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Sample records for cardiovascular system

  1. cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    6.1 Cardiac arrhythmias 2006037 Electroanatomical systems guided circumferential pulmonary veins ablation for atrial fibrillation: initial experience from comparison between the EnSite -NavX and CARTO system LIU Xu(刘旭 ), et al. Dept Cardiol, Shanghai Chest Hosp, Shanghai, 200030, China. Chin J Cardiol 2005; 33 (22): 975 -978.

  2. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    7.1 Heart failure2007175 Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on aldosterone and endothelin-1 in treatment of heart failure. FU Yao(付尧),et al. Dept Cardiol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin Cir J 2007;22(1):35-37. Obiective To study the efficacy and the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP) on aldosterone and endothelin-1 in the treatment of congestive heart failure(CHF).Methods A randomized, open, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 35 patients with CHF. Eighteen received rhBNP and 17 were treated with nitroglycerin as controls. The changes hemodynamic indexes, the plasma concentrations of K+, Na+, aldo-sterone(ALD) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in order to examine the efficacy and mechanism of rhBNP. Results Between experiment and control groups significant differences were found in the decreasing of PCWP, PAP and plasma concentration of Na+, ALD, ET-1, and in the increasing of plasma concentration of K+ (P<0.05~0.01). Conclusion The mechanism of rhBNP may be associated with the overactivation of renin-angiotension-aldosterone system, and the inhibited production of endothelin-1.

  3. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye; Sahinarslan, Asife

    2006-12-01

    Endothelium has many important functions including the control of blood-tissue permeability and vascular tonus, regulation of vascular surface properties for homeostasis and inflammation. Nitric oxide is the chief molecule in regulation of endothelial functions. Nitric oxide deficiency, which is also known as endothelial dysfunction, is the first step for the occurrence of many disease states in cardiovascular system including heart failure, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia and smoking. This review deals with the importance of nitric oxide for cardiovascular system. It also includes the latest improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Allergy and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, M; Patella, V; Staiano, R I; Granata, F; Marone, G

    2008-09-01

    The most dangerous and life-threatening manifestation of allergic diseases is anaphylaxis, a condition in which the cardiovascular system is responsible for the majority of clinical symptoms and for potentially fatal outcome. The heart is both a source and a target of chemical mediators released during allergic reactions. Mast cells are abundant in the human heart, where they are located predominantly around the adventitia of large coronary arteries and in close contact with the small intramural vessels. Cardiac mast cells can be activated by a variety of stimuli including allergens, complement factors, general anesthetics and muscle relaxants. Mediators released from immunologically activated human heart mast cells strongly influence ventricular function, cardiac rhythm and coronary artery tone. Histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor (PAF) exert negative inotropic effects and induce myocardial depression that contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock. Moreover, cardiac mast cells release chymase and renin that activates the angiotensin system locally, which further induces arteriolar vasoconstriction. The number and density of cardiac mast cells is increased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathies. This observation may help explain why these conditions are major risk factors for fatal anaphylaxis. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cardiac mast cell activation may lead to an improvement in prevention and treatment of systemic anaphylaxis.

  5. Biofluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hansol; Yoo, Su Jung; Kyung, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biofluid dynamics is characterized by the study of fluids in biological systems. Common biofluid systems include blood flow in the cardiovascular system and airflow in the lungs. The mathematical modeling of blood flow through the complex geometry of a prosthetic heart valve is a difficult task. In such a problem the complex geometries of the valve must be modeled properly so that they can be studied numerically. The present analysis is performed on a disk-type prosthetic heart valve. The valve is assumed to be in the aortic position and observed the structure of the valve cage influence the flow field near an aortic valve. For the purpose of mathematical modeling, the laminar incompressible two-dimensional steady flow of a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with constant viscosity is assumed. The flow is considered during the greater part of systole when the valve is fully open. Convergent numerical solutions are obtained for Reynolds numbers of 30, 180, 900 and 4500. Stream function, horizontal velocity, vertical velocity and shear stress solutions are computed at every grid point.

  6. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  7. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  8. Vitamin D and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, L A; Witham, M D

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, affects multiple biological pathways via both genomic and nongenomic signalling. Several pathways have potential benefit to cardiovascular health, including effects on parathyroid hormone, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, vascular endothelial growth factor and cytokine production, as well as direct effects on endothelial cell function and myocyte calcium influx. Observational data supports a link between low vitamin D metabolite levels and cardiovascular health. Cross-sectional data shows associations between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart failure. Longitudinal data also suggests a relationship with incident hypertension and new cardiovascular events. However, these associations are potentially confounded by reverse causality and by the effects that other cardiovascular risk factors have on vitamin D metabolite levels. Intervention studies to date suggest a modest antihypertensive effect of vitamin D, no effect on serum lipids, a small positive effect on insulin resistance and fasting glucose, and equivocal actions on arterial stiffness and endothelial function. Analysis of cardiovascular event data collected from osteoporosis trials does not currently show a clear signal for reduced cardiovascular events with vitamin D supplementation, but results may be confounded by the coadministration of calcium, and by the secondary nature of the analyses. Despite mechanistic and observational data that suggest a protective role for vitamin D in cardiovascular disease, intervention studies to date are less promising. Large trials using cardiovascular events as a primary outcome are needed before vitamin D can be recommended as a therapy for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Role of Telomerase in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Zurek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and the development of atherosclerosis. One important enzyme known to be involved in aging processes is Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT. After the discovery of the enzyme in humans, TERT had initially only been attributed to germ line cells, stem cells and cancer cells. However, over the last few years it has become clear that TERT is also active in cells of the cardiovascular system including cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Interference with the activity of this enzyme greatly contributes to cardiovascular diseases. This review will summarize the findings on the role of TERT in cardiovascular cells. Moreover, recent findings concerning TERT in different mouse models with respect to cardiovascular diseases will be described. Finally, the extranuclear functions of TERT will be covered within this review.

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maceira Alicia M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension.

  11. Modulation of the cardiovascular system by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E Dale; Sweeney, Gary

    2012-10-01

    It is well established that individuals with the metabolic syndrome have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and much effort has been expended to elicit the underlying mechanisms. Various studies have proposed that excessive or deficient physiological effects mediated by leptin make an important contribution, yet many paradoxical observations often preclude a clear definition of the role of leptin. This review article will briefly discuss principal and most recent evidence on direct and indirect regulation of the cardiovascular system by leptin, focusing on cardiac structural and functional as well as vascular effects.

