The United States health care is presently challenged by a significant economic crisis. The purpose of this report is to introduce the readers of Medicinski Pregled to the root causes of this crisis and to explain the steps undertaken to reform health care in order to solve the crisis. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be of value, if only in small measure, to the shaping of health care in Serbia.
Landes, Scott D
This article correlates a particular experience of providing pastoral care for a person in a crisis situation with a particular understanding of the practice of pastoral care. Through engaging in correlative practical theology, it highlights the need for practicing discernment when providing pastoral care for persons utilizing narratives to work through crisis situations.
Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.
This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…
de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.
MacNeil-Vroomen, J.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Hout, H.P.J.; de Rooij, S.E.
Background: Crisis is a term frequently used in dementia care lacking a standardized definition. This article systematically reviews existing definitions of crisis in dementia care literature to create a standardized definition that can be utilized for research, policy and clinical practice.
Vroomen, Janet MacNeil; Bosmans, Judith E.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.
Crisis is a term frequently used in dementia care lacking a standardized definition. This article systematically reviews existing definitions of crisis in dementia care literature to create a standardized definition that can be utilized for research, policy and clinical practice. We systematically
Belli, M A
The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.
Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee
This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Houts, P S; Hu, T W; Henderson, R A; Cleary, P D; Tokuhata, G
Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small.
Houts, P.S.; Hu, T.W.; Henderson, R.A.; Cleary, P.D.; Tokuhata, G.
Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small
This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…
Oct 4, 2011 ... Background: Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study ...
Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie; Bondas, Terese
To describe and interpret the perceptions and experiences of caring of immigrant new mothers from an intercultural perspective in maternity care in Finland. Descriptive interpretive ethnography using Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A maternity ward in a medium-sized hospital in western Finland. Seventeen mothers from 12 countries took part in the study. Interviews, observations, and field notes were analyzed and interpreted. Most mothers were satisfied with the equal access to high-quality maternity care in Finland, although the stereotypes and the ethnocentric views of some nurses negatively influenced the experiences of maternity care for some mothers. The cultural background of the mother, as well as the Finnish maternity care culture, influenced the caring. Four patterns were found. There were differences between the expectations of the mothers and their Finnish maternity care experience of caring. Caring was related to the changing culture. Finnish maternity care traditions were sometimes imposed on the immigrant new mothers, which likewise influenced caring. However, the female nurse was seen as a professional friend, and the conflicts encountered were resolved, which in turn promoted caring. The influence of Finnish maternity care culture on caring is highlighted from the perspective of the mothers. Intercultural caring was described as universal, cultural, contextual, and unique. Women were not familiar with the Finnish health care system, and many immigrant mothers lacked support networks. The nurse/patient relationship could partly replace their support if the relationship was perceived as caring. The women had multiple vulnerabilities and were prone to isolation and discrimination if they experienced communication problems. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...
In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…
This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...
Sakaguchi, Hideya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kimura, En; Maeda, Yasushi; Uchino, Makoto
The purpose of this report was to investigate predictive factors that necessitate intensive care in myasthenic crisis (MC). We retrospectively reviewed MC patients at our institution and compared ICU and ward management groups. Higher MG-ADL scale scores, non-ocular initial symptoms, infection-triggered findings, and higher MGFA classification were observed more frequently in the ICU group. In patients with these prognostic factors, better outcomes may be obtained with early institution of intensive care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boomsma, J; Dingemans, C A; Dassen, T W
Crisis-oriented psychiatric home care is a recent development in the Dutch mental health care system. Because of the difference between psychiatric care in the home and in the hospital, an action research project was initiated. This project was directed at the nursing process and the nurses' role and skills in psychiatric home care. The main goal of the project was to describe and to standardize nursing diagnoses and interventions used in crisis-oriented and long-term psychiatric home care. The development of supporting methods of assessment and intervention were also important aspects of this project. In this article a crisis-oriented psychiatric home care programme and the first developmental research activities within this programme are described. To support the nursing process, the development of a nursing record and an assessment-format, based on Gordon's Functional Health Patterns (FHP), took place. By means of content analysis of 61 nursing records, the most frequently stated nursing diagnoses, based upon the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) taxonomy, were identified. The psychiatric diagnostic categories of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) were also collected. The most common categories found were those of mood disorders and schizophrenia or psychotic disorders. Seventy-five per cent of the nursing diagnoses showed up within four FHP: role-relationship, coping-stress tolerance, self-perception/self-concept and activity-exercise. The nursing diagnosis of 'ineffective individual coping' was stated most frequently. This is not surprising because of the similarities in the definitions of this nursing diagnosis and the concept of 'crisis' to which the psychiatric home care programme is oriented. Further research activities will be focused on standardization of nursing diagnosis and the interventions that nurses undertake in this type of care.
Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S
The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures.
The Handle with Care program helps schools help students who experience trauma. While at the scene of an event like a domestic violence call, drug raid, or car accident, law enforcement personnel determine the names and school of any children present. They notify that child's school to "handle ___ with care" the next day, and the school…
Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat
To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.
Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian
To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
DATA AND CHARTS DOCUMENT THE RISING NUMBER OF WORKING MOTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY AND THE INCREASING NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM U.S. DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, COMMERCE, AND HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. NEARLY 10 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WERE WORKERS IN MARCH 1966. MORE THAN ONE OF THREE…
Cordero, C E
Mercer-B&H survey shows employers, doctors, insurers, and workers do not understand each other's most basic concerns. For example, respondents disagree on such issues as how to define quality care and whether freedom to choose a doctor is important.
Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri
Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.
Seattle Community Coll., Washington.
This checklist was developed to determine the skills of day care home mothers before and after training as observed by a day care home educator. Areas evaluated are: Professional Attitude; Parent Relationships; Nutrition; Health and Safety; Baby Care; Preparing the Teaching Environment; Guidance; Teaching Techniques, Language and Literature; Art;…
Aug 4, 2016 ... thermia, hypoglycemia and nosocomial sepsis in neo- nates with birth weight ... for care for preterm babies with few neonatal care units, located often in .... Fig 2: Reasons for not practicing Kangaroo Mother Care in facilities of ...
Information obtained included biodata, age and sex of last baby, social class, place of antenatal care and delivery, and cord care practices. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and ten mothers participated in the study. 71.9% were of high social class. Over 80% received antenatal care in ...
Background: data from different studies showed health care behaviour and estimated per capita health care expenditure for the general population, but the specific data for infants at different levels of care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe mothers' health service utilization during pregnancy and ...
Craig, Brett J; Kabylbekova, Zhanar
Maternity care in the developing nation of Kazakhstan has been characterized as low in quality, with mothers having low levels of health knowledge. Some nongovernmental organizations have been offering childbirth preparation courses to address the lack of knowledge and encourage participation and decision making among expecting mothers. The participants of this study, however, report that information is more for preparation than for decision making, and that the relational aspects of their care, namely, emotional support and trust, are most important. This emphasis reflects the cultural and historical influences that need to be considered when adopting foreign models of care and health education.
Spanager, Lene; Østergaard, Doris; Lippert, Anne; Nielsen, Kurt; Dieckmann, Peter
Studies show that human errors contribute to up to 70% of mistakes and mishaps in health care. Crisis resource management, CRM, is a conceptual framework for analysing and training individual and team skills in order to prevent and manage errors. Different CRM training methods, e.g. simulation, are in use and the literature emphasises the need of training the full team or organisation for maximal effect. CRM training has an effect on skill improvement, but few studies have shown an effect on patient outcome. However, these studies show great variability of quality.
Full Text Available Abstract Retrenchment of government services has occurred across a wide range of sectors and regions. Care services, in particular, have been clawed away in the wake of fiscal policies of cost containment and neoliberal policies centred on individual responsibility and market autonomy. Such policies have included the deinstitutionalisation of care from hospitals and clinics, and early discharge from hospital, both of which are predicated on the notion that care can be provided informally within families and communities. In this paper we examine the post-birth "care crisis" that new mothers face in one region of Canada. Method The data are drawn from a larger study of social determinants of pregnant and new mothers' health in Victoria, Canada. Mixed methods interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of women at three points in time. This paper reports data on sample characteristics, length of stay in hospital and health service gaps. This data is contextualised via a more in-depth analysis of qualitative responses from Wave 2 (4-6 weeks postpartum. Results Out results show a significant portion of participants desired services that were not publically available to them during the post-birth period. Among those who reported a gap in care, the two most common barriers were: cost and unavailability of home care supports. Participants' open-ended responses revealed many positive features of the public health care system but also gaps in services, and economic barriers to receiving the care they wanted. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to recent neoliberal reforms. Discussion & conclusions While Canada may be praised for its public provision of maternity care, mothers' reports of gaps in care during the early postpartum period and increasing use of private doulas is a worrying trend. To the extent that individual mothers or families rely on the market for care provision, issues of equity and quality of care are
North Carolina State Dept. of Human Resources, Raleigh. Div. of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services.
This document consists of a combination of two separately published fact sheets, one on crisis nursery care for children at risk of abuse or neglect and one on respite care for families of children with disabilities or chronic illness. The fact sheet on crisis nursery care presents background information on the federal role in developing crisis…
Aug 3, 2017 ... Objective: To identify the gaps in the knowledge and practices of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers at Juba. Teaching Hospital .... Baby is kept warm after delivery by: -Skin to skin contact. 128. 33.3. -Wrapping baby in a cloth. 347. 90.4. Duration between birth and first bath: -Hours. 169. 44.1.
Alubo, S O
It has been said that in all societies but especially in the developing countries, health care is inextricably linked to a nation's political and economic system. Medical underdevelopment is a necessary feature of economic underdevelopment. Health care in Nigeria has traditionally been conceptualized as an autonomous, self-determining phenomenon without links to the wider society; and morbidity and mortality problems explained as internal factors, i.e., inadequate hospitals, clinics, equipment, and materials, and a lack of the necessary personnel. The structural underpinnings of these internal problems are assumed inconsequential and not addressed, and so is the international dimension. This essay goes beyond the modernization paradigm by locating Nigeria's health and sickness problems in the context of underdevelopment, demonstrating how health care is located in the context of Nigeria's political economy. 1st, Nigeria's position within the capitalist world economy is examined along with the structure of power and privileges. Against this background, prevalent morbidity and mortality patterns, and the policies to combat these, are discussed. The current health care crisis, it is argued, must be located within the framework of underdevelopment, and solutions are inseparable from overcoming present structural arrangements.
Cheng, Adam; Donoghue, Aaron; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Eppich, Walter
To review the essential elements of crisis resource management and provide a resource for instructors by describing how to use simulation-based training to teach crisis resource management principles in pediatric acute care contexts. A MEDLINE-based literature source. OUTLINE OF REVIEW: This review is divided into three main sections: Background, Principles of Crisis Resource Management, and Tools and Resources. The background section provides the brief history and definition of crisis resource management. The next section describes all the essential elements of crisis resource management, including leadership and followership, communication, teamwork, resource use, and situational awareness. This is followed by a review of evidence supporting the use of simulation-based crisis resource management training in health care. The last section provides the resources necessary to develop crisis resource management training using a simulation-based approach. This includes a description of how to design pediatric simulation scenarios, how to effectively debrief, and a list of potential assessment tools that instructors can use to evaluate crisis resource management performance during simulation-based training. Crisis resource management principles form the foundation for efficient team functioning and subsequent error reduction in high-stakes environments such as acute care pediatrics. Effective instructor training is required for those programs wishing to teach these principles using simulation-based learning. Dissemination and integration of these principles into pediatric critical care practice has the potential for a tremendous impact on patient safety and outcomes.
Coley, Sheryl L; Zapata, Jasmine Y; Schwei, Rebecca J; Mihalovic, Glen Ellen; Matabele, Maya N; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Cynthie K
African American mothers and other mothers of historically underserved populations consistently have higher rates of adverse birth outcomes than White mothers. Increasing prenatal care use among these mothers may reduce these disparities. Most prenatal care research focuses on prenatal care adequacy rather than concepts of quality. Even less research examines the dual perspectives of African American mothers and prenatal care providers. In this qualitative study, we compared perceptions of prenatal care quality between African American and mixed race mothers and prenatal care providers. Prenatal care providers (n = 20) and mothers who recently gave birth (n = 19) completed semistructured interviews. Using a thematic analysis approach and Donabedian's conceptual model of health care quality, interviews were analyzed to identify key themes and summarize differences in perspectives between providers and mothers. Mothers and providers valued the tailoring of care based on individual needs and functional patient-provider relationships as key elements of prenatal care quality. Providers acknowledged the need for knowing the social context of patients, but mothers and providers differed in perspectives of "culturally sensitive" prenatal care. Although most mothers had positive prenatal care experiences, mothers also recalled multiple complications with providers' negative assumptions and disregard for mothers' options in care. Exploring strategies to strengthen patient-provider interactions and communication during prenatal care visits remains critical to address for facilitating continuity of care for mothers of color. These findings warrant further investigation of dual patient and provider perspectives of culturally sensitive prenatal care to address the service needs of African American and mixed race mothers. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cupina, Denise D; Wand, Anne P F; Phelan, Emma; Atkin, Rona
The objective of this study was to describe functioning and clinical activities of the St George Acute Care Team and how it compares to the typical crisis resolution model of care. Descriptive data including demographics, sources of referral, type of clinical intervention, length of stay, diagnoses and outcomes were collected from records of all patients who were discharged from the team during a 10 week period. There were 677 referrals. The team's functions consisted of post-discharge follow-up (31%), triage and intake (30%), case management support (23%) and acute community based assessment and treatment (16%). The average length of stay was 5 days. The majority of patients were diagnosed with a mood (23%) or a psychotic (25%) disorder. Points of contrast to other reported crisis resolution teams include shorter length of stay, relatively less focus on direct clinical assessment and more telephone follow-up and triage. St George Acute Care Team provides a variety of clinical activities. The focus has shifted away from the original model of crisis resolution care to meet local and governmental requirements. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Loft, Lisbeth Trille G; Hogan, Dennis
The aim of this study is to introduce the concept of care capital and provide an example of its application in the context of childcare and maternal employment using the currently most suitable American data. We define care capital as the nexus of available, accessible, and experienced resources for care. The American setting is an ideal context to investigate the linkages between child care capital and maternal employment as the patterns of child care use tend to be more diverse compared to other national contexts. In the presented application of care capital, we examine mothers' entry to paid employment during the first 36 weeks following a birth, and its association with the experience of non-parental child care use before labour force entry. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort ( N = 10,400 mothers), results from discrete-time hazard models show that use of non-parental child care prior to employment is independently and positively associated with entry into maternal employment. This finding applies both to first-time mothers ( n = 3,800) and to mothers of multiple children ( n = 6,600). Although data currently available for investigating child care capital are limited with regard to care availability and access, our results suggests that childcare availability, access, and use, understood as a form of capital alongside economic and human capital, should be considered in future studies of maternal employment.
Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie L. H.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lake, Alison M.
Linking at-risk callers to ongoing mental health care is a key goal of crisis hotline interventions that has not often been addressed in evaluations of hotlines' effectiveness. We conducted telephone interviews with 376 suicidal and 278 nonsuicidal crisis callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) to assess rates of mental…
Fatemeh Zahra Karimi
Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P
Hay, William W
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from all causes of diabetes is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and is increasing in incidence, particularly as type 2 diabetes continues to increase worldwide. Despite advances in perinatal care, infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) remain at risk for a multitude of physiologic, metabolic, and congenital complications such as preterm birth, macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia and hyperviscosity, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly of the central nervous system. Overt type 1 diabetes around conception produces marked risk of embryopathy (neural tube defects, cardiac defects, caudal regression syndrome), whereas later in gestation, severe and unstable type 1 maternal diabetes carries a higher risk of intrauterine growth restriction, asphyxia, and fetal death. IDMs born to mothers with type 2 diabetes are more commonly obese (macrosomic) with milder conditions of the common problems found in IDMs. IDMs from all causes of GDM also are predisposed to later-life risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Care of the IDM neonate needs to focus on ensuring adequate cardiorespiratory adaptation at birth, possible birth injuries, maintenance of normal glucose metabolism, and close observation for polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and feeding intolerance.
In many countries, women are poorly nourished and have a high rate of reproductive morbidity. However, during war and other disaster situations, women and children become even more vulnerable. Most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people are women and children. Many women refugees are malnourished and during the emergency and exodus phases, many are starving. Severe malnutrition in a pregnant woman causes fetal malnutrition. Infants born to a malnourished mother are of low birth weight and will grow up malnourished if they stay in the same deprived environment as their mothers. Households headed by women tend to obtain the least food and the children of such households tend to be poorly nourished. Many of the problems and obstacles women face during peacetime and non-emergency situations are simply exacerbated during disasters and war. It may not be possible to head off disasters which result in massive social upheaval, but preparations can nonetheless be made to mollify conditions once disaster hits. Responsible organizations and agencies should research the situation and plan for the worst. This paper discusses how women lose social and economic power during periods of armed conflict, the often lack of even basic reproductive health care during armed conflict and emergencies, coping in an emergency, and living in a refugee camp.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's evaluation of hospital postpartum care has consistently been more negative than their assessment of other types of maternity care. The need to further explore what is wrong with postpartum care, in order to stimulate changes and improvements, has been stressed. The principal aim of this study was to describe women's negative experiences of hospital postpartum care, expressed in their own words. Characteristics of the women who spontaneously gave negative comments about postpartum care were compared with those who did not. Methods Data were taken from a population-based prospective longitudinal study of 2783 Swedish-speaking women surveyed at three time points: in early pregnancy, at two months, and at one year postpartum. At the end of the two follow-up questionnaires, women were asked to add any comment they wished. Content analysis of their statements was performed. Results Altogether 150 women gave negative comments about postpartum care, and this sample was largely representative of the total population-based cohort. The women gave a diverse and detailed description of their experiences, for instance about lack of opportunity to rest and recover, difficulty in getting individualised information and breastfeeding support, and appropriate symptom management. The different statements were summarised in six categories: organisation and environment, staff attitudes and behaviour, breastfeeding support, information, the role of the father and attention to the mother. Conclusion The findings of this study underline the need to further discuss and specify the aims of postpartum care. The challenge of providing high-quality follow-up after childbirth is discussed in the light of a development characterised by a continuous reduction in the length of hospital stay, in combination with increasing public demands for information and individualised care.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-Yeh; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chang, Heng-Hao
Whether employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID) have different experiences with reconciliation between care and work has rarely been explored. A survey was conducted in a county in Taiwan and 487 mothers aged younger than 65 and having a child with ID were interviewed face to face at their homes to explore whether there are different factors related to the reconciliation between care and work among employed and nonemployed mothers. Except for the common ground of mothers' health and care demands, logistic regression revealed work flexibility and care support were important for employed mothers. In contrast, the success of reconciliation for nonemployed mothers was determined by their individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, family income). Reconciliation policies for mothers with different employment statuses need to use different strategies.
Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine
Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…
Strauss, Ronald P; van Aalst, John A; Fox, Lynn; Stein, Margot; Moses, Michael; Cassell, Cynthia H
To examine social issues in the conduct of cleft and craniofacial care through relief programs in disrupted crisis contexts. Social, health policy, and ethical analyses. At best, craniofacial team care is multidisciplinary, coordinated, and sustained, requiring a long-term relationship between team members, patients, and families. Disasters and societal turmoil interrupt such relationships, causing craniofacial care to become a secondary concern. Providing craniofacial team care in a crisis setting requires rebuilding disrupted coordination and communication. Crisis relief care involves a complex set of expectations and responsibilities and raises issues such as (1) quality assurance, infection control, appropriate standards of care, and follow-up care/continuity; (2) equity of access to services and clinical ethics in the context of war and/or deprivation; (3) training of visitors in the local nation or site; (4) disciplinary composition of teams, interprofessional communication/rivalry, and credentials of clinicians; (5) ownership of the site and local visitor relations; (6) fundraising and marketing strategies; and (7) ethical issues in the doctor-patient relationship. Specific ethical standards for international cleft and craniofacial care delivery also apply to domestic and global crisis relief contexts. Guidance on issues related to professional experience, informed consent, and continuity of care will help care providers address social and ethical issues raised in crisis relief programs. This paper proposes that the Position Paper of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA) on International Treatment Programs should be used as a template to develop and disseminate a set of standards that apply to crisis relief.
Houts, P.S.; Tokuhata, G.K.; Bratz, J.; Bartholomew, M.J.; Sheffer, K.W.
Five years after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the mental health of women who had been pregnant and living within 10 miles of Three Mile Island at the time of the accident was similar to that of women from the same area who became pregnant after the accident. Ratings of the development of the two groups of children when they were 5 years old were also similar. However, women who were pregnant during the crisis and had been extremely disturbed about their pregnancies rated their children's health as poorer than did the women who were pregnant later
Hatfield, Linda; Schwoebel, Ann; Lynyak, Corinne
In the United States, approximately 100,000 infants are born to diabetic mothers each year. If diabetes in pregnancy is uncontrolled, the diversity of resulting health problems can have a profound effect on the embryo, the fetus, and the neonate. These infants are at risk for a multitude of physiologic, metabolic, and congenital complications such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia and hyperviscosity, cardiomegaly, and central nervous system disruption. Preconception control of glucose metabolism throughout the trajectory of a woman's pregnancy is a significant factor in decreasing the adverse impact of diabetes on the fetus and newborn. Meticulous attention to neonatal glucose levels, thorough physical examination, and precise diagnosis are prerequisites to appropriate care for the neonate.
Lester, Helen; Tritter, Jonathan Q; Sorohan, Helen
More than 30% of patients with serious mental illness in the United Kingdom now receive all their health care solely from primary care. This study explored the process of managing acute mental health crises from the dual perspective of patients and primary care health professionals. Eighteen focus groups involving 45 patients, 39 general practitioners, and eight practice nurses were held between May and November 2002 in six Primary Care Trusts across the British West Midlands. The topic guide explored perceptions of gold standard care, current issues and critical incidents in receiving/providing care, and ideas on improving services. Themes relevant to the management of acute crisis included issues of process, such as access, advocacy, communication, continuity, and coordination of care; the development of more structured care that might reduce the need for crisis responses; and issues raised by the development of a more structured approach to care. Access to services is a complicated yet crucial feature of managing care in a crisis, with patients identifying barriers at the level of primary care and health professionals at the interface with secondary care. The development of more structured systems as a solution may generate its own ethical and pragmatic challenges.
Cacciatore, Joanne; Bushfield, Suzanne
More children die as a result of stillbirth than all other causes of infant deaths combined (Ananth, Shiliang, Kinzler, and Kramer, 2005; Goldenberg, Kirby, and Culhane, 2004; Froen, 2005; National Institute of Health, 2004); yet, mothers experiencing stillbirth are often left without support afterwards (Kubler-Ross, 2004; Fahey-McCarthy, 2003; Fletcher 2002; Saddler, 1987; DeFrain, 1986; Kirkley-Best & Kellner, 1982). Despite social work's growing involvement in care at the end of life, parents of stillborn children have not experienced consistent, relevant, and competent professional care in coping with the tragedy of death. Forty-seven women between the ages of 19 and 51 were recruited through nonprofit agencies that provide bereavement care to grieving families. Results of this qualitative study suggest that stillbirth is emotionally complex with long-lasting symptoms of grief and significant struggles to find meaning. The findings also support the need for perceived psychosocial and spiritual support from professional caregivers, family, and friends. The women's own experiences argue for comprehensive approaches to support the grief and loss of stillbirth, and for the importance of social work involvement in both immediate and longer term interventions.
Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa
The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…
Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a
Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen
Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)
Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth weight infants in a rural South African hospital. A N Rodriguez, M Nel, H Dippenaar, E A Prinsloo. Abstract. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the outcome of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in low birth weight infants at a community hospital. Methods ...
Hašková, Hana; Dudová, Radka
Roč. 27, č. 1 (2017), s. 47-63 ISSN 0959-6801 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07898S; GA ČR GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech Republic * economic crisis * precarious work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.159, year: 2016 http://ejd.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/10/13/0959680116672279.full.pdf+html
Barnes, Jacqueline; Leach, Penelope; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
This paper investigates non-maternal infant care in the first year of life, examining the relationships between child care ideals, attitudinal, sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of mothers at three months postpartum and their child care experiences at 10 months. Predictors of child care use, satisfaction with non-maternal care and…
Full Text Available The effects of financial crisis are strongly felt in Romania, which already face with asignificant slowdown in economic growth or even economic recession. The current and internationalsituation remains still difficult, and requires high budget constraints. Under these conditions, thehealth system in Romania has become one of the most inefficient in Europe, mainly characterized bylack of transparency in the allocation of funds and inefficiency in resource use. The lack of clear andcoherent criteria to evaluate the performance of health institutions results in a difficultimplementation of efficient managerial systems to reward the efficient manager.
High-reliability organisations are those, such as within the aviation industry, which operate in complex, hazardous environments and yet despite this are able to balance safety and effectiveness. Crew resource management (CRM) training is used to improve the non-technical skills of aviation crews and other high-reliability teams. To date, CRM within the health sector has been restricted to use with "crisis teams" and "crisis events". The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the application of CRM to acute, ward-based multidisciplinary health care teams and more broadly to argue for the repositioning of health-based CRM to address effective everyday function, of which "crisis events" form just one part. It is argued that CRM methodology could be applied to evaluate ward-based health care teams and design non-technical skills training to increase their efficacy, promote better patient outcomes, and facilitate a range of positive personal and organisational level outcomes.
Full Text Available This paper uses the idea of 'competitive care' to explore how the mothering projects of nanny and au pair employers and the carers they employ can become inter-twined and yet may also be in conflict or competition. The paper draws on work by Cameron Lynne Macdonald (2010 and Joan Tronto (2006 to make two arguments about the inter-twining of current practices of competitive mothering and the employment of nannies and au pairs. First, practices of competitive mothering can underpin the demand for paid, privatized care in the home (such as nannies and au pairs and involve middle class / advantaged women using their position to raise their children in ways which are specifically designed to ensure and enhance their children's future social status and income. This can be at the cost of the mothering projects (and children of the women they employ. Second, one factor which underlies the prevalence of competitive mothering within certain middle class families is the conflict that working mothers feel about their roles and their strong desire to address these conflicts by showing that their children do not suffer because of their employment. The emphasis on care for children as mothering, rather than parenting – or better still 'care' – underpins this sense of conflict. The idea that it is mothers, rather than parents or society at large, who are delegating care is an important element in the organisation of care, and the relationships with carers that ensue.
Abhulimhen-Iyoha, B I; Ibadin, M O
Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study locale. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence cord care practices among mothers in Benin City. The study subjects included 497 mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby/Immunization Clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Edo State, between July and August 2009. A structured questionnaire served as an instrument to extract information on their biodata and possible determinants of cord care practices. Significantly older women (P=0.023), educated mothers (P=0.029), and those who had male babies (P=0.013) practiced beneficial cord stump care practices. Beneficial cord care practice increased with increasing maternal educational status. The best predictors of beneficial cord care practices are maternal level of education (P=0.029) and infant's sex (P=0.013). The use of harmful cord care practices was more common among mothers who delivered outside the Teaching hospitals. Most (71.2%) of the mothers were aware of hygienic/beneficial cord care. The choices of cord care methods eventually practiced by mothers were influenced mainly by the disposition of nurses (51.3%), participants' mothers (32.0%), and their mothers-in-law (5.8%). There was no significant relationship between cord care practice on one hand and maternal parity, tribe, and socioeconomic classes on the other. The need for female education is again emphasized. The current findings strongly justify the need for public enlightenment programs, using the mass media and health talks in health facilities, targeting not only women of reproductive age but also secondary audience like their mothers, mothers-in-law, nurses, and attendants at health facilities
Uhm, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Hee Soon
To identify the effects of a mother-nurse partnership programme based on the core components of information sharing, negotiation and participation in care. Specifically, we examined the programme's effects on parental satisfaction, parental self-efficacy, perceived partnership and anxiety, as well as infants' time to reach full oral feeding and length of postoperative hospital stay, following cardiac surgery on infants at a paediatric intensive care unit with a restrictive visiting policy. Quasi-experimental study. An analysis of covariance was used to investigate between-group differences while ensuring homogeneity. A paediatric cardiac ICU. Parental satisfaction, parental self-efficacy, perceived partnership and anxiety. Data from 37 and 36 mothers in the control and experimental groups respectively, were analysed. Compared with controls, experimental group mothers reported significantly higher parental satisfaction (F = 39.29, p partnership (F = 62.30, p < .001) and lower anxiety (F = 12.93, p < .001), upon transfer to the ward. Infant outcomes did not differ between the groups. This programme appears to facilitate collaboration between nurses and mothers and positively influences mothers' emotional and cognitive outcomes following infants' cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
De Simone, Gustavo G
Argentina is a large South American country with a high prevalence of chronic disease-related mortality and a clear need for implementation of palliative care. Primary concerns related to palliative care are cultural, socio-economic and educational. Increasing poverty, patients and families receiving inadequate information about their diagnosis or prognosis, drug availability and costs, and insufficient knowledge by health care providers are obstacles to palliative care. Palliative care programs are developing throughout the country and methods by which they are meeting their needs are described. Several Argentinean palliative care initiatives are described and the role of the Pallium Latinomérica training program is discussed.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo
In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...
Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.
Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298
Michael A Schillaci
Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.
Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; Kestenberg, Célia Caldeira Fonseca; Silva, Alexandre Vicente
Objective: Testing and validating the application of Intervention in Crisis theory as an approach in mental health on HIV/AIDS patients care who are interned at a general hospital. Method: Help Interview has been accomplished as an activity for Mental Health subject according to an applied guide by graduation in nursing students in order to identify this illness psycho-social repercussion and draft therapeutic plan for patients under their care. The outcomes were the reports results presented...
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
The current economic crisis in Europe has challenged the basis of the economic model that currently prevails in much of the industrialised world. It has revealed a system that is managed not for the benefit of the people but rather for the corporations and the small elite who lead them, and which is clearly unsustainable in its present form. Yet, there is a hidden consequence of this system: an unfolding crisis in health care, driven by the greed of corporations whose profit-seeking model is also failing. Proponents of commodifying healthcare simultaneously argue that the cost of providing care for ageing populations is unaffordable while working to create demand for their health care products among those who are essentially healthy. Will healthcare be the next profit-fuelled investor bubble? In this paper, we call on health professionals to heed the warnings from the economic crisis and, rather than stand by while a crisis unfolds, act now to redirect increasingly market-oriented health systems to serve the common good.
Full Text Available The current economic crisis in Europe has challenged the basis of the economic model that currently prevails in much of the industrialised world. It has revealed a system that is managed not for the benefit of the people but rather for corporations and the small elite who lead them and which is clearly unsustainable in its present form. Yet, there is a hidden consequence of this system: an unfolding crisis in health care, driven by the greed of corporations whose profit-seeking model is also failing. Proponents of commodifying healthcare simultaneously argue that the cost of providing care for ageing populations is unaffordable while working to create demand for their health care products among those who are essentially healthy. Will healthcare be the next profit-fuelled investor bubble? In this paper we call on health professionals to heed the warnings from the economic crisis and, rather than stand by while a crisis unfolds, act now to redirect increasingly market-oriented health systems to serve the common good.
Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila
To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.
Objectives: The study examined the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its duration; complementary feeding and care practices of the mothers. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred nursing mothers were randomly selected from the ten communities that make up the area under study. Data were collected using a ...
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao
Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…
Full Text Available Background: Mothers caring for children with disability experience a number of challenges. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the challenges that mothers who cared for children with cerebral palsy (CP living in Zambia experienced. Methods: During a qualitative study the experiences of 16 conveniently sampled mothers of children with CP, from the Ndola district in Zambia, were explored by means of interviews. The responses were thematically analysed. All the necessary ethical considerations were upheld. Results: Mothers experienced social isolation and marital problems, as well as negative attitudes from family, friends, community members and health care professionals. The physical environment created access challenges because of a lack of sidewalks, ramps, functioning lifts and small indoor spaces. Conclusion: Mothers of children with CP feel socially isolated owing to a lack of support from family, community members, and health care providers. This social isolation was exacerbated by attitudes of others towards the mothers; it was felt that mothers were responsible for their children’s condition. Mothers also experienced marital problems as a result of having a child with CP.
Vinkenburg, C.J.; Van Engen, M.L.; Coffeng, J.; Dikkers, J.S.E.
Bias against mothers in employment decisions has often been explained by the assumption that mothers are less committed and competent than fathers and nonparents. In a simulated employment context, we studied whether this "motherhood bias" can be attenuated by different ways of dividing care
To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care (i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices, modes of spread of hepatitis B, C, and HIV) among mothers with children under five years of age in an urban and a rural area of Karachi and changes in the same after community-based health education The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase 600 mothers with children under five years of age were selected at random (300 urban and 300 rural) for the evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices and modes of spread of Hepatitis B, C and HIV. In the second phase, health education on the same components of primary health care was given by lady health workers of the area to the same community for one month. Data of 200 mothers (100 urban and 100 rural) was re-evaluated after three months, to find out if there was any change, in the same. All the three areas were given scores and grade. In this study, 58% were Sindhi speaking. The mean age of mothers was 29 years. Majority (91% urban and 45% rural mothers) had access to one or more media channels. The knowledge of media-based primary health care was poor (score=10.09) among all mothers but attitude (score=8.07) and practice (score=11.09) was good for the same in more than 70% mothers in both communities. In the second phase of the study, it was found that the knowledge of primary health care had not improved but attitude and practice was good as observed earlier in both communities. Despite the national media based health education of Primary Health Care for decades, knowledge of primary health care was poor among mothers (urban and rural) but attitude and practice was good. Age and exposure to one or more media channels was found
Cleveland, Lisa Marie
The admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has the potential to cause significant stress for the mothers of these infants. Researchers have found that nurse-mother communication has the potential to either aid or hinder the mother's adaptation to the NICU environment. These communication patterns are relatively complex in nature and therefore warrant further investigation. Symbolic interactionism (SI) is a theoretical framework that offers the potential to direct such an investigation. The purpose of this article is to examine nurse-mother communication patterns in the NICU through the theoretical lens of SI.
Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam
Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007-2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007-2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers' prenatal midwife consultations, their length of hospital stay at birth, and the number of home visits by trained nurses after hospital discharge. We find that this reduction in care around birth increased the number of child and mother general practitioner (GP) contacts in the first month. As we do not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers-especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits-are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Robert S; Porter, Michael E
U.S. health care costs currently exceed 17% of GDP and continue to rise. One fundamental reason that providers are unable to reverse the trend is that they don't understand what it costs to deliver patient care or how those costs compare with outcomes. To put it bluntly, few health care providers measure the actual costs for treating a given patient with a given medical condition over a full cycle of care, or compare the costs they incur with the outcomes they achieve. What isn't measured cannot be managed or improved, and this is all too true in health care, where poor costing systems mean that effective and efficient providers go unrewarded, and inefficient ones have little incentive to improve. But all this can be remedied by exploring the concept of value in health care and carefully measuring costs. This article describes a new way to analyze costs that uses patients and their conditions--not organizational units or narrow diagnostic treatment groups--as the fundamental unit of analysis for measuring costs and outcomes. The new approach, called time-driven activity-cased costing, is currently being implemented in pilots at the Head and Neck Center at MD Anderson, the Cleft Lip and Palate Program at Children's Hospital in Boston, and units performing knee replacements at Schön Klinik in Germany and Brigham & Women's Hospital in Boston. As providers and payors better understand costs, they will be positioned to achieve a true "bending of the cost curve" from within the system, not in response to top-down mandates. Accurate costing also unlocks a whole cascade of opportunities, such as process improvement, better organization of care, and new reimbursement approaches that will accelerate the pace of innovation and value creation.
