preliminary results suggest that some plants may suffer from increasing heat and drought in much of the world without the CO2 fertilization effect. On the other hand plants (especially C3) tend to grow more with less water when models include the CO2 fertilization effect. Performing 21st century simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect brackets the potential range of outcomes. In this work we use the CLM crop model, which includes specific crop types that differ from the model's default plant functional types in that the crops get planted, harvested, and potentially fertilized and irrigated according to algorithms that attempt to capture human management decisions. We use an updated version of the CLM4.5 that includes cotton, rice, and sugarcane, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring rye, as well as temperate and tropical maize and soybean.

  10. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  11. Role of Triphala in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda is considered as the "science of life," because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ′Triphala′ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM. It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry.

  12. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.

  13. How may the regional climate change redraw the European terrestrial wild mammals' living territory in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Julia; Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Hufnagel, Levente

    2013-04-01

    Climate is one of the abiotic factors, which controls primarily the range areas of wildlife. Animals tend to occupy geographical regions with climatic conditions, which are optimal to their specific needs. Due to the projected global warming and climate change the living territory of wild animals' may be reshaped in the future, some of the species may even suffer extinction. In this research we aim to estimate how climate change alters the distributions of European terrestrial mammal species and modifies biodiversity in the 21st century. For this purpose, first, hierarchical cluster analysis is applied to species for forming major groups. Climatic information is provided by using the E-OBS gridded database for 1961-1990. Then, carefully selecting typical species from the major groups it is possible to predict changes in area by displaying their climate indicator profile maps. For the range datasets the Atlas of European Mammals are analyzed, which was published in 1999 and is now widely used as a reference work. It contains data for pre-1970 and post-1970 presence of mammal species in Europe. Then, in order to assess future changes, available datasets of regional climate model results from the European project ENSEMBLES for 1951-2100 using the moderate SRES A1B emission scenario are considered with 25 km horizontal resolution. Simultaneous analysis of climate simulations and animal range datasets enables us to evaluate the vulnerability of European terrestrial mammal species to regional climate change. The results suggest that rapid change and significant decline in habitats and fauna redraw the wild animals' living territory and make them migrate northward.

  14. Executive skills 21: a forecast of leadership skills and associated competencies required by naval hospital administrators into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, J W; Finstuen, K

    1998-01-01

    Those in the Naval Medical Department are experiencing an exciting time of bridled chaos and creative change. Many mid-career officers are uncertain of the leadership behaviors and skills that will be necessary for successful managerial careers. Changes in the method of health care delivery of this nation combined with the reengineering of the armed forces' world-wide mission has driven military medical leaders to expand their professional skills, knowledge, and abilities beyond the clinical sciences. This research identifies the most critical domains in the science of health care administration and differentiates and ranks job skill, knowledge, and ability requirements that will be necessary for successful health care management into the 21st century. Top Naval hospital executives responded to two iterations of a Delphi inquiry. These medical leaders identified 106 unique issues that were content-analyzed into nine domains by a neutral, expert panel. Domains, in order of ranked importance, were leadership, health care delivery systems, cost-finance, technology, accessibility, professional staff relations, marketing, quality-risk management, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, hospital executives reviewed domain results and rated identified job requirements on their required job importance. The top-10 rated skills, knowledge, and abilities are reported. Results indicated that although a business orientation is needed for organizational survival, an emphasis on person-oriented skills, knowledge, and abilities is required for future success as a health care administrator in the Naval health care system. PMID:9465563

  15. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Gregg H; Barasch Andrei; Rindal Donald B; Fellows Jeffrey L; Voinea-Griffin Andreea; Safford Monika M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which co...

  16. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.

  17. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  18. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  19. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María-Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013, 17-21 September). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. Presentation at the Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop (http://www.kbs.uni-hann

  20. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…