  12. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  13. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiovascular status. This thesis is basically aimed at exploring the effects of several possible postnatal determinantson the developing cardiovascular system. These early life determinants perhaps immed...

  14. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  15. Functional food science and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, G; Barth, C A; Galli, C; Mensink, R P; Mutanen, M; Riemersma, R A; Roberfroid, M; Salminen, K; Vansant, G; Verschuren, P M

    1998-08-01

    components as the various n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and their combination, antioxidants, fibre, etc. for their effect on processes participating in arterial thrombus formation. Long-chain polyenes of the n-3 family and antioxidants can modify the activity of immunocompetent cells, but we are at an early stage of examining the role of immune function on the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Actually, there is little, if any, evidence that dietary modulation of immune system responses of cells participating in atherogenesis exerts beneficial effects. Although it seems feasible to modulate insulin sensitivity and subsequent cardiovascular risk factors by decreasing the total amount of dietary fat and increasing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, additional studies on the efficacy of specific fatty acids, dietary fibre, and low-energy diets, as well as on the mechanisms involved are required to understand the real function of these dietary components. Finally, dietary supplements containing folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 should be tested for their potential to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering the plasma level of homocysteine.

  16. Space weather and cardiovascular system. New findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yury; Breus, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Researches of last two decades have shown that the cardiovascular system represents the most probable target for influence of helio - and geomagnetic activity. Both cardiovascular system and system of blood are connected very closely: one system cannot exist without another. For the same reason the effects perceived by one system, are easily transferred to another. Laboratory tests such as blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and capillary blood velocity (CBV) performed in Scientific Clinical Center JSC "Russian Railways in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) revealed a high dependence with a level of geomagnetic activity. Results of these and other findings allow to assume that blood itself can be a sensor of geomagnetic fields variations because erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes bearing electric charge on membranes, and in a comparable magnetic field can change as own properties and properties of blood flow. It is interesting that not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also the periods of very quiet geomagnetic conditions affect a capillary blood velocity, slowing down it. It was shown during long-term experiment with isolation named 'MARS-500' in spatial facility of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow as imitation of an extended space mission to Mars. Using digital capillaroscope 'Russia', two crewmembers - medical doctors made records of microcirculation parameters at themselves and other four participants of 'Martian' team. Capillary records were performed before, during, and after period of isolation in medical module of MARS-500 facility. At the period of experiment nobody of crewmembers knew about real geomagnetic conditions. In days of active geomagnetic conditions average CBV has registered as 389 ± 167 μm/s, that statistically significant (p

  17. The cardiovascular system, as understood in antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular concepts in antiquity were primitive up to the early 5th century BC, when Greek philosopher-physicians like Empedocles and Diogenes divorced human physiology from its previous magico-religious base in order to find answers in the natural sciences. The heart was not initially seen as central to the cardiovascular system – blood (containing life-giving pneuma moved through the body in blood vessels (phlebes by way of a spontaneous “ebb and flow” motion. Their perceived anatomical vascular models were quite fanciful, but nevertheless accepted by the Hippocratic doctors, who, except for a single work, The heart (containing a useful description of the heart, added little of significance to the subject. Based on animal dissections, post-Hippocratic authors like Diocles and Praxagoras first distinguished between arteries and veins, confirmed that the heart had two main chambers (ventricles and extended the theory that “innate heat” in the left ventricle produced pneuma which filled the arteries; only veins contained blood, produced in the right ventricle. Basing their theories on human dissections the Alexandrians, Herophilus and Erasistratus (3rd century BC produced the first accurate descriptions of the heart and major components of the vascular system. Erasistratus even postulated minute (normally non-functional peripheral arterio-venous anastomoses. The heart’s pump function was only partially understood – diastole was seen as the active phase of the cardiac cycle (sucking blood into the heart, and the pulse as inherent contraction of the arterial wall. After Herophilus and Erasistratus human dissection ceased, putting an end to further significant developments in unravelling the cardiovascular system. In the 2nd century AD, Celsus consolidated known knowledge, even adding minor contributions (e.g. a description of the coronary vessels based on his own animal dissections. He mainly confirmed the Alexandrians’ findings

  18. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function.

  19. The brain norepinephrine system, stress and cardiovascular vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan K; Valentino, Rita J

    2017-03-01

    Chronic exposure to psychosocial stress has adverse effects on cardiovascular health, however the stress-sensitive neurocircuitry involved remains to be elucidated. The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system position it to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on cardiovascular dysfunction produced by social stress and a major theme highlighted is that differences in coping strategy determine individual differences in social stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability. The establishment of different coping strategies and cardiovascular vulnerability during repeated social stress has recently been shown to parallel a unique plasticity in LC afferent regulation, resulting in either excitatory or inhibitory input to the LC. This contrasting regulation of the LC would translate to differences in cardiovascular regulation and may serve as the basis for individual differences in the cardiopathological consequences of social stress. The advances described suggest new directions for developing treatments and/or strategies for decreasing stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability.

  20. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiov

  1. The role of histamine in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanié, M; Godfraind, T

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews briefly the role of histamine through its H1 and H2 receptors on the cardiovascular system and its action on calcium and catecholamines. The analogy between the adrenergic and the histaminergic systems is well demonstrated and there is evidence that histamine participates in myocardial damage and arrythmias, but the question of its exact role in the early stages of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischaemia and atherosclerosis, requires further study.