Home care has become a central component of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, displacing caregiving work onto women. While increasing interest has been paid to HIV/AIDS care with a focus on ailing adults and orphan foster care, the issue of caring for children living with HIV has received little attention in the social sciences. Based on ethnographic material gathered in Burkina Faso between November 2005 and December 2006, the aim of this paper was to gain understanding of women who mother and care for children living with HIV in resource-limited countries. The study involved participant observation in community-based organizations in Burkina Faso and semi-structured interviews with 20 women mothering HIV-positive children as well as 15 children infected with HIV, aged between 8 and 18 years. In daily care mothers face many great challenges, ranging from the routine of pill-taking to disturbing discussions with children asking questions about their health or treatment. The results also show how HIV/AIDS-related stigma adds an additional layer to the burden of care, compelling mothers to deal with the tension between secrecy surrounding the disease and the openness required in providing care and receiving social support. As mothers live in fear of disclosure, they have to develop concealment strategies around children's treatment and the nature of the disease. Conversely, some mothers may share their secret with kin members, close relatives or their children to gain social support. As HIV/AIDS care is shaped by secrecy, these findings shed light on mothers' isolation in child care within a context of changing patterns of family bonds and lack of formal psychosocial support addressing child-related issues. Finally, women's engagement in child care invites us to look beyond the essentialist approach of women's vulnerability conveyed by international discourse to characterise the situation of women facing the HIV/AIDS impact.
Skouteris, Helen; McCaught, Simone; Dissanayake, Cheryl
The overall aim in this study was twofold: to compare the use of work-based (WB) and non-work-based (NWB) child care on the transition back to the workplace for women after a period of maternity leave, and on the transition into child care for the infants of these women. Thirty-five mothers with infants in WB centres and 44 mothers with infants in…
Konuk Şener, Dilek; Karaca, Aysel
This study attempted to identify the mutual expectations of mothers whose children were hospitalized in the pediatric department of a university hospital and nurses who provided care. A descriptive phenomenological design has been used in this study. Data were obtained through tape-recorded semi-structured interviews. This study was conducted at a pediatric clinic, at a university hospital in a small city in Turkey. Participants comprised five nurses working in the children's clinic and 24 mothers who accompanied their children to the hospital. The six major themes that emerged were mothers' feelings and thoughts about the hospital experience, mothers' expectations for attention and support during hospitalization, mothers' expectations for invasive procedures, issues regarding physical comfort and hospital infrastructure, nurses' feelings and thoughts about working in the pediatric clinic, and nurses' expectations of the mothers. Mothers expected nurses to provide physical support including medication administration, and installing/applying IV and nebulizer treatments; and emotional support in terms of having a friendly, rather than critical attitude, and being approachable and receptive of mothers' questions and anxieties. Nurses stated that they were aware of these expectations but needed mothers to be understanding and tolerant, considering their difficult working conditions. Children's hospitalization is a stressful experience for parents. Open and therapeutic communication and relationships between parents and nurses contribute to improving the quality of care provided to children and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weems, M F; Graetz, I; Lan, R; DeBaer, L R; Beeman, G
Mobile communication with the medical-care team has the potential to decrease stress among parents of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We assessed mobile use and communication preferences in a population of urban minority NICU mothers. A 30-question English language survey was administered to mothers of NICU patients. The survey was completed by 217 mothers, 75% were Black, and 75% reported annual household income below $20 000. Only 56% had a computer with Internet access at home, but 79% used smartphones. Most (79%) have searched the Internet for health information in the past year. Receiving electronic messages about their babies was viewed favorably, and text messaging was the preferred platform. The majority of mothers felt electronic messaging would improve communication but should not replace verbal communication. Mobile communication is used widely in this population of NICU mothers and could potentially improve provider-parent communication and reduce parental stress.
Paton, Fiona; Wright, Kath; Ayre, Nigel; Dare, Ceri; Johnson, Sonia; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Simpson, Alan; Webber, Martin; Meader, Nick
Crisis Concordat was established to improve outcomes for people experiencing a mental health crisis. The Crisis Concordat sets out four stages of the crisis care pathway: (1) access to support before crisis point; (2) urgent and emergency access to crisis care; (3) quality treatment and care in crisis; and (4) promoting recovery. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the models of care for improving outcomes at each stage of the care pathway. Electronic databases were searched for guidelines, reviews and, where necessary, primary studies. The searches were performed on 25 and 26 June 2014 for NHS Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and PROSPERO databases, and on 11 November 2014 for MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Criminal Justice Abstracts databases. Relevant reports and reference lists of retrieved articles were scanned to identify additional studies. When guidelines covered a topic comprehensively, further literature was not assessed; however, where there were gaps, systematic reviews and then primary studies were assessed in order of priority. Systematic reviews were critically appraised using the Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews assessment tool, trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, studies without a control group were assessed using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) prognostic studies tool and qualitative studies were assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis was conducted for each stage of the care pathway structured according to the type of care model assessed. The type and range of evidence identified precluded the use of meta-analysis. One review of reviews, six systematic reviews, nine guidelines and 15 primary studies were included. There was very limited evidence for access to support
Hourieh Shamshiri Milani
Full Text Available Background: Postpartum home care plays an important role in prevention of postpartum complications. Regular visits of mothers during this period are imperative. This study aimed to provide postpartum home care for mothers to assess its effects on mothers' health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in two phases. First, a comprehensive postpartum home care program was compiled by performing a comparative study, using the available guidelines in this regard in different countries and based on the opinions of the experts. Next, a clinical trial was carried out on 276 women who gave birth in the university hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. There were 92 mothers in the intervention and 184 in the control group. The intervention group mothers were provided with postpartum home care service while the control group did not receive such a service. Results: Outcome assessment at 60 days' postpartum revealed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the use of supplements, birth control methods, postpartum depression, breastfeeding problems, constipation, and fatigue (P 0.05. Conclusion: The postpartum home care program had a positive effect on some aspects of the mothers' health status and their satisfaction in our society.
Nomaguchi, Kei M; Demaris, Alfred
Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development ( N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children's lives, with special attention to selection effects and moderation by resource levels. Findings from fixed-effects regression models suggested that, on average, there is little relationship between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity, once selection factors are held constant. Some evidence of moderation effects was found, however. Excellent-quality care is related to more sensitivity for mothers with lower family income. Poor-quality care is related to lower sensitivity for single mothers, but not partnered mothers. In sum, nonmaternal care characteristics do not seem to have as much influence on mothers' parenting as attachment theory claims.
Gilson, K-M; Davis, E; Johnson, S; Gains, J; Reddihough, D; Williams, K
Mothers of children with a disability are at increased risk of poor mental health compared with mothers of typically developing children. The aim of the study was to describe the mental health care needs and preferences for support of mothers of children and young people aged 0-25 years with a disability. A cross-sectional study was used, using an online survey with 294 mothers of children with a disability. Questions were asked about mental health, perceived need for support, barriers to accessing mental health care, and preferences for support. Descriptive and chi-squared analyses were performed. High rates of mental ill health were self-identified in the previous 12 months, with reported clinically significant depression (44%), anxiety (42%), and suicidality (22%). Nearly half (48%) of the mothers reported high to very high psychological distress. Although 75% of mothers perceived a need for professional support, only 58% attempted to access this. Key barriers to accessing support were caregiving duties making it difficult to schedule appointments (45%) and not perceiving the mental health problem as serious enough to require help (36%). Individual counselling was the preferred type of support (66%) followed by professionally guided relaxation (49%) and education about mental health (47%). Support was considered most critical at the time of diagnosis and during medical intervention for their child. Although mental health problems were common and mothers perceived the need for professional help, several key barriers were preventing mothers from accessing help. Our study suggests that improving mothers' knowledge of when and where to seek help (mental health literacy) may encourage their access to support. There also needs to be more accessible treatment to mothers given the high care demands that are placed upon them. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shrestha, Sharmila; Adachi, Kumiko; Petrini, Marcia A; Shrestha, Sarita; Rana Khagi, Bina
the health and survival of newborns depend on high levels of attention and care from caregivers. The growth and development of some infants are unhealthy because of their mother's or caregiver's lack of knowledge or the use of inappropriate or traditional child-rearing practices that may be harmful. to develop a newborn care educational programme and evaluate its impact on infant and maternal health in Nepal. a randomised controlled trial. one hundred and forty-three mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=69) and control (n=74) groups. Eligible participants were primiparous mothers who had given birth to a single, full-term, healthy infant, and were without a history of obstetric, medical, or psychological problems. prior to being discharged from the postnatal unit, the intervention group received our structured newborn care education programme, which consisted of one-on-one educational sessions lasting 10-15minutes each and one postpartum follow-up telephone support within two weeks after discharge, in addition to the hospital's routine general newborn care education. The control group received only the regular general newborn care education. Outcomes were measured by using Newborn care Knowledge Questionnaires, Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults and infant health and care status. the number of mothers attending the health centre due to the sickness of their babies was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, the intervention group had significant increases in newborn care knowledge and confidence, and decreases in anxiety, compared with the control group. the structured newborn care education programme enhanced the infant and mother health. Moreover, it increased maternal knowledge of newborn care and maternal confidence; and reduced anxiety in primiparous mothers. Thus, this educational programme could be integrated into routine educational programs to
Sabzevari, Sakinne; Nematollahi, Monirsadat; Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Ravari, Ali
Mothers play a key role in caring for their sick children. Their experiences of care were influenced by culture, rules, and the system of health and care services. There are few studies on maternal care of children with congenital heart disease. Also, each of them has studied a particular aspect of care. The present research aimed to understand care experiences of mothers of children with congenital heart disease. A conventional content analysis was used to obtain rich data. The goal of content analysis is "to provide knowledge and deeper understanding of the phenomenon under the study". The study was conducted in Kerman, Iran in 2014, on mothers of children with CHD. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. Participants were 14 mothers of children with CHD and one father and one nurse of open heart surgery unit, from two hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were constructed. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. MAXQDA 2007 software (VERBI GmbH, Berlin, Germany) was used to classify and manage the coding. Constant comparative method was done for data analysis. The reliability and validity of the findings, including the credibility, confirm ability, dependability, and transferability, were assessed. According to the content analysis, the main theme was the catastrophic burden of child care on mothers that included three categories: 1) the tension resulting from the disease, 2) involvement with internal thoughts, and 3) difficulties of care process. The results of this study may help health care professionals to provide supportive and educational packages to the patients, mothers and Family members until improving the management of patient's care.
Engström, Asa; Lindberg, Inger
Providing nursing care for a critically ill obstetric patient or a patient who has just become a mother after a complicated birth can be a challenging experience for critical care nurses (CCNs). These patients have special needs because of the significant alterations in their physiology and anatomy together with the need to consider such specifics as breastfeeding and mother-child bonding. The aim with this study was to describe CCNs' experience of nursing the new mother and her family after a complicated childbirth. The design of the study was qualitative. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with 13 CCNs in three focus groups during spring 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the formulation of four categories: the mother and her vital functions are prioritized; not being responsible for the child and the father; an environment unsuited to the new family and collaboration with staff in neonatal and maternity delivery wards. When nursing a mother after a complicated birth the CCNs give her and her vital signs high priority. The fathers of the children or partners of the mothers are expected to take on the responsibility of caring for the newborn child and of being the link with the neonatal ward. It is suggested that education about the needs of new families for nursing care would improve the situation and have clinical implications. Whether the intensive care unit is always the best place in which to provide care for mothers and new families is debatable. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Borjalilu, Somaieh; Shahidi, Shahriar; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Emami, Amir Hossein
The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a spiritual care training package in maternal caregivers of children with cancer. This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest and posttest design consisting of a sample of 42 mothers of children diagnosed as having cancer. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The training package consisted of seven group training sessions offered in a children's hospital in Tehran. All mothers completed the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) at pre and post test and after a three month follow up. There was significant difference between anxiety and spiritual, religious, Personalized care and total scores spiritual care between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (Pspiritual care training program promotes spirituality, personalized care, religiosity and spiritual care as well as decreasing anxiety in mothers of children with cancer and decreases anxiety. It may be concluded that spiritual care training could be used effectively in reducing distressful spiritual challenges in mothers of children with cancer.
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam
Objective: This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). Methods: A retrospective record…
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
This study examines the relationships between maternal employment, nonparental care, mother-child interactions, and preschoolers' outcomes. Data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 1,248) show that maternal employment during the previous year, especially full-time employment, was related to care by…
Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.
This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…
Mwangi, Rose; Chandler, Clare; Nasuwa, Fortunata
User and provider perceptions of quality of care are likely to affect both use and provision of services. However, little is known about how health workers and mothers perceive the delivery of care in hospital paediatric wards in Africa. Paediatric staff and mothers of paediatric inpatients were...... interviewed to explore their opinions and experience of the admission process and conditions on the ward. Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and lack of food were major concerns for mothers on the ward, who were deterred from seeking treatment earlier due to fears that hospital admission posed a significant...... risk of exposure to infection. While most staff were seen as being sympathetic and supportive to mothers, a minority were reported to be judgemental and authoritarian. Health workers identified lack of trained staff, overwork and low pay as major concerns. Staff shortages, lack of effective training...
Atout, Maha; Hemingway, Pippa; Seymour, Jane
The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of decision making in the care of children with palliative care needs in Jordan, from the perspective of their mothers. This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. Data were collected in 3 pediatric wards in a Jordanian hospital. The study used 2 data collection methods: participant observation (197 observational hours) and 56 semi-structured interviews with 24 mothers, 12 physicians and 20 nurses. The findings show how Jordanian mothers seek to transfer the role of decision making to physicians, as they perceive themselves to be unable to make decisions about critical issues related to the treatment of their children. Mothers had a widespread apprehension of "future guilt," especially when they feared that any decisions they might make could have an adverse impact on their children. Contrary to the predominant pattern, some mothers took a proactive approach towards decision making about their children's treatment. These mothers requested detailed information from primary physicians and sought different sources of knowledge such as second opinions, reading online resources, or talking to other parents who had a child with similar circumstances. The study concludes that mothers prefer to involve physicians in decisions about their children's healthcare and treatment to eliminate their fear of probable future guilt; this modifies any tendency to autonomously decide for their children. These findings are underpinned by the Jordanian culture in which doctors' opinions are highly regarded.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea . Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea\t. Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
Adamakidou, T; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A
The purpose of this review was to describe public home healthcare nursing services in Greece. The effectiveness and the efficiency of home healthcare nursing are well documented in the international literature. In Greece, during the current financial crisis, the development of home healthcare nursing services is the focus and interest of policymakers and academics because of its contribution to the viability of the healthcare system. A review was conducted of the existing legislation, the printed and electronic bibliography related to the legal framework, the structures that provide home health care, the funding of the services, the human resources and the services provided. The review of the literature revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the existing system of home health care and its opportunities and threats, which are summarized in a SWOT analysis. There is no Greek nursing literature on this topic. The development of home health nursing care requires multidimensional concurrent and combined changes and adjustments that would support and strengthen healthcare professionals in their practices. Academic and nursing professionals should provide guidelines and regulations and develop special competencies for the best nursing practice in home health care. At present, in Greece, which is in an economic crisis and undergoing reforms in public administration, there is an undeniable effort being made to give primary health care the position it deserves within the health system. There is an urgent need at central and academic levels to develop home healthcare services to improve the quality and efficiency of the services provided. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
The scientific reports published so far on the project "day care mothering" do not allow to draw scientific conclusions, whether this educational model can achieve nearly equal results as family education. The author critisises, that such a clame is made. It seems necessary, to pay more importance to the function of the mother for her children, to give the children a sound emotional basis for their future development.
Lee, Geum Hwa; Lee, I Re; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il
pressure monitoring and careful examinations should be mandatory in children with underlying disease, especially renal diseases and cancer. Furthermore, both nicardipine and labetalol may be effective antihypertensive drug in lowering high blood pressure in children with hypertensive crisis.
Daniel Agustin Godoy
Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular transmission leading to generalized or localized muscle weakness due most frequently to the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic motor end-plate. Myasthenic crisis (MC is a complication of MG characterized by worsening muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. It also includes postsurgical patients, in whom exacerbation of muscle weakness from MG causes a delay in extubation. MC is a very important, serious, and reversible neurological emergency that affects 20–30% of the myasthenic patients, usually within the first year of illness and maybe the debut form of the disease. Most patients have a predisposing factor that triggers the crisis, generally an infection of the respiratory tract. Immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, and steroids are the cornerstones of immunotherapy. Today with the modern neurocritical care, mortality rate of MC is less than 5%.
Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L
This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.
Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.
Full Text Available Background: Social-emotional development in preschooler children is an important component in child development, as it becomes the foundation in preparing children for confidence, empathy and intellect, building trust, and being able to use language in communication and connect with others. One of the factors that affect children's emotional social development is the quality of mother's care. Children of young mothers have risks in emotional and intellectual social problems in children. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of quality care of young mothers with social-emotional development in preschool children in the working area of the Health Center of Kemalang, Klaten Regency, Indonesia. Methods: This was a correlational analytic research with cross sectional design. The sample of the study was 124 young mothers with preschool children selected using consecutive sampling technique. The study was conducted from July to August 2017 at six kindergarten schools in the working area of the Health Center of Kemalang, Klaten Regency. Data were collected using parent behavior questionnaire and stage social-emotional instrument. Data were analyzed using chi square test. Results: Findings showed that 58.1% of young mothers had good quality of care, and 55.6% of preschoolers were at risk of developing emotional social development problems. There was a significant correlation between the quality of care of young mothers with social-emotional development in preschool children (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: There was a correlation between the quality of care of young mothers with social-emotional development in preschool children.
Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita
Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother-pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour.
Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and
Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306
Sood, Erica; Karpyn, Allison; Demianczyk, Abigail C; Ryan, Jennie; Delaplane, Emily A; Neely, Trent; Frazier, Aisha H; Kazak, Anne E
To inform pediatric critical care practice by examining how mothers and fathers experience the stress of caring for a young child with congenital heart disease and use hospital and community supports. Qualitative study of mothers and fathers of young children with congenital heart disease. Tertiary care pediatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Thirty-four parents (20 mothers, 14 fathers) from diverse backgrounds whose child previously underwent cardiac surgery during infancy. Subjects participated in semi-structured, individual interviews about their experiences and psychosocial needs at the time of congenital heart disease diagnosis, surgical admission, and discharge to home after surgery. Qualitative interview data were coded, and consistent themes related to emotional states, stressors, and supports were identified. Fathers experience and respond to the stressors and demands of congenital heart disease in unique ways. Fathers often described stress from not being able to protect their child from congenital heart disease and the associated surgeries/pain and from difficulties balancing employment with support for their partner and care of their congenital heart disease child in the hospital. Fathers were more likely than mothers to discuss support from the work environment (coworkers/managers, flexible scheduling, helpful distraction) and were less likely to describe the use of hospital-based resources or congenital heart disease peer-to-peer supports. This study highlights the importance of understanding the paternal experience and tailoring interventions to the unique needs of both mothers and fathers. Opportunities for critical care practice change to promote the mental health of mothers and fathers following a diagnosis of congenital heart disease are discussed.
Wherry, Laura R
To evaluate impacts of state Medicaid expansions for low-income parents on the health insurance coverage, pregnancy intention, and use of prenatal care among mothers who became pregnant. Person-level data for women with a live birth from the 1997-2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The sample was restricted to women who were already parents using information on previous live births and combined with information on state Medicaid policies for low-income parents. I used a measure of expanded generosity of state Medicaid eligibility for low-income parents to estimate changes in health insurance, pregnancy intention, and prenatal care for pregnant mothers associated with Medicaid expansion. I found an increase in prepregnancy health insurance coverage and coverage during pregnancy among pregnant mothers, as well as earlier initiation of prenatal care, associated with the expansions. Among pregnant mothers with less education, I found an increase in the adequacy of prenatal care utilization. Expanded Medicaid coverage for low-income adults has the potential to increase a woman's health insurance coverage prior to pregnancy, as well as her insurance coverage and medical care receipt during pregnancy. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Machira, Kennedy; Palamuleni, Martin E
The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 women and were asked of contraceptive usage after first birth experiences, in which, a logistic regression model was employed to estimate correlates of contraceptive usage. The study found that 54.8% of the teen mothers are still at a risk of having a repeat teenage pregnancy due to their non-use of contraceptives. This implies that less than 50% of teen mothers use contraceptives after experiencing teen birth. It is noted that health care factors such as use of antenatal care, awareness of pregnancy complications, attainment of primary education and exposure to media predict teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives. Despite endeavours made by government to improve access to family planning, health care challenges still exist affecting women's use of contraceptives in Malawi. Ameliorating these health encounters call for wide-range approaches aimed at addressing teen birth comprehensively in order to prevent early motherhood and subsequently high fertility. None declared.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the initial knowledge of mothers about neonatal care and evaluate their knowledge, care and attitude changes following individual education. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire forms designed on the subject of infant care and nutrition were given to mothers right after delivery. Before being discharged they were informed by the doctor and breastfeeding nurse about nutrition, infant care, and the most common mistakes. These forms were reapplied on the 15th and 30th days in neonatal polyclinic controls and the changes were evaluated. The correct information was repeated to the mothers who were detected to have misinformation and wrong attitudes in the evaluations in each form application period. Results: A total of 100 mothers and their infants were included in the study. No difference was determined in the nutrition rates of infants with food other than breast milk on the first day, 15th and 30th days. However, the breastfeeding rates obtained were higher on the 30th day than on the 15th, with an interval of two hours, and in general breastfeeding rates were low on the 15th and 30th days. The rates of bathing the infants with and without a bathtub net were determined to be high on the 15th and 30th days. The change in the infants’ sleeping positions, the place of sleep, and the presence of rails/guards around the crib on the 15th and 30th days were not found to be significant compared to the 1st day. There was a significant increase in the umbilical care rates on the 15th and 30th days. The increase in washing the clothes of the infants with soap powder, and the decrease in swaddling after the education were found to be significant. Furthermore, it was determined that the mothers received infant care information more frequently from the healthcare organisation on the 15th and 30th days compared to the 1st day. The highest correlation between the maternal education level and the post-education knowledge and
Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges
Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Eriksson, Katie; Bondas, Terese
This study attempts to contribute to the knowledge of caring science and mental health care by means of a profound understanding of the patients' existential world when being a mother in receipt of psychiatric care, with focus on inner processes such as health and suffering. Mothers struggle to cope with the demands of the illness and the responsibility for their children. They see themselves through their children and regard the child as an important part of themselves. Mothers experience guilt and shame related to motherhood, and when they have to relinquish their responsibility as a mother, they consider themselves a failure. Despite a range of practical and emotional difficulties, motherhood involved extremely positive experiences, which provide a purpose as well as fulfilment and meaning in life. This study is rooted in philosophical hermeneutics inspired by Gadamer with an inductive-deductive-abductive approach. Interpretation of the data was made on different levels of abstraction described as rational, contextual, existential and ontological. The point of departure was the caring science theory about health and suffering and the hermeneutic philosophy of understanding. The interpretation revealed the mothers' experiences of health and suffering as a struggle between the darkness of suffering and their inner source of strength. In the light of the theory of caring, the conscience became visible as the bearer of the human being's inner ethos of love and compassion. Experiences of health and suffering were interpreted as a struggle between guilt and responsibility, where conscience emerged as the road from ontological guilt to responsibility that leads the human being to what is true, beautiful and good in life. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Agazio, Janice; Hillier, Shannon L; Throop, Meryia; Goodman, Petra; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Turner, Annette
Many military women are being called to separate from their children to go to war. Most previous research has focused upon paternal, rather than, maternal, separation. The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of military mothers and their children during wartime deployments with clinical implications for nurse practitioners (NPs) in military or community settings. Using grounded theory methods, 37 active duty and reserve component military women participated in a one-time interview. Included were women who deployed for at least 4 months to Iraq or Afghanistan and had at least one child under the age of 12 during the separation. Military families present unique challenges for NPs. Mother deployments offer opportunities for intervention and anticipatory guidance across the trajectory of the separation. Military women's emotional and physical health must be supported before, during, and following deployment. NPs are ideally positioned to support military families. During deployment, the NP's focus may shift to care of the children and their caregiver. Before and at reintegration, NPs are in a key position to intervene early for posttraumatic stress and support family readjustment. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Jaqueline Silva Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the care of children from the perspective of adolescent mothers, in order to identify vulnerabilities and needs in the nursing care scope. This is an exploratory research with inductive, qualitative thematic analysis of the data, based on recorded interviews with 20 adolescent mothers of children between six months and under two years old, registered and assisted by Family Health teams of the municipality of Passos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The maternal reports express aspects about the daily care of the child, attention to their needs, coping with difficulties and recognition of vulnerable situations. Maternal care in adolescence was a unique experience, with maternal reports that point out aspects to be more explored by healthcare professionals, especially by nursing, in search of support offer and enhance maternal trust.
Akinnubi, Caroline Funmbi
This study examined the day caring methods among the civil servants of reproductive age with children between three months to four years in Lagos State Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research design. A total number of 212 teachers and 128 ministry workers making a total of 340 reproductive age mothers were…
Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.
Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…
Knijn, Trudie; Wel, Frits van
The 1996 welfare reform that attempted to get lone parents out of social assistance represents a major shift in social policy in the Netherlands. Instead of having the financial right to care for their children, lone mothers are now obliged to earn their living by paid work as soon as their youngest
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…
Sharma, Sudhir; Lal, Vivek; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Agarwal, Ritesh
The present understanding of the clinical course, complications, and outcome of myasthenic crisis (MC) is based chiefly on observational studies and retrospective case series. To study the baseline demographic and clinical variables, risk factors, complications, outcome, and mortality in patients of MC. All patients of myasthenia gravis (MG) who presented with myasthenic crisis between July 2009 and December 2010 were included. Ten patients of MC were included in this study. The median age of the patients was 40.5 years (range 14-71 years). Seven were females and three were males. Nine had generalized MG and one patient had oculobulbar involvement only. Median duration of disease was 3 years (range 1 month to17 years). Two patients had thymoma. Two patients had history of thymectomy in the past. Infection was the most common triggering factor accounting for five cases (50%) followed by inadequate treatment/drug withdrawal in three (30%) and steroid initiation and hypokalemia in the remaining two patients (20%). Median duration of MC was 12 days (range 3-28 days). Mortality was in 3 out of 10 (30%) during MC. Management in the intensive care unit (ICU) and treatment with plasma exchange/intravenous immunoglobulins were associated with good outcome. Ventilator support and management in intensive care unit are the most important components in the management of MC. The high mortality rate seen in present study may be more reflective of the actual ground reality in resource constrained developing countries, however, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States.
Askelsdottir, Björk; Lam-de Jonge, Willemien; Edman, Gunnar; Wiklund, Ingela
to compare early discharge with home care versus standard postpartum care in terms of mothers' sense of security; contact between mother, newborn and partner; emotions towards breast feeding; and breast-feeding duration at one and three months after birth. retrospective case-control study. a labour ward unit in Stockholm, Sweden handling both normal and complicated births. 96 women with single, uncomplicated pregnancies and births, and their healthy newborns. early discharge at 12-24 hours post partum with 2-3 home visits during the first week after birth. The intervention group consisted of women who had a normal vaginal birth (n=45). This group was compared with healthy controls who received standard postnatal care at the hospital (n=51). mothers' sense of security was measured using the Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security Scale. Contact between mother, child and father, and emotions towards breast feeding were measured using the Alliance Scale, and breast-feeding rates at one and three months post partum were recorded. women in the intervention group reported a greater sense of security in the first postnatal week but had more negative emotions towards breast feeding compared with the control group. At three months post partum, 74% of the newborns in the intervention group were fully breast fed versus 93% in the control group (p=0.021). Contact between the mother, newborn and partner did not differ between the groups. early discharge with home care is a feasible option for healthy women and newborns, but randomised controlled studies are needed to investigate the effects of home care on breast-feeding rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willrich, Janaína Quinzen; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Chiavagatti, Fabieli Gopinger; Cortes, Jandro Moraes; Antonacci, Milena Hohmann
The attention to a crisis is a strategic point in the process of paradigm changes proposed by the Brazilian psychiatric reform, requiring changes in alternative services and in the professionals that must use new technologies of care. This study aimed to identify the actions of attention to a crisis in the territory and the meanings as they evolved, beginning from the discursive practices of the professionals. It was a qualitative study that used the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. From the database of the research, Evaluation of the Psychosocial Care Centers in Southern Brazil (CAPSUL), 27 interviews were analyzed from the professionals of Psychosocial Care Center for Alegrete, along with field diaries with 390 hours of observation. Results showed patient engagement/welcoming and accountability for care. We concluded that freedom, reciprocity, contractuality and responsibility for care were the new meanings needed for the alternative care services to overcome the asylum and sense of exclusion and dangerousness.
Steinman, Theodore I
The geriatric population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is placed at risk with regards to the quality and extent of medical coverage because of the rapidly changing financial environment. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are generally for-profit companies that must focus on the bottom line. While the verbal commitment to quality care is voiced, the financial pressures on MCOs have led to a decrease in coverage of many services and outright denial for some necessary treatments. While denying services, the MCOs have also reduced payments to providers for services rendered. The coverage crisis is compounded by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) quitting Medicare because the reimbursement from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) is less than their costs. Because of the above issues which can potentially impact on the quality of care delivered to the ESRD geriatric population, a new approach to disease management has created the opportunity to improve total patient care to a level not yet achieved in the United States. Disease management encompasses integrated care across all disciplines. Every component of care can be tracked by a dedicated information system. Improvement in outcomes has far exceeded the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) benchmark performance measurements with a disease management model approach. The key to success is the health service coordinator (HSC), a senior nurse with many years of ESRD experience. This individual coordinates care across all disciplines and expedites necessary referrals. With rapid attention to patient needs there has been a significant reduction in hospital admissions, hospital length of stay, and emergency room visits. Patient care will steadily improve as the disease management system matures as a consequence of understanding the patients total physical and psychosocial needs.
Ashman, Michael; Halliday, Vanessa; Cunnane, Joseph G
Crisis theory suggests that in addition to presenting a threat to mental well-being, crises are also opportunities where successful interventions can lead to successful outcomes. UK mental health crisis teams aim to reduce hospital admission by treating people at home and by building resilience and supporting learning from crisis, yet data on repeat crisis episodes suggest this could be improved. This qualitative study sought to explore the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) as a means of supporting resilience-building and maximising the opportunity potential of crisis. The following themes emerged: The meaning of crisis; Engaging with the WRAP process; WRAP and self-management; and Changes and transformations. This research suggests that WRAP has potential in supporting recovery from crisis, revealing insights into the nature of crisis which can inform the further development of crisis services.
Hazen, Nancy L; Allen, Sydnye D; Christopher, Caroline Heaton; Umemura, Tomotaka; Jacobvitz, Deborah B
We examined whether a maximum threshold of time spent in nonmaternal care exists, beyond which infants have an increased risk of forming a disorganized infant-mother attachment. The hours per week infants spent in nonmaternal care at 7-8 months were examined as a continuous measure and as a dichotomous threshold (over 40, 50 and 60 hr/week) to predict infant disorganization at 12-15 months. Two different samples (Austin and NICHD) were used to replicate findings and control for critical covariates: mothers' unresolved status and frightening behavior (assessed in the Austin sample, N = 125), quality of nonmaternal caregiving (assessed in the NICHD sample, N = 1,135), and family income and infant temperament (assessed in both samples). Only very extensive hours of nonmaternal care (over 60 hr/week) and mothers' frightening behavior independently predicted attachment disorganization. A polynomial logistic regression performed on the larger NICHD sample indicated that the risk of disorganized attachment exponentially increased after exceeding 60 hr/week. In addition, very extensive hours of nonmaternal care only predicted attachment disorganization after age 6 months (not prior). Findings suggest that during a sensitive period of attachment formation, infants who spend more than 60 hr/week in nonmaternal care may be at an increased risk of forming a disorganized attachment.
Joung, Woo Joung; Yi, Myungsun
The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the experience of mothers caring for children with epilepsy. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews and observation from 12 mothers of children with epilepsy. Data were collected from December, 2014 to February, 2015 and analyzed using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological methodology to identify essential themes of their experience. The essential themes that fit into the context of the 4-existential grounds of time, body, other people, and space were: Lived time-ongoing influence of the past, living in insecure present, fearful future with no answer; Lived body-bonded body, burned out state; Lived other-burden but also support, shrunken down; Lived space-narrowed range of activity, widened horizon. The findings in this study show in-depth understanding of the hardships of mothers who are caring for children with epilepsy. The beauty and greatness of these mothers are revealed through the analysis of various phenomenological materials such as literary and artistic work reflecting socio-cultural context, as well as vivid care experiences of mothers of children with epilepsy. This will be helpful in increasing understanding of the nature of caregivers' experience for medical professionals dealing with patients and caregivers. Also it helps to improve the understanding of the disease among the general public, followed by a more warming and caring attitude towards patients and family members. Finally, it will enhance psychological well-being and overall quality of life of the epileptic children and their families. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is a small South Asian country which became independent in 1971 after a bloody war. Rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh (26% of the 147.1 million inhabitants live in urban areas is fuelling a growth in urban poverty, particularly in the urban slums where the quality of life is extremely poor. The average population density in slums was reported in 2005 as 831 persons per acre or 205,415 people per square kilometre.1 Early commencement of antenatal care by pregnant women as well as regular visits has the potential to affect maternal and foetal outcome. Objective: To assess the status of ANC service used by the pregnant mothers and their socio-demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Moghbazar slum area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh, during January to June 2014. A total of 161 slum dwellers were enrolled in the study. Information regarding education, occupation, monthly family income, antenatal care was gathered using a pretested structured questionnnare and data were analysed. Results: The majority respondents had knowledge about antenatal care and of them 89 (55.2% completed ≥3 visits. Forty five (47.8% pregnant women received ANC from government hospitals. Nearly 72% mothers received ANC service from doctors and 16.9% received from family welfare visitors (FWV. Half of mothers were satisfied with the overall care provided to them. About 86.2% mothers said that they had to wait for more than two hours for check-ups. More than 50% received information about exercise and 36% were reassured about discussing fear and anxiety about pregnancy. Conclusion: This study reveals that antenatal care provided was not up to the mark of standard care and measures should be taken to improve it.