  2. Cardiovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Martín-Martínez, María A.; Blanco, Ricardo; Melero-González, Rafael; Ibáñez-Rúan, Jesús; Bernal-Vidal, José Antonio; Tomero-Muriel, Eva; Uriarte-Isacelaya, Esther; Horcada-Rubio, Loreto; Freire-González, Mercedes; Narváez, Javier; Boteanu, Alina L.; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Andreu, José L.; Pego-Reigosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article estimates the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) events that occurred after diagnosis in a large Spanish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigates the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. RELESSER is a nationwide multicenter, hospital-based registry of SLE patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical variables, the presence of traditional risk factors, and CV events were collected. A CV event was defined as a myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or peripheral artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the possible risk factors for atherosclerosis. From 2011 to 2012, 3658 SLE patients were enrolled. Of these, 374 (10.9%) patients suffered at least a CV event. In 269 (7.4%) patients, the CV events occurred after SLE diagnosis (86.2% women, median [interquartile range] age 54.9 years [43.2–66.1], and SLE duration of 212.0 months [120.8–289.0]). Strokes (5.7%) were the most frequent CV event, followed by ischemic heart disease (3.8%) and peripheral artery disease (2.2%). Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.03 [1.02–1.04]), hypertension (1.71 [1.20–2.44]), smoking (1.48 [1.06–2.07]), diabetes (2.2 [1.32–3.74]), dyslipidemia (2.18 [1.54–3.09]), neurolupus (2.42 [1.56–3.75]), valvulopathy (2.44 [1.34–4.26]), serositis (1.54 [1.09–2.18]), antiphospholipid antibodies (1.57 [1.13–2.17]), low complement (1.81 [1.12–2.93]), and azathioprine (1.47 [1.04–2.07]) as risk factors for CV events. We have confirmed that SLE patients suffer a high prevalence of premature CV disease. Both traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to this higher prevalence. Although it needs to be verified with future studies, our study also shows—for the first time—an association between diabetes and CV events in SLE patients. PMID:26200625

  3. Endothelins and NADPH oxidases in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Sun, Zhongjie

    2008-01-01

    1. The endothelin (ET) system and NADPH oxidase play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. 2. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidases and thereby increase superoxide production, resulting in oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, NADPH oxidases may mediate the role of endothelins in some cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating ET-induced vasoconstriction and cardiovascular disease remains under debate, as evidenced by conflicting reports from different research teams. Conversely, activation of NADPH oxidase can stimulate ET secretion via ROS generation, which further enhances the cardiovascular effects of NADPH oxidase. However, little is known about how ROS activate the endothelin system. It seems that the relationship between ET-1 and ROS may vary with cardiovascular disorders. 3. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidase via the ET receptor-proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2)-Rac1 pathway. Rac1 is an important regulator of NADPH oxidase. There is ample evidence supporting direct stimulation by Rac1 of NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, Rac1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is mediated by the generation of ROS.

  4. Emerging role of neurotensin in regulation of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence in support of an important role played by neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide originally found in bovine hypothalamus, in regulation of cardiovascular system. Elevated systemic levels of NT may contribute to pathogenesis of acute circulatory disoders, and predict the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based studies. Within cardiovascular system, NT-containing neural fibers are found in close contact with atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes, cardiac conduction system, intracardiac ganglia, as well as coronary vessels in humans and various animal species. The density of NT-immunoreactive innervation is reduced in cardiac disease. NT produces a variety of cardiovascular actions including effects on heart rate, myocardial contractility, systemic blood pressure, coronary vascular tone, venous smooth muscle tone, and regional blood flow in gastrointestinal tract, cutaneous and adipose tissue. NT could trigger cardiovascular reflexes by stimulating primary visceral afferents synaptically connected with preganglionic sympathetic neurons at the spinal cord. Structural determinants of biological activity of NT reside primarily in the C-terminal portion of its molecule which is responsible for receptor activation. NT effects are mediated via activation of NT receptors, or produced indirectly via stimulation of release of various endogenous neuromodulators/neurotransmitters such as histamine, catecholamines and prostaglandins. Three subtypes of NT receptor (NTS1, NTS2 and NTS3) have been shown to be expressed in the myocardium. NTS1, a high-affinity NT binding site coupled to phospholipase C-inositoltrisphosphate transduction pathway, is thought to mediate NT-induced cardiovascular responses.

  5. Reintrepreting the cardiovascular system as a mechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Diogo; Machado, José; Minas, Graça; Soares, Filomena; Barros, Carla; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2013-10-01

    The simulation of the different physiological systems is very useful as a pedagogical tool, allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms and the functions of the processes. The observation of the physiological phenomena through mechanical simulators represents a great asset. Furthermore, the development of these simulators allows reinterpreting physiological systems, with the advantage of using the same transducers and sensors that are commonly used in diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures for the monitoring of system' parameters. The cardiovascular system is one of the most important systems of the human body and has been the target of several biomedical studies. The present work describes a mechanical simulation of the cardiovascular system, in particularly, the systemic circulation, which can be described in terms of its hemodynamic variables. From the mechanical process and parameters, physiological system's behavior was reproduced, as accurately as possible.

  6. Radiological features of uncommon aneurysms of the cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Kalisz; Prabhakar Rajiah

    2016-01-01

    Although aortic aneurysms are the most common type encountered clinically, they do not span the entire spectrum of possible aneurysms of the cardiovascular system. As cross sectional imaging techniques with cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging continue to improve and becomes more commonplace, once rare cardiovascular aneurysms are being encountered at higher rates. In this review, a series of uncommon, yet clinically important, cardiovascular aneurysms will be presented with review of epidemiology, clinical presentation and complications, imaging features and relevant differential diagnoses, and aneurysm management.

  7. Kinect system in home-based cardiovascular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ágata; Gabriel, Joaquim; Melo, Cristina; Machado, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases lead to a high consumption of financial resources. An important part of the recovery process is the cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study aimed to present a new cardiovascular rehabilitation system to 11 outpatients with coronary artery disease from a Hospital in Porto, Portugal, later collecting their opinions. This system is based on a virtual reality game system, using the Kinect sensor while performing an exercise protocol which is integrated in a home-based cardiovascular rehabilitation programme, with a duration of 6 months and at the maintenance phase. The participants responded to a questionnaire asking for their opinion about the system. The results demonstrated that 91% of the participants (n = 10) enjoyed the artwork, while 100% (n = 11) agreed on the importance and usefulness of the automatic counting of the number of repetitions, moreover 64% (n = 7) reported motivation to continue performing the programme after the end of the study, and 100% (n = 11) recognized Kinect as an instrument with potential to be an asset in cardiovascular rehabilitation. Criticisms included limitations in motion capture and gesture recognition, 91% (n = 10), and the lack of home space, 27% (n = 3). According to the participants' opinions, the Kinect has the potential to be used in cardiovascular rehabilitation; however, several technical details require improvement, particularly regarding the motion capture and gesture recognition.

  8. Impact of Hyperuricemia on Cardiovascular System in ESRD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Kamel, Magdy El-Sharkawy, Essam Afifi, Medhat Ali, Ahmed Ramadan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia was found to be associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. However there are no specific data about the relationship of uric acid to cardiovascular disease and mortality in ESRD patients on chronic hemodialysis.So, we aimed to study the impact of hyperuricemia on cardiovascular system in chronic kidney disease and in ESRD patients on regular hemodialysisPatients and methods: This study included 100 patients in...