DeMaris, Alfred; Mahoney, Annette
This study investigates a potential causal effect of mothers' perceptions of the fairness of infant care on their postpartum depression. Based on the tenets of equity theory, it is hypothesized that, net of controls, mothers who see infant care as fairly apportioned between themselves and their husbands will be less depressed than others. We utilize data from a longitudinal study of a nonrandom sample of 178 heterosexual couples experiencing the birth of their first child together. The primary focus variable is the mothers' perception in the first couple of months postpartum that infant care is fair to them. Statistical analysis involved the careful chronological sequencing of response variable and controls, along with regression modeling using propensity scores. We find that a perception of fairness is associated with about a quarter of a standard deviation lower depressive symptomatology, controlling for key covariates. Depressive symptomatology is additionally elevated for mothers experiencing more pre-partum depression, and for those who more generally felt, before the birth, that they were overbenefiting in the marriage. This paper contributes to both equity theory and research on postpartum depression. In a scenario in which it is not practical or ethical to randomly assign people to fairness-in-infant-care conditions, we are able to utilize longitudinal data and a natural "experiment," along with propensity-score modeling to attempt to assess the causal impact of fairness in infant care on postpartum depression. The finding that fairness in this arena appears to reduce postpartum depression emphasizes the importance of encouraging father participation in this critical stage of parenting. Limitations of the study with respect to causal inference are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lay, Barbara; Salize, Hans Joachim; Dressing, Harald; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bühlmann, Monika; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Korinth, Lena; Rössler, Wulf
The high number of involuntary placements of people with mental disorders in Switzerland and other European countries constitutes a major public health issue. In view of the ethical and personal relevance of compulsory admission for the patients concerned and given the far-reaching effects in terms of health care costs, innovative interventions to improve the current situation are much needed. A number of promising approaches to prevent involuntary placements have been proposed that target continuity of care by increasing self-management skills of patients. However, the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of more robust criteria (e.g., admission rates) has not been sufficiently analysed in larger study samples. The current study aims to evaluate an intervention programme for patients at high risk of compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals. Effectiveness will be assessed in terms of a reduced number of psychiatric hospitalisations and days of inpatient care in connection with involuntary psychiatric admissions as well as in terms of cost-containment in inpatient mental health care. The intervention furthermore intends to reduce the degree of patients' perceived coercion and to increase patient satisfaction, their quality of life and empowerment. This paper describes the design of a randomised controlled intervention study conducted currently at four psychiatric hospitals in the Canton of Zurich. The intervention programme consists of individualised psycho-education focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crisis, the distribution of a crisis card and, after inpatient admission, a 24-month preventive monitoring of individual risk factors for compulsory re-admission to hospital. All measures are provided by a mental health care worker who maintains permanent contact to the patient over the course of the study. In order to prove its effectiveness the intervention programme will be compared with standard care procedures (control group
Full Text Available Abstract Background The high number of involuntary placements of people with mental disorders in Switzerland and other European countries constitutes a major public health issue. In view of the ethical and personal relevance of compulsory admission for the patients concerned and given the far-reaching effects in terms of health care costs, innovative interventions to improve the current situation are much needed. A number of promising approaches to prevent involuntary placements have been proposed that target continuity of care by increasing self-management skills of patients. However, the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of more robust criteria (e.g., admission rates has not been sufficiently analysed in larger study samples. The current study aims to evaluate an intervention programme for patients at high risk of compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals. Effectiveness will be assessed in terms of a reduced number of psychiatric hospitalisations and days of inpatient care in connection with involuntary psychiatric admissions as well as in terms of cost-containment in inpatient mental health care. The intervention furthermore intends to reduce the degree of patients’ perceived coercion and to increase patient satisfaction, their quality of life and empowerment. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a randomised controlled intervention study conducted currently at four psychiatric hospitals in the Canton of Zurich. The intervention programme consists of individualised psycho-education focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crisis, the distribution of a crisis card and, after inpatient admission, a 24-month preventive monitoring of individual risk factors for compulsory re-admission to hospital. All measures are provided by a mental health care worker who maintains permanent contact to the patient over the course of the study. In order to prove its effectiveness the intervention programme will be
Martín Martín, R; Sánchez Bayle, M; Gancedo García, C; Teruel de Francisco, M C; Coullaut López, A
To study the impact of the economic crisis on the families of the children who attend Primary Health Care and its relationship with their socioeconomic status. Observational descriptive study was conducted by analysing the results of 453 questionnaires, given to the parents of children between 1 and 7 years old who attended 4 paediatric clinics in Madrid. The raw data was analysed, and comparisons between groups and multivariate analysis were performed. In the multivariate analysis, the variables related to the non-acquisition of prescribed medication are: lower income level OR=0.118, p<.0001 and lower educational level OR=0.464, p<.001; the variables related to the reduction of food expenditure are: lower income level OR=0.100, p<.0001 and a higher number of family members OR=1.308, p=.045; the variables related to anti-pneumococcal vaccination without public funding are: higher income level OR=2.170, p=.0001, higher educational level OR=1.835, p=.013, and not being an immigrant OR=0.532, p=.037. The presence of health problems from the beginning of the economic crisis is related to unemployment OR=4.079, p=.032, lower educational level R=0.678, p=.042, and income level OR=0.342, p<.0001. In all cases, the models achieved a statistical significance of p<.0001. The economic crisis has greater impact on the group with the lowest income level in all analysed variables. The lower educational level and higher number of family members has an impact on the reduction in food expenditure. The fact of being an immigrant has an impact on not receiving the anti-pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination. Unemployment leads to an increase in health problems in the family. To sum up, the economic crisis has increased inequalities according to socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Mahfuzar; Islam, Rafiqul; Rahman, Mosfequr
The study aimed to identify the important effects of some selected variables in antenatal care (ANC) seeking behaviour among slum mothers. The data for the study were collected in 2006 from 700 mothers in the slum areas of Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC), Bangladesh. The results indicate that tetanus toxoid (TT) is relatively widespread in slum areas of RCC. Serious health implications were observed for the mothers and their children who lived in the study areas because more than half of the respondents (56.1%) were not assisted at their last childbirth by any health professional. The respondents were too poor to buy iron tablets/syrup and vitamin tablets/syrup during their last pregnancy. The application of a logistic regression model suggested that demographic and socio-economic factors were associated with ANC seeking behaviour among slum mothers. Respondents' education, place of treatment, husband's occupation, family's income, and exposure to mass media had highly significant effects on mothers seeking medical checkups during their last pregnancy.
Gursimer Jeet; Atul Sharma; Tulika Goswami Mohanta; Ajay Trakroo
Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mot...
Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Tibben, Aad
Care guidelines for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) include recommendations for assessment of caregivers of patients with DBMD followed by proactive psychosocial interventions. To inform clinical assessment, this study described appraisals of psychosocial needs and caregiving facilitators of mothers of individuals with DBMD. Two hundred and five mothers completed an online survey. More than 50% endorsed unmet needs for managing uncertainty about the future and managing DBMD fears. Higher levels of unmet need were associated with less disease progression/earlier stage of DBMD (rho = -0.166 p = 0.02). Twenty-one percent regularly used respite care and 57% worried about allowing others to care for their child. Highly-endorsed care facilitators included partner relationships (63%), child's approach to life (59%), and family relationships (49%). Our findings highlight the importance of psychological and social support for caregivers. Starting when children are young, clinicians should assess caregivers' unmet psychological needs, particularly uncertainty and fear. Exploring needs and facilitators may allow clinics to target and customize interventions that build upon existing strengths and supports. Our findings have implications for efforts to promote early diagnosis and newborn screening, in that increased needs in mothers of younger children should be anticipated and built into counseling. Further research can assess whether and how unmet needs change as new therapies become available.
Micah M. Simpamba
Full Text Available Introduction: In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. Methods and analysis: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Findings: Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Discussion: Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Conclusion: Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.
Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane
This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education
Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y
Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate
Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.
Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M
In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health.
Pradhan, M.P.; Waters, H.; Saadah, F.
This article identifies the effects of the 1997-98 East Asian economic crisis on health care use and health status in Indonesia. The article places the findings in the context of a framework showing the complex cause and effect relationships underlying the effects of economic downturns on health and
van Bergen, J. E.
A tension exists between objectives of health policy makers to achieve high quality standards of care on one hand, and district multi-crisis reality in sub-Saharan Africa on the other hand where sheer survival of the (public) health system is questioned. The collapsing health services as well as the
Full Text Available Purpose: As Syria enters its fifth year of conflict, the number of civilians killed and injured continues to rise sharply. Along with this conflict comes the rapid decline of medical care, specifically cancer care. To determine physician and equipment availability, cancer screening and management, and possible solutions relative to various major cities, a survey was distributed to physicians inside Syria through the help of the humanitarian organization Syrian American Medical Society. Methods: Online surveys were distributed to both certified oncologists who work in cancer clinics and general physicians who work in rural and mobile clinics inside Syria. Variables assessed were physician specialty, location, population, cost, regional situation (besieged versus government controlled, and resource availability and access. Results were stratified by location and physician specialty. Results: Survey results revealed a large shortage of specialized physicians and inhibited accessibility to screening and management options in besieged areas compared with government-controlled regions. Physicians within both government-controlled and besieged cities reported limited or no targeted agents, radiation therapy, clinical trials, bone marrow transplantation, positron emission tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing. Conclusion: The Syrian civil war has resulted in suboptimal oncology care in the majority of the region. In consideration of specific deficiencies in cancer care, we recommend several solutions that may better the level of care in Syria: patient education on medical documentation and self-examination; online consultation; and cheap, effective screening methods. The implementation of these recommendations may change the course of cancer care in a country that has deteriorated into the worst humanitarian crisis of the century.
Sahloul, Eman; Salem, Riad; Alrez, Wessam; Alkarim, Tayseer; Sukari, Ammar; Maziak, Wasim; Atassi, M Bassel
As Syria enters its fifth year of conflict, the number of civilians killed and injured continues to rise sharply. Along with this conflict comes the rapid decline of medical care, specifically cancer care. To determine physician and equipment availability, cancer screening and management, and possible solutions relative to various major cities, a survey was distributed to physicians inside Syria through the help of the humanitarian organization Syrian American Medical Society. Online surveys were distributed to both certified oncologists who work in cancer clinics and general physicians who work in rural and mobile clinics inside Syria. Variables assessed were physician specialty, location, population, cost, regional situation (besieged versus government controlled), and resource availability and access. Results were stratified by location and physician specialty. Survey results revealed a large shortage of specialized physicians and inhibited accessibility to screening and management options in besieged areas compared with government-controlled regions. Physicians within both government-controlled and besieged cities reported limited or no targeted agents, radiation therapy, clinical trials, bone marrow transplantation, positron emission tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing. The Syrian civil war has resulted in suboptimal oncology care in the majority of the region. In consideration of specific deficiencies in cancer care, we recommend several solutions that may better the level of care in Syria: patient education on medical documentation and self-examination; online consultation; and cheap, effective screening methods. The implementation of these recommendations may change the course of cancer care in a country that has deteriorated into the worst humanitarian crisis of the century.
Eddy Surya Kurniawan
Full Text Available The most important factor in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates began during pregnancy. In 2000, one in twenty children die before reaching the age of five years and a mother died of childbirth out of every 325 live births. The death rate in research mainly indicated comparable levels of depression due to stress in pregnant women. The occurrence of symptoms of depression during the perinatal period can be easily recognized. Depression during pregnancy is a common mood disorder such as depression that occurs in the laity in general, where the incidence of depression will occur chemical changes in the brain. Each trimester of pregnancy are at risk of psychological disorders respectively. Antenatal care plays a very important for the safety of the mother and fetus, minimizing the risks of pregnancy, and reduce the number of neonatal deaths. Nursing antenatal care should have run in accordance with minimum standards for pregnant women to obtain a safe childbirth and satisfying.
Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam
Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health...... not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health...... of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007–2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007–2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers...
Jeet, Gursimer; Sharma, Atul; Mohanta, Tulika Goswami; Trakroo, Ajay
Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.
Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita
Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of suckling during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously, and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group livi...
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001 - 2006; N ≈ 7900), we examined child care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: “parental care,” “center care,” “paid home-based care,” and “free kin-based care.” Disadvantaged teen-parent families were overrepresented in the “parental care” class, which was negatively associated with children’s preschool reading, math, and behavior scores and mothers’ socioeconomic and fertility outcomes compared to some nonparental care classes. Nonparental care did not predict any negative maternal or child outcomes, and different care arrangements had different benefits for mothers and children. Time spent in nonparental care and improved maternal outcomes contributed to children’s increased scores across domains. Child care classes predicted maternal outcomes similarly in teen-parent and nonteen-parent families, but the “parental care” class predicted some disproportionately negative child outcomes for teen-parent families. PMID:23729861
Laurvick, Crystal L; Msall, Michael E; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen
Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett syndrome completed the SF-12 measure as part of the Australian Rett Syndrome Study in 2002. The analysis investigated linear relationships between physical and mental health scores and maternal, family, and child characteristics. Mothers ranged in age from 21 to 60 years and their children from 3 to 27 years. Nearly half of these mothers (47.4%) indicated that they worked full-time or part-time outside the home, and 41% had a combined family (gross) income of health demonstrated that the following factors were positively associated with better maternal physical health: the mother working full-time or part-time outside the home, having some high school education, having private health insurance, the child not having breathing problems in the last 2 years, the child not having home-based structured therapy, and high scores on the Family Resource Scale (indicating adequacy of time resources for basic and family needs). The resultant model for mental health demonstrated that the following factors were positively associated with better maternal mental health: the mother working full-time or part-time outside the home, the child not having a fracture in the last 2 years, lesser reporting of facial stereotypes and involuntary facial movements, being in a well-adjusted marriage, and having low stress scores. Our study suggests that the most important predictors of maternal physical and emotional health are child behavior, caregiver demands, and family function.
Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita
Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory is an interesting conceptual framework for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris in India, to study POC in the context of extended parental care. We observed females and their pups in their natural habitat for the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stages. Since these dogs are scavengers, and depend largely on human provided food for their sustenance, voluntary sharing of food by the mother with her pups is a good surrogate for extended parental care. Our behavioural observations convincingly demonstrate an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over given food within a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the competition among the pups in a litter scales with litter size, an indicator of sib-sib competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prosman, Gert-Jan; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women provided by trained mentor mothers in family practice. The aim was to reduce exposure to IPV, symptoms of depression as well as to improve social support, participation in society and acceptance of mental health care. A pre-post study of a 16-week mentoring intervention with identified abused women with children was conducted. After referral by a family doctor, a mentor mother visited the abused woman weekly. Primary outcomes are IPV assessed with the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), depressive symptoms using the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90) and social support by the Utrecht Coping List. Secondary outcomes are analysed qualitatively: participation in society defined as employment and education and the acceptance of mental health care. At baseline, 63 out of 66 abused women were referred to mentor support. Forty-three participants completed the intervention programme. IPV decreased from CASt otal 46.7 (SD 24.7) to 9.0 (SD 9.1) (P ≤ 0.001) after the mentor mother support programme. Symptoms of depression decreased from 53.3 (SD 13.7) to 34.8 (SD 11.5) (P ≤ 0.001) and social support increased from 13.2 (SD 4.0) to 15.2 (SD 3.5) (P ≤ 0.001). Participation in society and the acceptance of mental health for mother and child improved. Sixteen weekly visits by trained mentor mothers are a promising intervention to decrease exposure to IPV and symptoms of depression, as well as to improve social support, participation in society and the acceptance of professional help for abused women and their children.
Claudia Calquín Donoso
Full Text Available The article reflects on the discursive construction of maternal care in psychology. We discuss the emergence of this knowledge and its connections to the political and economic transformations occurred during the postwar period and the beginning of the cold War. From a Foucauldian perspective, the general hypothesis guiding this reflection states that motherly care practices, rather than having an individual and spontaneous character, represent a product of power relationships and knowledge relationships both historically situated and a social practice through which, psychology emerged as science and device of normality and subjectivity.
Kaposy, Chris; Maddalena, Victor; Brunger, Fern; Pullman, Daryl; Singleton, Richard
Health care organizations can be very complex, and are often the setting for crisis situations. In recent years, Canadian health care organizations have faced large-scale systemic medical errors, a nation-wide generic injectable drug shortage, iatrogenic infectious disease outbreaks, and myriad other crises. These situations often have an ethical component that ethics consultants may be able to address. Organizational leaders such as health care managers and governing boards have responsibilities to oversee and direct the response to crisis situations. This study investigates the nature and degree of involvement of Canadian ethics consultants in such situations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with Canadian ethics consultants to investigate the nature of their interactions with upper-level managers and governing board members in health care organizations, particularly in times of organizational crisis. We used a purposive sampling technique to identify and recruit ethics consultants throughout Canada. We found variability in the interactions between ethics consultants and upper-level managers and governing boards. Some ethics consultants we interviewed did not participate in managing organizational crisis situations. Most ethics consultants reported that they had assisted in the management of some crises and that their participation was usually initiated by managers. Some ethics consultants reported the ability to bring issues to the attention of upper-level managers and indirectly to their governing boards. The interactions between managers and ethics consultants were characterized by varying degrees of collegiality. Ethics consultants reported participating in or chairing working groups, participating in incident management teams, and developing decision-making frameworks. Canadian ethics consultants tend to believe that they have valuable skills to offer in the management of organizational crisis situations. Most of the ethics consultants
Gunn, Jennie; Huebner, Carroll Gunn; McCoy, Kristen
To explore the lived experience of women over the age of 21 who lost their mothers before the age of 18. Using qualitative methodology, motherless child-adult women were gathered through emails, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques. Interviews were conducted at the convenience of the women. The women coparticipated with identification of emerging themes using thematic analysis. Eight women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 participated. Eight themes emerged: (1) Understanding: For wounded hearts only; (2) Coming apart: Finding my mother's daughter and self-worth; (3) Unconditional love: Grieving for and identifying with my champion; (4) Finding help: Filling the empty place with God; (5) Pitying the motherless child: Making it worse; (6) Filling in: Others as mother; (7) The ebb and flow: Grieving; and (8) Becoming mother: Taking on the Role. The nurse has the opportunity to improve care for women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 years. During pregnancy, childbirth, and childrearing, the woman may feel sad and anxious without the guidance of her mother. Special ways of caring may be instituted to provide her comfort such as allowing and encouraging her to bring a special item of her mother's to procedures and events so that she may feel connected with her, allowing someone to stand in for her mother, perhaps assisting in finding of another motherless child adult to be with her as needed, and the voicing of understanding of her loss while remaining nonjudgmental about her emotions during these times.
Tinok Ayu Putri W
Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge planning is one of nursing intervention that aim to promote the independence of patient's self care-activities after discharge from hospital. This study was aimed to examine the effect of discharge planning on wound care independence of post sectio caesarea mother at Melati Room, Dr. Soegiri Hospital, Lamongan. Method: Design of this study was quasy experiment. The population were post sectio caesarea mother at Melati Room Dr. Soegiri Hospital Lamongan, since May – June 2012. The samples were taken by purposive sampling technique. Fourteen responsdents matched with the inclusion criteria and divided into treatment and control groups. The datas were collected by using questionnaire and observation sheet. Then datas were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with signiﬁcance level of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result of this study showed that post sectio caesarea mother knowledge had signiﬁcance level of p = 0.027 in treatment group, and in control group was p = 0.034, for post sectio caesarea patient's skill p = 0.015 in treatment group and in control group was p = 0.017. The result of Mann Whitney U test was p = 0.001, it means there was different in knowledge, and skill of wound care on post sectio caesarea patient between treatment and control groups. Discussion: It can be concluded that there are signiﬁcant effect of wound care independence of post sectio caesarea patient with discharge planning approach based on orem's self care theory to improve patient's independence. Hospital need to develop discharge planning procedure to meet the needs of patient with post sectio caesarea wound and decrease the number of surgical wound infection.
Jeong, Geum Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Young Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Kyung Won
This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess the quality of childbirth care from the perspective of a mother after delivery. The instrument was developed from a literature review, interviews, and item validation. Thirty-eight items were compiled for the instrument. The data for validity and reliability testing were collected using a questionnaire survey conducted on 270 women who had undergone normal vaginal delivery in Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability coefficients. The exploratory factor analysis reduced the number of items in the instrument to 28 items that were factored into four subscales: family-centered care, personal care, emotional empowerment, and information provision. With respect to convergence validation, there was positive correlation between this instrument and birth satisfaction scale (r=.34, pinstrument could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care for women who have a normal vaginal delivery. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available However, having a baby brings positive emotions such as happiness, sense of maturity and proud, parenting's issue could cause high level of stress and child's characteristics was a detrimental factor which can effect on parent's stress, so the aim of this research was comparison of stress of caring in mothers of children with developmental, external, and internal disorders and normal children. The study population included all mothers of children with developmental, emotional, and disruptive behavior disorders, and mothers with normal children in Hamadan (a city in Iran. 240 mothers (4 groups include 60 mothers were chosen based on simple random sampling. Family inventory of life events and changes Mc Cubbin, Patterson & Wilson was used for assessing participants. The results showed that maternal stress in mothers with children who have diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more than of mothers of children with developmental disorders, emotional and mothers of normal children. The present study showed that disruptive behavior disorders in children have a greater impact on their mothers. So, we suggest approved psychological interventions for helping mothers of children with psychological problems, particularly children with external disorders.
Full Text Available Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants. Results: In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found. Conclusions: The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.
Poms, Laura Wheeler; Botsford, Whitney E; Kaplan, Seth A; Buffardi, Louis C; O'Brien, Alison S
This article introduces the role of financial considerations into work-family research by considering the costs and benefits of employed mothers' child care satisfaction. Data from 2 samples offer empirical support for the addition of a fourth factor to a current measure of child care satisfaction so that the measure reflects mothers' satisfaction not only with caregiver attentiveness, communication, and dependability but also with child care-related financial considerations. This article also discusses relationships between child care satisfaction and work-family conflict and job satisfaction for this population. The results of this study provide both organizations and child care providers with a broader picture of the concerns that employed mothers face as they search for reliable, affordable child care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...
Jikijela, Thobeka P; James, Sindiwe; Sonti, Balandeli S I
The rate of caesarean section deliveries has increased globally and mothers are faced with challenges of postoperative recovery and caring thereof. Midwives have a duty to assist these mothers to self-care. The objective was to explore and describe experiences of post-caesarean section delivered mothers of midwifery care at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay. A qualitative, descriptive and explorative research design was used in the study. Data were collected from 11 purposively criterion-selected mothers who had a caesarean section delivery. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted in the post-natal wards. Research ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, justice and informed consent, were adopted in the study. All participants were informed of their right to withdraw from the study at any stage without penalties. Interviews were analysed using Tesch's method of data analysis. Three main themes were identified as experiences of: diverse pain, physical limitation and frustration and health care services as different. Experiences of mothers following a caesarean section delivery with midwifery services at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay were explored and described as diverse. A need for adequate pain management as well as assistance and breastfeeding support to mothers following caesarean delivery was identified as crucial to promote a good mother-to-child relationship.
Kiser, Humayun; Nasrin, Tasmina
Maternal and child mortality are the key indicators of health and development of the country. Maternal and child health are interconnected to prenatal care. Consulting a doctor at the prenatal stage will not only ensure mother's and her unborn babies' safety, but also has a great influence to reduce the maternal and infant mortality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the status of prenatal care provided by the qualified doctor among pregnant mothers in Bangladesh. Data and required information of 8793 reproductive women were collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. Logistic regression model has been used to identify the most significant determinants of the prenatal doctor visits. In this research, it is found that prenatal cares by a qualified doctor during pregnancy depend on several social and demographic characteristics of a woman. It is observed that women staying both urban and rural areas have similar behaviour of caring regarding their pregnancy related complications. Beside this Respondent's age, education, her husband's education and the number of ever born children have significant contribution on prenatal doctor visit. On the other hand, division, religion, husband's desire for children has no effect on it. Overall the model is able to predict 71.65% women into their appropriate group based on these factors.
Sensationalized representations of autistic families in film and other media frequently feature violent encounters between mothers and sons. This essay analyzes two media stories and three films that suggest how limited-and therefore misleading-popular representations of the autism family are. Except for one of the films, these representations blame the problem of adult autistic dependency on either monstrous autism or bad mothering. Doing so elides collective social responsibility for autism care and denies the reality that autistic adults continue to have complex dependency needs that families cannot always meet. Narratives that sensationalize youth and adults with autism or scapegoat their maternal caregivers also diminish opportunities for social inclusion and for autistic people to live fully and dependently.
I find the income transfer improved mental health and life satisfaction regardless of family structure, albeit not necessarily for a given individual. Rather, average scores were higher for mothers with young children after implementation of the Universal Child Care Benefit. For example, they were more likely to report ‘excellent’ mental health and less likely to be in each of the other categories. The transfer also reduced stress among lone mothers with young children. Specifically, they were less likely to be ‘quite a bit’ or ‘extremely’ stressed on a daily basis, and more likely to be ‘not at all’ or ‘not very’ stressed. I argue that assumptions of the model are plausible and show that results are consistent across several robustness checks.
Zahra Akbarian Rad
Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic
Zahra Akbarian Rad
Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic
Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis
Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of
Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H
Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention
Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the cultural practices of care among mothers of infants with respiratory infection in a pediatric outpatient clinic, from the recognition of the importance of the use of traditional medicine in Brazil. Methods: We applied a descriptive and exploratory study, qualitative, with twenty-eight mothers of infants with respiratory infection seen at a referral center in the city of Barbalha - CE, Brazil. Data were collected between the months of November and December of 2010 through semi-structured interview with a tape recorder. The speeches were analyzed by thematic-categorical analysis, which allowed the creation of four themes: cultural practices of care among mothers, sources of information on medicinal plants, modes of preparation of medicinal herbs and plants used by mothers. To ensure anonymity of participants, they received enumeration following the order of interviews. Results: The study showed that mothers make use of folk medicine, through the preparation of home remedies in order to treat and cure respiratory infections of their children; the leaking tea and herbal medicine are worth mentioning. Mothers place great confidence and give real meaning to the use of homemade preparations. It was observed that this knowledge comes from their mothers, grandparents, relatives and neighbors. Conclusion: Mothers attach great importance to popular practice, the traditional knowledge of relevant cultural value, as it is transmitted from generation to generation and has been rebuilt over time.
Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar,1 Ruth Navarro-Artieda2 1Research Unit, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, 2Medical Documentation Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To describe antidepressant (AD use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses, epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results: In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8% discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made.Conclusion: Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. Keywords: consumption, antidepressants, economic crisis
Dorwie, Florence M; Pacquiao, Dula F
Describe practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in assisting women in childbirth and the perceptions of TBAs by mothers and health professionals familiar with their work. Qualitative design using focus groups conducted in urban and rural settings in Sierra Leone. Separate audiotaped focus groups conducted for each group of participants lasting between 45 and 90 minutes. Purposive sample of 20 TBAs, 20 mothers, and 10 health professionals who met the following criteria: (a) at least 18 years of age, (b) TBAs currently practicing, (c) mothers who delivered at least one child assisted by a TBA, and (d) health professionals currently practicing in the hospital and familiar with TBA practices. TBAs are valued by mothers, health professionals, and the community because they provide accessible and affordable care to mothers who may otherwise have no access to health services. TBAs need training, supervision, and resources for effective referral of mothers. Systemic problems in the health care system create enormous barriers to effective care for mothers and children independent of TBA practices that contribute to high maternal and infant mortality rates. The study findings have implications on broad public policy in improving maternal and child health in the country.
Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, que teve como objetivo conhecer a percepção das mães adolescentes sobre o cuidar do filho. Como trajetória metodológica, utilizamos da fenomenologia, que como um caminho, um movimento, permitiu-nos apreender a essência do fenômeno a partir dos significados emergidos dos discursos de 7 (sete sujeitos que participaram da pesquisa. Para as adolescentes cuidar do filho significa: alimentar a criança, fazer a higiene, tratar a doença, promover o sono, dar atenção, dar carinho, promover a recreação e a educação. Estes temas de análise convergiram para 3 (três categorias abertas: atender as necessidades biológicas da criança, atender as necessidades psíquicas da criança e atender as necessidades sociais da criança.This is a qualitative research that had the objective of understanding the perception of adolescent mothers about their child Os care. The phenomenological approach was used to analyze data gathered from 7 mothers. To the adolescent mothers caring for their child means feeding the child, do his/her hygiene, care for his/her illness, promote rest, give attention, give love, give educational support and promote leisure. These themes converge to 3 main cathegories: attend to the biological, psychological and social necessities of the child.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291 were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107, when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184, reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute
Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i) to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii) to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291) were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107), when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184), reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute significantly to the final
Boamah, Sheila A; Amoyaw, Jonathan; Luginaah, Isaac
Over two-thirds of pregnant women (69%) have at least one antenatal care (ANC) coverage contact in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to achieve the full life-saving potential that ANC promises for women and babies, a nuanced understanding of age-specific gaps in utilization of ANC services is required. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 1456 individuals, this study examined the disparities in the use of ANC services between younger and older mothers by applying four counterfactual decomposition techniques. The results show that cross-group differences in the explanatory variables largely account for the differentials in ANC service utilization between younger and older mothers. Birth order (parity) accounts for the largest share of the contribution to the overall explained gap in ANC utilization between the younger and older mothers, suggesting that ANC differentials between the two groups are probably due to biosocial factors. To a lesser extent, wealth status of the two groups also contributes to the overall explained gap in ANC service utilization. The policy implications of these findings are that in order to bridge the ANC service utilization gap between the two groups, policymakers must systematically address gaps in cross-group differences in the explanatory variables in order to increase the utilization of ANC to attain the minimum recommendation of four visits as per World Health Organization guidelines.
Lawlor, Caroline; Johnson, Sonia; Cole, Laura; Howard, Louise M
Much recent debate on excess rates of compulsory detention and coercive routes to care has focused on young black men; evidence is less clear regarding ethnic variations among women and factors that may mediate these. To explore ethnic variations in compulsory detentions of women, and to explore the potential role of immediate pathways to admission and clinician-rated reasons for admission as mediators of these differences. All women admitted to an acute psychiatric inpatient ward or a women's crisis house in four London boroughs during a 12-week period were included. Data were collected regarding their pathways to care, clinician-rated reasons for admission, hospital stays, and social and clinical characteristics. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) women from white British, white other, black Caribbean, black African and black other groups were included. Adjusting for social and clinical characteristics, all groups of black patients and white other patients were significantly more likely to have been compulsorily admitted than white British patients; white British patients were more likely than other groups to be admitted to a crisis house and more likely than all the black groups to be admitted because of perceived suicide risk. Immediate pathways to care differed: white other, black African and black other groups were less likely to have referred themselves in a crisis and more likely to have been in contact with the police. When adjustment was made for differences in pathways to care, the ethnic differences in compulsory admission were considerably reduced. There are marked ethnic inequities not only between white British and black women, but also between white British and white other women in experiences of acute admission. Differences between groups in help-seeking behaviours in a crisis may contribute to explaining differences in rates of compulsory admission.
Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S
To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.
Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine
Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary
U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…
Gudayu, Temesgen Worku; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Abdo, Abdella Amano
Antenatal care service which is among strategies to maintain maternal and fetal wellbeing is strongly recommended to be initiated early during pregnancy. To developing world where there is uncommon practice of pre-pregnancy care and support, timely commencement is crucial in getting potential benefits from some of the elements of the care. Therefore, we sought to assess timing and factors associated with the first antenatal care booking among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care clinics in Gondar town health facilities; North West Ethiopia. Health institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers from April to June 2012 in Gondar town. A total of 407 pregnant mothers were interviewed at exit from antenatal clinic by using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 16.0. The study indicated that 35.4% of mothers started antenatal care timely (in the first trimester of pregnancy). The mean time was 4.5 months (17.7 weeks) of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that: [(AOR (95% CI)) maternal age ≤ 25 (1.85 (1.10, 3.09)), age at marriage ≥20 years (2.21 (1.33, 3.68)), pregnancy recognition by urine test (2.29 (1.42, 3.71)), mothers who perceived the right time to start antenatal care within first trimester (3.93 (2.29, 6.75)) and having decision power to use antenatal care (2.43 (1.18, 4.99))] were significantly associated with timely commencement to antenatal care. Timely entry to antenatal care was low in the study area. In order to improve the situation, it is important to provide community based information, education and communication on antenatal care and its right time of commencement. In addition, empowering women and implementing the proclamation designed for the age at marriage is mandatory up to the local level.
Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.
Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias
The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such as in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Here, we show that under food restriction, earwig maternal presence decreased offspring survival until adulthood by 43 per cent. This effect was independent of sibling competition and was expressed after separation from the female, indicating lasting detrimental effects. The reduced benefits of maternal presence on offspring survival were not associated with higher investment in future reproduction, suggesting a condition-dependent effect of food restriction on mothers and local mother-offspring competition for food. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time a long-term negative effect of maternal presence on offspring survival in a species with maternal care, and highlight the importance of food availability in the early evolution of family life.
LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M.
This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socio-economic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care. PMID:22588827
Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M
Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Il Ok
This study was conducted to develop a mobile web-based pregnancy health care educational program for mothers who were at an advanced maternal age (AMA) and to verify the effects of the program on pregnancy health care. This program was developed using a web-based teaching-learning system design model and composed of 10 subject areas. This research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest time serial design and data were collected from April 2 to May 3, 2014. To verify the effects of the program, it was used for 2 weeks with 30 AMA mothers (experimental group). For the control group, a classroom education booklet for pregnant women used with 31 AMA mothers. The experimental group having participated in program had statistically significantly higher scores for knowledge (t=3.76, pcare, compared to the control group. The results of the program indicate that a Mobile web-based pregnancy health care educational program is effective in meeting the needs of AMA mothers and can be used as the prenatal educational program for AMA mothers and is appropriate as an educational media for theses mothers.
Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of kangaroo mother care(KMC on preterm and LBW neonates’ vital parameters like temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation, establishment of breastfeeding and weight gain, morbidity and mortality, outcome in intramural and extramural neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hospital-based prospective study, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, 300 newborns shifted to KMC ward. In our study group, female newborns were more than male newborns. Inborn were more than outborn, late preterm more than early preterm and term neonates. A significant increase in axillary temperature, increase in respiratory rate, decrease in heart rate and increase in oxygen saturation was seen in neonates. Higher proportion of neonates achieved transition from predominant expressed breast milk consumption to predominant direct breastfeeding during hospital stay. RESULTS The study showed significantly mean weight gain per day during in hospital KMC of 20 g/kg/day. Mean age when neonates started to gain weight was 8.5 days. Neonates were discharged early as they met our discharge criteria with mean age being 11.6 days. Morbidity of neonates requiring NICU admissions apart from LBW in our study were hyperbilirubinaemia (49.9%, sepsis (19.4%, respiratory illness (7.8% and hypothermia (6.4%. During KMC stay, sepsis and NEC seen in 2 each, apnoea, PDA, jaundice in one each and maternal acceptance of KMC was good. During follow up, it was observed that all neonates were exclusively breastfed and the rate of weight gain (148 g/week was satisfactory with an exception that only 8 requiring hospitalisation and only 1 death due to severe infection. The response of the family and/or the father was supportive. CONCLUSION KMC sustains improvement in LBW neonates’ physiological parameters and accelerates growth pattern. Practice of KMC promote breastfeeding, shorten hospital stay without compromising survival, growth
Purnendu Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.
Li, S A; Jack, S M; Gonzalez, A; Duku, E; MacMillan, H L
Little is known about health care and social service professionals' perspective on the acceptability of long-term home-visit programs serving low-income, first-time mothers. This study describes the experiences and perspectives of these community care providers involved with program referrals or service delivery to mothers who participated in the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), a targeted nurse home-visit program. The study included two phases. Phase I was a secondary qualitative data analysis used to analyze a purposeful sample of 24 individual interviews of community care providers. This was part of a larger case study examining adaptations required to increase acceptability of the NFP in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In Phase II (n = 4), themes identified from Phase I were further explored through individual, semi-structured interviews with community health care and social service providers, giving qualitative description. Overall, the NFP was viewed as addressing an important service gap for first-time mothers. Providers suggested that frequent communication between the NFP and community agencies serving these mothers could help improve the referral process, avoid service duplication, and streamline the flow of service access. The findings can help determine key components required to enhance the success of integrating a home-visit program into an existing network of community services. The function of home-visit programs should not be viewed in isolation. Rather, their potential can be maximized when they collaborate and share information with other agencies to provide better services for first-time mothers.
Khalifian, S; Golden, W C; Cohen, B A
Skin provides several important homeostatic functions to the developing neonate. However, no consensus guidelines exist in the United States for skin care in the healthy term newborn. We performed a study of skin and umbilical cord care (including bathing practices, vernix removal and antiseptic cord application) in newborn nurseries and mother-baby units throughout the state of Maryland to determine practices in a variety of clinical settings and assess if uniformity in skin care exists. These data were then assessed in the context of a review of the current literature. We received responses from over 90% of nurseries across the state. In our cohort, practices varied widely between institutions and specific populations, and often were not evidence-based or were contrary to best practices discussed in the scientific literature. The frequent departures from evidence that occur regarding the aforementioned practices are likely due to a lack of consensus on these issues as well as limited data on such practices, further highlighting the need for data-driven guidelines on newborn skin care.
Kim, Hanjoong; Chung, Woo Jin; Song, Young Jong; Kang, Dae Ryong; Yi, Jee Jeon; Nam, Chung Mo
To examine and quantify the impact of the recent economic crisis on morbidity and medical care utilization in the Republic of Korea. 22 675 people from 6791 households and 43 682 people from 12 283 households were questioned for two nationwide surveys that took place in 1995 and 1998, respectively. A separate sample pretest-posttest design was used and we conducted c2 test and logistic regression analysis after controlling for the maturation effect of the morbidity and medical care utilization. The morbidity rates of chronic disease and acute disease increased significantly by 27.1% and 9.5%, respectively, whereas the utilization rates of outpatient and inpatient services decreased by 15.1% and 5.2%, respectively. In particular, the pace of decline in the utilization rate of outpatient services varied depending on the type of disease: morbidity rates for mental and behavioural disorders were 13.7%; for cardiovascular disease, 7.1%; and for injury, 31.6%. After the Republic of Korean economic crisis, the morbidity and medical care utilization rates changed significantly but the degree of change depended on the type of disease or service. The time-dependent relationship between the national economy and the morbidity and medical care utilization rates needs to be further investigated.