  9. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  10. Exact Modeling of Cardiovascular System Using Lumped Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Hassani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Electrical analogy (Lumped method) is an easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments.

  11. Imaging Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Croca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem, autoimmune disease known to be one of the strongest risk factors for atherosclerosis. Patients with SLE have an excess cardiovascular risk compared with the general population, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the precise explanation for this is yet to be established, it seems to be associated with the presence of an accelerated atherosclerotic process, arising from the combination of traditional and lupus-specific risk factors. Moreover, cardiovascular-disease associated mortality in patients with SLE has not improved over time. One of the main reasons for this is the poor performance of standard risk stratification tools on assessing the cardiovascular risk of patients with SLE. Therefore, establishing alternative ways to identify patients at increased risk efficiently is essential. With recent developments in several imaging techniques, the ultimate goal of cardiovascular assessment will shift from assessing symptomatic patients to diagnosing early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic patients which will hopefully help us to prevent its progression. This review will focus on the current status of the imaging tools available to assess cardiac and vascular function in patients with SLE.

  12. Summarization of teaching experience of cardiovascular system integrated course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-dong ZU; Jing-long WANG; Lei ZHAO; Shen CAI; Shao-bo LI; Guo-hui FU

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular system plays an important role in the medical curriculum.How to enable medical students better learn and grasp this part of knowledge is a task and mission faced by teachers.In recent years,with the development and reform of medical teaching,the application of integrated teaching is more and more popular in domestic medical schools.Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has also adopted the integrated teaching.As pathology teachers,we take the integrated teaching of cardiovascular system course as an example to introduce our experience.

  13. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.

  14. Cardiovascular system state of the first year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosynskyi E. О.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to definition of a level of state of health of students are shown. 94 students (48 girls and 46 youths of basic medical group took part in an experiment. The state of the cardiovascular system was probed on indexes by frequencies of heart-throbs, arteriotony, index of Robinson, adaptation potential of circulation of blood. It is marked that at the beginning of school year students have a low level of functioning of the cardiovascular system. At 73,5 % girls and 62,2 % youth is expose tachycardia. At 8,2 % girls and 26,7 % youth is expose the enhanceable norm of systole arteriotony.

  15. Association between the kinin-forming system and cardiovascular pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jagdish Narain Sharma

    2012-01-01

    All the components of the kallikrein-kinin system are located in the cardiac muscle, and its deficiency may lead to cardiac dysfunction. In recent years, numerous observations obtained from clinical and experimental models of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischaemia, myocardial infarction and left ventricular hypertrophy, have suggested that the reduced activity of the local kallikrein-kinin system may be instrumental for the induction of cardiovascular -related diseases. The cardioprotective property of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is primarily mediated via kinin releasing pathway, which may cause regression of the left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive situations. The ability of kallikrein gene delivery to produce a wide spectrum of beneficial effects makes it an excellent candidate in treating hypertension, cardiovascular and renal diseases. In addition, stable kinin agonists may also be available in the future as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular and renal disorders.

  16. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  17. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, Pál; Steffens, Sabine

    2009-06-01

    Endocannabinoids are endogenous bioactive lipid mediators present both in the brain and various peripheral tissues, which exert their biological effects via interaction with specific G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the CB(1) and CB(2). Pathological overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in various forms of shock and heart failure may contribute to the underlying pathology and cardiodepressive state by the activation of the cardiovascular CB(1) receptors. Furthermore, tonic activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids has also been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes, such as plasma lipid alterations, abdominal obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and insulin and leptin resistance. In contrast, activation of CB(2) receptors in immune cells exerts various immunomodulatory effects, and the CB(2) receptors in endothelial and inflammatory cells appear to limit the endothelial inflammatory response, chemotaxis, and inflammatory cell adhesion and activation in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. Here, we will overview the cardiovascular actions of endocannabinoids and the growing body of evidence implicating the dysregulation of the ECS in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of the modulation of the ECS by selective agonists/antagonists in various cardiovascular disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, ranging from myocardial infarction and heart failure to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders.

  18. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  19. Endocannabinoids and the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the cardiovascular system. Endocannabinoids play a minimal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function in normal conditions, but are altered in most cardiovascular disorders. In shock, endocannabinoids released within blood mediate the associated hypotension through CB(1) activation. In hypertension, there is evidence for changes in the expression of CB(1), and CB(1) antagonism reduces blood pressure in obese hypertensive and diabetic patients. The endocannabinoid system is also upregulated in cardiac pathologies. This is likely to be cardioprotective, via CB(2) and CB(1) (lesser extent). In the vasculature, endocannabinoids cause vasorelaxation through activation of multiple target sites, inhibition of calcium channels, activation of potassium channels, NO production and the release of vasoactive substances. Changes in the expression or function of any of these pathways alter the vascular effect of endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids have positive (CB(2)) and negative effects (CB(1)) on the progression of atherosclerosis. However, any negative effects of CB(1) may not be consequential, as chronic CB(1) antagonism in large scale human trials was not associated with significant reductions in atheroma. In neurovascular disorders such as stroke, endocannabinoids are upregulated and protective, involving activation of CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1 and PPARα. Although most of this evidence is from preclinical studies, it seems likely that cannabinoid-based therapies could be beneficial in a range of cardiovascular disorders.

  20. [Systemic cardiovascular risk assessment. Conventional or eye fundus-based?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A; Kernt, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2010-09-01

    Several systemic cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment algorithms exist, of which the ESC HeartScore, Framingham and PROCAM are the most frequently applied in Germany. The risk estimates generated differ and take a number of different risk factors into consideration. Due to existing homology of retinal vessels and brain vessels, eye fundus examination is a promising approach to improving risk prediction. Large cohort studies investigated retinal vascular changes, including arteriovenous ratio, as well as signs of retinopathy such as cotton-wool spots, microaneurysms, or retinal hemorrhages for their ability to predict systemic cardiovascular events. While signs of retinopathy proved to have high predictive power (but are rarely diagnosed,) the retinal vascular changes investigated could contribute little to enhancing systemic CV risk prediction. A number of new and promising approaches based on static and dynamic retinal analysis exist, but still need to be validated prospectively.

  1. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular parameter

  2. Global dynamical model of the cardiovascular system

    CERN Document Server

    Kholodov, A S; Kholodov, Y A; Nadolsky, A A; Shushlebin, A N

    2007-01-01

    Blood system functions are very diverse and important for most processes in human organism. One of its primary functions is matter transport among different parts of the organism including tissue supplying with oxygen, carbon dioxide excretion, drug propagation etc. Forecasting of these processes under normal conditions and in the presence of different pathologies like atherosclerosis, loss of blood, anatomical abnormalities, pathological changing in chemical transformations and others is significant issue for many physiologists. In this connection should be pointed out that global processes are of special interest as they include feedbacks and interdependences among different regions of the organism. Thus the main goal of this work is to develop the model allowing to describe effectively blood flow in the whole organism. As we interested in global processes the models of the four vascular trees (arterial and venous parts of systemic and pulmonary circulation) must be closed with heart and peripheral circulat...

  3. Therapeutic applications of circadian rhythms for the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Tsimakouridze

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system exhibits dramatic time-of-day dependent rhythms, for example the diurnal variation of heart rate, blood pressure, and timing of onset of adverse cardiovascular events such as heart attack and sudden cardiac death. Over the past decade, the circadian clock mechanism has emerged as a crucial factor regulating these daily fluctuations. Most recently, these studies have led to a growing clinical appreciation that targeting circadian biology offers a novel therapeutic approach towards cardiovascular (and other diseases. Here we describe leading-edge therapeutic applications of circadian biology including 1 timing of therapy to maximize efficacy in treating heart disease (chronotherapy; 2 novel biomarkers discovered by testing for genomic, proteomic, metabolomic or other factors at different times of day and night (chronobiomarkers; and 3 novel pharmacologic compounds that target the circadian mechanism with potential clinical applications (new chronobiology drugs. Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and new approaches in the management and treatment of heart disease are clearly warranted and can benefit patients clinically.

  4. Cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction in female rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, P V; Neelambikai, N; Mahesh, Arjun; Govindarajan, K

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic dysfunction has been reported in patients with (rheumatoid arthritis) RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) like connective tissue disorders and it may be due to the vasculitis of vasa nervorum and secondary amyloidosis. The pathogenesis may also have an immune component that affects autonomic functions. In the present study, three standard cardiovascular parasympathetic function tests were performed in 207 RA patients and in 106 healthy controls. 14.45% patients were presented with symptoms related to cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Heart rate variation to deep breathing (DBD), standing (30:15 ratio), Valsalva ratio (VR) were found to be significantly reduced in RA patients and was weakly associated with female RA patients (r = 0.165, p = 0.018) and was not correlated to disease duration, RF positivity & severity of the disease. In conclusion, this study has confirmed the presence of significant subclinical cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous dysfunction in RA patients and its positive association with female gender. Hence, inclusion of cardiovascular autonomic function tests in the routine clinical examination may be helpful in the early detection of autonomic dysfunction in RA.

  5. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Y Demidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart disease, incident atrial fibrillation, and cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart diseas...

  7. A forward model-based validation of cardiovascular system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical evaluation of a cardiovascular system identification method that we previously developed for the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and instantaneous lung volume. The method provides a dynamical characterization of the important autonomic and mechanical mechanisms responsible for coupling the fluctuations (inverse modeling). To carry out the evaluation, we developed a computational model of the cardiovascular system capable of generating realistic beat-to-beat variability (forward modeling). We applied the method to data generated from the forward model and compared the resulting estimated dynamics with the actual dynamics of the forward model, which were either precisely known or easily determined. We found that the estimated dynamics corresponded to the actual dynamics and that this correspondence was robust to forward model uncertainty. We also demonstrated the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in parameters characterizing autonomic function in the forward model. These results provide confidence in the performance of the cardiovascular system identification method when applied to experimental data.

  8. [Radionuclide evaluation of the cardiovascular system in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, N M; Babaian, A S; Mikaelian, R S; Mnatsakanian, E L

    1986-08-01

    Proceeding from a study of the nature of changes in hemodynamics during development of hypertensive disease (HD) at its different stages it was shown that hemodynamic changes in 42.1% of the patients with Stage I-IIA HD were of hypertensive type, in the patients with Stage IIB-III HD normal and hypokinetic types of the blood circulation prevailed. After bicycle ergometry exercise the reactivity of the cardiovascular system was revealed more completely. The transition of one hemodynamic type into another and its detection acquired a great importance. The definition of the types of hemodynamics at rest and of effort was very important in terms of adequate antihypertensive therapy and the prediction of a subsequent course of disease. The most complete information on function of the cardiovascular system and myocardial contractility can be obtained with the help of radio-angiocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography. However in the absence of a gamma-chamber radiocardiography can provide necessary information on function of the cardiovascular system in case it is used in one and the same patient over time using bicycle ergometry testing.

  9. [The effect of neurotensin on the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiĭ, O E; Pokrovskiĭ, V M

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin is a peptide involved in regulation of cardiovascular system. Neurotensin immunoreactivity is found in myocardium, conduction system of the heart, intracardiac ganglion cells, coronary vessels. High content of this peptide is also determined in structures of sympathoadrenal system. This creates the possibility of hormonal neurotensin action on the heart following sympathetic activation. Neurotensin accelerates heart rate, increases myocardial contractility, affects central haemodynamics, regional blood flow and coronary circulation. Neurotensin modulates autonomic influences on the heart and plays role in mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmogenesis, especially in dynamics of vagally induced cardiac rhythm disorders. Cardiovascular effects of this peptide may be associated with direct influence on the heart and vessels, stimulating action on release of histamine and catecholamines and activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons which contain calcitonin-gene related peptide and substance P. Cardiovascular action of neurotensin is species dependent and it is followed by pronounced tachyphylaxis. Cellular mechanism of neurotensin action is associated with stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover, elevation of intracellular calcium and cyclic nucleotides level.

  10. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  11. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  12. Glucocorticoids and the cardiovascular system: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Udi; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Pereira, Rosa Maria R; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are drugs commonly used, by approximately 1% of the total adult population as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies for asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatological, ophthalmic, neurological, and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Supporting evidence exists of GC use in both immune mediated and non-immune mediated heart disease. The molecular mechanisms by which GC induces immune-modulation and direct cardioprotection, are complex and not fully understood. We review herein, the current knowledge of GC use in various immune-mediated or non-immune mediated cardiovascular conditions. GC have been investigated in autoimmune, inflammatory and idiopathic heart diseases such as atrio-ventricular conduction abnormalities, rheumatic fever, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kawasaki disease and sarcoidosis. GC therapy has been studied in non-autoimmune and non-inflammatory indications such as acute myocardial infarction, angina, postpericardiotomy syndrome and other pericardial diseases, endocarditis and cardiac amyloidosis, as well as in invasive cardiology, coronary interventions, and cardiopulmonary-bypass surgery. Despite GC's role as natural, physiologic regulators of the immune system, cardiovascular adverse outcomes may occur. Some of the well-known side effects of GC therapy involve bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems and include osteoporosis, fractures, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.