Lee, Sang Bok; Shin, Hye Sook
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kangaroo Care(KC) on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected from September 1. 2006 to June 20. 2007. The participants were 22 mothers in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. KC was applied three times per day, for a total of ten times in 4 days to the experimental group. The degree of anxiety was statistically significantly different between the two groups but maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment was statistically insignificant. This data suggests that KC was effective for mothers anxiety relief but it was not effective for maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment of mothers. The implications for nursing practice and directions for future research need to be discussed.
Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina
Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to pregnant women and their families that are
Jordan, Wolfgang; Bielau, Hendrik; Cohrs, Stefan; Hauth, Iris; Hornstein, Christiane; Marx, Alexandra; Reck, Corinna; von Einsiedel, Regina
CONCERN: The current care and financial situation of mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancies in Germany should be documented in preparation for the development of the new reimbursement system for psychiatry and psychosomatics. In accordance with the last survey of 2005, a brief questionnaire was developed and a nationwide poll was conducted. The survey revealed severe (10 fold) service deficits for severely and gravely mentally ill mothers, who require an inpatient treatment with specific professional competence. Compared with the last poll, these service deficits have increased. This is due to continued insufficient funding and unresolved financing in the new reimbursement system. With the establishment of an additional code for mother-child treatment the precondition for ensuring the funding of this important care form in the new reimbursement system was created. It is to be hoped that the decision-makers of health policy will finally face up to their social responsibility and ensure adequate funding of the additional diagnostic and therapeutic expenditure of mother-child treatment. The health care providers have an obligation to implement a transparent record of services of the additional expenditure and to augment the national evaluation approaches to inpatient mother-child treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Segre, Lisa S; Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W
Depression in low-income, ethnic-minority women of childbearing age is prevalent and compromises infant and child development. Yet numerous barriers prevent treatment delivery. Listening Visits (LV), an empirically supported intervention developed for delivery by British home-visiting nurses, could address this unmet mental health need. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of LV delivered at a woman's usual point-of-care, including home visits or an ob-gyn office. Listening Visits were delivered to depressed pregnant women or mothers of young children by their point-of-care provider (e.g., home visitor or physician's assistant), all of whom had low levels of prior counseling experience. Three quarters of the study's participants were low-income. Of those who reported ethnicity, all identified themselves as minorities. Participants from 4 study sites (N = 66) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, to LV or a wait-list control group (WLC). Assessments, conducted at baseline and 8 weeks, evaluated depression, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Depressive severity, depressive symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved among LV recipients as compared with women receiving standard social/health services. Women valued LV as evidenced by their high attendance rates and treatment satisfaction ratings. In a stepped model of depression care, LV can provide an accessible, acceptable, and effective first-line treatment option for at-risk women who otherwise are unlikely to receive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto
This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators. However, these benefits and political potential against biomedical interventions were undermined after being relabeled as a "reverse innovation," a business concept that encourages corporate investments in low-income countries to develop technologies that can both solve global health problems and boost multinational corporations profits. In response, I propose "subaltern health innovations" as a label for KMC that accounts for the power dynamics in global health between health care initiatives that originate in the Global South and neoliberal configurations of for-profit biomedicine. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.
Cyprus entered a prolonged financial recession in 2011 and by early 2013 it applied for an international bail-out agreement. This presupposed massive reforms in public governance. Health sector was considerably reformed and one of the measures was the introduction of co-payment for outpatient visits to public health care sector. The scope of this study is to assess the impact of financial crisis and co-payment to public outpatient visits in Nicosia urban and greater Nicosia region. An Interrupted time-series analysis. All outpatient visits to public health care family doctor/general practitioners in Nicosia urban and greater Nicosia region from January 2011 until May of 2014 were registered and analysed. Financial crisis did not alter outpatient visits. Introduction of co-payment led to a statistically significant decrease from the second month after its introduction (p = 0.048) (R(2) = 0.329, Q = 23.75, p = 0.137). This decrease was consistent until the end of the observational period and it did not level off. Financial crisis did not affect outpatient visits while co-payment can be considered as a potent cost containment measure during financial recession, by normalising utilisation of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mother – baby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Mother – baby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.
van Teijlingen Edwin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC has been recognised as a way to improve health outcomes for pregnant women and their babies. However, only 29% of pregnant women receive the recommended four antenatal visits in Nepal but reasons for such low utilisation are poorly understood. As in many countries of South Asia, mothers-in-law play a crucial role in the decisions around accessing health care facilities and providers. This paper aims to explore the mother-in-law's role in (a her daughter-in-law's ANC uptake; and (b the decision-making process about using ANC services in Nepal. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 purposively selected antenatal or postnatal mothers (half users, half non-users of ANC, 10 husbands and 10 mothers-in-law in two different (urban and rural communities. Results Our findings suggest that mothers-in-law sometime have a positive influence, for example when encouraging women to seek ANC, but more often it is negative. Like many rural women of their generation, all mothers-in-law in this study were illiterate and most had not used ANC themselves. The main factors leading mothers-in-law not to support/encourage ANC check ups were expectations regarding pregnant women fulfilling their household duties, perceptions that ANC was not beneficial based largely on their own past experiences, the scarcity of resources under their control and power relations between mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Individual knowledge and social class of the mothers-in-law of users and non-users differed significantly, which is likely to have had an effect on their perceptions of the benefits of ANC. Conclusion Mothers-in-law have a strong influence on the uptake of ANC in Nepal. Understanding their role is important if we are to design and target effective community-based health promotion interventions. Health promotion and educational interventions to improve the use of ANC should target women, husbands and family members
Simkhada, Bibha; Porter, Maureen A; van Teijlingen, Edwin R
Antenatal care (ANC) has been recognised as a way to improve health outcomes for pregnant women and their babies. However, only 29% of pregnant women receive the recommended four antenatal visits in Nepal but reasons for such low utilisation are poorly understood. As in many countries of South Asia, mothers-in-law play a crucial role in the decisions around accessing health care facilities and providers. This paper aims to explore the mother-in-law's role in (a) her daughter-in-law's ANC uptake; and (b) the decision-making process about using ANC services in Nepal. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 purposively selected antenatal or postnatal mothers (half users, half non-users of ANC), 10 husbands and 10 mothers-in-law in two different (urban and rural) communities. Our findings suggest that mothers-in-law sometime have a positive influence, for example when encouraging women to seek ANC, but more often it is negative. Like many rural women of their generation, all mothers-in-law in this study were illiterate and most had not used ANC themselves. The main factors leading mothers-in-law not to support/encourage ANC check ups were expectations regarding pregnant women fulfilling their household duties, perceptions that ANC was not beneficial based largely on their own past experiences, the scarcity of resources under their control and power relations between mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Individual knowledge and social class of the mothers-in-law of users and non-users differed significantly, which is likely to have had an effect on their perceptions of the benefits of ANC. Mothers-in-law have a strong influence on the uptake of ANC in Nepal. Understanding their role is important if we are to design and target effective community-based health promotion interventions. Health promotion and educational interventions to improve the use of ANC should target women, husbands and family members, particularly mothers-in-law where they control access to family
de Miguel-Diez, Javier; Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; Herandez-Barrera, Valentin; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Cerezo-Lajas, Alicia; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Consequently, COPD patients are frequent users of health and social resources. Therefore, they are highly vulnerable to decreases in investment in healthcare services. We aimed to describe the utilization of health and home care services among Spanish COPD patients during the economic crisis to identify factors independently associated with changes in the utilization of these services and to study the time trends from 2009 to 2014. We used data from the European Health Interview Surveys for Spain (EHSS) conducted between 2009/2010 (n=22,188) and 2014 (n=22,842). We included responses from adults with COPD aged 40 years or over. Dependent variables included self-reported hospitalizations during the previous year, general practitioner (GP) visits during the last 4 weeks, other health care services used during the previous year (nursing, rehabilitation, and psychological services), and home care services use during the previous year. Independent variables included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status variables, and lifestyles. We identified 1,328 and 1,008 COPD patients from EHSS 2009 and EHSS 2014, respectively. We observed a significant increase in non-GP services use (30.6% in 2009 vs 39.11% in 2014; p home care services use over time. Multivariable models showed that associated factors with a higher use included any chronic comorbidity and worse self-rated health. Physical activity was a strong predictor of fewer hospitalizations and less home care service use. Female sex was associated with significantly fewer hospitalizations (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89). We found an increase in the use of non-GP services (nursing, rehabilitation, and psychological) but not in other health and home care services. The only differences in hospitalizations were observed according to sex. Therefore, the effect of the economic crisis, if any, seems to have been of
This descriptive study included 87 mothers and their low birth weight infants who were ... Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free ... mother was unwilling to participate. ... Child can be without oxygen for most of the day .... are related to both gestational age and ... mother intervention.
Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C
This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.
Full Text Available Samuel N Uwaezuoke Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku–Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Kangaroo mother care (KMC represents an intervention in low birth weight infants for resource-limited settings which aims to reduce mortality rates by thermoregulation, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early hospital discharge. In terms of cost and impact on neonatal survival, it has comparative advantages over the conventional method of care (CMC. This paper aimed to review the evidence concerning the progress of KMC implementation, its health benefits, and its cost-effectiveness, especially in developing countries. From the synthesized evidence, KMC was shown to be a useful adjunct to CMC particularly with respect to improving neonatal survival, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early discharge from the hospital. Substantial progress has been made in its implementation in many developing countries where facility-based KMC has been institutionalized. Despite the cost-effectiveness of KMC in neonatal care, its global implementation is bedeviled with country-specific, multifaceted challenges. In developed countries, there is an implementation gap due to easy accessibility to technology-based CMC. Nevertheless, many developing countries have initiated national policies to scale up KMC services in their domain. Given the major constraints to program implementation peculiar to these resource-limited countries, it has become imperative to boost caregiver confidence and experience using dedicated spaces in the hospital, as well as dedicated staff meant for adequate ambulatory follow-up and continuous health education. Capacity training for health professionals and provision of space infrastructure thus constitute the basic needs which could be funded by International Aid Agencies in order to scale up the program in these settings. Keywords: neonatal care, low birth weight infants, thermoregulation, breastfeeding
Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…
Wilma ten Ham
Purpose of the research: To explore and describe the perspectives of health professionals on the requirements for the rolling-out process of KMC as a best practice in South Africa. Methodology: Twelve semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in 2012 with health professionals from various South African healthcare levels, involved in the implementation and the rolling-out process of kangaroo mother care. Content analysis were guided in terms of the four requirements for roll-out of best practices, identified in Edwards and Grinspun's Evidence Informed Model of Care. Results: The requirements for the successful rollout of best practices mentioned by the participants in this study concur with the requirements of Edwards and Grinspun: personal alignment and protocol/policy alignment with the best practice; a roll-out plan; leadership; and supporting and reinforcing structures such as: resources, communicating, education and development regarding the best practice, and the organisational structure. The requirements were identified at four different levels: individual level (e.g. the nurse and medical specialists, management level (of the hospital, provincial level and national level.
Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E
The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics
Gili, Margalida; Roca, Miquel; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
Nearly all European countries have been affected by the economic crisis that began in 2007, but the consequences have been among the worst in Spain. We investigated the associations of the recession on the frequency of mood, anxiety, somatoform, alcohol-related and eating disorders among those visiting Spanish primary care settings. Primary care physicians selected randomized samples of patients attending primary care centres representing Spain's consulting populations. A total of 7940 patients in 2006-07 and 5876 in 2010-11 were administered the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) instrument to diagnose mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to quantify overall changes in the frequency of mental disorders, adjusting for potential socio-demographic differences in consulting populations unrelated to economic factors. Compared with the pre-crisis period of 2006, the 2010 survey revealed substantial and significant increases in the proportion of patients with mood (19.4% in major depression), anxiety (8.4% in generalized anxiety disorder), somatoform (7.3%) and alcohol-related disorders (4.6% in alcohol dependence), all significant at P < 0.001, but not in eating disorders (0.15%, P = 0.172). Independent of observed risks of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, P < 0.001], we observed a significantly elevated risk of major depression associated with mortgage repayment difficulties (OR = 2.12, P < 0.001) and evictions (OR = 2.95, P < 0.001). About one-third of the overall risk in the consulting population's attendance with mental health disorders could be attributed to the combined risks of household unemployment and mortgage payment difficulties. Recession has significantly increased the frequency of mental health disorders and alcohol abuse among primary care attendees in Spain, particularly among families experiencing unemployment and mortgage payment difficulties.
Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of this study was to illuminate mothers' fear of childbirth and their experiences of the team-midwifery care model during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Maternal anxiety and fear of childbirth lead to emotional suffering and affected women's well-being. A previous negative experience of childbirth may result in postnatal depression or avoidance of future pregnancies. This hermeneutic study comprised interviews with 13 women, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, after which interpretative content analysis was performed. Ethical approval was granted. The findings revealed one main theme: The woman's right to ownership of the pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care as a means of maintaining dignity and three themes; Being aware of barriers and reasons for fear; Being prepared for childbirth and Being confirmed and treated with dignity by the midwife. Each theme contained several sub-themes. The findings contribute insights into how midwives can be educated to reduce fear of childbirth and promote positive birth experiences, despite the existence of negative memories of previous births. In order to achieve continuity and a trusting relationship it is necessary to organise leadership and to adopt models that are flexible and support women's health.
Ray, G Thomas; Croen, Lisa A; Habel, Laurel A
Analyzing health conditions and medical utilization of mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can shed light on biologic, environmental, and psychosocial factors relating to ADHD. To examine health conditions, health care utilization, and costs of mothers of children with ADHD in periods before the child was diagnosed. Using automated data from Northern California Kaiser Permanente we identified mothers of children with ADHD, mothers of children without ADHD, and mothers of children with asthma. Mothers' diagnostic clusters, health care utilization, and costs were compared. Mothers of children with ADHD were compared with mothers of children without ADHD and, separately, to mothers of children with asthma. Compared with mothers of children without ADHD, mothers of children with ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with numerous medical and mental health problems in the 2 years after birth of their child, including depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.88], anxiety neuroses (OR: 1.64), obesity (OR: 1.70), and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR: 1.51). Results were similar for the year before delivery. Mothers of children with ADHD also had higher total health care costs per person in the year before ($1,003) and the 2 years after ($953) the birth of their child. Mothers of children with ADHD also were diagnosed with more health conditions and had higher health care costs than mothers of children with asthma. Our findings suggest that the likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD is related to maternal conditions and use of health services that precede the child's diagnosis. Future studies are needed to clarify whether this is due to biologic, psychosocial, or environmental factors, or a combination.
White, Darcy; Dynes, Michelle; Rubardt, Marcie; Sissoko, Koman; Stephenson, Rob
Evidence from diverse settings suggests that women often have limited control over their own reproductive health decisions. To increase uptake of preventive services and behaviors, it is important to understand how intrafamilial power dynamics and the attitudes of women, their husband and their mother-in-law are associated with maternal health practices. In 317 households in two rural districts of central Mali, women who had given birth in the previous year, their husband and their mother-in-law each completed a survey gauging their attitudes toward constructs of gender, power and health. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify associations with four maternal health outcomes: antenatal care frequency, antenatal care timing, institutional delivery and postnatal care. In multivariable analyses, the preferences and opinions of mothers-in-law were associated with the maternal health behaviors of their daughters-in-law. Women's own perceptions of their self-efficacy, the value of women in society and the quality of services at the local health facility were also independently associated with their preventive and health-seeking practices. Husbands' preferences and opinions were not associated with any outcome. Interventions focusing on women or couples may be insufficient to advance women's reproductive health in patriarchal societies such as Mali. Future research and programmatic efforts need to address gender norms and consider the influence of other family members, such as mothers-in-law.
Vesel, Linda; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kerber, Kate J; Valsangkar, Bina; Mazia, Goldy; Moxon, Sarah G; Blencowe, Hannah; Darmstadt, Gary L; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Dickson, Kim E; Ruiz Peláez, Juan; von Xylander, Severin; Lawn, Joy E
Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1) champion-led; (2) project-initiated; and (3) health systems designed. The combination of all three pathways may lead to more rapid scale-up. KMC has the potential to save lives, and change the face of facility-based newborn care, whilst empowering women to care for their preterm newborns.
Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D
To explore the experiences of Mexican-American mothers who have had infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A convenience sample of 15 English-speaking, Mexican-American women was interviewed. The study used an exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection was conducted through audiotaped, transcribed, semistructured, individual interviews and field notes. The 5 normative cultural values for Latino families-(1) simpatia, (2) personalismo, (3) respeto, (4) familismo, and (5) fatalismo-were used as a sensitizing framework to guide data interpretation. The women's discussions of their NICU experiences clearly reflect the 5 normative Latino cultural values. Positive and negative exemplars of these values are provided as evidence. These findings can be used to inform nursing care provided for Mexican-American mothers and their infants by assisting nurses to customize care to meet the cultural needs of this population.
Kim, Dasom; Lee, Insook
This study was intended to integrate the evidence of home care service intervention for mothers and children in vulnerable groups through an integrative literature review. We searched the MEDLINE (PubMED), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, DBpia databases. The quality of the articles was assessed by one doctoral researcher and verified by one professor of community health nursing who had participated in the systematic review of literature. A framework was developed to identify the intervention patterns in the selected papers and categorize various elements. The extracted intervention elements were grouped into potential themes, which were verified by assessors on whether they clearly reflected the interventions in the papers. Among 878 searched papers, we selected 16 papers after excluding literature that does not satisfy the selection criteria and quality evaluation. The intervention elements of 16 selected papers were categorized into six themes. The extracted intervention elements were divided into the themes of Patient-specific/Situation-specific care planning and intervention, Emphasis on self care competency, Intense home visit by developmental milestone, Reinforcing and modeling mother-child attachment, Communication and interaction across the intervention, Linkage with community resource and multidisciplinary approach. As a result of the analysis of proper interventions of home care services for mothers and children in vulnerable groups, it was found that it is necessary to consider indispensable intervention elements that can standardize the quality of home care services, and conduct studies on developing intervention programs based on the elements. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Klassen, Brian J; Porcerelli, John H; Sklar, Elyse R; Markova, Tsveti
Screening for psychosocial problems is an effective way to identify children who need further evaluation, and many brief, psychometrically strong measures exist for this purpose. More research is needed, however, about the performance of these measures in special populations who are familiar to primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare maternal ratings on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) between low-income, urban mothers who had suffered intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year (n = 23) and a demographically-matched comparison group of mothers (n = 23). Victims of violence rated their children as having significantly more problems in a number of categories (Total PSC Score, Externalizing, and Internalizing) than did mothers in the comparison group. The PSC shows promise as an adequate screening tool for psychosocial problems in the children of women who have suffered IPV, but more research is needed.
Greenberg, J S
This article discusses the role of adult children with serious mental illness as a source of support to their aging parents. The data come from a cross-sectional study of 105 mothers age 55 and older who were living with and caring for an adult child with a serious mental illness. The mothers participated in in-depth face-to-face interviews conducted in their homes and also completed a set of self-administered questionnaires. The majority of mothers in this study reported that their children provided at least some ongoing help with a range of daily living tasks. As hypothesized, the adult child's assistance and support were related significantly to lower levels of maternal subjective burden. By beginning to acknowledge the contributions that people with mental illness make to their families, social workers can help clients maintain and sustain self-esteem and improve the quality of their lives.
This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....
Shah, Nirmish; Rollins, Margo; Landi, Daniel; Shah, Radhika; Bae, Jonathan; De Castro, Laura M
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic disease characterized by multiple vaso-occlusive complications and is increasingly cared for by hospitalists. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in pain management between hematologists and hospitalists. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of pain management patterns and outcomes in adult SCD patients hospitalized for vaso-occlusive crisis. Over 26 months, we found a total of 298 patients (120 cared for by the hematologists and 178 by hospitalists), with a mean age of 32 (range 19-58). Patients cared for by hospitalists had a lower total number of hours on a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) device (171 vs. 212 hours, P=0.11). Hospitalists also were significantly more likely to utilize demand only PCA (42% vs. 23%, P=0.002) and had a significantly lower rate of using both continuous and demand PCA (54% vs. 67%, P=0.04). In addition, patients cared for by hospitalists had a significantly shorter hospitalization (8.4 days) compared to hematologists (10 days, P=0.04) with a non-significant difference in 7 and 30 day readmission rates (7.2% vs. 6.7% and 40% vs. 35% respectively). We found patients cared for by hospitalists more frequently utilized home oral pain medication during admission, had shorter lengths of hospitalization, and did not have a significant increase in readmission rates.
Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace
To investigate staff perception of the changing complexity of mothers and infants admitted to two residential parenting services in New South Wales in the decade from 2005-2015. For many mothers with a young child, parenting is difficult and stressful. If parenting occurs within the context of anxiety, mental illness or abuse it often becomes a high-risk situation for the primary caregiver. Residential parenting services provide early nursing intervention before parenting problems escalate and require physical or mental health focused care. A qualitative descriptive design using semi-structured interview questions was used as phase three of a larger study. Data were gathered from 35 child and family health nurses and ten physicians during eight focus groups. Three main themes emerged: (1) dealing with complexity; (2) changing practice; and (3) appropriate knowledge and skills to handle greater complexity. There was a mix of participant opinions about the increasing complexity of the mothers presenting at residential parenting services during the past decade. Some of the nurses and physicians confirmed an increase in complexity of the mothers while several participants proposed that it was linked to their increased psychosocial assessment knowledge and skill. All participants recognised their work had grown in complexity regardless of their perception about the increased complexity of the mothers. Australian residential parenting services have a significant role in supporting mothers and their families who are experiencing parenting difficulties. It frequently provides early intervention that helps minimise later emotional and physical problems. Nurses are well placed to work with and support mothers with complex histories. Acknowledgement is required that this work is stressful and nurses need to be adequately supported and educated to manage the complex presentations of many families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Nickel, Nathan; Chateau, Dan; Singal, Deepa
The objective of this study is to examine suicide attempts and completions among mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services (CPS). These mothers were compared with their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care and with mothers who received services from CPS but did not have a child taken into care. A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015, is used. Rates among discordant biological sisters (1872 families) were compared using fixed-effects Poisson regression models, and mothers involved with CPS (children in care [ n = 1872] and received services [ n = 9590]) were compared using a Poisson regression model. Compared with their biological sisters and mothers who received services, the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of death by suicide was greater among mothers whose child was taken into care by CPS (aIRR = 4.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-14.33] and ARR = 3.45 [95% CI, 1.61-7.40], respectively). Incidence rates of suicide attempts were higher among mothers with a child taken into care compared with their sisters (aIRR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40-3.30) and mothers receiving services (aIRR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.03-3.92). Mothers who had a child taken into care had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts and completions. When children are taken into care, physician and social workers should inquire about maternal suicidal behaviour and provide appropriate mental health.
Full text: Good nutrition in the first 1000 days provides a stable long term foundation for society, as it ensures a child's growth to his/her potential (1). Pregnant women who suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including Low Birth weight-LBW (4). Iron deficiency anemia is linked to an increased risk of infections (4), and is still a health problem in the kingdom of Bahrain with the prevalence of 22.7% to 54% (5). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation Children's fund (UNICEF) and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations are to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of life and to and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (6). Several studies have shown a downward trend of breastfeeding in developing countries such as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (7,8). Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain have shown partial breastfeeding at early months<6month age (8,9) Aim: To provide a preliminary evaluation of the mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A sample of 62 Bahraini mothers - inpatients and outpatients- within the age group of 20 years to 35 years old at SMC were asked by dietitians and diet technicians to answer 7 closed ended questions about importance of antenatal care, compliance to nutritional recommendations during pregnancy and breastfeeding practices. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in analyzing data collected. Fisher Exact test and Chi-Square test were used to correlate the determinants (age and education level) with mother's attitude/practices. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05 Results: Scores showed no significant correlation between education level mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. As for age, we found more mothers above 25
Caniato, Marco; Tudor, Terry Louis; Vaccari, Mentore
Health-care waste management requires technical, financial and human resources, and it is a challenge for low- and middle income countries, while it is often neglected in protracted crisis or emergency situations. Indeed, when health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community is threatened, solid waste management usually receives limited attention. Using the Gaza Strip as the case study region, this manuscript reports on health-care waste management within the context of a humanitarian crisis. The study employed a range of methods including content analyses of policies and legislation, audits of waste arisings, field visits, stakeholder interviews and evaluation of treatment systems. The study estimated a production from clinics and hospitals of 683kg/day of hazardous waste in the Gaza Strip, while the total health-care waste production was 3357 kg/day. A number of challenges was identified including lack of clear definitions and regulations, limited accurate data on which to base decisions and strategies and poor coordination amongst key stakeholders. Hazardous and non-hazardous waste was partially segregated and treatment facilities hardly used, and 75% of the hazardous waste was left untreated. Recommendations for mitigating these challenges posed to patients, staff and the community in general are suggested. The outputs are particularly useful to support decision makers, and re-organize the system according to reliable data and sound assumptions. The methodology can be replicated in other humanitarian settings, also to other waste flows, and other sectors of environmental sanitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 % scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14
Thibeau, Shelley; Boudreaux, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to explore the use of mothers' own milk (colostrums, transitional milk, and mature milk) as oral care in the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-prevention bundle of mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing 1500 g or less. Mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing 1500 g or less admitted to a regional level III NICU in the Gulf South between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. Retrospective descriptive. Oral care with mothers' own milk was implemented as part of the VAP-prevention bundle in the neonatal intensive care unit in the fourth quarter of 2007. Using retrospective deidentified data retrieved from the electronic medical record, the primary and secondary outcome variables were collected among eligible infants (≤1500 g) admitted January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007 (before implementation) and January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009 (after implementation). Sample characteristics, including infant gestational age, birth weight, and gender, as well as maternal age, type of delivery, and incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis, were also collected. Data analysis included frequencies and distributions to summarize sample characteristics and variables of interest. Appropriate tests for differences were conducted on outcome variables between the before and after groups of the human milk oral care intervention. The feasibility outcome variable included nursing compliance with the oral care procedure. The safety outcome variable included record of any adverse events associated with the oral care procedure. The efficacy health outcomes included the rate of positive tracheal aspirates, positive blood cultures, the number of ventilator days, and length of stay. Infant age (26.1-26.6 weeks) and weight (840-863 g) were similar in the before (n = 70) and after (n = 68) sample subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in ventilator days, χ² (46, n = 115) = 46.22, P = .46, and length of stay, χ (75, n
Clarke, Tainya C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Dietz, Noella; Lee, David J
To examine indicators of health care access and utilization among children of working and nonworking single mothers in the United States, the authors used data on unmarried women participating in the 1997-2008 National Health Interview Survey who financially supported children under 18 years of age (n = 21,842). Stratified by maternal employment, the analyses assessed health care access and utilization for all children. Outcome variables included delayed care, unmet care, lack of prescription medication, no usual place of care, no well-child visit, and no doctor's visit. The analyses reveal that maternal employment status was not associated with health care access and utilization. The strongest predictors of low access/utilization included no health insurance and intermittent health insurance in the previous 12 months, relative to those with continuous private health insurance coverage (odds ratio ranges 3.2-13.5 and 1.3-10.3, respectively). Children with continuous public health insurance compared favorably with those having continuous private health insurance on three of six access/utilization indicators (odds ratio range 0.63-0.85). As these results show, health care access and utilization for the children of single mothers are not optimal. Passage of the U.S. Healthcare Reform Bill (HR 3590) will probably increase the number of children with health insurance and improve these indicators.
Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Virtanen, Jorma I
Early childhood caries (ECC) continues to affect children worldwide. In India, primary health centers (PHCs) comprises the primary tier where Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) provide integrated curative and preventive health care. The aim of the study was to pilot test the integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing (MI) for mothers of young children provided by ASHAs. The pilot study was conducted in Kashipur, Uttarakhand. From the six PHCs in Kashipur, three were randomly selected, one each was assigned to MI group, traditional health education group, and control group. From 60 mothers with 8-12 months child, ASHAs of all three groups gathered mother's knowledge regarding child's oral health using close-ended questionnaire and diagnosed clinical risk markers of ECC in children and ASHAs of Group A and B imparted the oral health education as per their training. The comparison of ASHA's performances on the MI training competency pre- and post-test showed an overall average of 74% improvement in post-test scores. Interexaminer reliability of the parallel clinical measurements by 6 ASHAs and the investigator for the maxillary central incisors showed 93% of agreement for both dental plaque and dental caries assessment with 0.86 and 0.89 kappa values, respectively. The health education through MI is feasible and can be cost-effective by utilization of ASHAs at PHCs to provide the oral health education to mothers which will in turn improve the oral health status of children.
Firmin, Michael W; Bailey, Megan
The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations and stresses associated with full-time working mothers who practice as nurse managers. Full-time work outside the home for mothers has been recognized as a circumstance which may present certain benefits and risks to family life. Nursing management is recognized as a high-stress occupation, which may be filled by mothers who work full time. Little is known about the specific needs and stresses of full-time nurse managers who are caring for children at home. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers who worked as nurse managers. Participants expressed challenges in several areas including balancing/separating work and home, self-imposed advancement inhibitions, and constant giving. Challenges were offset by assets, which included complimentary roles, health insurance, added income, and professional and personal fulfilment. Participants 'wanted it all', including the conveniences of part-time employment and the benefits of full-time employment. Full-time nurse managers with children at home experience unique tensions which characterize their work and home environments. Employers may assist nurses by adopting flexible scheduling, educational and child-care support and assistance in negotiating work and home roles.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane
Background: The concerns of mothers and their experiences while providing help to their daughters with intellectual disability (ID) and considerable support needs during menstruation have rarely been addressed. This qualitative study explored mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing their daughters' menstruation. Method: Twelve Taiwanese…
Feeley, Nancy; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos
The long-term effects of the Cues intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance the interactive behavior of mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were investigated. A randomized trial comparing the Cues intervention to an attention control condition was conducted. A total of 122 mothers of newborns weighing less than 1,500 g were…
Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie; Almberg, Mark; Fauke, Clare
While efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act were narrowly defeated, grave problems in health care persist. Twenty-eight million remain uninsured, a number that is likely to increase. Millions more who have coverage cannot afford care because of high cost-sharing requirements. Meanwhile, the corporate takeover of medical care in the United States is at a gallop. This article provides a brief précis of recent data on U.S. health policy.
Dagnew, Amare Belachew; Tewabe, Tilahun; Murugan, Rajalakshmi
Health seeking behavior is an action taken by an individual who perceive to have a health problem. In most developing countries including Ethiopia the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal health care behavior. Most childhood morbidities and mortalities are associated with low level of mothers health care seeking behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess level of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 15, 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A total of273 mothers with children less than five years were included in this study. The data was collected from all five Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with level of modern health care seeking behavior. Prevalence of modern health care seeking behavior was 82.1%. Age of mothers (AOR = 2.4(1.1, 5.3), age of the child (AOR = 6.7(2.8, 22.2), severity of illness (AOR = 5.2(1.2, 22.6) and family number (AOR = 6.4(2.1, 20.2) were predictors of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers. Majority of the mothers preferred to take their children to modern health care when they got illness. Age of children, age of mother, number of family and severity of illness were the determinant factors for modern health care seeking behavior. Therefore, health care services should be strengthened at community level through community integrated management of childhood illness, information, education communication / behavioral change communication strategies to improve mothers health care seeking behaviors.
Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; de Miguel-Diez, Javier; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Martinez-Huedo, Maria-Angeles; Del Barrio, José Luis; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo
To describe the utilization of health and home care services among older people (≥65 years) with diabetes during the economic crisis; to identify the factors associated with changes in the utilization of these services; and to study the time trends (2009-2014). We used the European Health Interview Surveys for Spain (EEHSS) for 2009/10 and 2014. The dependent variables included self-reported hospitalizations; general practitioner (GP) visits; 'other healthcare services' (OHS) used; and home care services (HCS) used. We identified 6026 and 6020 diabetic patients (EEHSS2009 and EEHSS2014, respectively). A significant decrease in the number of GP visits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.91-0.98) and the use of HCS (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99) was found; however, we found an increase in the use of OHS (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10). Multivariate models showed that factors associated with an increased use included chronic conditions, worse self-rated health, pain and mental disorders. Physical activity was a strong predictor of lower hospitalizations and HCS use. Female gender was associated with significantly lower hospitalizations and a higher use of OHC and HCS. We found a decrease in the number of GP visits and the use of HCS among elderly diabetic adults; however, we also observed an increase in the use of OHS, which may partly explain this decrease in the figures. Significant differences in the use of health services were found according to gender. The effect of the economic crisis, if any, seems to have had a small magnitude. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima raised fundamental questions regarding the care of human beings, but also of the earth itself. Examining the care practices currently being applied in the Fukushima area seems to be a very effective tool for understanding what is being experimented with in terms of the relationships between nature and human beings. However, the usual conceptual frameworks available appear to be of no help. In this article, some possible conceptual attempts are critically explored to suggest that the dominant trends in Japanese feminism, which are divided between maternalism and anti-maternalism, and eco-feminism, which tends to imagine a typically Japanese nature, are not offering the proper analytical tools that might allow us to understand the reality of care in an irradiated environment. The nuclear catastrophe has triggered a crisis in feminist knowledge
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Full Text Available Over the past ten years in Italy, Spain and France, the demographic pressure and the increasing women’s participation in labour market have fuelled the expansion of the private provision of domestic and care services. In order to ensure the difficult balance between affordability, quality and job creation, each countries’ response has been different. France has developed policies to sustain the demand side introducing instruments such as vouchers and fiscal schemes, since the mid of the 2000s. Massive public funding has contributed to foster a regular market of domestic and care services and France is often presented as a “best practices” of those policies aimed at encouraging a regular private sector. Conversely in Italy and Spain, the development of a private domestic and care market has been mostly uncontrolled and without a coherent institutional design: the osmosis between a large informal market and the regular private care sector has been ensured on the supply side by migrant workers’ regularizations or the introduction of new employment regulations . The analysis presented in this paper aims to describe the response of these different policies to the challenges imposed by the current economic crisis. In dealing with the retrenchment of public expenditure and the reduced households’ purchasing power, Italy, Spain and France are experiencing greater difficulties in ensuring a regular private sector of domestic and care services. In light of that, the paper analyses the recent economic conjuncture presenting some assumptions about the future risk of deeper inequalities rising along with the increase of the process of marketization of domestic and care services in all the countries under analysis.
Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a crisis psychological aid to children with suicidal intentions by means of telephone counseling. We shows the profile of a typical adolescent, requesting assistance from the hotline on suicidal thoughts, intentions: it is an introverted girl aged 14 to 18 years, in a depressed mood with a predominance of anxiety, fears, related to traumatic situation, experiencing feelings of hopelessness, loneliness, thinking of the situation as hopeless, going through a break in romantic relationships. The most characteristic motifs of suicide is the desire to “get away from the pain” and/or to revenge the others, make them regret about her. We specified the main tasks of a helpline specialist solved in the course of counseling: prevention of suicidal behavior, information on the possible forms of psychological aid, direct work with a customer requesting aid on his formed suicidal intent.
Lakhani, A.; Gavino, I.; Yousafzai, A
Objective: To assess how families perceive the positive and negative impacts of caring for a child with mental retardation. Methods: The quantitative descriptive study was conducted from January to August 2007 and comprised 54 families attending a private day-care centre for children with special needs in Karachi, Pakistan. The Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions was used to assess mothers' perceptions on the impact of caring for a child with mental retardation. Positive contributions, social comparisons with others, understanding of disability and perception of control were assessed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mothers reported positive contribution to family life as a result of caring for a child with mental retardation (Mean: 2.95+-0.37). There was an acceptance of the situation and a trend towards upward favourable comparison with other families (Mean: 3.13+-0.07). Conclusions: Contrary to earlier studies exploring the impact of caring for a child with disabilities having largely focused on negative contributions, the study highlights some positive contributions. (author)
Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena
Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.
Murphy, Debra A; Armistead, Lisa; Payne, Diana L; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M
A pilot study was conducted to assess the effects of the IMAGE pilot intervention (Improving Mothers' parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) on mothers living with HIV (MLH). Based on Fisher and Fisher's IMB model [1992. Changing AIDS risk behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 455-474], the intervention focused on self-care and parenting behavior skills of MLH that affect maternal, child, and family outcomes. A randomized pre-test-post-test two-group design with repeated assessments was used. MLH (n = 62) and their children aged 6-14 (n = 62; total N = 124) were recruited for the trial and randomized to the theory-based skills training condition or a standard care control condition. Assessments were conducted at baseline with follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Maternal, child, and family outcomes were assessed. Results show significant effects of the intervention for improving parenting practices for mothers. The intervention also improved family outcomes, and showed improvements in the parent-child relationship. IMAGE had a positive impact on parenting behaviors, and on maternal, child, and family outcomes. Given MLH can be challenged by their illness and also live in under-resourced environments, IMAGE may be viewed as a viable way to improve quality of life and family outcomes.
Khubchandani, Jasmine A; Ingraham, Angela M; Daniel, Vijaya T; Ayturk, Didem; Kiefe, Catarina I; Santry, Heena P
Owing to lack of adequate emergency care infrastructure and decline in general surgery workforce, the United States faces a crisis in access to emergency general surgery (EGS) care. Acute care surgery (ACS), an organized system of trauma, general surgery, and critical care, is a proposed solution; however, ACS diffusion remains poorly understood. To investigate geographic diffusion of ACS models of care and characterize the communities in which ACS implementation is lagging. A national survey on EGS practices was developed, tested, and administered at all 2811 US acute care hospitals providing EGS to adults between August 2015 and October 2015. Surgeons responsible for EGS coverage at these hospitals were approached. If these surgeons failed to respond to the initial survey implementation, secondary surgeons or chief medical officers at hospitals with only 1 general surgeon were approached. Survey responses on ACS implementation were linked with geocoded hospital data and national census data to determine geographic diffusion of and access to ACS. We measured the distribution of hospitals with ACS models of care vs those without over time (diffusion) and by US counties characterized by sociodemographic characteristics of county residents (access). Survey response rate was 60% (n = 1690); 272 responding hospitals had implemented ACS by 2015, steadily increasing from 34 in 2001 to 125 in 2010. Acute care surgery implementation has not been uniform. Rural regions have limited ACS access, with hospitals in counties with greater than the 75th percentile population having 5.4 times higher odds (95% CI, 1.66-7.35) of implementing ACS than hospitals in counties with less than 25th percentile population. Communities with greater percentages of adults without a college degree also have limited ACS access (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.81-6.48). However, incorporating EGS into ACS models may be a potential equalizer for poor, black, and Hispanic communities. Understanding and
Shimizu, Aya; Mori, Akiko
To evaluate maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants and their relationship between mothers and nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Mothers who gave birth to preterm infants tend to suffer more stress and need individual support based on family-centred care. However, there may be a shortage of support for mothers to obtain parent-crafting skills before bringing their infants home. This cross-sectional study used path analysis and multiple group analysis to evaluate a structural equation model of the relationship between maternal perception based on family-centred support in parent-crafting training and the mothers-nurses collaboration. We analysed data from 98 mothers (valid response proportion, 41.0%) whose infants were hospitalised in the NICU of two types of perinatal centres in Japan. We used three revised standardised questionnaires in Japanese: Measure of Process of Care in the NICU (Neo-MPOC 20), Enabling Practice Scale in the NICU (Neo-EPS) and the author-developed Mother and Infant Questionnaire. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between mothers and nurses was linked to three factors related to the perinatal centres' support: consideration of parents' feelings, ability to deal with specific needs and coordination in dealing with situations that interact with provision of parent-friendly visual information. Separate path analyses for each perinatal centre showed the same pattern, although the standard coefficients were different. Maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants promoted better collaboration between mothers and nurses to obtain parent-crafting skills at two types of perinatal units in Japan. Clear visual information materials might promote better maternal understanding of their infants, help in acquisition of parent-crafting skills and improve mother-nurse collaboration, with the result that mothers are better able to care for their infants
My post-structuralist feminist reading of the antenatal and birthing practices of women (N = 25) living in a basti in India makes visible how the meanings of maternal experiences constituted as our ways open discursive spaces for the mothers and dais as procreators to: challenge (i.e., question the authority of), co-opt (i.e., conditionally adopt), and judge (i.e., employ sanctioned criteria to regulate) competing knowledge production forms. In critiquing maternal knowledge as feminist discourse, the women's strategies contribute theoretically to an integrative construction of care by reclaiming displaced knowledge discourses and diversity in meaning production. Pragmatically, consciousness-raising collectives comprising the mothers and dais can cocreate narratives of our ways of maternal experiences articulated in public discourse to sustain equitability of knowledge traditions in migrant urban Third World contexts.
Full Text Available Background: Patient and parent satisfaction is a significant indicator for the evaluation of quality of care in healthcare systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the satisfaction of the parents of newborns admitted in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in maternity and infant disease hospitals. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 113 mothers with infants admitted in the NICU of a state hospital in Turkey during April 1-September 30, 2013.Data were collected using sociodemographic questionnaire and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL healthcare satisfaction scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics (mean and percentage, T-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: In this study, mean score of maternal satisfaction with NICU services was 65.66±20.01. No statistically significant differences were observed between maternal age, PedsQL satisfaction subscales, and total score of satisfaction. Moreover, statistically significant associations were observed between the following variables: maternal training and total satisfaction, employment status and subscales of PedsQL, technical skills and general satisfaction, and social security status and emotional support. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the sociodemographic characteristics of newborns, total score of satisfaction, and mean scores of PedsQL satisfaction subscales in mothers. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, level of maternal satisfaction with NICU services was higher than the international average. Therefore, it is recommended that NICU nurses offer sufficient emotional support for both mothers and neonates in this unit and allow mothers to stay with their infants during hospitalization. Furthermore, it is suggested that training programs be implemented on effective communication skills between nurses and patients.
Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC continues to affect children worldwide. In India, primary health centers (PHCs comprises the primary tier where Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA provide integrated curative and preventive health care. The aim of the study was to pilot test the integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing (MI for mothers of young children provided by ASHAs. Subjects and Methods: The pilot study was conducted in Kashipur, Uttarakhand. From the six PHCs in Kashipur, three were randomly selected, one each was assigned to MI group, traditional health education group, and control group. From 60 mothers with 8–12 months child, ASHAs of all three groups gathered mother's knowledge regarding child's oral health using close-ended questionnaire and diagnosed clinical risk markers of ECC in children and ASHAs of Group A and B imparted the oral health education as per their training. Results: The comparison of ASHA's performances on the MI training competency pre- and post-test showed an overall average of 74% improvement in post–test scores. Interexaminer reliability of the parallel clinical measurements by 6 ASHAs and the investigator for the maxillary central incisors showed 93% of agreement for both dental plaque and dental caries assessment with 0.86 and 0.89 kappa values, respectively. Conclusion: The health education through MI is feasible and can be cost-effective by utilization of ASHAs at PHCs to provide the oral health education to mothers which will in turn improve the oral health status of children.
Vaughn, B E; Gove, F L; Egeland, B
The effects of routine daily separations occasioned by out-of-home care on the formation and maintenance of infant-mother attachment relationships were examined in a population of economically disadvantaged mothers. 3 groups were constituted on the basis of the time in the infant's life when out-of-home care began: (1) before 12 months; (2) between 12 and 18 months; (3) home-care controls. The infant-mother pairs were observed in the Ainsworth strange situation at both 12 and 18 months, and were classified as secure, anxious-avoidant, or anxious-resistant. Because previous research has implicated the psychological accessibility of the mother to the infant in the development of anxious-avoidant attachments during the first year of life, the hypothesis that physical inaccessibility due to out-of-home care would also be associated with anxious-avoidant attachments was tested. The data support this hypothesis. At 12 months 47% of the infants whose mothers had returned to work/school were classified in the anxious-avoidant group, while the other 2 groups did not differ significantly in the proportions of infants assigned to the 3 attachment classifications. At 18 months, differences among the 3 work status groups also showed a large portion of anxious-avoidant infants (41%) in this early working group. However, infants whose out-of-home care began after 12 months did not show an increase in the proportion of anxious attachments. Additional analyses of variables related to mother's return to work indicated that single mothers were more likely to return to work/school, that mothers who worked reported higher levels of life stress than mothers who stayed home with the infants, and that, by 18 months, both anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant attachments were also associated with non-intact families.
Diana du Plessis
Therefore, in order to understand the constraints to breastfeeding, the purpose of this study was to assess the breastfeeding information given to pregnant women by health professionals in private practice. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the breastfeeding recommendations made by private health professionals during pregnancy, to describe the management of breastfeeding in the consulting rooms of private medical practitioners, and to describe women’s experiences of breastfeeding in private hospitals. In Phase 1 of the study the population comprised all mothers who attended a support group for new mothers at a private post-natal clinic In Phase 2 the population comprised all mothers who attended a community baby clinic or support group. The sample consisted of all primigravidae who breastfed or attempted to breastfeed in the first six weeks. Purposive convenient sampling, as described by Babbie and Mouton (2002:166, was used in both phases of the study. All participants chose a gynaecologist as the primary care giver and delivered in various private hospitals in Johannesburg. Data were collected by means of an anonymous questionnaire, compiled from national and international literature, as well as personal interviews. Data from the questionnaires were analysed by hand. Descriptive statistics were applied. The interviews were analysed according to the descriptive analysis suggested by Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155. Themes that emerged were clustered and coded. A co-coder, experienced in the field of qualitative research, assisted with the analysis of the transcripts of the interviews. A literature control was conducted to validate the findings. Ethical considerations were based on the DENOSA Ethical Standards for Nurse Researchers (1998:2.3.2–2.3.4. Themes and sub-themes were identified. Opsomming Ten spyte van die goed gedokumenteerde gesondheidsvoordele van borsvoeding en die aanbevelings van die Departement van Gesondheid dat vroue vir
Full Text Available Globally, neonatal death accounts about 44% of child death in 2013. Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal death. Worldwide, more than 43% of deaths among under five year children is contributed by neonates. Half of the neonatal death occur in the first day of life. Recommendations about newborn care practices may conflict with local beliefs and practices. So, it is important to understand the existing newborn care practice and factors affecting it in order to take interventions so as to decrease neonatal death.To assess magnitude of essential neonatal care utilization and associated factors among women visiting public health facilities in Aksum Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2015.Facility based cross sectional study was conducted from December 30, 2015 to January 31, 2016.The sampled population are 423 women who gave live births within the last 6 months prior to data collection. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Data were entered, coded and cleaned using Epi info version 7, and SPSS Version 21 software was used for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with essential neonatal care utilization. Variables with P-value <0.2 in the bivariable logistic regression model were included in to multivariable logistic regression model, and finally variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as independent factors. Odds ratio was used to measure strength of association at 95% confidence level.A total of 423 mothers included in the study. Prevalence of safe cord care, optimal breast feeding, thermal care and baby received Tetracycline eye ointment and vaccine at birth were 42.8%, 63.1%, 32.6% and 44.7% among the respondents respectively. Only 113(26.7% of the participants fulfilled essential new born care practice. Occupation, parity and counseling on essential new born care during delivery were significantly associated with
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative
Ncube, Rosinah K; Barlow, Hilary; Mayers, Pat M
Preterm and low-birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P). Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother-infant attachment.
Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia
To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.
Russell, C; Russell Wms
This article reviews field research on the violent response on the part of animals to conditions of crowding. Monkey species in zoos have consistently been noted to be more quarrelsome and violent than their counterparts in the wild. Up to a certain critical population density various animal species form cooperative social units; however, a surplus population upsets this balance. In addition, under conditions of intense crowding, mammal's care and protection of the young is transformed into indifference, neglect, competition, domination, and ultimately murder. The reversal of social behavior under crowded conditions can be understood as a means of response to a population crisis, in which population is in danger of outrunning resources. In the absence of confinement, tensions among monkeys lead to war between bands. A community weakened by crowding also is more likely to succumb to certain stress diseases and to have less resilience against parasites. Under various special conditions, tolerance may evolve to permit temporary compression without violence; on the other hand, when a violent response is suppressed, the response tends to be explosive when it does occur. If population reduction is delayed too long, the result may be violence, famine, and permanent damage to the environment from overgrazing. In human society there has generally been a lag in the full development of the violent response to crowding. Given the power of modern military technology, it is imperative that human populations avert a population crisis response by substituting voluntary fertility control for involuntary mortality control.
Full Text Available George Mitonas,1 Alexia Juvana,2 Zoe Daniil,3 Chryssa Hatzoglou,4 Konstantinos Gourgoulianis3 1Diavata Health Center, Gennimatas General Hospital, 2Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, 3Pulmonary Medicine Department, University Hospital of Larissa, 4Physiology Department, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece Background: The need to follow a multidisciplinary strategy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD management and rehabilitation in community settings in Greece raises significant questions, given the severe austerity measures being imposed at present. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical profile of patients with COPD along with the care provided in rural community settings in Greece.Methods: Two primary health care centers and 200 newly diagnosed patients over a 12-month period were involved in the study. A self-assessment questionnaire, including questions about smoking habits, the presence of comorbidities and chronic respiratory symptoms, as well as the COPD Assessment Test were used. Spirometry was performed with a dry spirometer. Obstructive spirometry was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7, according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.Results: Males comprised 70% of the sample, with cough and sputum being the prominent signs. Regarding COPD staging, 68.5% were classified in stages I/II. Arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease were the most common comorbidities. Current smokers accounted for 88.5%, while 88% were heavy drinkers. A general practitioner made the diagnosis in 68.5% of the cases, among which offspring and spouses provided home care in 38% and 8% of the cases, respectively, while an informal caregiver other than a relative was reported in 34% of the cases. No caregiver (self-care was reported in 20% of the cases. All patients of stage III and IV had a COPD Assessment Test score >10
Alexandrina Maria Ramos Cardoso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: assess mothers’ parenting knowledge and skills associated with the parental competence health promotion and monitoring for newborns and infants aged up to six months and determine the key characteristics of mothers who are better prepared for parenting. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in three health centers belonging to a Local Health Unit in the Northern Region of Portugal. Data was collected using clinical interviews conducted with pregnant women or mothers with a child aged up to six months. The tool used contained 21 child health promotion and monitoring indicators associated with different assessment moments: pregnancy, 1st/2nd week, 1st/2nd month, 3rd/4th month, and 5th/6th month. Results: we assessed the knowledge and skills of 629 women. Learning needs were identified for each of the indicators. The mothers who were better prepared for parenting tended to have a higher level of schooling, resided with the child’s father, had other children, had planned pregnancy, and intended to breastfeed. Conclusions: the results showed that knowledge and skills were lacking for each of the periods assessed by this study. First-time single mothers whose pregnancy was unplanned and who did not prepare themselves for parenthood may be considered a vulnerable group.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who are looking after their teenage daughters’ young children. Secondly, to formulate guidelines (based on the results obtained for psychiatric nurses in assisting these mothers to mobilise resources in order to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used and Guba’s model for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research was applied. The phenomenological approach was used to collect and analyse data from a sample of seven respondents who were purposively selected. Three independent themes emerged from the analysis of results: Meaning of the parenting role, life-style changes and support systems. The results further show that for these mothers the problem of teenage pregnancy and parenthood ends up being their problem. Their experiences in looking after these babies, although sometimes fulfilling and meaningful, are most of the time stressful. This has implications on their mental health. Guidelines are recommended in order to facilitate these mothers to mobilise their resources for mental health.
Mothers who practise KMC exhibit less maternal stress and fewer symptoms of depression, and have a better sense of the parenting role and more confidence in meeting their babies' needs than those who don't. Despite the apparent feasibility of KMC, currently, only a few preterm babies in low-income countries have
Full Text Available ... Crisis Centers About Be There Show You Care Find Resources Graphic Generator Toolkit Signs of Crisis Identifying ... or a Veteran you know is in crisis, find a facility near you. Spread the Word Download ...
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... Nov 13,2017 A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely ...
Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim
Full Text Available Introduction: This study approaches the process of teaching-learning of a group of occupational therapy students to act in the care of mothers of babies at risk in the hospital context. It is linked to a community project, supported by the ‘Programa de Extensao Universitaria’. Objective: It aimed to qualify the students for understanding the risk rising, the initial mother-baby bond in the hospital environment, the monitoring of the child development and troubleshooting, as well as to see themselves as subjects of their own training. Method: Participants were six students, three teachers, 26 mothers and their 28 babies. The procedures had been developed in three articulated axles: practice, theoretical basis and invitation to reflection, each axle guided by one of three teachers. There were 65 meetings; 27 of the group of mothers, 11 of the group for theoretical overviews and 27 of the reflection group. Six students have completed their participation in the study, having achieved qualification for the care of occupational therapy to mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization and at home after discharge, as well as the co-responsibility with people and served family. All 26 mothers received care in the nursery; 25 of them in addition to the nursery, were treated at mothers group and 6 in addition to the nursery and the group, were visited at home. Conclusion: This study made it possible to contemplate two subjects with the same priority: the mother and her baby, as subjects of the attention and care of an occupational therapist and the student, as the subject of the attention and care of the teacher of occupational therapy.
Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua N; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Isah, Haroun O; Wiwa, Owens M; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Galadanci, Hadiza; Afe, Abayomi J; Jolaoso, Ibidun; Bassey, Emem; Charurat, Manhattan E
Nigeria is a key target country in the global effort toward elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Low coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions, adherence, and retention-in-care rates in HIV-positive pregnant women are contributing factors to high mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) rates. In Nigeria, rural areas, served largely by primary health care facilities, have particularly poor indicators of PMTCT coverage. Mentor Mothers are HIV-positive women who serve as peer counselors for PMTCT clients, provide guidance, and support in keeping appointments and promoting antiretroviral adherence and retention-in-care. The Mother Mentor (MoMent) study aims to investigate the impact of structured Mentor Mother programs on PMTCT outcomes in rural Nigeria. A prospective cohort study will compare rates of retention-in-care among PMTCT clients who are supported by formally-trained supervised Mentor Mothers versus clients who receive standard-of-care, informal peer support. Study sites are 20 primary health care centers (10 intervention, 10 control) in rural North-Central Nigeria. The study population is HIV-positive mothers and exposed infant pairs (MIPs) (N = 480; 240 MIPs per study arm). Primary outcome measures are the proportion of exposed infants receiving early HIV testing by age 2 months, and the proportion of MIPs retained in care at 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcome measures examine antiretroviral adherence, 12-month postpartum MIP retention, and MTCT rates. This article presents details of the study design, the structured Mentor Mother programs, and how their impact on PMTCT outcomes will be assessed.
Morris, Edwin Kent
Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing world like India. WHO & Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness ( IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines encourage mothers and caretakers to treat diarrhoea at home by giving ORS and oral rehydration therapy (ORT to reduce the duration , severity , hospitalization , overall medical costs and death . OBJECTIVES : i t o assess the Knowledge , Attitude and Practice (KAP of mothers on home care of acu te diarrhoeal diseases and ii To find out the factors affecting it , if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study was conducted for three months duration among 76 mothers of slum - dwelling under five children (2 - 59 months in Bankura . Information about KAP on management of acute diarrhoeal diseases was obtained by interview of mother using schedule based on WHO & IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines. RESULTS: In this study , majority mothers (64.7% of children were of BPL category an d mean schooling years of mothers was 7.97±4.12. Majority of mothers’ knowledge was average (66.2% and favourable attitude was (76.5%. While 72.2% mothers performed average practice ; only 9.3% of mothers performed good practice. Education , occupation and socio - economic status (SES were the influencing factors of KAP on home care of diarrhea. Conclusions : A lot of gap was still present in knowledge , attitude and practice of home management of acute diarrheal diseases in an urban slum of Bankura. Health pro viders are needed to be skilled , motivated to percolate the information to mothers regarding home care of diarrhea.
Coogle, Constance L; Parham, Iris A; Jablonski, Rita; Rachel, Jason A
Changes in job satisfaction and career commitment were observed as a consequence of a geriatric case management training program focusing on skills development among personal care attendants in home care. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores uncovered a statistically significant increase in Intrinsic Job Satisfaction scores for participants 18-39 years of age, whereas levels declined among the group of middle aged participants and no change was observed among participants age 52 and older. On the other hand, a statistically significant decline in Extrinsic Job Satisfaction was documented over all participants, but this was found to be primarily due to declines among participants 40-51 years of age. When contacted 6-12 months after the training series had concluded participants indicated that the training substantially increased the likelihood that they would stay in their current jobs and improved their job satisfaction to some extent. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores among participants providing follow-up data revealed a statistically significant improvement in levels of Career Resilience. These results are discussed as they relate to similar training models and national data sets, and recommendations are offered for targeting future educational programs designed to address the long-term care workforce shortage.
Porthé, Victoria; Vargas, Ingrid; Ronda, Elena; Malmusi, Davide; Bosch, Lola; Vázquez, M Luisa
To analyse changes in health professionals' and immigrant users' perceptions of the quality of care provided to the immigrant population during the crisis. A qualitative descriptive-interpretative and exploratory study was conducted in two areas of Catalonia. Semi-structured individual interviews were used with a theoretical sample of medical (n=24) and administrative (n=10) professionals in primary care (PC) and secondary care (SC), and immigrant users (n=20). Thematic analysis was conducted and the results were triangulated. Problems related to technical and interpersonal quality emerged from the discourse of both professionals and immigrants. These problems were attributed to cutbacks during the economic crisis. Regarding technical quality, respondents reported an increase in erroneous or non-specific diagnoses, inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and non-specific treatments, due to reduction in consultation times as a result of cuts in human resources. With regard to interpersonal quality, professionals reported less empathy, and users also reported worse communication, due to changes in professionals' working conditions and users' attitudes. Finally, a reduction in the resolution capacity of the health services emerged: professionals described unnecessary repeated PC visits and limited responses in SC, while young immigrants reported an insufficient response to their health problems. The results indicate a deterioration in perceived technical and interpersonal quality during the economic crisis, due to cutbacks mainly in human resources. These changes affect the whole population, but especially immigrants. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lemcke, Sanne; Thorlund Parner, Erik; Bjerrum, Merete
Introduction and objectives: The aim is to study whether prospectively collected information from mothers regarding deviations in their child’s development and behaviour during the first two years of life can predict the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) later in life. Methods: In the Danish...... National Birth Cohort (DNBC) mothers were interviewed about their child’s development and behaviour when the child was 6 and 18 months of age, respectively. Children diagnosed with ASD in Danish paediatric and child psychiatric departments are registered in the Danish National Patient Register. Thus......, it is possible to identify children with ASD in the DNBC and analyses of the information in the interviews will provide information about signs of ASD before the age of two years. Results: The study is ongoing. The study cohort consisted in august 2010 of 76.441 children; of which 617 children were diagnosed...
Hayter, Mark; Jones, Catriona; Owen, Jenny; Harrison, Christina
This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study exploring the experiences of teenage mothers using a nurse-led, home-based contraceptive service designed to prevent repeat unplanned pregnancies. The aim was to understand if, and how the service was effective in equipping teenage mothers to make informed choices about contraception, thus preventing a second pregnancy. Unplanned teenage pregnancy remains a significant focus of health and social policy in the United Kingdom (UK). Despite the long-term pattern of declining conception rates, the UK continues to report higher rates than comparable countries elsewhere in Europe. Current estimates suggest that approximately one fifth of births amongst under 18's are repeat pregnancies (Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group, 2009). Services that are designed to reduce second unplanned pregnancies are an important element in promoting teenage sexual health. However, there has been no UK research that explores this kind of service and the experiences of service users. We conducted a qualitative interview study. From 2013-2014 we interviewed 40 teenage mothers who had engaged with the nurse-led, home-based contraceptive service. The data demonstrates that the service was effective in preventing repeat pregnancies in a number of cases. Among the aspects of the service which were found to contribute to its effectiveness were privacy, convenience, flexibility, appropriately timed access, the non-judgemental attitude of staff and ongoing support.
When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) comprise part of the normal vaginal microflora. Transfer from mother to neonate can occur during delivery resulting, sometimes, in neonatal bacterial disease. Here, we aim to report the first outbreak of CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli with evidence of mother-to-neonate transmission in an Irish neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) followed by patient-to-patient transmission.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2006; N [image omitted]7,900), the authors examined child-care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: (a) "parental care," (b) "center…
Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " . However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff
Mechili E.A.; Angelaki, A.; Petelos, E.; Sifaki-Pistolla, D.; Chatzea, V.E.; Dowrick, C.; Hoffmann, K.; Jirovsky, E.; Pavlick, D.R.; Dückers, M.; Rurik, I.; Muijsenbergh, M. van den; Loenen, T. van; Ajdukovic, D.; Bakic, H.; Lionis, C.
Background The refugee crisis has resulted in massive waves of migration towards Europe. Besides sufficient and appropriate healthcare services, these vulnerable populations need kindness, respect, acceptance, empathy, and attention to basic needs. Healthcare professionals ought to have a
Huang, Hsiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Katon, Wayne; Tabb, Karen; Sieu, Nida; Bauer, Amy M; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Unützer, Jürgen
PURPOSE. To examine variations in depression care and outcomes among high-risk pregnant and parenting women from different racial/ethnic groups served in community health centres. As part of a collaborative care programme that provides depression treatment in primary care clinics for high-risk mothers, 661 women with probable depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 10), who self-reported race/ethnicity as Latina (n = 393), White (n = 126), Black (n = 75) or Asian (n = 67), were included in the study. Primary outcomes include quality of depression care and improvement in depression. A Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used to examine time to treatment response. We observed significant differences in both depression processes and outcomes across ethnic groups. After adjusting for other variables, Blacks were found to be significantly less likely to improve than Latinas [hazard ratio (HR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.65]. Other factors significantly associated with depression improvement were pregnancy (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.27-1.82), number of clinic visits (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and phone contacts (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32-1.60) by the care manager in the first month of treatment. After controlling for depression severity, having suicidal thoughts at baseline was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of depression improvement (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.83). In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of pregnant and parenting women treated for depression in primary care, the intensity of care management was positively associated with improved depression. There was also appreciable variation in depression outcomes between Latina and Black patients.
Santos, Luciana Angélica Vieira; Lara, Maristela Oliveira; Lima, Renata Caroline Ribeiro; Rocha, André Freire; Rocha, Euza Mara; Glória, José Cristiano Ramos; Ribeiro, Gabriela de Cássia
The scope of this research was to analyze the gestational history and prenatal care characteristics of adolescent and adult mothers in a maternity hospital located in a city in Minas Gerais, which is a hospital of reference in the macro-region of health of Jequitinhonha. It involved a descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 327 mothers were interviewed between May 2013 and March 2014 using a semi-structured questionnaire. With a sample of 255, the number of adult women was predominant. With respect to prenatal care, 324 pregnant women had medical appointments. In terms of the location for prenatal care, 79.2% of adolescents were attended in the public health service, while that percentage was 60.4% among adult women. Regarding the type of birth, 54.7% of mothers had normal delivery and 45% had cesarean section. Among adolescents, there was a higher percentage of normal delivery compared to adult women and this data had a statistically significant relationship with the age of the pregnant women. With respect to gestational age at birth, 85.9% had full-term deliveries, 13.5% had preterm delivery and 0.6% had post-term delivery. It was revealed that adolescent mothers were at a disadvantage compared to the other mothers in terms of both socioeconomic characteristics and prenatal care received.
Malene Plejdrup Hansen
Full Text Available •Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures (such as physical barriers and hand hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective for preventing some acute respiratory infections. •Patients overestimate the effectiveness of antibiotics: therefore public campaigns might contribute to minimise misconceptions.•Complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, caffeine, vitamin C, probiotics and Echinacea are often proposed for preventing and treating acute respiratory infections, but evidence for efficacy is scarce.•General practitioners’ attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for acute respiratory infections. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. •General practitioners’ perceptions – that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their acute respiratory infections – are often wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits.•General practitioners’ diagnostic uncertainty – often leading to an antibiotic prescription ‘just in case’ – might be addressed by exploiting strategies such as safety-netting, e.g. establishing with the patient a priori clearly defined actions to take if the course of the illness deviates from the expected.However, there is scant research undertaken in this area and evaluation of this strategy and its effects on patient care is needed.•The best strategies for the future are likely to focus on the best combination of the most effective interventions rather than any single one.
Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing infant mortality rate during delivery is a priority in the world. Even with the existing activities that take place in hospitals, due to a lack of simple and effective methods, this mortality reduction trend is slow. The objects of this study were to apply and investigate the effects of WHO evidence-based guidelines for safe delivery on the quality of maternal and neonatal support. Materials and Methods: This is a semi-experimental study with external control. After forward and backward translation of WHO safe childbirth checklist, in an expert meeting irrelevant/infeasible items in the checklist were omitted or modified. Personnel performance on checklist items was evaluated by researchers who were present in the whole period of mother and neonate hospitalization in two phases. Intervention was done in two hospitals and one hospital was considered as control. At first, the instructions were provided for all the collaborating personnel in forms of pamphlets, posters and booklets and after two weeks second phase began by arranging an educational session for personnel. The data of these two phases is being compared. Discussion: If our prior assumption be proved, we anticipate improvements in some items of checklist .Some of these items are skin contact, breast feeding rate in first hour postpartum, hand hygiene, and mother's knowledge regarding the parturition during the time in which they are hospitalized together with a decrease in episiotomy infection/dehiscence prevalence. These changes can be regarded as an overall promotion in maternal/neonatal support.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to
de Miranda, C T; de Paula, C S; Palma, D; da Silva, E M; Martin, D; de Nóbrega, F J
Of the members of a family, the mother is without doubt the most important one, which provides justification for including an evaluation of her mental health as one of the variables to be considered as determining factors in each child's level of development. To assess the impact of the application of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) on child development, home environment and maternal mental health. Randomised controlled trial. The study included children enrolled in the municipal day care center of a shantytown in the City of São Paulo. 45 pairs of mothers and respective children between 18 and 36 months of age. Children's development (Bayley scales); home environment variation (HOME); and maternal mental health (SRQ). Comparison between before and after the intervention was made in terms of children's psychomotor development, home environment and maternal mental health. Application of the NLP technique to the experimental group and comparison with a control group. 1--Experimental (EG), consisting of 23 children submitted to intervention by NLP; and 2--Control (CG), with 22 children with no intervention. Length of intervention: 15 sessions of NLP. 37 children remained in the study (EG = 10, CG = 27). Variations in mental development (OR 1.21, IC 95% 0.0 to 23.08) in their home environment (Wilcoxon): p = 0.96 (before) and p = 0.09 (after); in maternal mental health: p = 0.26, 2 df. There was a trend that indicated positive effects on the home environment from the intervention.
The traditional approach to crisis management suggest autocratic leadership, that has risks anyway (leader is the bottle-neck of problem solving, single-loop learning, crisis management is a matter of efficiency). However, managing nowadays crisis is rather effectiveness issue, and requires double-loop learning (second-order change) and leadership role in the sense of Kotter’s theory. Paper discusses the top-management’s leadership responsibilities, and their special tasks in the problem solv...
Våga, Bodil Bø; Moland, Karen Marie; Blystad, Astrid
Confidentiality lies at the core of medical ethics and is the cornerstone for developing and keeping a trusting relationship between nurses and patients. In the wake of the HIV epidemic, there has been a heightened focus on confidentiality in healthcare contexts. Nurses' follow-up of HIV-positive women and their susceptible HIV-exposed children has proved to be challenging in this regard, but the ethical dilemmas concerning confidentiality that emerge in the process of ensuring HIV-free survival of the third party - the child - have attracted limited attention. The study explores challenges of confidentiality linked to a third party in nurse-patient relationships in a rural Tanzanian HIV/AIDS context. The study was carried out in rural and semi-urban settings of Tanzania where the population is largely agro-pastoral, the formal educational level is low and poverty is rife. The HIV prevalence of 1.5% is low compared to the national prevalence of 5.1%. Data were collected during 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork and consisted of participant observation in clinical settings and during home visits combined with in-depth interviews. The main categories of informants were nurses employed in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programmes and HIV-positive women enrolled in these programmes. Based on information about the study aims, all informants consented to participate. Ethical approval was granted by ethics review boards in Tanzania and Norway. The material indicates a delicate balance between the nurses' attempt to secure the HIV-free survival of the babies and the mothers' desire to preserve confidentiality. Profound confidentiality-related dilemmas emerged in actual practice, and indications of a lack of thorough consideration of the implication of a patient's restricted disclosure came to light during follow-up of the HIV-positive women and the third party - the child who is at risk of HIV infection through mother's milk. World Health Organization
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Puerperium refers to the six-week period following childbirth. This is a dynamic period when the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy resolve and the body system return to their pre-pregnant state. Many of the complications leading to postpartum maternal morbidity arise during labour and delivery and in the first 1-2 weeks following delivery. The complication during immediate postpartum periods is managed in hospital itself. But, there is a risk of persisting these complications and from the postnatal checkup, the magnitude of the postpartum morbidity of these women are assessed. The aim of the study is to assess the postpartum physical morbidities among postnatal mothers and determine the association of those with selected variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive study. Sample in this study consists of 406 consecutive cases of postnatal mothers after 6 weeks of postpartum period who are visiting Family Planning Outpatient Department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, for postnatal checkup. Each woman was assessed by using interview schedule. The findings were presented under the following headings. Sociodemographic data, postpartum morbidities and association between selected variable and postpartum morbidities. Study Setting and Design- The design adopted is descriptive research design. 406 postnatal mothers attending the Family Planning Outpatient Department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, for postnatal checkup after 6 weeks postpartum are allocated. Each woman was assessed by interview schedule. The physical postpartum morbidities among postnatal women were assessed. RESULTS Data was analysed using SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics based on the objective using frequency and Chi-square test. CONCLUSION In the present study, 57.6% of women had morbidities of which 29.3% had postpartum anaemia, 45.5% had backache, 15% had perineal pain, 16
van Rooyen Elise
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach
Staehelin, Katharina; Kurth, Elisabeth; Schindler, Christian; Schmid, Monika; Zemp Stutz, Elisabeth
The prevalence of early postpartum mental health conditions is high. Midwives and other health professionals visiting women at home may identify mothers at risk. This seems crucial given decreasing trends of length of hospital stay after childbirth. This study aimed to identify predictors of maternal mental distress in a midwifery home care setting. Using the statistical database of independent midwives' services in Switzerland in 2007, we conducted a matched nested case-control study. Out of a source population of 34,295 mothers with midwifery home care in the first ten days after childbirth, 935 mothers with maternal distress and 3,645 controls, matched by midwife, were included. We analysed whether socio-demographic, maternal and neonatal factors predict maternal mental distress by multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. Infant crying problems and not living with a partner were the strongest predictors for maternal distress, whereas higher parity was the most protective factor. Significantly elevated risks were also found for older age, lower educational levels, breast/breastfeeding problems, infant weight gain concerns, neonatal pathologies and use of midwifery care during pregnancy. A lower likelihood for maternal distress was seen for non-Swiss nationality, full-time employment before birth, intention to return to work after birth and midwife-led birth. The study informs on predictors of maternal mental distress identified in a home care setting in the early postpartum period. Midwives and other health care professionals should pay particular attention to mothers of excessively crying infants, single mothers and primipara, and assess the need for support of these mothers.