  13. Impact of Hyperuricemia on Cardiovascular System in ESRD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kamel, Magdy El-Sharkawy, Essam Afifi, Medhat Ali, Ahmed Ramadan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia was found to be associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. However there are no specific data about the relationship of uric acid to cardiovascular disease and mortality in ESRD patients on chronic hemodialysis.So, we aimed to study the impact of hyperuricemia on cardiovascular system in chronic kidney disease and in ESRD patients on regular hemodialysisPatients and methods: This study included 100 patients in Ashmoun hospital, nephrology department. Patients were chosen and divided into two groups: Group A, 50cases with chronic kidney disease and Group B, 50cases of ESRD on regular hemodialysis. All cases were subjected to full clinical examination, measurement of eGFR, laboratory tests for blood urea, serum creatinine and serum uric acid and ECG.Results: Serum uric acid was significantly higher in dialysis group than CKD group (p0.05.Conclusion: In cases of CKD uric acid is involved in the pathogenesis of renal failure and hypertension. In patients with ESRD, hyperuricemia is not a risk factor for the development of cardiac disease; but it shows reversed epidemiology and becomes a marker of good nutritious status. Further studies should be done on wider scales to evaluate the impact of hyperuricemia on cardiovascular system in hemodialysis patients.

  14. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  15. Molecular mechanism of vitamin D in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Chun

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem that has various adverse consequences. Vitamin D is mainly synthesized in the skin by sunlight (UV light) irradiation; therefore, vitamin D status is influenced by geographic locations, seasonal changes, and skin pigmentations. The kidney is involved in the biosynthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the reuptake of filtered 25-hydroxyvitamin D from the proximal tubules, thus, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with kidney disease who have renal insufficiency. There is a growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence in the literature that links vitamin D deficiency to cardiovascular disease. The discovery of the vitamin D hormone functioning as an endocrine inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system provides an explanation for this association. This review will discuss the mechanism underlying the connection between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease and its physiological and therapeutic implications.

  16. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed...

  17. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  18. Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders - new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The long history of Cannabis sativa had its development stimulated and oriented for medicine after the discovery and chemical characterization of its main active ingredient, the 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC. Consequently, a binding site for 9-THC was identified in rat brains and the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1 was cloned, followed by the CB2 and by the discover of two endogenous agonists: anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes that catalyze its synthesis and degradation constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS, which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. In vivo experiments with rats have demonstrated the action of anandamide and 2-AG on the development of atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an effect on heart rate, blood pressure, vasoactivity and energy metabolism (action in dyslipidemia and obesity. Recent studies with an antagonist of CB1 receptors showed that the modulation of ECS can play an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese and dyslipidemic patients. Similarly, studies in rats have demonstrated the action of CB2 receptors in adhesion, migration, proliferation and function of immune cells involved in the atherosclerotic plaque formation process. The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.This review article aims to address the key findings and evidences on the modulation of ECS, in order to prospect future forms of therapeutic intervention at the cardiovascular level. A recent, emerging, controversial and of undoubted scientific interest subject, which states as a potential therapeutic target to reach in the 21 st century.

  19. The Importence of Urotensin and Urotensin Receptors in Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urotensin 2 (UT 2 which is a cyclic peptid was first identified about 45 years ago and due to its potent vasoconstrictor effect it has attracted the attention of the scientific community. UT 2 binds to a class of G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR14. Receptors for UT 2 are located on peripheral vascular smooth muscle, heart and kidney. In healthy people it has minor role, while in patients with disease it has a more prominent role. Main positive effects of UT 2 in cardiovasculer system are positive inotropic effect, vasoconsctruction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, vasodilatation which related the state of endothelin and vascular bed. Recent investigations have showed that UT 2 plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of UT 2 and UT 2 receptors on cardiovascular system is a quite extensively studied subject. The studies and the results obtained from these studies are somewhat complex. Previous studies in heart failure has demonstrated that these receptors do not play a major role in heart failure but in later studies it has been shown that these receptors have a potential role in the pathophysiology of this disease. In addition, the level of UT 2 has increased in coronary heart disease, ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis. It is an important research topic whether these receptors play a role in pathophysiology or they are very important part of defense mechanism. Therefoore, these receptors are regarded as a promising target in the scientific community. As a result, we think that in future these receptors will gain a seat and more importence in the pathophysiology in many diseases especially in cardiovascular diseases as well as in the defense mechanism of these diseases.

  20. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  1. Noisy fluctuation of heart rate indicates cardiovascular system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Baum, Charlotte; Jeanguillaume, Christian; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2013-09-01

    Heart rate spontaneously fluctuates despite homeostatic regulatory mechanisms to stabilize it. Harmonic and fractal fluctuations have been described. Non-harmonic non-fractal fluctuation has not been studied because it is usually thought that it is caused by apparatus noise. We hypothesized that this fluctuation looking like apparatus noise (that we call "noisy fluctuation") is linked to challenged blood pressure stabilization and not to apparatus noise. We assessed noisy fluctuation by quantifying the small and fastest beat-to-beat fluctuation of RR-interval by means of spectral analysis (Nyquist power of heart rate variability: nyHRV) after filtering out its fractal component. We observed nyHRV in healthy supine subjects and in patients with vasovagal symptoms. We challenged stabilization of blood pressure by upright posture (by means of a head-up tilt table test). Head-up position on the tilt table dramatically decreased nyHRV (0.128 ± 0.063 vs. 0.004 ± 0.002, p system is challenged (upright posture). It also indicates cardiovascular instability because it does not disappear in upright patients before vasovagal syncope, a transient failure of cardiovascular regulation.