Andi Kasrida Dahlan
Full Text Available Abstract: The research was aimed to explain the implementation ofKMC on LBW input. The research was qualitative descriptive phenomenologystudy was conducted at Hospital Sawerigading Palopo with4 main informant midwife / nurse who has done KMC. Collecting datausing the technique of in-depth interviews, observation and documentation.Analysis of the data with models Miles and Huberman. The resultsof this study showed that there is a policy, but still lacking socializationrelated to the implementation of KMC mothers and families with babiesof low birth weight, lack of human resources training and infrastructuredo not meet the standards. Conclusion: The availability of input componentsKMC implementation is notmaximized.Keywords: input, implementation, KMC, LBW, qualitative
Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila
Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624
Callie A Scott
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. METHODS: We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider's perspective. RESULTS: Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in
Ruby Angeline Pricilla
Full Text Available Background:India contributes to 19% of the global maternal deaths. Good quality antenatal care can prevent maternal deaths by early detection of complications and maintaining maternal health. There are few studies documenting quality of antenatal care in India. This study aimed to document the antenatal services provided by nurse midwives to low-risk pregnant mothers from an urban population. Aims: The primary objective was to describe the quality of the antenatal care provided by nurse midwives of an urban health centre with regard to low-risk mothers. The secondary objective was to document the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of the enrolled mothers during the period of study. Methods: This prospective cohort study was done on 200 pregnant women who had antenatal care by nurse midwives between April 2014 and November 2014. The quality of care was assessed by a checklist adapted from World Health Organization (WHO. Results: We report that the quality of antenatal care for all domains was above 90% except for the health education domain, which was poor with regard to breastfeeding and family planning in the enrolled 200 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our study concluded that trained nurse midwives when regularly monitored, audited and linked with reliable referral facilities can deliver good quality antenatal care.
Anca Jarmila Guţă
The paper presents the manner in which the crisis of different types can disturb the normal activity of an organization and also the modalities by which the communication in this situation can solve or attenuate the negative effects of a crisis.
Kandawasvika, Gwendoline Q.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Gumbo, Felicity Z.; Kurewa, Edith N.; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Aim: The aim of this article is to document the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among infants enrolled in a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in Zimbabwe using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS). Method: We prospectively followed up infants at three…
Perez-Botella, Mercedes; Downe, Soo; Magistretti, Claudia Meier; Lindstrom, Bengt; Berg, Marie
Health care outcomes used in service evaluation and research tend to measure morbidity and mortality. This is the case even in maternity care, where most women and babies are healthy. Salutogenesis theory recognises that health is a continuum, with explicit inclusion of well-being as well as illness and pathology. This offers the potential to reframe the outcomes and therefore, the focus of, maternity care research and provision. The aim of this study was to identify how salutogenesis has been defined and used in maternity care research undertaken with healthy women. A scoping review was undertaken, using a formal pre-defined search strategy. Inclusion criteria encompassed research papers relating to the maternity episode up to 1 year after birth, using salutogenesis or any of its associated concepts, focused on healthy women, and written in a language which any of the members of the group could understand. The search was undertaken in two phases (database inception--April 2011 and May 2011-February 2013). Included studies were subject to narrative analysis. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. They covered seven topics, spanning the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods. Only two papers employed both positive health orientation and explicit use of Antonovsky's theory. The remaining studies used discrete aspects of the theory. Salutogenic framing is rarely used in maternity care research with healthy participants. An increase in research that measures salutogenically orientated outcomes could, eventually, provide a balance to the current over-emphasis on pathology in maternity care design and provision worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality thus an important public health concern. Aim To identify the maternal determinants associated with LBW of babies Setting M.G.M Medical college & L.S.K Hospital Kishanganj ,Bihar. Design Hospital based cross sectional study Study period January 2014 to March 2014 Methodology Institution based descriptive cross sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. All postnatal women (190 with singleton apparently healthy babies during the study period were selected for study. Birth weight of babies was recorded, mothers were interviewed and antenatal cards were reviewed. Result 34% of newborns were found to be low birth weight in our study. Statistically significant association was found between Low birth weight of babies and mother’s age, religion, literacy of mother, consumption of IFA tablets and regular ANC checkup during pregnancy. Conclusion The study suggests various maternal factors influence the birth weight of newborn babies and by improving antenatal care services both in coverage and quality we can reduce infant mortality in country.
Thobeka P. Jikijela
Conclusion: Experiences of mothers following a caesarean section delivery with midwifery services at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay were explored and described as diverse. A need for adequate pain management as well as assistance and breastfeeding support to mothers following caesarean delivery was identified as crucial to promote a good mother-to-child relationship.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh
The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…
Çakmak, Emine; Karaçam, Zekiye
To examine the correlation between mothers' participation in infant care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and their anxiety and problem-solving skill levels in caregiving. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 340 mothers whose babies were in the NICU. Data were collected with a questionnaire, a Participation in Caregiving Observation Form, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Problem-solving Skills Evaluation Form. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. The mothers were with their babies an average of 6.28 ± 2.43 (range: 1-20) times a day, participating in many basic procedures of care. A negative correlation was found between the mothers' scores on the Participation in Caregiving Observation Form and their State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (respectively, r = -0.48, p Problem-solving Process (r = 0.41, p problem-solving skills with respect to baby care and related problems.
Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg
Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.
Wilma ten Ham
Conclusion: Although certain requirements, such as personal alignment and reinforcing structures can be used in the roll-out of best practices, further research is desirable to promote fuller understanding of how to devise and apply the requirements in the wider adoption of best practices in South African health care settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have received inadequate health care services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We report here the health workers' perceptions on factors that lead to their failure to give good quality prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Methods Semistructured interviews with 53 health workers and unstructured observations in nine health facilities in Hanoi were conducted. Selection of respondents was based on their function, position and experience in the development or implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission policies/programmes. Results Factors that lead to health workers' failure to give good quality services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission include their own fear of HIV infection; lack of knowledge on HIV and counselling skills; or high workloads and lack of staff; unavailability of HIV testing at commune level; shortage of antiretroviral drugs; and lack of operational guidelines. A negative attitude during counselling and provision of care, treating in a separate area and avoidance of providing service at all were seen by health workers as the result of fear of being infected, as well as distrust towards almost all HIV-infected patients because of the prevailing association with antisocial behaviours. Additionally, the fragmentation of the health care system into specialized vertical pillars, including a vertical programme for HIV/AIDS, is a major obstacle to providing a continuum of care. Conclusion Many hospital staff were not being able to provide good care or were even unwilling to provide appropriate care for HIV-positive pregnant women The study suggests that the quality of prevention of
Muro, Florida; Meta, Judith; Renju, Jenny; Mushi, Adiel; Mbakilwa, Hilda; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh; Hildenwall, Helena
Pneumonia is among the leading causes of avoidable deaths for young children globally. The main burden of mortality falls on children from poor and rural families who are less likely to obtain the treatment they need, highlighting inequities in access to effective care and treatment. Caretakers' illness perceptions and care-seeking practices are of major importance for children with pneumonia to receive adequate care. This study qualitatively explores the caretaker concepts of childhood pneumonia in relation to treatment seeking behaviour and health worker management in Moshi urban district, Tanzania. In May - July 2013 data was gathered through different qualitative data collection techniques including five focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of children under-five years of age. The FGDs involved free listing of pneumonia symptoms and video presentations of children with respiratory symptoms done, these were triangulated with ten case narratives with mothers of children admitted with pneumonia and eleven in-depth interviews with hospital health workers. Transcripts were coded and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Mothers demonstrated good awareness of common childhood illnesses including pneumonia, which was often associated with symptoms such as cough, flu, chest tightness, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Mothers had mixed views on causative factors and treatments options but generally preferred modern medicine for persisting and severe symptoms. However, all respondent reported access to health facilities as a barrier to care, associated with transport, personal safety and economic constraints. Local illness concepts and traditional treatment options did not constitute barriers to care for pneumonia symptoms. Poor access to health facilities was the main barrier. Decentralisation of care through community health workers may improve access to care but needs to be combined with strengthened referral systems and accessible hospital care for
Radey, Melissa; Brewster, Karin L.
This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study [Reichman, N., Teitler, J., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. (2001). The fragile families and child wellbeing study: Sample and design. "Children and Youth Services Review, 23", 303-326] to describe primary child care arrangements of employed, predominantly low-income mothers…
M. Van Der Hulst (Marije); M.W. de Groot (Marjolein); J.P. de Graaf (Hanneke); R. Kok (Rianne); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); A. Burdorf (Alex); L.C.M. Bertens (Loes C.M.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)
markdownabstractIntroduction: Social vulnerability is known to be related to ill health. When a pregnant woman is socially vulnerable, the ill health does not only affect herself, but also the health and development of her (unborn) child. To optimise care for highly vulnerable pregnant women, in
Saghaei, Mozhdeh; Omidi, Pouya; Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Safavi, Parvin
The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, before and after holding the course, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) test was done on both groups of children, and also some information was collected from the mothers through interview and the DASS (depression, anxiety, stress scale) and PSI (parenting stress index) questionnaires. After the intervention, HbA1c level decreased in the experimental group. Feeling of depression, anxiety and stress was significantly lower than the control group. Furthermore, training for parenting stress management positively affected on the sense of demanding, reinforcement, and adaptability in child domain and also on attachment, competence, depression, relationship with spouse and family health in parent domain. The intervention program was significantly effective in reducing the amount of HbA1c in diabetic children, and also reduced the intensity of psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety and stress in the mothers caring for children with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Ambaw, Fentie; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
HIV testing of women in child bearing age is an entry point for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). This study aims to identify the proportion of women tested for HIV and to determine factors associated with utilization of HIV testing services among pregnant mothers in primary care settings in northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted in 416 pregnant women from four primary care centers between October 2, 2012 and May 31, 2013 in East Gojjam, Ethiopia. The proportion of mothers who tested for HIV was 277(67%). Among mothers who were not tested for HIV, lack of HIV risk perception (n = 68, 49%) was a major self-reported barrier for HIV testing. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that those pregnant women who had comprehensive knowledge about MTCT had an Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) of 3.73 (95% CI: 1.56, 8.94), having comprehensive knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV an AOR of 2.56 (95% CI: 1.26, 5.19), and a favorable attitude towards persons living with HIV an AOR of 2.42 (95%CI, 1.20, 4.86) were more likely to be tested for HIV. One third of pregnant women had never been tested for HIV until the time of the study. Efforts should be made to improve mother's knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT to increase uptake of HIV testing. Enhancing mother's HIV risk perception to scale up HIV testing in resource limited setting is highly recommended.
Skeens, Kristen; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Stikes, Reetta; Ryan, Lesa; Sparks, Kathryn; Hayes, Pauline; Myers, John; Davis, Deborah Winders
Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) frequently need guidance to prepare them for the care and health promotion of their child after hospital discharge. The health literacy of the parents should be considered so that education can be tailored to meet their needs. It is also important to understand the parents' preferences for how, and from whom, they receive education. The purpose of this study was to identify health literacy levels of parents of infants in an NICU and preferences for who they want to provide them with education. An exploratory, descriptive design was used to assess participant health literacy and preferences for obtaining child health information. Only mothers (no fathers) with babies in the NICU were available to complete the survey. Mean participant age was 26.4 years (SD = 6.7). Participants had a mean Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised, score of 5.64 (SD = 2.4), indicating a low level of health literacy. Questions regarding when to administer medication were correctly answered by 69% of participants. Proper medication dosage was understood by 92% of participants; however, only 30% were able to correctly convert measurements. One-on-one discussions with a physician were the preferred source of health information for 80% of participants. The current exploratory study provides new information that will help inform the development of future studies and increase awareness of nurses regarding health literacy and the specific types of skills for which parents need the most help.
Meunier Joel; Koelliker Mathias
The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such a...
Kimberly D Cephas
Full Text Available Bacterial contribution to oral disease has been studied in young children, but there is a lack of data addressing the developmental perspective in edentulous infants. Our primary objectives were to use pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize the salivary bacterial microbiome of edentulous infants and to make comparisons against their mothers. Saliva samples were collected from 5 edentulous infants (mean age = 4.6±1.2 mo old and their mothers or primary care givers (mean age = 30.8±9.5 y old. Salivary DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. On average, over 80,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the saliva of adults [1012 operational taxonomical units (OTU at 3% divergence] and infants (578 OTU at 3% divergence. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were predominant bacterial phyla present in all samples. A total of 397 bacterial genera were present in our dataset. Of the 28 genera different (P<0.05 between infants and adults, 27 had a greater prevalence in adults. The exception was Streptococcus, which was the predominant genera in infant saliva (62.2% in infants vs. 20.4% in adults; P<0.05. Veillonella, Neisseria, Rothia, Haemophilus, Gemella, Granulicatella, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium were also predominant genera in infant samples, while Haemophilus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Oribacterium, Rothia, Treponema, and Actinomyces were predominant in adults. Our data demonstrate that although the adult saliva bacterial microbiome had a greater OTU count than infants, a rich bacterial community exists in the infant oral cavity prior to tooth eruption. Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Neisseria are the predominant bacterial genera present in infants. Further research is required to characterize the development of oral microbiota early in life
Cláudio Torres de Miranda
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Of the members of a family, the mother is without doubt the most important one, which provides justification for including an evaluation of her mental health as one of the variables to be considered as determining factors in each child’s level of development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the application of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP on child development, home environment and maternal mental health. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: The study included children enrolled in the municipal day care center of a shantytown in the City of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 45 pairs of mothers and respective children between 18 and 36 months of age. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Children’s development (Bayley scales; home environment variation (HOME; and maternal mental health (SRQ. Comparison between before and after the intervention was made in terms of children’s psychomotor development, home environment and maternal mental health. INTERVENTION: Application of the NLP technique to the experimental group and comparison with a control group. 1 - Experimental (EG, consisting of 23 children submitted to intervention by NLP; and 2 - Control (CG, with 22 children with no intervention. Length of intervention: 15 sessions of NLP. RESULTS: 37 children remained in the study (EG = 10, CG = 27. Variations in mental development (OR 1.21, IC 95% 0.0 to 23.08 in their home environment (Wilcoxon: p = 0.96 (before and p = 0.09 (after; in maternal mental health: p = 0.26, 2 df. CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend that indicated positive effects on the home environment from the intervention.
Formánková, Lenka; Dobrotić, I.
Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 409-427 ISSN 1478-2804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1839; GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Slovenia * Czech Republic * ideals of care Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14782804.2011.610610
Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P
To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.
Rudrum, Sarah; Brown, Helen; Oliffe, John L
The provision of gifts to new mothers in Uganda is laden with significance that varies by the social location of the giver and receiver and the context and conditions under which the gift is made available. Here, we examine the act of gift giving and receiving within a Ugandan maternity care setting, describing the connections between these material objects and social relations. A study investigating the social organisation of maternity care in post-conflict northern Uganda found that gift-giving to new mothers functioned to create a material and discursive context wherein women's desire to access these goods was leveraged to create an incentive to attend formal maternity care during pregnancy and for delivery. In this article we describe the material and discursive processes surrounding gift-giving to new mothers in this global South health care setting. This article contributes critical analyses of the function of gifts in healthcare settings as constructing shared identities, social differences and normative values about health citizenship, and an incentive politic that affects equitable access to maternity care. Drawing on intersectional theory and analysis of how specific practices function ideologically to reward or incentivise pregnant women, we integrate material culture studies into the sociology of women's reproductive health. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Amroussia, Nada; Hernandez, Alison; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel
Disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth is a violation of women's right to dignified, respectful healthcare throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although reports point out that marginalized groups in society such as single mothers are particularly vulnerable to abusive and disrespectful care, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring single mothers' encounters at the maternal healthcare facilities, especially in Tunisia. In Tunisia, single mothers are particularly vulnerable due to their social stigmatization and socio-economic marginalization. This study examines the self-perceptions and childbirth experiences of single mothers at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. This study follows a qualitative design. Eleven single mothers were interviewed in regard to their experiences with maternal healthcare services and their perceptions of the attitudes of the health workers towards them. The interviews also addressed the barriers faced by the participants in accessing adequate maternal healthcare services, and their self-perceptions as single mothers. The data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach guided by the feminist intersectional approach. Emergent codes were grouped into three final themes. Three themes emerged during the data analysis: 1) Experiencing disrespect and abuse, 2) Perceptions of regret and shame attributed to being a single mother, and 3) The triad of vulnerability: stigma, social challenges, and health system challenges. The study highlights that the childbirth experiences of single mothers are shaped by intersectional factors that go beyond the health system. Gender plays a major role in constructing these experiences while intersecting with other social structures. The participants had experienced disrespectful and discriminatory practices and even violence when they sought maternal healthcare services at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. Those experiences reflect not only the poor quality of
Luauté, Jacques; Plantier, David; Wiart, Laurent; Tell, Laurence
The agitation crisis in the awakening phase after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most difficult behavioral disorders to alleviate. Current treatment options are heterogeneous and may involve excessive sedation. Practice guidelines are required by professionals in charge of TBI patients. Few reviews were published but those are old and based on expert opinions. The purpose of this work is to propose evidence-based guidelines to treat the agitation crisis. The elaboration of these guidelines followed the procedure validated by the French health authority for good practice recommendations, close to the Prisma statement. Guidelines were elaborated on the basis of a systematic and critical review of the literature. Twenty-eight articles concerning 376 patients were analyzed. Recommendations are: when faced with an agitation crisis, the management strategy implies to search for an underlying factor that should be treated such as pain, acute sepsis, and drug adverse effect (expert opinion). Physical restraints should be discarded when possible (expert opinion). Neuroleptic agent with a marketing authorization can be used in order to obtain a quick sedation so as to protect the patient from himself, closed ones or the healthcare team but the duration should be as short as possible (expert opinion). The efficacy of beta-blockers and antiepileptics with mood regulation effects like carbamazepine and valproate yield the most compelling evidence and should be preferably used when a background regimen is envisioned (grade B for beta-blocker and C for antiepileptics). Neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, buspirone may be prescribed but are considered second-line treatments (expert opinion). This study provides a strategy for treating the agitation crisis based on scientific data and expert opinion. The level of evidence remains low and published data are often old. New studies are essential to validate results from previous studies and test new drugs and
The study determined the perception of bottle feeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic in selected health centers in Aba South LGA. It also ascertained the knowledge of mothers about the breast feeding and factors responsible for chosen bottle feeding. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study where a total survey of 45 mothers who were selected systematically from the centers were interviewed as a method of data collection. The findings of the study showed that 93% ...
Harjaningrum, Agnes Tri; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Goujon, Nicolas; Koeck, Jean-Louis
Due to the high burden of pneumonia in Indonesia, the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into Indonesia's National Immunization Program (NIP) is recommended by World Health Organization. Prior to the introduction of new vaccines, it is imperative to assess the perceptions of the public and medical community about the disease and the vaccine. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers (HCPs) toward PCV in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Fifty-five respondents (26 mothers and 29 HCPs) were interviewed at public and private health care facilities in Bandung using semi-structured interviews in May-June 2011. Data were analyzed manually according to pre-defined themes. Although most mothers had low knowledge about PCV, did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease, perceived that cost was the main barrier to PCV access, and obtained little information on PCV, they considered pneumonia as a severe disease and a priority health problem, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and were likely to adopt it. Similarly, knowledge about PCV among most HCPs was limited. Despite perceiving cost as the main barrier, most HCPs perceived benefits of the vaccine, susceptibility and severity of the disease, regarded pneumonia as a priority health problem, and were likely to suggest the new vaccination. Despite the poor knowledge of mothers and HCPs about PCV, they are aware of the high burden of pneumonia and the need for a vaccine in the NIP. Perceived severity and benefits among mothers, and, additionally, perceived susceptibility among HCPs were manifested in the willingness to accept PCV. The findings would contribute to better understanding the factors, which could support decision-making about vaccine introduction, and be utilized for developing suitable messages for mothers and HCPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment
Kafulafula, Ursula K; Hutchinson, Mary K; Gennaro, Susan; Guttmacher, Sally
HIV-positive mothers are likely to exclusively breastfeed if they perceive exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) beneficial to them and their infants. Nevertheless, very little is known in Malawi about HIV-positive mothers' perceptions regarding EBF. In order to effectively promote EBF among these mothers, it is important to first understand their perceptions on benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. This study therefore, explored maternal and health care workers' perceptions of the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on HIV-positive mothers' health and that of their infants. This was a qualitative study within a larger project. Face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions using a semi- structured interview and focus group guide were conducted. Sixteen HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers, between 18 and 35 years old, were interviewed and data saturation was achieved. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) comprising of five and six adult women of unknown HIV status who were personal assistants to maternity patients, and one FGD with five nurse-midwives working in the maternity wards of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, were also conducted. Thematic content data analysis was utilized. The study revealed more positive than negative perceived effects of exclusive breastfeeding. However, the fear of transmitting HIV to infants through breast milk featured strongly in the study participants' reports including those of the nurse-midwives. Only one nurse-midwife and a few HIV-positive mothers believed that EBF prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Furthermore, participants, especially the HIV-positive mothers felt that exclusive breastfeeding leads to maternal ill- health and would accelerate their progression to full blown AIDS. While most participants considered exclusive breastfeeding as an important component of the wellbeing of their infants' health, they did not share the worldwide acknowledged benefits of exclusive breastfeeding in the
Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin
This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna
The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, specific to
Taft, Angela J; Hooker, Leesa; Humphreys, Cathy; Hegarty, Kelsey; Walter, Ruby; Adams, Catina; Agius, Paul; Small, Rhonda
Mothers are at risk of domestic violence (DV) and its harmful consequences postpartum. There is no evidence to date for sustainability of DV screening in primary care settings. We aimed to test whether a theory-informed, maternal and child health (MCH) nurse-designed model increased and sustained DV screening, disclosure, safety planning and referrals compared with usual care. Cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 month MCH DV screening and care intervention with 24 month follow-up. The study was set in community-based MCH nurse teams (91 centres, 163 nurses) in north-west Melbourne, Australia. Eight eligible teams were recruited. Team randomisation occurred at a public meeting using opaque envelopes. Teams were unable to be blinded. The intervention was informed by Normalisation Process Theory, the nurse-designed good practice model incorporated nurse mentors, strengthened relationships with DV services, nurse safety, a self-completion maternal health screening checklist at three or four month consultations and DV clinical guidelines. Usual care involved government mandated face-to-face DV screening at four weeks postpartum and follow-up as required. Primary outcomes were MCH team screening, disclosure, safety planning and referral rates from routine government data and a postal survey sent to 10,472 women with babies ≤ 12 months in study areas. Secondary outcomes included DV prevalence (Composite Abuse Scale, CAS) and harm measures (postal survey). No significant differences were found in routine screening at four months (IG 2,330/6,381 consultations (36.5 %) versus CG 1,792/7,638 consultations (23.5 %), RR = 1.56 CI 0.96-2.52) but data from maternal health checklists (n = 2,771) at three month IG consultations showed average screening rates of 63.1 %. Two years post-intervention, IG safety planning rates had increased from three (RR 2.95, CI 1.11-7.82) to four times those of CG (RR 4.22 CI 1.64-10.9). Referrals remained low in both intervention groups (IGs
Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro
Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a
Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine
The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C
Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective interventions to increase safety and wellbeing of mothers experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV are scarce. As much attention is focussed on professional intervention, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of non-professional mentor support in reducing IPV and depression among pregnant and recent mothers experiencing, or at risk of IPV. Methods MOSAIC was a cluster randomised trial in 106 primary care (maternal and child health nurse and general practitioner clinics in Melbourne, Australia. 63/106 clinics referred 215 eligible culturally and linguistically diverse women between January 2006 and December 2007. 167 in the intervention (I arm, and 91 in the comparison (C arm. 174 (80.9% were recruited. 133 (76.4% women (90 I and 43 C completed follow-up at 12 months. Intervention: 12 months of weekly home visiting from trained and supervised local mothers, (English & Vietnamese speaking offering non-professional befriending, advocacy, parenting support and referrals. Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes; IPV (Composite Abuse Scale CAS and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale EPDS; secondary measures included wellbeing (SF-36, parenting stress (PSI-SF and social support (MOS-SF at baseline and follow-up. Analysis: Intention-to-treat using multivariable logistic regression and propensity scoring. Results There was evidence of a true difference in mean abuse scores at follow-up in the intervention compared with the comparison arm (15.9 vs 21.8, AdjDiff -8.67, CI -16.2 to -1.15. There was weak evidence for other outcomes, but a trend was evident favouring the intervention: proportions of women with CAS scores ≥7, 51/88 (58.4% vs 27/42 (64.3% AdjOR 0.47, CI 0.21 to 1.05; depression (EPDS score ≥13 (19/85, 22% (I vs 14/43, 33% (C; AdjOR 0.42, CI 0.17 to 1.06; physical wellbeing mean scores (PCS-SF36: AdjDiff 2.79; CI -0.40 to 5.99; mental wellbeing mean scores (MCS-SF36: AdjDiff 2.26; CI -1
Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth
This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an
Crisis management strategies could be found in various curriculums, not only in schools of business, but also schools of communication. Young students, such as freshmen and sophomores of undergraduate schools, may not care about learning crisis management strategies. Moreover, crisis management strategies are not a topic art students are familiar with. The current paper discusses a way to adapt entertainment media into a crisis management lesson, and the importance of learning crisis manageme...
Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul
Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community. This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016. In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby's as well as mother's lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities.
Leferink, K; Bergold, J B
With respect to the methodological problems concerning the outcome evaluation of crisis intervention centers the outlines of a social-ecological research approach are developed. It is suggested that this approach is more suitable to take into account the role of the network of mental health services. The data come from a research project which was designed to explain the historical and social aspects of the process of integration of a crisis intervention service. The results indicate that on the one hand the practice of the service strongly depends on what other services do and on the other hand influences them. The social integration of an institution into the network of other services is discussed as an alternative criterion of evaluation.
From the view of stakeholder theory, not only the enterprises should provide services to shareholders, but also take care of the demands of stakeholders. Stakeholders for the enterprise crisis are the organizations and individuals, which cause crisis, respond to the crisis and affected by the enterprise crisis. In this paper, first of all, to comb the development of stakeholder theory systematically; secondly, with the help of the enterprise crisis stakeholder analysis model, analyze the concept of stakeholders for the enterprise crisis and membership, and with the example of Shuanghui Group for further analysis; finally, we put forward relevant proposals for the enterprise crisis from the view of stakeholders.
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.
This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…
To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !
To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!
personelu medycznego. Abstract Introduction and objectives: For most parents perform prenatal diagnosis is associated with a sense of psychological security associated with normal pregnancy outcome. Prenatal diagnosis offers a wide range of research that can be carried out at various stages of pregnancy to early diagnosis of congenital malformations. Mother diagnosed with the risk of pregnancy should be included in specialist care at the resort with the highest degree of referentiality, then the chances of survival and even cure the fetus grow. Equally important it is to meet the need for information on medical aspects, but also the practical possibility of obtaining assistance. The aim of the study was to assess the substance of prenatal diagnosis of the child's disability and to assess the availability of psychological and informational support to mothers after receiving the diagnosis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the first quarter of 2015 years among mothers of children with disabilities. The research method in this study was a survey research-survey technique. Copyright anonymous questionnaire survey involved a group of 60 people. Results: The majority of women surveyed admitted that the pregnancy was planned. Concern is the fact that after receiving the diagnosis, a large group of women not given any psychological support and were not informed where postpartum, you can seek help related to the treatment and rehabilitation of the child. Conclusions: In most cases, the child's diagnosis of the disease was achieved in the antenatal have an impact on the further course of pregnancy. Women surveyed admitted that they had not obtained sufficient / or any substantial psychological support and medical staff from the.
Özdaş, Talih; Şahlı, Ayşe Sanem; Özdemir, Behiye Sarıkaya; Belgin, Erol
Speech delay in a child could be the cause and/or result of the emotional disorder. The child rearing attitude that the parents have accepted could have both positive and negative effects on the personality of the child. The current study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic features and the mothers' anxiety of children with speech delay. One hundred five mothers with children aged between 3 and 6 years with speech delays were included in the patient group, and 105 mothers who have children aged between 3 and 6 years with normal speech and language development were included in the control group. An information form questionnaire including demographic characteristics, the Family Life and Childrearing Attitude Scale (PARI - Parental Attitude Research Instrument) and beck anxiety scale were requested from all mothers in the patient and the control groups. In the current study, there was a significant difference between the groups in terms of gender (p=0.001). According to Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the mean of mothers of the children with speech delays was higher than the mean of mothers of normal children in terms of the answers to overprotective mother aspect (poverprotective motherhood attitudes; however, the difference in terms of the answers to the aspects of democratic attitude and provision of equality, refusal to be a housewife, husband-wife conflict, and suppression and discipline were not statistically significant. The beck anxiety scale, a significant difference was detected between the two groups (p<0.01). It was found that the mothers of children with speech delays had more severe levels of anxiety. The social structure of the family, the attitudes and the behaviors of the mother, and the anxiety levels of the mothers have important effects on child development. Thus, it is necessary to perform further studies related to speech delays, in which many factors play a role in the etiology. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de
Daggenvoorde, Thea H; Gijsman, Harm J; Goossens, Peter J J
To explore the lived experiences of patients with a psychotic or bipolar disorder and their families with emergency care during the first contact with a mobile crisis team. Open individual interviews were held with ten patients and ten family members. Content data-analysis was conducted. Communication and cooperation was difficult in several cases. Personal crisis plans were not always used. Stigma was felt, especially when police-assistance was needed. A calm, understanding attitude was appreciated. Focus explicitly on communication with the patient, despite the acute condition, enhances the chance of cooperation. Taking time for contact is important. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bailey, Annette; Sharma, Manoj; Jubin, Michelle
Although much attention has been granted to the perpetrators and victims of gun violence, limitations exist in our understanding of the psychological well-being of parents grieving children lost to gun violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care on the relationship between traumatic stress and resilience among Black mothers bereaving children to gun violence. A cross-sectional design and network sampling method were used to recruit 48 Black mothers living in a large Canadian city. Participants completed a survey either by phone or in person. Social support and positive appraisal were found to be protective factors of resilience for study participants. The traumatic stress experienced by the sample decreased with increased social support (beta = -.291, p = .045), leading to an increase of their resilience (beta = .297, p = .032). With positive appraisal of the loss, the stress levels of study participants decreased (beta = -.334, p = .023), leading to increased resilience (beta = .441, p = .003). Quality health care showed a significant positive relationship with the resilience of the women (beta = .313, p = .023) but did not mediate the relationship between their stress and resilience. For Black mothers who experience loss of a child to gun violence, policy and social change efforts should focus on strengthening their access to formal and informal supports and improving their abilities to find meaning in their loss.
Weiss, Jonathan A; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona
Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health–related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children di...
Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.
Biswas, Animesh; Anderson, Rondi; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md.; Purno, Nabila; Rahman, Fazlur; Halim, Abdul
Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community. This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016. In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%), retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1%) and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%). About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby’s as well as mother’s lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities. PMID:29707205
Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.
Allen Liles, Edmund; Kirsch, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Michael; Adem, Mukhtar
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from intermittent vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOCs). These crises lead to frequent hospitalizations, significant morbidity, and increased mortality risk. Care pathways can enhance efficiency and quality of care. Our study sought to evaluate the development and implementation of a care pathway for patients with SCD experiencing VOCs. The University of North Carolina (UNC) Comprehensive Sickle Cell Program provides all levels of care for a large population of patients with sickle cell anemia. All patients admitted to UNC Hospitals with SCD VOCs from January 2009 through June 2011 were evaluated. During this time period, we also assessed sequential prospective cohorts during progressive phases of developing and implementing a quality improvement and pathway of care program for this patient population in our study. The developed pathway entailed geographic localization for VOC patients, a single group of faculty physicians caring for these patients, and early use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) to achieve pain control. Physicians from the UNC Hospital Medicine Program were responsible for the initiatives. Cohorts were compared to a baseline historical control. Outcomes of interest included patient length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, 30-day readmission rate, need for transfusion, incidence of acute chest syndrome, use of naloxone, and use of PCA. Compared with an historical baseline cohort, the development and implementation of a VOC care pathway for patients with SCD led to reduction in average hospital LOS by 1.44 days (P management of patients with SCD VOCs using a care pathway that emphasizes early, aggressive PCA-based pain control is associated with reduced hospital LOS. The LOS reduction seen in our study is clinically meaningful. Notably, other measures of patient outcomes and quality of care metrics did not change significantly, and some trended towards improvement.
After having briefly recalled the existence of a legal framework for crisis management organisation, this report briefly describes how the CEA plans the crisis management. This management is based on the definition of critical scenarios, on the building up of a crisis management team, and on the elaboration of crisis management operational documents. It evokes the alert organisation and the triggering of crisis management. Then, it describes the CEA's national crisis organisation with its main crisis management structures, the role and the operation of the Crisis Coordination Centre (CCC, the decision body), the role and operation of the Central Crisis Technical Teams (ETC-C, Equipes Techniques de Crise Centrales), the role of field interveners (various rescue, protection, health care and technical teams) and of other additional intervention actors. It evokes the objectives of the various exercises which are organised every year at the internal, national or international level
Mitchell, Jean M; Gaskin, Darrell J
Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care.
With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs.
Al, C.M.W.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Asscher, J.J.
Evaluation studies of crisis intervention have focused on prevention of out-of-home placement of children or family functioning, but largely neglected the aspect of crisis. The present study examined crisis in 183 families receiving Family Crisis Intervention (FCI), addressing crisis characteristics
Carlson, Jeffrey M; Miller, Paul A
This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i.e., perceived social support), coping (i.e., emotion-focused and social support seeking), and adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability were associated with decreased perceived social support, which was then related to higher reported levels of depression and anxiety. Similarly, low levels of perceived social support partially mediated the relation between family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, mothers' perceptions of the severity of their children's disability and family burden were unrelated to their reports of emotion-focused or social support seeking coping. However, their use of emotion-focused and social support seeking behaviors was related to lower levels of depression. Low levels of perceived social support may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the relation between mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability and family burden on their mental health adjustment, such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bialas, Ivona; Craig, Tom K. J.
Background: The abnormal illness behaviours characterising somatisation disorder may be learnt responses acquired through exposure to parental illness and health anxiety in childhood. In this observational study we explore this hypothesis by examining patterns of interaction in mothers and their school age children. Method: A sample of 136 mother…
Arcoleo, Kimberly; Zayas, Luis E; Hawthorne, April; Begay, Rachelle
Patients' cultural health beliefs and behaviors may conflict with biomedical healthcare values and practices potentially leading to non-adherence with asthma treatment regimens. To optimize shared decision-making, healthcare providers should understand and be sensitive to these cultural beliefs and behaviors and negotiate an asthma management plan acceptable to parents. The purpose of this study was to obtain the perspective of Mexican mothers regarding (1) their experiences of living with a child with asthma, (2) their understanding of the nature of asthma, and (3) how their cultural beliefs influence asthma management. A qualitative, phenomenological study design was employed to assess mothers' lived experiences with and perceptions of their child's asthma. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 20 Mexican mothers of children ages 5-17 years with asthma. An inductive, theory-driven, phenomenological analysis approach was used to elicit thematic findings. Mothers expressed a symptomatic perception of asthma and limited understanding of the disease. Most believe the disease is present only when their child is symptomatic. Many are surprised and puzzled by the unpredictability of their child's asthma attacks, which they report as sometimes "silent". The inconsistency of triggers also leads to frustration and worry, which may reflect their concerns around daily controller medication use and preference for alternative illness management strategies. Our clinical encounters should be refocused to better understand the context of these families' lives and the cultural lens through which they view their child's asthma.