  2. Handbook of the diagnostic radiology. The cardiovascular system; Handbuch der diagnostishen Radiologie. Kardiovaskulaeres System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. (ed.) [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-07-01

    Cardiovascular system diseases are the most common causes for death besides the progress in medical sciences. The book contains the following contributions within two main chapters: The heart, normal anatomy and important variants, cardiac diseases, thoracic aorta and pulmonal vascular system, abdominal vascular system, peripheric vascular system, veins, supraaortal vascular system, thoracic and abdominal aorta, abdomial vascular system, kidney arteries, mesenterial vascular system, abdominopelvic vascular system, peripheric arteries, hemodialysis shunt, transjugular portosystemic shunt.

  3. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  4. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. METHODS: The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed with S...

  5. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VI. Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the cardiovascular system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Seven units of study are presented: (1) the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system; (2) patient assessment for the cardiac patient; (3) pathophysiology; (4) reading…

  6. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Dusi; Alice Ghidoni; Alice Ravera; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Laura Calvillo

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the a...

  7. Cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem

    2013-02-01

    Patients with different forms of systemic vasculitis experience long-term morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease due to premature atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic reports of patients with GCA suggest that long-term mortality in this disease is not increased compared with the general population of the same age. The risk of a stroke, however, in particular in the vertebrobasilar territory, is increased. In addition, the occurrence of aortic aneurysmal disease and aortic dissection is also clearly increased in GCA. Mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, however, is not increased. In Takayasu arteritis accelerated atherosclerosis has been clearly documented both clinically and in autopsy reports. Atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery may be present in the carotid arteries especially in patients with a documented history of arteritis involving the carotid artery. It is controversial whether Kawasaki disease is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Young adults with a history of Kawasaki disease may have abnormal brachial artery reactivity, increased carotid IMT values and increased arterial stiffness. At autopsy examinations of KD patients, however, no significant atherosclerotic lesions are detected and carotid IMT measurements were found to be clearly different from those in young adults with familiar hypercholesterolaemia, suggesting that the remodeling process in KD is different from atherosclerosis. In ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), an increased mortality as a consequence of cardiovascular disease is well-documented. In these patients the relative risk for coronary heart disease is two- to fourfold that in control subjects. In addition, a similar relative risk has been found for stroke. Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity (metabolic syndrome), impaired renal function, persistent proteinuria and increased production of C-reactive protein are common risk factors for premature atherosclerosis in patients with

  8. A simple ballistocardiographic system for a medical cardiovascular physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Ballistocardiography is an old, noninvasive technique used to record the movements of the body synchronous with the heartbeat due to left ventricular pump activity. Despite the fact that this technique to measure cardiac output has been superseded by more advanced and precise techniques, it is useful for teaching cardiac cycle physiology in an undergraduate practical course because of its noninvasive application in humans, clear physiological and physiopathological analysis, and practical approach to considering cardiac output issues. In the present report, a simple, low cost, easy-to-build ballistocardiography system is implemented together with a theoretical and practical session that includes Newton's laws, cardiac output, cardiac pump activity, anatomy and physiology of the vessel circulation, vectorial composition, and signal transduction, which makes cardiovascular physiology easy to understand and focuses on the study of cardiac output otherwise seen only with the help of computer simulation or echocardiography. The proposed system is able to record body displacement or force as ballistocardiography traces and its changes caused by different physiological factors. The ballistocardiography session was included in our medical physiology course six years ago with very high acceptance and approval rates from the students.

  9. Discovery of the cardiovascular system: from Galen to William Harvey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, W C

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the events that led to discovery of blood circulation. The Ancient Greeks, including Hippocrates and Galen viewed the cardiovascular system as comprising two distinct networks of arteries and veins. Galen claimed that the liver produced blood that was then distributed to the body in a centrifugal manner, whereas air or pneuma was absorbed from the lung into the pulmonary veins and carried by arteries to the various tissues of the body. Arteries also contained blood, which passed from the venous side via invisible pores in the interventricular septum and peripheral anastomoses. This was an open-ended system in which blood and air simply dissipated at the ends of veins and arteries according to the needs of the local tissue. Blood was not seen to circulate but rather to slowly ebb and flow. This view would hold sway for 15 centuries until 1628 when William Harvey published his momentous 72-page book, On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. Harvey employed experiment and deductive logic to show that arteries and veins are functionally, if not structurally, connected in the lung and the peripheral tissues, and that blood circulates. The mechanical force of the heart replaced Galen's elusive attractive powers. Ultimately, Galenism would collapse under the weight of Harvey's evidence, and a new paradigm of blood circulation would prevail.

  10. Technological innovations in the development of cardiovascular clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Nan-Chen; Chang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Jeen-Chen; Chan, Chien-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that computerized clinical case management and decision support systems can be used to assist surgeons in the diagnosis of disease, optimize surgical operation, aid in drug therapy and decrease the cost of medical treatment. Therefore, medical informatics has become an extensive field of research and many of these approaches have demonstrated potential value for improving medical quality. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based cardiovascular clinical information system (CIS) based on innovative techniques, such as electronic medical records, electronic registries and automatic feature surveillance schemes, to provide effective tools and support for clinical care, decision-making, biomedical research and training activities. The CIS developed for this study contained monitoring, surveillance and model construction functions. The monitoring layer function provided a visual user interface. At the surveillance and model construction layers, we explored the application of model construction and intelligent prognosis to aid in making preoperative and postoperative predictions. With the use of the CIS, surgeons can provide reasonable conclusions and explanations in uncertain environments.

  11. The role of the apelinergic and vasopressinergic systems in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Research studies indicate a role of the apelinergic and vasopressinergic systems both in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of CVD, including in such settings as obesity and stress. Based on these data, it may be suggested that interactions between these systems underlie numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, some of them related to the cardiovascular system. Better understanding of the role of these systems and their interactions, both physiological and related to the pathogenesis of CVD, will allow further advances in prevention and drug therapy.

  12. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become

  13. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso; Carlos Olimpo Mendivil Anaya; Iván Darío Sierra Ariza

    2006-01-01

    La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aum...

  14. Primary study of muscone's effect on cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xue-jing; WU Qi-biao; LI Hai-tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of muscone on cardiovascular system. Methods Experimental animals to divide muscone high、middle、low dose group(the mouse is 20 mg·kg-1, 10 mg·kg-1, 5.0 mg·kg-1; the rat is 10 mg·kg-1, 5.0 mg·kg-1, 2.5 mg·kg-1), GT group( the mouse is 1/12 mg·kg-1; the rat is 1/24 mg·kg-1) and NS group. Intragastrie administration in a week, do the mouse ant-hypoxia experiment,the drug (Pit.) produce the rat myocardial ischemia experiment and obstruct coronary artery to produce the rat myocardial ischemia experiment. The mice's survival time (t), the rat's variation of T in electrocardiogram, creatinkinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were recorded, respectively. Results The effect of Muscone is significant difference between GT and NS in a dose variation manner. Conclusions Muscone has the effect of ant-hypoxia, cutting down T peak value, reducing CK and LDH. The muscone has effect to inhibiting myocardial ischemia.