Greenberg, Jan Steven
Discusses the role of adult children with serious mental illness as a source of support to their aging parents. Most mothers reported that their mentally-ill children provided at least some ongoing help with daily living tasks. The adult child's assistance related significantly to lower levels of maternal subjective burden. (RJM)
The purposes of this article are to understand the factors that women are likely to take into consideration when making employment decisions and childcare choices while their babies are young, and to identify their choices, beliefs and dilemmas: the focus is on the experiences of working mothers in England. These choices are problematised in the…
Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie
This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... China's crisis management strategy is geared towards obtaining the maximum political advantage for China, as opposed to resolving the crisis. China tries to define the crisis on its terms in order to shape the resolution favorably.
Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra
Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... developed “networked crisis communication model” we contrast effects of medium (Facebook vs. Twitter vs. online newspaper) and crisis type (intentional vs. victim) in an online experiment. Using the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as crisis scenario, we show that medium effects are stronger than...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...
William H Carter
• ISSUE 2-1, 2011 • 68 KANT CRISIS This study approaches the last days of Immanuel Kant through the lens of his contemporary biographers and other correspondents. Among the latter, Kant’s brother and, subsequently, his brother’s family provide a symptomatic reflection upon Kant’s management of his genealogy and his legacy. Yet behind this body of work is another corpus, one which embodies maternal and paternal legacies that are not readily subsumed by Oedipus or Kant’s philosophy. This work (...
Dickson, Kim E; Kinney, Mary V; Moxon, Sarah G; Ashton, Joanne; Zaka, Nabila; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Sharma, Gaurav; Kerber, Kate J; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gülmezoglu, A; Mathai, Matthews; Nyange, Christabel; Baye, Martina; Lawn, Joy E
The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) and Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality targets cannot be achieved without high quality, equitable coverage of interventions at and around the time of birth. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and findings of a nine paper series of in-depth analyses which focus on the specific challenges to scaling up high-impact interventions and improving quality of care for mothers and newborns around the time of birth, including babies born small and sick. The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the ENAP process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete a tool designed to synthesise "bottlenecks" hindering the scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages across seven health system building blocks. We used quantitative and qualitative methods and literature review to analyse the data and present priority actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), basic newborn care, kangaroo mother care (KMC), treatment of neonatal infections and inpatient care of small and sick newborns. The 12 countries included in our analysis account for the majority of global maternal (48%) and newborn (58%) deaths and stillbirths (57%). Our findings confirm previously published results that the interventions with the most perceived bottlenecks are facility-based where rapid emergency care is needed, notably inpatient care of small and sick newborns, ACS, treatment of neonatal infections and KMC. Health systems building blocks with the highest rated bottlenecks varied for different interventions. Attention needs to be paid to the context specific bottlenecks for each intervention to scale up quality care. Crosscutting findings on health information gaps inform two final papers on a roadmap for improvement of coverage data for newborns and indicate the need for leadership for
Larsen, Anna; Cheyip, Mireille; Aynalem, Getahun; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Chirinda, Witness; Mogashoa, Mary; Kindra, Gupreet; Lombard, Carl; Goga, Ameena
Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother-infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake. We analyzed data from three facility-based, nationally representative surveys (2010, 2011/12 and 2012/13) primarily designed to determine the effectiveness of the South African program to prevent MTCT. This analysis describes the proportion of infants achieving the WHO recommendation of at least 3 PNC visits. Interviews from 27 699 HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers of infants aged 4-8 weeks receiving their six week immunization were included in analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0 and weighted for sample ascertainment and South African live births. We fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to estimate factors associated with early PNC uptake. Over half (59.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.0-60.3) of mother-infant pairs received the recommended three PNC visits during the first 6 weeks; uptake was 63.1% (95% CI = 61.9-64.3) amongst HIV exposed infants and 58.1% (95% CI = 57.3-58.9) amongst HIV unexposed infants. Uptake of early PNC improved significantly with each survey, but varied significantly by province. Multivariable analysis of the pooled data, controlling for survey year, demonstrated that number of antenatal visits (4+ vs 12 weeks, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.23), place of delivery (clinic vs hospital aOR = 1.5, 1.3-1.6), and infant HIV exposure (exposed vs unexposed aOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.2) were the key factors associated with receiving recommended PNC visits. Approximately 40% of
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120. A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979 and full-time work for mothers (1980. The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001. Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.
Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan
Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385
Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan
In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.
Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Martin, Kelsey; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Partridge, Sarah; Thordarson, Dana; Jolicoeur, Ganga
To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women's autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia. They described care by a midwife, family physician or obstetrician during 1, 2 or 3 maternity care cycles. We conducted psychometric testing in three separate samples. We assessed reliability, item-to-total correlations, and the factor structure of the The Mothers' Autonomy in Decision Making (MADM) scale. We report MADM scores by care provider type, length of prenatal appointments, preferences for role in decision-making, and satisfaction with experience of decision-making. The MADM scale measures a single construct: autonomy in decision-making during maternity care. Cronbach alphas for the scale exceeded 0.90 for all samples and all provider groups. All item-to-total correlations were replicable across three samples and exceeded 0.7. Eigenvalue and scree plots exhibited a clear 90-degree angle, and factor analysis generated a one factor scale. MADM median scores were highest among women who were cared for by midwives, and 10 or more points lower for those who saw physicians. Increased time for prenatal appointments was associated with higher scale scores, and there were significant differences between providers with respect to average time spent in prenatal appointments. Midwifery care was associated with higher MADM scores, even during short prenatal appointments (maternity care. This new scale was developed and content validated by community members representing various populations of childbearing women in BC including women from vulnerable populations. MADM measures women's ability to lead
Does the age of acute care physicians impact their (1) crisis management performance and (2) learning after simulation-based education? A protocol for a multicentre prospective cohort study in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada.
Alam, Fahad; LeBlanc, Vicki R; Baxter, Alan; Tarshis, Jordan; Piquette, Dominique; Gu, Yuqi; Filipkowska, Caroline; Krywenky, Ashley; Kester-Greene, Nicole; Cardinal, Pierre; Au, Shelly; Lam, Sandy; Boet, Sylvain; Clinical Trials Group, Perioperative Anesthesia
The proportion of older acute care physicians (ACPs) has been steadily increasing. Ageing is associated with physiological changes and prospective research investigating how such age-related physiological changes affect clinical performance, including crisis resource management (CRM) skills, is lacking. There is a gap in the literature on whether physician's age influences baseline CRM performance and also learning from simulation. We aim to investigate whether ageing is associated with baseline CRM skills of ACPs (emergency, critical care and anaesthesia) using simulated crisis scenarios and to assess whether ageing influences learning from simulation-based education. This is a prospective cohort multicentre study recruiting ACPs from the Universities of Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Each participant will manage an advanced cardiovascular life support crisis-simulated scenario (pretest) and then be debriefed on their CRM skills. They will then manage another simulated crisis scenario (immediate post-test). Three months after, participants will return to manage a third simulated crisis scenario (retention post-test). The relationship between biological age and chronological age will be assessed by measuring the participants CRM skills and their ability to learn from high-fidelity simulation. This protocol was approved by Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Research Ethics Board (REB Number 140-2015) and the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board (#20150173-01H). The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and at scientific meetings. NCT02683447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Everly, G S
The pastoral community represents a large and often untapped resource in times of crisis. It possesses a unique aggregation of characteristics that makes it uniquely valuable amidst the turmoil of a psychological crisis. In critical incidents such as terrorism, mass disasters, violence, the loss of loved ones, and any events wherein human actions result in injury, destruction, and/or death, the pastoral community may possess especially powerful restorative attributes. Unfortunately, heretofore, there has existed no generally recognized and accepted manner in which the healing factors inherent in pastoral care have been functionally integrated with the well-formulated principles of crisis intervention. This paper represents an initial effort to elucidate how the principles of pastoral care may be functionally integrated with those of crisis intervention. The amalgam shall heretofore be referred to as "pastoral crisis intervention" and is defined herein.
Epping-Jordan, JoAnne E; van Ommeren, Mark; Ashour, Hazem Nayef; Maramis, Albert; Marini, Anita; Mohanraj, Andrew; Noori, Aqila; Rizwan, Humayun; Saeed, Khalid; Silove, Derrick; Suveendran, T; Urbina, Liliana; Ventevogel, Peter; Saxena, Shekhar
Major gaps remain - especially in low- and middle-income countries - in the realization of comprehensive, community-based mental health care. One potentially important yet overlooked opportunity for accelerating mental health reform lies within emergency situations, such as armed conflicts or natural disasters. Despite their adverse impacts on affected populations' mental health and well being, emergencies also draw attention and resources to these issues and provide openings for mental health service development. Cases were considered if they represented a low- or middle-income country or territory affected by an emergency, were initiated between 2000 and 2010, succeeded in making changes to the mental health system, and were able to be documented by an expert involved directly with the case. Based on these criteria, 10 case examples from diverse emergency-affected settings were included: Afghanistan, Burundi, Indonesia (Aceh Province), Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Timor-Leste. These cases demonstrate generally that emergency contexts can be tapped to make substantial and sustainable improvements in mental health systems. From these experiences, 10 common lessons learnt were identified on how to make this happen. These lessons include the importance of adopting a longer-term perspective for mental health reform from the outset, and focusing on system-wide reform that addresses both new-onset and pre-existing mental disorders. Global progress in mental health care would happen more quickly if, in every crisis, strategic efforts were made to convert short-term interest in mental health problems into momentum for mental health reform.
This paper reports that many proposals have come forth to ease the tension between East and West. Some focus on arms developments, others take up diplomatic issues. In addition, some have raised the question of crisis management and crisis prevention. Can crises be prevented even before they have taken place? The Palme Commission on Disarmament and Security suggested, in its 1982 report, ways of restraining superpower involvement in Third World conflicts. Such conflicts, it was argued, could escalate and ultimately result in nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Certainly, the commission also paid attention to conflicts over issues in Europe and to problems in Eastern or in Western Europe. However, the commission raised a question that lately has received increasing attention: the dangers of superpower confrontation over Third World issues. In his statement to the United Nations on 24 October 1985, President Regan pointed to the need for settling regional conflicts as they play a large role in building suspicions and tensions. Regan's initiative explicitly concerned Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Angola and Nicaragua. It included negotiations with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, and, at a later stage, also over other issues. The goal, he the, was not to force a settlement on the parties. The initiative concerned issues that have for the American public, justified armaments and reduced Soviet credibility
Hemati, Zeinab; Derakhshande, Fateme; Abbasi, Samira; Kiani, Davood
BACKGROUND: Birth of a child with cleft lip and palate, as a crisis, can affect family relationships and interactions seriously and hence self-esteem in family members. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a happiness training program on self-esteem in the mothers of children with cleft lip and palate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 64 mothers of children with cleft lip and palate referring to health-care team in the Isfahan University Medical...
The author discusses how one of the strongest examples of how destructive poor crisis communications can be the Three Mile Island accident of March 1979. This was an event that was minimal in its physical effects on the public and environment beyond the walls of that nuclear power plant. However, the emotional trauma on the local public, the economic impact on area businesses and property owners, and the long term impact on the entire nuclear utility industry were great. Approximately 80,000 people as far as 15 miles from the plant evacuated over a weekend. There have been no new orders for nuclear plants and many cancellations since the event 10 years ago. This paper presents an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island
Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Jamieson, Brittany; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie
A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles. Findings indicate that a mother's history of care is related to her cortisol secretion in anticipation of infant stress, but that this relation depends on her genetic characteristics. Findings are discussed in relation to the maternal protective system and anticipatory cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goodrich, Suzanne; Ndege, Samson; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Some, Hosea; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula; Sidle, John E; Sitienei, Jackline; Owino, Regina; Chesoli, Cleophas; Gichunge, Catherine; Komen, Fanice; Ojwang, Claris; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara
Widespread violence followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulting in the deaths of a reported 1,133 people and the displacement of approximately 660,000 others. At the time of the crisis the United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) Partnership was operating 17 primary HIV clinics in western Kenya and treating 59,437 HIV positive patients (23,437 on antiretroviral therapy (ART)). This case study examines AMPATH's provision of care and maintenance of patients on ART throughout the period of disruption. This was accomplished by implementing immediate interventions including rapid information dissemination through the media, emergency hotlines and community liaisons; organization of a Crisis Response leadership team; the prompt assembly of multidisciplinary teams to address patient care, including psychological support staff (in clinics and in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP)); and the use of the AMPATH Medical Records System to identify patients on ART who had missed clinic appointments. These interventions resulted in the opening of all AMPATH clinics within five days of their scheduled post-holiday opening dates, 23,949 patient visits in January 2008 (23,259 previously scheduled), uninterrupted availability of antiretrovirals at all clinics, treatment of 1,420 HIV patients in IDP camps, distribution of basic provisions, mobilization of outreach services to locate missing AMPATH patients and delivery of psychosocial support to 300 staff members and 632 patients in IDP camps. Key lessons learned in maintaining the delivery of HIV care in a crisis situation include the importance of advance planning to develop programs that can function during a crisis, an emphasis on a rapid programmatic response, the ability of clinics to function autonomously, patient knowledge of their disease, the use of community and patient networks, addressing staff needs and developing effective
Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi
This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: For better outcomes in mother and child health, Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM in 2005 with a major objective of providing accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population; especially the vulnerable. Reduction in MMR to 100/100,000 is one of its goals and the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY is the key strategy of NRHM to achieve this reduction. The JSY, as a safe motherhood intervention and modified alternative of the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS, has been implemented in all states and Union territories with special focus on low performing states. The main objective and vision of JSY is to reduce maternal, neo-natal mortality and promote institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women of rural and urban areas. This scheme is 100% centrally sponsored and has an integrated delivery and post delivery care with the help of a key person i.e. ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist, followed by cash monetary help to the women. Objectives: 1To evaluate cash benefit service provided under JSY at different health care settings. 2 To know the perception and elicit suggestions of beneficiaries on quality of cash benefit scheme of JSY. Methodology: This is a health care institute based observational cross sectional study including randomly selected 200 JSY beneficiary mothers from the different health care settings i.e., Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, District Hospital and Medical College Hospital of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh state. Data was collected with the help of set pro forma and then analysed with Epi Info 2000. Chi square test was applied appropriately. Results: 60% and 80% beneficiaries from PHC and CHC received cash within 1 week after discharge whereas 100% beneficiaries of District Hospital and Medical College Hospital received cash at the time of discharge; the overall distribution of time of cash disbursement among beneficiaries of
Rolfe, Ben; Leshabari, Sebalda; Rutta, Fredrik; Murray, Susan F
The human resource crisis in health care is an important obstacle to attainment of the health-related targets for the Millennium Development Goals. One suggested strategy to alleviate the strain upon government services is to encourage new forms of non-government provision. Detail on implementation and consequences is often lacking, however. This article examines one new element of non-government provision in Tanzania: small-scale independent midwifery practices. A multiple case study analysis over nine districts explored their characteristics, and the drivers and inhibitors acting upon their development since permitted by legislative change. Private midwifery practices were found concentrated in a 'new' workforce of 'later life entrepreneurs': retired, or approaching retirement, government-employed nursing officers. Provision was entirely facility-based due to regulatory requirements, with approximately 60 'maternity homes' located mainly in rural or peri-urban areas. Motivational drivers included fear of poverty, desire to maintain professional status, and an ethos of community service. However, inhibitors to success were multiple. Start-up loans were scarce, business training lacking and registration processes bureaucratic. Cost of set-up and maintenance were prohibitively high, registration required levels of construction and equipping similar to government sector dispensaries. Communities were reluctant to pay for services that they expected from government. Thus, despite offering a quality of basic maternity care comparable to that in government facilities, often in poorly-served areas, most private maternity homes were under-utilized and struggling for sustainability. Because of their location and emphasis on personalized care, small-scale independent practices run by retired midwives could potentially increase rates of skilled attendance at delivery at peripheral level. The model also extends the working life of members of a professional group at a time of
Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey's objective was to provide planning information by examining utilization patterns, health outcomes and costs associated with existing practices in the management of postpartum women and their infants. In particular, this paper looks at a subgroup of women who score ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Survey (EPDS. Methods The design is cross-sectional with follow-up at four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge. Five Ontario hospitals, chosen for their varied size, practice characteristics, and geographic location, provided the setting for the study. The subjects were 875 women who had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries of live singleton infants. The main outcome measures were the EPDS, the Duke UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire and the Health and Social Services Utilization Questionnaire. Results EPDS scores of ≥ 12 were found in 4.3 to 15.2% of otherwise healthy women. None of these women were being treated for postpartum depression. Best predictors of an EPDS score of ≥ 12 were lack: of confident support, lack of affective support, household income of Conclusions Primary care physicians, midwives, and public health nurses need to screen for depression at every opportunity early in the postpartum period. A mother's expression of undue concern about her own or her baby's health may be predictive of postpartum depression. Flexible, mother-focused support from community providers may decrease the prevalence of postpartum depression.
Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther
The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.
Bellver Capella, Vicente
We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.
William H Carter
Full Text Available • ISSUE 2-1, 2011 • 68 KANT CRISIS This study approaches the last days of Immanuel Kant through the lens of his contemporary biographers and other correspondents. Among the latter, Kant’s brother and, subsequently, his brother’s family provide a symptomatic reflection upon Kant’s management of his genealogy and his legacy. Yet behind this body of work is another corpus, one which embodies maternal and paternal legacies that are not readily subsumed by Oedipus or Kant’s philosophy. This work (of art is Kant’s own body or corpus, which he painstakingly maintained and which provided a case study for his refelctions on preventive medicine in The Conflict of the Faculties. William H. Carter studied at the University of Virginia, the University of Heidelberg, and earned his Ph.D. at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He taught German for three years at Tulane University and recently returned to the Department of World Languages and Cultures at Iowa State University, where he began his teaching career. His current book project is titled “Devilish Details: Goethe’s Public Service and Political Economy.” Julian Fickler attends the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe, class of Helmut Dorner. He is the recipient of a prestigious fellowship award bestowed by the Künstlerförderung des Cusanuswerks Bonn. He has exhibited solo locally and in group at venues in Berlin and Hamburg.
Fisher Jane RW
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el costo actual de servicios de salud materno infantiles (modelo actual con el costo hipotético de su provisión bajo estándares definidos por el Paquete Madre Bebé, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio piloto de caso, de corte transversal, en septiembre de 2001, en establecimientos de salud de la Jurisdicción Sanitaria III de los Servicios de Salud del Estado de Morelos, México. Se eligieron para el estudio dos centros de salud rurales, un centro de salud urbano y un hospital general de la Secretaría de Salud. Se calculó el costo total y por intervención del modelo actual y del modelo Paquete Madre Bebé, usando el Modelo de estimación de costos de este Paquete. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que el costo total del Paquete Madre Bebé es dos veces mayor que el costo del modelo actual. De las 18 intervenciones evaluadas, la atención prenatal y el parto normal consumen la mayor proporción de los costos totales. Los costos de personal representan más de la mitad de los costos totales. CONCLUSIONES: El Modelo de estimación de costos es una herramienta práctica para la estimación y comparación de costos, y es útil para guiar la distribución de recursos financieros destinados a la atención materno infantil. Sin embargo, su aplicación es de limitada utilidad si su adaptación no responde a las características de cada sistema de atención.OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of maternal and child health care (current model to that of the WHO Mother-Baby Package if it were implemented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pilot cross-sectional case study was conducted in September 2001 in Sanitary District No. III, Morelos State, Mexico. Two rural health centers, an urban health center, and a general hospital, all managed by the Ministry of Health, were selected for the study. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet was used to estimate the total cost and cost per intervention for the
Murphy, Andrea L; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan P; O'Reilly, Claire L; Chen, Timothy F; Gardner, David M
The role of community pharmacists is changing globally with pharmacists engaging in more clinically-oriented roles, including in mental health care. Pharmacists' interventions have been shown to improve mental health related outcomes but various barriers can limit pharmacists in their care of patients. We aimed to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions in community pharmacies to generate findings to inform practice improvements. We used interpretive description methodology with analytic procedures of thematic analysis to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions with community pharmacy services. Participants were recruited through multiple mechanisms (e.g., paper and online advertisements), offered honorarium for their time, and given the option of a focus group or interview for participation in our study. Data were gathered during July to September of 2012. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two researchers. We collected approximately nine hours of audio data from 18 individuals in two focus groups (n = 12) and six individual interviews. Fourteen participants were female and the average age was 41 years (range 24 to 57 years). Expectations, decision-making, and supports were identified as central themes underlying the community pharmacy experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions. Eight subthemes were identified including: relationships with pharmacy staff; patient's role in the pharmacist-patient relationship; crisis and triage; privacy and confidentiality; time; stigma and judgment; medication-related and other services; and transparency. People with lived experience of mental illness and addictions demonstrate a high regard and respect for pharmacist's knowledge and abilities but hold conservative expectations of pharmacy health services shaped by experience, observations, and
Naburi, Helga; Mujinja, Phares; Kilewo, Charles; Orsini, Nicola; Bärnighausen, Till; Manji, Karim; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sando, David; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Chalamila, Guerino; Ekström, Anna Mia
Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV (i.e., lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV) was initiated in Tanzania in 2013. While there is evidence that this policy has benefits for the health of the mother and the child, Option B+ may also increase the workload for health care providers in resource-constrained settings, possibly leading to job dissatisfaction and unwanted workforce turnover. From March to April 2014, a questionnaire asking about job satisfaction and turnover intentions was administered to all nurses at 36 public-sector health facilities offering antenatal and PMTCT services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with job dissatisfaction and intention to quit one's job. Slightly over half (54%, 114/213) of the providers were dissatisfied with their current job, and 35% (74/213) intended to leave their job. Most of the providers were dissatisfied with low salaries and high workload, but satisfied with workplace harmony and being able to follow their moral values. The odds of reporting to be globally dissatisfied with one's job were high if the provider was dissatisfied with salary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-26.8), availability of protective gear (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-10.6), job description (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-14.7), and working hours (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.6). Perceiving clients to prefer PMTCT Option B+ reduced job dissatisfaction (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). The following factors were associated with providers' intention to leave their current job: job stability dissatisfaction (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.5), not being recognized by one's superior (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6), and poor feedback on the overall unit performance (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.8). Job dissatisfaction and turnover intentions are comparatively high among nurses in Dar es Salaam's public-sector maternal care
van Lettow, Monique; Bedell, Richard; Mayuni, Isabell; Mateyu, Gabriel; Landes, Megan; Chan, Adrienne K; van Schoor, Vanessa; Beyene, Teferi; Harries, Anthony D; Chu, Stephen; Mganga, Andrew; van Oosterhout, Joep J
Malawi introduced a new strategy to improve the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), the Option B+ strategy. We aimed to (i) describe how Option B+ is provided in health facilities in the South East Zone in Malawi, identifying the diverse approaches to service organization (the "model of care") and (ii) explore associations between the "model of care" and health facility-level uptake and retention rates for pregnant women identified as HIV-positive at antenatal (ANC) clinics. A health facility survey was conducted in all facilities providing PMTCT/antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in six of Malawi's 28 districts to describe and compare Option B+ service delivery models. Associations of identified models with program performance were explored using facility cohort reports. Among 141 health facilities, four "models of care" were identified: A) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are initiated and followed on ART at the ANC clinic until delivery; B) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women receive only the first dose of ART at the ANC clinic, and are referred to the ART clinic for follow-up; C) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are referred from ANC to the ART clinic for initiation and follow-up of ART; and D) facilities serving as ART referral sites (not providing ANC). The proportion of women tested for HIV during ANC was highest in facilities applying Model A and lowest in facilities applying Model B. The highest retention rates were reported in Model C and D facilities and lowest in Model B facilities. In multivariable analyses, health facility factors independently associated with uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in ANC were number of women per HTC counsellor, HIV test kit availability, and the "model of care" applied; factors independently associated with ART retention were district location, patient volume and the "model of care" applied. A large variety exists in
Mutabazi, Jean Claude; Zarowsky, Christina; Trottier, Helen
The global scale-up of Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services is credited for a 52% worldwide decline in new HIV infections among children between 2001 and 2012. However, the epidemic continues to challenge maternal and paediatric HIV control efforts in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA), with repercussions on other health services beyond those directly addressing HIV and AIDS. This systematised narrative review describes the effects of PMTCT programs on other health care services and the implications for improving health systems in SSA as reported in the existing articles and scientific literature. The following objectives framed our review:To describe the effects of PMTCT on health care services and systems in SSA and assess whether the PMTCT has strengthened or weakened health systems in SSATo describe the integration of PMTCT and its extent within broader programs and health systems. Articles published in English and French over the period 1st January 2007 (the year of publication of WHO/UNICEF guidelines on global scale-up of the PMTCT) to 31 November 2016 on PMTCT programs in SSA were sought through searches of electronic databases (Medline and Google Scholar). Articles describing the impact (positive and negative effects) of PMTCT on other health care services and those describing its integration in health systems in SSA were eligible for inclusion. We assessed 6223 potential papers, reviewed 225, and included 57. The majority of selected articles offered arguments for increased health services utilisation, notably of ante-natal care, and some evidence of beneficial synergies between PMTCT programs and other health services especially maternal health care, STI prevention and early childhood immunisation. Positive and negative impact of PMTCT on other health care services and health systems are suggested in thirty-two studies while twenty-five papers recommend more integration and synergies. However, the empirical evidence of impact of PMTCT
Rego, Inês; Russo, Giuliano; Gonçalves, Luzia; Perelman, Julian; Pita Barros, Pedro
In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the changes brought to their workload. This paper provides a descriptive statistical analysis of physicians' responses. In connection to the crisis, our surveyed physicians perceived an increase in demand but a decrease of supply of public health services, as well as an increase in the supply of health services by the private sector. Damaging government policies for the public sector, and the rise of private services and insurance providers were identified as game changers for the sector. Physicians reported a decrease in public remuneration (- 30.5%) and a small increase of public sector hours. A general reduction in living standard was identified as the main adaptation strategy to the crisis. Passion for the profession, its independence and flexibility, were the most frequently mentioned compensating factors. A percentage of 15% of physicians declared considering migration as a possibility for the near future. The crisis has brought non-negligible changes to physicians' working conditions and to the wider market for medical services in Portugal. The physicians' intrinsic motivation for the professions helped counterbalance salary cuts and deteriorating working conditions.
Vyas Kumar Rathaur
Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and
Derrick, Sara M.; Hock, Ellen
This study compared infants born to narcotic addicted mothers with infants born to nonaddicted mothers and described the potential of an intervention program. Infants of five addicted women were matched with infants of five nonaddicted women on the basis of age and socioeconomic class of the mothers and on the basis of gestational ages, birth…
Dodzo, Lilian Gertrude; Mahaka, Hilda Tandazani; Mukona, Doreen; Zvinavashe, Mathilda; Haruzivishe, Clara
HIV-related conditions are one of the indirect causes of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe and the prevalence rate was estimated to be 13.63% in 2009. The study utilised a descriptive correlational design on 80 pregnant women who were HIV positive at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants comprised a random sample of 80 postnatal mothers. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the respective review boards. Participants signed an informed consent. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and record review from 1 to 20 March 2012. Interviews were done in a private room and code numbers were used to identify the participants. Completed questionnaires were kept in a lockable cupboard and the researcher had sole access to them. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data on demographics, maternal health outcomes and self-care practices. Inferential statistics (Pearson's correlation and regression analysis) were used to analyse the relationship between self-care practices and maternal health outcomes. Self-care practices were good with a mean score of 8 out of 16. Majority (71.3%) fell within the good category. Maternal outcomes were poor with a mean score of 28 out of 62 and 67.5% falling in the poor category. Pearson's correlation indicated a weak significant positive relationship (r = .317, p = <.01). Regression analysis (R 2 ) was .10 implying that self-care practices explained 10% of the variance observed in maternal health outcomes. More research needs to be carried out to identify other variables affecting maternal outcomes in HIV-positive pregnant women.
Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the
Wel, Frits van; Knijn, Trudie
In recent years in the Netherlands, mothers’ labor participation has increased sharply. This article examines which factors influence mothers’ employment rates and the division of household and caring responsibilities between parents. From research among 1,285 women with young children, it appears
Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Yen, P.N.; Wright, P.; Hardon, A.
HIV prevention within maternal-child health services has increased in many developing countries, but many HIV-infected women in developing countries still receive insufficient postnatal care. This study explored the experience of 30 HIV-infected women in Vietnam in accessing HIV-related postnatal
Atendimento à crise psíquica no pronto-socorro: visão de profissionais de enfermagem La atención a la crisis psíquica en la unidad de urgencias: la visión del equipo de enfermería Psychic crisis care in the emergency room: nursing staff's view
Leandro da Rosa Borges
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer a visão da equipe de enfermagem sobre o atendimento à crise psíquica em uma unidade de emergência de um Pronto-Socorro. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa que utilizou, como técnica para coleta de dados, a aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dois enfermeiros e três técnicos de enfermagem que trabalhavam na unidade de emergência durante o turno da manhã e tarde. A análise dos dados foi orientada a partir da análise de conteúdo com formação das seguintes categorias temáticas, que permitiram a melhor visualização dos resultados: o conceito de crise para a equipe do pronto-socorro e as diferentes expressões do sofrimento e os recursos terapêuticos para o enfrentamento e a minimização dos encargos da crise. Evidenciou-se que a equipe de enfermagem costuma justificar as dificuldades de atendimento à crise psíquica pela falta de tempo, inadequação do espaço físico e despreparo da mesma.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la visión del equipo de enfermería sobre la atención a la crisis psíquica en una unidad de urgencias. Se trata de un estudio de abordaje cualitativo que utilizó, como técnica de recolección de datos, entrevistas semiestructuradas. Participaron de la investigación dos enfermeras y tres técnicos de enfermería que trabajaban en la unidad de urgencias durante las mañanas y las tardes. El análisis de datos fue orientado a partir de las siguientes temáticas: el concepto de crisis para el equipo de una unidad de urgencias y las diferentes expresiones del sufrimiento y los recursos terapéuticos para el enfrentamiento y disminución de los encargos de la crisis. Suele justificar las dificultades de atención a la crisis por la falta de tiempo, inadecuación de espacio físico y la falta de preparación de la misma.This study was aimed at finding out the nursing staff's view about psychic crisis care in an emergency room unit. This is a
Inês Rego; Giuliano Russo; Luzia Gonçalves; Julian Perelman; Pedro Pita Barros
Introduction: In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. Material and Methods: A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the...
Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur
Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.
Priya Singh Rangey
Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.
Mariana de Paiva Franco
Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.
Rubashkin, Nicholas; Szebik, Imre; Baji, Petra; Szántó, Zsuzsa; Susánszky, Éva; Vedam, Saraswathi
Instruments to assess quality of maternity care in Central and Eastern European (CEE) region are scarce, despite reports of poor doctor-patient communication, non-evidence-based care, and informal cash payments. We validated and tested an online questionnaire to study maternity care experiences among Hungarian women. Following literature review, we collated validated items and scales from two previous English-language surveys and adapted them to the Hungarian context. An expert panel assessed items for clarity and relevance on a 4-point ordinal scale. We calculated item-level Content Validation Index (CVI) scores. We designed 9 new items concerning informal cash payments, as well as 7 new "model of care" categories based on mode of payment. The final questionnaire (N = 111 items) was tested in two samples of Hungarian women, representative (N = 600) and convenience (N = 657). We conducted bivariate analysis and thematic analysis of open-ended responses. Experts rated pre-existing English-language items as clear and relevant to Hungarian women's maternity care experiences with an average CVI for included questions of 0.97. Significant differences emerged across the model of care categories in terms of informal payments, informed consent practices, and women's perceptions of autonomy. Thematic analysis (N = 1015) of women's responses identified 13 priority areas of the maternity care experience, 9 of which were addressed by the questionnaire. We developed and validated a comprehensive questionnaire that can be used to evaluate respectful maternity care, evidence-based practice, and informal cash payments in CEE region and beyond.
Mukaila Z. Mumuni
Full Text Available Background: Malaria is still one of the major public health problems. More than 400 million cases of malaria are reported each year worldwide, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region where about 90% of all malaria deaths in the world occur especially in children under five years of age. Home based management of Malaria showed a tremendous effect on reducing mortalities among children in Ghana. Objectives: to determine the current level of knowledge and skills of mothers in Tamale Metropolitan Area in the northern region of Ghana in terms of disease identification, management and transmission of malaria. Methodology: A cross sectional study conducted in 2013 involved 400 families and mothers/care givers with children less than five years were selected randomly and represented urban, peri-urbanand rural settings. Results: More than 90% of respondents identified malaria by presence of fever while 57.5% used fever as a cardinal sign. 91% of participants sought early treatment in urban and peri-urban settings while 85% did so in rural sites. 55% of participants administered the correct doses daily but only 17% of them knew the side effects of Antimalarial medications used. Almost all participants were aware about transmission of malaria, when to repeat the drug dose and usage of paracetamol as a medicine to reduce body temperature. Conclusion: The overall knowledge and skills demonstrated are encouraging, there is no much difference between urban and rural settings. Community based initiatives should be strengthened and promoted to provide homemade solutions to saving lives and resources.
Nuvia Suárez Garcia
Full Text Available Introducción: el embarazo en adolescentes constituye un indicador negativo de salud ocasionando serias consecuencias materno- infantiles. Objetivo: evaluar indicadores materno-perinatales y neonatales en adolescentes atendidos en el Hospital "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" durante el 2010. Métodos: se realizó una investigación aplicada, observacional, analítica, retrospectiva tipo caso-control, cuyo universo englobó 5363 nacimientos vivos en el período, asignándose como casos(n=59: aquellos neonatos que ingresaron en cuidados especiales neonatales (CEN hijos de madres adolescentes (Introduction: pregnancy in adolescence constitutes a negative health indicator that provokes serious maternal-child consequences. Objective: to evaluate maternal-perinatal and neonatal indicators in adolescent mothers admitted at "Abel Santamaria Cuadrado" University General Hospital during 2010. Material and method: an applied, observational, analytical, retrospective, case-control type study which target group comprised 5363 live-born babies during the period, assigning as cases (n=59: newborn infants who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, newborn infants of adolescent mothers ( Results: the majority of the adolescents whose newborn infants were admitted to NICU were primigravida (69.49% (OR=5.63; CI 95%: 2.7-11.8; 45, 6% suffered from some affection (OR=2.27; CI 95%: 1.12-4.59, prevailing Premature Rupture of Membranes (18.64% and pregnancy-induced hypertension (11.86%, 49,15% of newborn infants were premature (OR=3.11; CI 95 %: 1.53-6.38, 52.54% were low-birth-weight infants (OR=3.4; CI 95%: 1.67-3.95 and 59,32% got the Apgar score of Conclusions: adolescence had a negative influence on perinatal and neonatal indicators increasing the risks of diseases associated with pregnancy: prematurity, low-weight and depression at birth.
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel
This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…
Tracy, Sally K; Welsh, Alec; Hall, Bev; Hartz, Donna; Lainchbury, Anne; Bisits, Andrew; White, Jan; Tracy, Mark B
In many countries midwives act as the main providers of care for women throughout pregnancy, labour and birth. In our large public teaching hospital in Australia we restructured the way midwifery care is offered and introduced caseload midwifery for one third of women booked at the hospital. We then compared the costs and birth outcomes associated with caseload midwifery compared to the two existing models of care, standard hospital care and private obstetric care. We undertook a cross sectional study examining the risk profile, birth outcomes and cost of care for women booked into one of the three available models of care in a tertiary teaching hospital in Australia between July 1st 2009 December 31st 2010. To control for differences in population or case mix we described the outcomes for a cohort of low risk first time mothers known as the 'standard primipara'. Amongst the 1,379 women defined as 'standard primipara' there were significant differences in birth outcome. These first time 'low risk' mothers who received caseload care were more likely to have a spontaneous onset of labour and an unassisted vaginal birth 58.5% in MGP compared to 48.2% for Standard hospital care and 30.8% with Private obstetric care (p 1590.91 less than Standard hospital care per woman (p women in the study who received caseload care. Cost reduction appears to be achieved through reorganising the way care is delivered in the public hospital system with the introduction of Midwifery Group Practice or caseload care. The study also highlights the unexplained clinical variation that exists between the three models of care in Australia.
Langer, Thorsten; Pfeifer, Miriam; Soenmez, Aynur; Kalitzkus, Vera; Wilm, Stefan; Schnepp, Wilfried
Childhood fever represents a frequent cause to consult a primary care physician. "Fever phobia" describes a fearful and irrational view of fever shared by many parents with different cultural backgrounds. The study aims to explain the experiences of mothers of children having a fever and to analyze the role of the mothers' cultural background with regard to their experiences by comparing the accounts of mothers with a German with those from a Turkish background. Disease and context specific knowledge about the influence of culture can be important for effective counselling. We applied a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews with 11 mothers with a Turkish and 9 with a German background living in Germany. The interviews were conducted at the participants' homes from May to October 2008. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Grounded Theory was used as a framing methodology including open, axial and selective coding. Analysis was performed in a group with members of different professional and cultural backgrounds. Mothers experienced their child's fever not merely as elevated temperature but as a potentially dangerous event. A deeply rooted urge to protect the child from harm was central to all participants' experience. The caregiving system model offers a good theoretical foundation to explain the findings as it incorporates the unique relational quality of care giving mothers to their children. The cultural background represents an important context variable influencing the explanatory models and strategies of dealing with fever. The identified culturally influenced concepts sometimes match and sometimes conflict with medical knowledge. By applying the caregiving system model which is a part of attachment theory (Bowlby) maternal actions can be understood as an understandable attempt to protect the child from harm. The mothers' decisions what to do when a child has a fever can be culturally influenced. This may lead either to a frequent use of
Thomson, Kerry A; Telfer, Barbara; Opondo Awiti, Patricia; Munge, Jane; Ngunga, Mathew; Reid, Anthony
Within the first year of implementation, 43% of women who tested HIV positive at their first antenatal care visit were no longer retained and being followed in the free prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program offered by the Kenyan Ministry of Health and Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. This study aimed to explore barriers to enrolling and remaining engaged in PMTCT services throughout the pregnancy and postpartum periods. Qualitative data from 31 focus group discussions and 35 in-depth interviews across six stakeholder groups that included women, men, and PMTCT service providers were analyzed. Using an inductive exploratory approach, four researchers coded the data and identified key themes. Five themes emerged from the data that may influence attrition from PMTCT service in this setting: 1) HIV in the context of Kibera, 2) knowledge of HIV status, 3) knowledge of PMTCT, 4) disclosure of HIV status, and 5) male partner support for PMTCT services. A new HIV diagnosis during pregnancy immediately triggered an ongoing risk assessment of perceived hazards in the home, community, and clinic environments that could occur as a result of female participation in PMTCT services. Male partners were a major influence in this risk assessment, but were generally unaware of PMTCT services. To preserve relationships with male partners, meet community expectations of womanhood, and maintain confidentiality while following recommendations of healthcare providers, women had to continuously weigh the risks and benefits of PMTCT services and interventions. Community-based HIV testing and PMTCT education, male involvement in antenatal care, and counseling customized to assist each woman in her own unique risk assessment, may improve uptake of and retention in care and optimize the HIV prevention benefit of PMTCT interventions.
Coceka Nandipha Mnyani
Full Text Available Objectives: There has been little focus on quality of care provided in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT services in South Africa. We assessed quality of care in PMTCT services in Soweto, South Africa, focusing on knowledge and experiences of healthcare workers and HIV-infected pregnant women accessing the services. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November and December 2009. A total of 201 HIV-infected pregnant women and 80 healthcare workers, from 10 antenatal clinics, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Results: The median gestational age at first antenatal visit was 20 weeks and 32 weeks at the time of the interview. The majority of the women, 71.5%, discovered that they were HIV-infected in the index pregnancy, and 87.9% disclosed their HIV status. Overall, 97.5% received counselling and 33.5% were members of a support group. Knowledge of antenatal and intrapartum PMTCT interventions was correct in 62.7% and 43.3% of the women, respectively. Support group membership and current use of antiretroviral prophylaxis did not impact on the quality of knowledge. Of the healthcare workers, 43.8% were professional nurses and 37.5% were lay counsellors. The majority, 80.0%, felt satisfied with their knowledge of PMTCT guidelines and 96.3% felt competent in managing HIV-infected pregnant women. Yet, there were important deficiencies in knowledge of the guidelines. Conclusion: In our study, knowledge of PMTCT interventions was low in both clients and healthcare workers. These findings point to a need to improve quality of care in PMTCT services, especially with increasingly complex PMTCT interventions recommended by international policies.
... and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help..., so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at... extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives. The bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her...
Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion
The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.
Full Text Available Picassos Ölgemälde La Vie (Das Leben von 1903 gilt als ein Bild, in dem der junge Picasso den Tod eines nahen Freundes und zugleich die Ablösung vom Elternhaus verarbeitet. Becht-Jördens und Wehmeier spitzen diese Interpretation durch die ikonographische Lesart einzelner Gesten zu einer tiefenpsychologischen Ausdeutung der Beziehung zwischen Künstler-Sohn und Mutter zu.Picasso’s oil painting La Vie (Life from 1903 is considered to be an image in which the young Picasso simultaneously reconciles the death of a close friend and the separation from his parents. Becht-Jördens and Wehmeier hone this interpretation with an iconographic reading of individual gestures, bringing it to a subconscious expression of the relationship between the artist son and his mother.
Rosa María Alonso Uría
of life to their children. The content of the program was based on the following aspects: responsible maternity and paternity, general care of the newborn, growth, development and stimulation of abilities, accidents, responsible sexuality and social incorporation. Among the main results of the research-action it was found that 90.9 % of the children were normoweight, 98 % presented a normal neurological physical examination. The test of intellectual development was also normal in 97.6 %, morbidity was reduced and breast-feeding was guaranteed in 90.9 % of the cases. More than 90 % were not admitted in the hospital during this period. By implementing the educative program, there were modified habits and lifestyles that allowed a better behavior of the health-disease process in the children of adolescent mothers.
Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian
Telephone crisis support is a confidential, accessible, and immediate service that is uniquely set up to reduce male suicide deaths through crisis intervention. However, research focusing on telephone crisis support with suicidal men is currently limited. To highlight the need to address service delivery for men experiencing suicidal crisis, this perspective article identifies key challenges facing current telephone crisis support research and proposes that understanding of the role of telephone crisis helplines in supporting suicidal men may be strengthened by careful examination of the context of telephone crisis support, together with the impact this has on help-provision for male suicidal callers. In particular, the impact of the time- and information-poor context of telephone crisis support on crisis-line staff's identification of, and response to, male callers with thoughts of suicide is examined. Future directions for research in the provision of telephone crisis support for suicidal men are discussed.
Schwarz, Norbert G; Gysels, Marjolein; Pell, Christopher; Gabor, Julian; Schlie, Meike; Issifou, Saadou; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P; Pool, Robert
The aim of this paper is to explore attitudes of mothers towards childhood vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance and non-adherence to mother-child clinics (MCCs). Forty in-depth interviews with mothers of children under 5 years of age revealed positive attitudes towards vaccination that seem at odds with the region's observed low vaccination coverage. Important reasons for MCC non-attendance included distance to the MCC, transport costs, negative experiences at MCCs (such as interactions with unfriendly staff) and mothers' feeling of shame provoked by different, often poverty-associated reasons such as attending the clinic with a dirty or poorly clothed child.
Background Childhood fever represents a frequent cause to consult a primary care physician. “Fever phobia” describes a fearful and irrational view of fever shared by many parents with different cultural backgrounds. The study aims to explain the experiences of mothers of children having a fever and to analyze the role of the mothers’ cultural background with regard to their experiences by comparing the accounts of mothers with a German with those from a Turkish background. Disease and context specific knowledge about the influence of culture can be important for effective counselling. Methods We applied a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews with 11 mothers with a Turkish and 9 with a German background living in Germany. The interviews were conducted at the participants´ homes from May to October 2008. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Grounded Theory was used as a framing methodology including open, axial and selective coding. Analysis was performed in a group with members of different professional and cultural backgrounds. Results Mothers experienced their child’s fever not merely as elevated temperature but as a potentially dangerous event. A deeply rooted urge to protect the child from harm was central to all participants’ experience. The caregiving system model offers a good theoretical foundation to explain the findings as it incorporates the unique relational quality of care giving mothers to their children. The cultural background represents an important context variable influencing the explanatory models and strategies of dealing with fever. The identified culturally influenced concepts sometimes match and sometimes conflict with medical knowledge. Conclusion By applying the caregiving system model which is a part of attachment theory (Bowlby) maternal actions can be understood as an understandable attempt to protect the child from harm. The mothers´ decisions what to do when a child has a fever can be culturally
Recession due to the financial crisis of 2008 has stopped the world economic development and the hydrocarbons sector too. Collapse of prices, cancellation of investments, reach of a 'peak demand', the four speeches which are given here, describe these impacts and their consequences; but in scrutinizing the incentives of the crisis, they show the new role of petroleum: pretext value against the weakness of dollar and the inflation risks, speculative value for the investment funds. (O.M.)
Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira
Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…
Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.
Prosman, G.J.; Wong, S.H.; Romkens, R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate which factors make a mentor mother support programme for abused women successful. METHOD: We used semi-structured interviews with abused women and focus group discussions with the mentor mothers to evaluate their experiences and needs within a mentor support
The November Revolution in 1918 made manifest and further unleashed a political crisis in Germany, the consequences of which have been thoroughly examined. What has attracted less attention is how the Revolution also triggered a semantic crisis within sociology, namely with regard to conceptions...... selected aspects of classical crowd semantics – in particular notions of imitation and suggestibility – and for placing them centrally in the understanding of the social, in times of crisis and not....
Callen, R.B.; DeHart, R.E.
This paper describes some of the steps that Mobil has taken to enhance their crisis management capability and to improve their readiness. The approach stretches from the individual plant level to Mobil's Corporate offices in Fairfax, Virginia. Some of the lessons learned from several integrated crisis management exercises are outlined and some areas where additional industry co-operation in crisis management could pay dividends are suggested
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy
Katoba, Juliet; Hangulu, Lydia; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa
Point-of-care (POC) testing has been shown to help improve healthcare access in resource-limited settings. However, there is paucity of evidence on accessibility of POC testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map the evidence on POC testing services for PMTCT. A scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, will guide the study. A comprehensive literature search will be performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar and databases within EBSCOhost (Medline and CINAHL). The primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and grey articles addressing our question will be included. One reviewer will conduct title screening and the results will be exported to endnote library. Two independent reviewers will perform abstract, then full article screening in parallel. The same process shall be employed to extract data from eligible studies. Data analysis will involve a narrative summary of included studies and thematic content analysis aided by NVIVO software V.11. The mixed methods assessment tool will be used to assess the quality of studies that will be included. Ethical approval is not applicable to this study. The study findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentations at conferences related to syphilis, HIV, PMTCT, bacterial infections and POC diagnostics. CRD42017056267. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Tabor, Anna; Godman, Brian
The Central and Eastern European Society of Technology Assessment in Health Care was founded in Krakow, Poland in 2003. On October 8th and 9th, the 7th symposium took place titled 'HTA for Crisis'. This meeting was attended by over 250 decision makers, evidence-based specialists, healthcare managers, commercial company personnel and experts. The symposium was principally divided into four main themes: insurance in times of crisis; importance of pricing of health services in times of crisis; managing welfare benefits in times of crisis and Health Technology Assessment in crisis-laden countries. The symposium finished by debating potential ways forward for healthcare systems in times of crisis.
Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow.
5 Director, Primary Health Care Division, Ministry of Health, Asmara. Abstract. Objective: to ... Conclusions: The implications of these ﬁndings for health policy are critical. ..... didn 't care uhout whutgoes on around me, I might us well he dead ”.
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.
In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…
Several aspects of the Brazilian energy policy are dealt with, regarding petroleum, electric energy and the nuclear question. Regional and international aspects relating to the energy crisis are discussed, and some alternatives for this crisis are suggested. (I. de C.R.) [pt
The problems of destructive accidents and the need for a crisis management system to deal with every kind of emergency is discussed. Crisis control with regard to the ''Problem'' and the ''Outlook'' were covered, as well as the ''Development of an Incident''. (U.K.)
Vail, Brennan; Spindler, Hilary; Morgan, Melissa C; Cohen, Susanna R; Christmas, Amelia; Sah, Pramod; Shah, Malay B; Das, Aritra; Walker, Dilys M
demands for higher-level triage and management. Although further evaluation of the PRONTO methodology is necessary to understand the full scope of its impact, this analysis highlights the importance of conducting and evaluating simulation training in low-resource settings based on simultaneous care of the mother-infant dyad.
In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…
Background All mothers in South Australia are offered a clinic or home-visit by a Child and Family Health community nurse in the initial postnatal weeks. Subsequent support is available on request from staff in community clinics and from a telephone helpline. The aim of the present study is to compare equivalence of a single clinic-based appointment plus a nurse-moderated group-based internet intervention when infants were aged 0–6 months versus a single home-visit together with subsequent standard services (the latter support was available to mothers in both study groups). Methods/Design The evaluation utilised a pragmatic preference randomised trial comparing the equivalence of outcomes for mothers and infants across the two study groups. Eligible mothers were those whose services were provided by nurses working in one of six community clinics in the metropolitan region of Adelaide. Mothers were excluded if they did not have internet access, required an interpreter, or their nurse clinician recommended that they not participate due to issues such as domestic violence or substance abuse. Randomisation was based on the service identification number sequentially assigned to infants when referred to the Child and Family Health Services from birthing units (this was done by administrative staff who had no involvement in recruiting mothers, delivering the intervention, or analyzing results for the study). Consistent with design and power calculations, 819 mothers were recruited to the trial. The primary outcomes for the trial are parents’ sense of competence and self-efficacy measured using standard self-report questionnaires. Secondary outcomes include the quality of mother-infant relationships, maternal social support, role satisfaction and maternal mental health, infant social-emotional and language development, and patterns of service utilisation. Maternal and infant outcomes will be evaluated using age-appropriate questionnaires when infants are aged <2 months
Eramo, Eric M.
Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…
The oil crisis in the 1970s led to the shift from oil to hydro- and nuclear power. An almost similar shift might soon come as a ''climate crisis''. A climate crisis may imply a renaissance for hydropower and nuclear power and natural gas will be used on a large scale. In Europe, natural gas is currently considered environmentally friendly. Although there is at present growing opposition to nuclear power in Sweden and Germany, this attitude may change as the result of increased focus on the costs of the alternatives. A forced phase-out of nuclear power in Europe simultaneously with a climate crisis with reduced energy production from fossil fuels is likely to entail significantly increased prices of electricity. In Norway, 98% of the country's electric power production is based on hydro power, which means that much more heating can be based on electricity than in countries in which electricity is produced by combustion of fossil fuels. Much research is in progress to find technologies that will make it possible to shift from fossil fuel energy to energy from renewable sources like solar, water, wind, biomass and geothermal energy
This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roseli Araújo Barros Costa
Full Text Available This article is about a review of a broader research on the understanding of the professional development of Mathematics teachers, especially the results of the analysis of one of the selected categories, the projectors and the crisis narratives. This analysis was theoretically supported by Larrosa (2002. To carry out the research, we adopted the qualitative research, with a narrative focus, based on semi-structured interviews about the life history of a teacher who teaches mathematics in Basic Education. Based on a concept of professional development taken from a continuous perspective, idealized in a broader context of teaching work, permeating crises and conflicts, the analysis shows that the teacher's crisis reports are related to factors such as: low salaries, conflicts in her current institution Lack of social prestige and insecurity. His reports reveal that initial training did nothing to address the "new" changes in education. It shows that their lack of enthusiasm is associated with the emptying of the useful meaning of their formation, which results from the overvaluation of their exchange value. However, a crisis narrative can construct the present as a critical moment in the double sense of the word as a decisive moment and, at the same time, as a moment in which the subject critically recovers his own history, appropriates himself critically To find out where it is and to decide its own movement (LARRROSA, 2002. The individual, by critically restoring his history, can rethink the past, think the present, and (reconstruct his own future. The teacher, in her crisis narratives, shows that, by critically recovering her story, by putting out all her "revolt", she opens a "door" that will possibly show a new path to be taken. This seeks new challenges for their professional development
The 2005–8 food crisis was a shock to political elites, but in some respects the situation was normal. Food policies are failing to respond adequately to the squeeze on land, people, health and environment. Strong evidence of systems failure and stress, termed here New Fundamentals, ought to reframe twenty-first century food politics and effort. Yet so far, international discourse is too often narrow and technical. The paper suggests that 2005–8 reinforced how the dominant twentieth century p...
Warnings of looming crisis are all around us, including within services for older people. Recent reports warn that the care home sector is reaching a critical juncture and, without long-term planning and investment, crisis will turn to meltdown ( Burstow 2003 ). In the past five years something like 50,000 long-term care beds have been lost and now, according to the National Audit Office, tens of thousands of older people each year find themselves unable to leave hospital because there is insufficient post-hospital care (see page five ). Emergency hospital readmissions have increased by nearly 20 per cent over the past two years and the reality of intermediate care has yet to live up to the policy rhetoric.
Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow. JEL: E44, G01, G10
Wang, Yeon Jung
This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.
Wang, Yeon Jung
This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.
Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto. Supplementing the then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic, defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis. The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other. Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics. Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In
The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable...... to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968), Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967), and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma...
Full Text Available The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968, Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967, and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma & Collective Memory (1998.
While community based crisis response teams offer needed resources to schools impacted by crisis, they are often not asked to help. Reports from crisis team leaders at the school shooting incidents at James W. Parker Middle School, Edinboro, Pennsylvania and Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado are contrasted regarding utilization of community resources. Factors limiting the usefulness of community based teams include unfamiliarity with school organization, culture, and procedures. Key differences in school vs. community team precepts, decision-making, and strategic paradigms render team coordination difficult. Successful cross training presents opportunities for school-community partnership and utilization of community teams for school duty.
Horwood, Christiane; Butler, Lisa; Barker, Pierre; Phakathi, Sifiso; Haskins, Lyn; Grant, Merridy; Mntambo, Ntokozo; Rollins, Nigel
Community health workers (CHWs) play key roles in delivering health programmes in many countries worldwide. CHW programmes can improve coverage of maternal and child health services for the most disadvantaged and remote communities, leading to substantial benefits for mothers and children. However, there is limited evidence of effective mentoring and supervision approaches for CHWs. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) intervention amongst CHWs providing home-based education and support to pregnant women and mothers. Thirty CHW supervisors were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 15) and control (n = 15) arms. Four CHWs were randomly selected from those routinely supported by each supervisor (n = 60 per arm). In the intervention arm, these four CHWs and their supervisor formed a quality improvement team. Intervention CHWs received a 2-week training in WHO Community Case Management followed by CQI mentoring for 12 months (preceded by 3 months lead-in to establish QI processes). Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted with mothers of infants Improved training and CQI-based mentoring of CHWs can improve quantity and quality of CHW-mother interactions at household level, leading to improvements in mothers' knowledge and infant feeding practices. ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT01774136.
Improving childhood nutrition and wellness in South Africa: involving mothers/caregivers of malnourished or HIV positive children and health care workers as co-designers to enhance a local quality improvement intervention.
van Deventer, Claire; Robert, Glenn; Wright, Anne
A significant proportion of children admitted to a hospital in a South African sub-district in 2010 were severely malnourished and - when concurrently HIV positive - were not correctly initiated on antiretroviral therapy. Audit data over a subsequent four year period revealed that 60 % of malnourished children admitted to the hospital were HIV positive. To supplement an ongoing local quality improvement (QI) intervention addressing poor nutritional outcomes in children in this setting, Experience-based Co-design (EBCD) was used to enhance previously low levels of mother, carer and staff engagement. EBCD was implemented over an 8 month period. Non-participant observation was conducted comprising a total of 10 h in 5 different clinical locations. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 purposively selected staff members as well as 10 mothers/caregivers. The staff interviews were audio-taped whilst the mothers/caregiver interviews were filmed; both sets of experiences were analysed for key 'touchpoints'. Mothers/caregivers and staff participated in separate feedback events and then came together to identify their shared priorities for improving the service. Participants worked together in 3 smaller co-design teams to implement improvements. There was overlap in staff and mother/carer views as to their priorities for QI. However, whilst staff typically highlighted pragmatic issues, mothers/caregivers were more likely to identify experiential and relational issues. A total of 38 QI interventions were proposed after the priorities had been discussed and delegated to the 3 co-design teams; 25 of these changes had been implemented or were being planned for by the end of the study period. Examples included: a point of care blood machine being bought to shorten the time in the emergency department whilst waiting for laboratory results; a play area being organised for children attending the HIV clinic; the development of three standard operating procedures to
Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.
Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.
Timely referral saves the lives of mothers and newborns: Midwifery led continuum of care in marginalized teagarden communities – A qualitative case study in Bangladesh [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations
Full Text Available Background: Prompt and efficient identification, referral of pregnancy related complications and emergencies are key factors to the reduction of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. As a response to this critical need, a midwifery led continuum of reproductive health care was introduced in five teagardens in the Sylhet division, Bangladesh during 2016. Within this intervention, professional midwives provided reproductive healthcare to pregnant teagarden women in the community. This study evaluates the effect of the referral of pregnancy related complications. Methods: A qualitative case study design by reviewing records retrospectively was used to explore the effect of deploying midwives on referrals of pregnancy related complications from the selected teagardens to the referral health facilities in Moulvibazar district of the Sylhet division during 2016. In depth analyses was also performed on 15 randomly selected cases to understand the facts behind the referral. Results: Out of a total population of 450 pregnant women identified by the midwives, 72 complicated mothers were referred from the five teagardens to the facilities. 76.4% of mothers were referred to conduct delivery at facilities, and 31.1% of them were referred with the complication of prolonged labour. Other major complications were pre-eclampsia (17.8%, retention of the placenta with post-partum hemorrhage (11.1% and premature rupture of the membrane (8.9%. About 60% of complicated mothers were referred to the primary health care centre, and among them 14% of mothers were delivered by caesarean section. 94% deliveries resulted in livebirths and only 6% were stillbirths. Conclusions: This study reveals that early detection of pregnancy complications by skilled professionals and timely referral to a facility is beneficial in saving the majority of baby’s as well as mother’s lives in resource-poor teagardens with a considerable access barrier to health facilities.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth / For Teens / Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...
Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...
Kumpikaitė, Vilmantė; Grybauskas, Andrius; Juodelis, Mantas; Strumyla, Dovydas
Lots of companies faced recent economic crisis. It was generated by global markets deregulation and it triggered relevant situation to emerge other types of crisis. Many scientists all over the world analyses how crisis affected global economy and changed companies’ management actions. Scientists exclude these types of crisis: economic, informational, physical, human resource, reputational, psychopathic acts production and financial. This paper examines economic crisis generated negative effe...
van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun
The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.
Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.
Néstor Marimón Torres
Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la actual crisis económica y financiera global y sus efectos negativos para los sistemas de salud. Profundiza en las afectaciones para Cuba y en la preparación del sistema nacional de salud, a partir de su concepción, sus principios, así como la preparación que tiene el país ante crisis anteriores, como lo constituyó el Período Especial. Se evidencia que la forma viable de mantener los niveles de salud de la población y mejorar sus indicadores de morbimortalidad, a pesar de las carencias económicas actuales y las futuras, en caso de empeorar la situación mundial, es la Atención Primaria de Salud, base del sistema cubano, el cual alcanza un importante desarrollo luego de 50 años de transformaciones y perfeccionamiento. Se exponen los principales resultados alcanzados y las medidas trazadas, enfocadas a su sostenibilidad en este nuevo escenario mundial, con la intención de que esta experiencia pueda servir de referencia a otros países, reforzar las capacidades nacionales y contribuir al perfeccionamiento de los sistemas de salud, como propuesta de enfrentamiento a esta grave situación mundial y lograr la salud de las poblaciones.Present paper analyzes the current global recession and financial crisis and its negative effects on the health system studying in depth the Cuban affectations and the preparation of health national system from its conception, its principles, as well as the preparation of our country in face of previous crises, by example, the Special Period. It is evidenced that the viable way to maintain the health levels of population and to improve its indicators of morbidity and mortality, despite the current and the future economic lacks if the world situation get worse, is the Primary Health Care which is the foundation of Cuban system achieving a significant development after 50 years of transformation and improvement. Authors expose the major results achieved and the outlines measures
The ecological crisis will happen on 2030. A combination of climatic change, energy problems, increase in population, will mix up. The author debates about true questions on the economy: how to get quickly towards renewable energies use, how much will it cost, must we generalize the carbon tax, what about economic giant as India and China, what about the technology development to solve the crisis? (A.L.B.)
This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...
F. Gerard Adams
The world financial crisis of 2008 is a consequence of new financial technologies, new accounting methods and new international linkages. These developments have come at a time when governments have returned to an old-fashioned freemarket philosophy. This paper links the systemic financial/economic crisis of 2008 to the new economy developments, globalisation and policy philosophy perspectives of recent decades. It raises the question of how to re-establish confidence once traditional thinkin...
This article presents evidence that the potential loss of control of events by officials who must operate under conditions that generate substantial stress is one of the central problems of crisis decision making. Examples of U.S. crises management and alliance management are reviewed, and possible tools for improving crisis management decisions are discussed. This article particularly focuses on crises which may lead to nuclear war
Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.JEL: B50; E12; G01
Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S
To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....
Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…
The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems. © 2013.
This paper gives an account of the Swedish financial crisis covering the period 1985-2000, dealing with financial deregulation and the boom in the late 1980s, the bust and the financial crisis in the early 1990s, the recovery from the crisis and the bank resolution policy adopted during the crisis. The paper focuses on three issues: the causes and consequences of the financial crisis, the policy response concerning bank resolution, and the applicability of the Swedish model of bank crisis man...
Hezi Aviram SHAYB
Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.
Delvaux, Thérèse; Konan, Jean-Paul Diby; Aké-Tano, Odile; Gohou-Kouassi, Valérie; Bosso, Patrice Emery; Buvé, Anne; Ronsmans, Carine
To assess whether implementation of a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme in Côte d'Ivoire improved the quality of antenatal and delivery care services. Quality of antenatal and delivery care services was assessed in five urban health facilities before (2002-2003) and after (2005) the implementation of a PMTCT programme through review of facility data; observation of antenatal consultations (n = 606 before; n = 591 after) and deliveries (n = 229 before; n = 231 after) and exit interviews of women; and interviews of health facility staff. HIV testing was never proposed at baseline and was proposed to 63% of women at the first ANC visit after PMTCT implementation. The overall testing rate was 42% and 83% of tested HIV-infected pregnant women received nevirapine. In addition, inter-personal communication and confidentiality significantly improved in all health facilities. In the maternity ward, quality of obstetrical care at admission, delivery and post-partum care globally improved in all facilities after the implementation of the programme although some indicators remained poor, such as filling in the partograph directly during labour. Episiotomy rates among primiparous women dropped from 64% to 25% (P implementation. Global scores for quality of antenatal and delivery care significantly improved in all facilities after the implementation of the programme. Introducing comprehensive PMTCT services can improve the quality of antenatal and delivery care in general.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.
Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn
Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants
Rybojad, Beata; Lesiuk, Witold; Fijałkowska, Anna; Rybojad, Paweł; Sawicki, Marek; Lesiuk, Leszek
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system, leading to fluctuating muscle weakness. It is caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. Myasthenic crisis is a life-threatening complication, which is defined as weakness from acquired myasthenia gravis. In this paper we described a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit due to myasthenic crisis. He had suffered not only from myasthenia gravis but also hypothyroidism, cerebral palsy and epilepsy. The patient required mechanical ventilation and was successfully treated with both plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins. He recovered from the crisis and then thymectomy was performed. Perioperative period and anaesthesia passed uncomplicated. Discharged home from the hospital after 2.5 month-treatment, for the last 4 years, he has only come on scheduled outpatient medical appointments. This case reveals that myasthenic crisis, albeit rare, may occur in male adolescents. In such cases multidisciplinary care followed by surgery becomes a procedure of choice. Concomitant medical problems, if well controlled, do not affect the results of outcome of the underlying disease.
AREVA being an operator of nuclear facilities has to organize crisis exercises regularly. About 100 crisis exercises are performed each year in AREVA installations. These exercises allow the training of the staff, the assessing of material and humane means and the checking of the quality of the interfaces between all the participants (other AREVA teams or Nuclear Safety Authority or...). The management of nuclear crisis is based on anticipation and relies on 3 pillars: a referential gathering all the useful documents (emergency plans, procedures,...), the training and practice of AREVA staff in specific domains to cope with emergency situations, and various crisis exercises to keep fit all the teams. The basis emergency exercise lasts 2 hours and is organized into modules. First module: detecting abnormal conditions, alerting, rescuing and limiting the consequences; second module: launching the emergency plan; third module: understanding the situation and limiting the consequences; fourth module: communicating with other actors that intervene in a nuclear crisis (nuclear safety authority, state or local officials, the media...); and fifth module: anticipating the end of the emergency phase to prepare post-accidental management. (A.C.)
Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction...... opposing crisis responses—from multilaterals to regional organisations to global civil society—and realise that responses from either pro-neoliberal or anti-neoliberal forces are fundamentally the same through the years, simply re-articulating analyses and programmes that they have respectively...... pursued and advocated long before the global crisis. And fourth, in the context of East and Southeast Asia, we examine the tendencies of the global crisis vis-à-vis the strengthening and even acceleration of emergent authoritarian liberalism in the region despite and because of the global crisis....
Dimensiones culturales en el proceso de atención primaria infantil: perspectivas de las madres Cultural dimensions of the childhood primary health care delivery from the mothers' perceptions in the Araucania-Chile
Ana María Alarcón-Muñoz
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las dimensiones culturales en el proceso de atención primaria infantil desde la perspectiva de las madres que acuden a centros de salud primaria en la región de la Araucania, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo realizado durante el año 2003 en la zona de mayor índice de etnicidad del país. Los participantes fueron 94 madres mapuches y no mapuches a quienes se le aplicó una entrevista en profundidad. RESULTADOS: Tres dimensiones culturales surgieron del análisis: a modelos explicativos de enfermedad asociados a factores culturales, político-económicos, y ambientales; b itinerario terapéutico que combina recursos de los sistemas indígena, popular y biomédico; y c falta de competencia cultural del sistema de atención. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres conciben las enfermedades infantiles articulando componentes mágico-religiosos, y naturales (frío, calor, humedad. La atención de salud infantil enfrenta un importante desafío comunicacional en la superación de barreras sociales y lingüísticas entre madres y personal de salud.OBJECTIVE: To explore the cultural dimensions of the childhood primary health care delivery process from the mothers' perceptions in the Araucania region of Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study performed in the year 2003 within the zone with the highest ethnicity rate of the country. Ninety four Mapuche and non-Mapuche mothers agreed to be in depth interviewed. RESULTS: The analysis drew three cultural dimensions: a Explanatory models of disease were associated with cultural, political-economy, and environmental factors; b The therapeutic itinerary blends indigenous, popular, and biomedical resources and; c Health care delivery process lacks of cultural competence. CONCLUSIONS: The mothers explain their children diseases articulating religious, magic, and natural (hot, cold, humidity causes. The main challenge of the primary healthcare delivery process is to overcome the
Obstetric crisis includes hemorrhagic shock, embolisms and difficult airway. Life will be rapidly threatened with disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure or systemic inflammatory response syndrome in these crises. In the face of the crisis, repeated evaluation of parturients and differential diagnosis are necessary along with fetal heart monitoring. For evaluation of bleeding, one should notice that the visual estimation of vaginal bleeding does not reflect the extent of intravascular volume deficit. Treatments for hemorrhagic shock include fluid replacement, blood transfusion as well as fresh frozen plasma, platelet, anticoagulants, anti-thrombin III, and protease inhibitors. When bleeding is still uncontrollable, arterial embolization or hysterectomy will be considered. Embolic disorders are another cause of maternal mortality. The signs and symptoms are all similar (dyspnea, cyanosis and sudden cardiovascular collapse). Strategies against the embolism will be basically symptomatic therapy. The physiological change with pregnancy results in the need of careful pre-anesthetic airway evaluation for parturients. A difficult or failed intubation drill is also extremely important. Recently, laryngeal mask airway has been successfully used in these parturients. During resuscitation of a pregnant woman, left uterine displacement is essential. For a patient who has not responded after 4 to 5 minutes of ACLS, immediate cesarean delivery should be considered.
Pezzoli, J. A.; Johnson, Nancy
This document describes the curriculum and objectives of the Certificate of Completion in Dental Assisting at Maui Community College, Hawaii. Hawaii is below the national average in oral health care, with as many as 40% of Maui residents being underserved. Dental disease among the uninsured and underinsured in Hawaii is three times the national…
Turton, Mervyn Sydney; Henkel, Ralf Reinhold; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce
Although the association between periodontal disease (PD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained recognition amongst antenatal healthcare workers, not much has changed in practice to address it. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that BANA (N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide), a diagnostic test for PD, may inform obstetricians and other antenatal healthcare practitioners, of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics. At first visit, the presence of suspected periodontopathogens was assessed by BANA testing of dental plaque from 443 mothers attending antenatal clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and an association later sought with pregnancy outcomes. The accuracy of BANA to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes was evaluated by the calculation of likelihood ratios. The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki. Significant differences were found between pregnancy outcomes of BANA-negative and BANA-positive mothers (p periodontal therapy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and could form part of the routine antenatal examination.
More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care.
Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben
of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....
, Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...
Shehzad, Choudhry Tanveer; De Haan, Jakob
We argue that the 2007 crisis was not a global banking crisis. Stock prices of banks in emerging countries faced a temporary shock but quickly recovered, while stock prices of banks located in industrial countries remained much lower than before the 2007 crisis. Our results also suggest that stock
Christoph S. Weber
Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen
Barker, Catherine; Dutta, Arin; Klein, Kate
Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the context of financial and health system constraints has resulted in calls to maximize efficiency in ART service delivery. Adopting differentiated care models (DCMs) for ART could potentially be more cost-efficient and improve outcomes. However, no study comprehensively projects the cost savings across countries. We model the potential reduction in facility-level costs and number of health workers needed when implementing two types of DCMs while attempting to reach 90-90-90 targets in 38 sub-Saharan African countries from 2016 to 2020. We estimated the costs of three service delivery models: (1) undifferentiated care, (2) differentiated care by patient age and stability, and (3) differentiated care by patient age, stability, key vs. general population status, and urban vs. rural location. Frequency of facility visits, type and frequency of laboratory testing, and coverage of community ART support vary by patient subgroup. For each model, we estimated the total costs of antiretroviral drugs, laboratory commodities, and facility-level personnel and overhead. Certain groups under four-criteria differentiation require more intensive inputs. Community-based ART costs were included in the DCMs. We take into account underlying uncertainty in the projected numbers on ART and unit costs. Total five-year facility-based ART costs for undifferentiated care are estimated to be US$23.33 billion (95% confidence interval [CI]: $23.3-$23.5 billion). An estimated 17.5% (95% CI: 17.4%-17.7%) and 16.8% (95% CI: 16.7%-17.0%) could be saved from 2016 to 2020 from implementing the age and stability DCM and four-criteria DCM, respectively, with annual cost savings increasing over time. DCMs decrease the full-time equivalent (FTE) health workforce requirements for ART. An estimated 46.4% (95% CI: 46.1%-46.7%) fewer FTE health workers are needed in 2020 for the age and stability DCM compared with undifferentiated care. Adopting DCMs can
Senić Vladimir; Senić Radoslav
Due to diversity of research related to crisis it is rather important to present definitions of various key terms related to crisis, crisis management and crisis communication, in order to establish tangible boundaries among them. Those three are mutually intertwined and should be considered starting from the first symptoms of crisis to crisis management and finally crisis communication. In the state of crisis, conventional management practice is often not adequate, while types of reaction ar...