  15. Metal ions affecting the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Some metals, such as copper and manganese, are essential to life and play irreplaceable roles in, e.g., the functioning of important enzyme systems. Other metals are xenobiotics, i.e., they have no useful role in human physiology and, even worse, as in the case of lead, may be toxic even at trace levels of exposure. Even those metals that are essential, however, have the potential to turn harmful at very high levels of exposure, a reflection of a very basic tenet of toxicology--"the dose makes the poison." Toxic metal exposure may lead to serious risks to human health. As a result of the extensive use of toxic metals and their compounds in industry and consumer products, these agents have been widely disseminated in the environment. Because metals are not biodegradable, they can persist in the environment and produce a variety of adverse effects. Exposure to metals can lead to damage in a variety of organ systems and, in some cases, metals also have the potential to be carcinogenic. Even though the importance of metals as environmental health hazards is now widely appreciated, the specific mechanisms by which metals produce their adverse effects have yet to be fully elucidated. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for most metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to nucleic acids, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Whilst copper, chromium, and cobalt undergo redox-cycling reactions, for metals such as cadmium and nickel the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. This chapter attempts to show that the toxic effects of different metallic compounds may be manifested in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The knowledge of health effects due to metal exposure is necessary for practising physicians, and should be assessed by inquiring

  16. Chemoreceptors and cardiovascular control in acute and chronic systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Marshall

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the ways in which the primary bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction evoked by selective stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can be modified by the secondary effects of a chemoreceptor-induced increase in ventilation. The evidence that strong stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can evoke the behavioural and cardiovascular components of the alerting or defence response which is characteristically evoked by novel or noxious stimuli is considered. The functional significance of all these influences in systemic hypoxia is then discussed with emphasis on the fact that these reflex changes can be overcome by the local effects of hypoxia: central neural hypoxia depresses ventilation, hypoxia acting on the heart causes bradycardia and local hypoxia of skeletal muscle and brain induces vasodilatation. Further, it is proposed that these local influences can become interdependent, so generating a positive feedback loop that may explain sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. It is also argued that a major contributor to these local influences is adenosine. The role of adenosine in determining the distribution of O2 in skeletal muscle microcirculation in hypoxia is discussed, together with its possible cellular mechanisms of action. Finally, evidence is presented that in chronic systemic hypoxia, the reflex vasoconstrictor influences of the sympathetic nervous system are reduced and/or the local dilator influences of hypoxia are enhanced. In vitro and in vivo findings suggest this is partly explained by upregulation of nitric oxide (NO synthesis by the vascular endothelium which facilitates vasodilatation induced by adenosine and other NO-dependent dilators and attenuates noradrenaline-evoked vasoconstriction.

  17. Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review summarized the current advances in understanding the role of the novel gasotransmitter,sulfur dioxide (SO2),in the cardiovascular system.Data sources Articles on the advances in the study of the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system were accessed from PubMed and CNKI from 2003 to 2013,using keywords such as "endogenous sulfur dioxide" and "cardiovascular system".Study selection Articles with regard to the role of SO2 in the regulation of cardiovascular system were selected.Results Recently,scientists discovered that an endogenous SO2 pathway is present in the cardiovascular system and exerts physiologically significant effects,such as regulation of the cardiac function and the pathogenesis of various cardiopulmonary diseases such as hypoxic pulmonary hypertension,hypertension,coronary atherosclerosis,and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury,in the cardiovascular system.Conclusions Endogenous SO2 is a novel member of the gasotransmitter family in addition to the nitric oxide (NO),carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).Studies indicated that it has a role in regulating the cardiovascular disease.

  18. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  19. FoxO proteins: cunning concepts and considerations for the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling

    2009-02-01

    Dysfunction in the cardiovascular system can lead to the progression of a number of disease entities that can involve cancer, diabetes, cardiac ischaemia, neurodegeneration and immune system dysfunction. In order for new therapeutic avenues to overcome some of the limitations of present clinical treatments for these disorders, future investigations must focus upon novel cellular processes that control cellular development, proliferation, metabolism and inflammation. In this respect, members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) have increasingly become recognized as important and exciting targets for disorders of the cardiovascular system. In the present review, we describe the role of these transcription factors in the cardiovascular system during processes that involve angiogenesis, cardiovascular development, hypertension, cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, stem cell proliferation, immune system regulation and cancer. Current knowledge of FoxO protein function combined with future studies should continue to lay the foundation for the successful translation of these transcription factors into novel and robust clinical therapies.

  20. Effects of pirarubicin, an antitumor antibiotic, on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, S; Agata, N; Hara, Y; Iguchi, H; Shirai, M; Tone, H; Urakawa, N

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of pirarubicin [(2"R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, THP] on a cardiovascular system. An injection of THP (0.39-3.13 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the mean blood pressure and caused an increase in the respiratory air rate in anesthetized rats. At 1.5 x 10(-6)-1.5 x 10(-5) M, THP markedly relaxed a contraction induced by 10(-7) M norepinephrine in rat aorta with endothelium but not in that without endothelium. At a dose of 0.02-0.5 mg, THP produced an increase in the contractile force and the perfusion flow of isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. At a higher concentration (4.5 x 10(-5)-1.5 x 10(-4) M), it produced a slight increase in the contractile force of the left atria in guinea pigs. This positive inotropic action of THP was inhibited by diphenhydramine (10(-6)-5 x 10(-5) M), chlorpheniramine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M), and tripelennamine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) but not by propranolol (10(-6) M), cimetidine (10(-5) M), diltiazem (10(-6) M), or ryanodine (10(-8) M). THP given i.v. at 2.5 mg/kg elevated the plasma histamine level in anesthetized dogs. From these data, we conclude that THP mainly relaxed the rat aorta in the presence of endothelium and that at higher concentrations, it increased the contractile force in the cardiac muscle, probably mediated through the release of histamine.

  1. Physical exercise and epigenetic adaptations of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P; Bloch, W

    2015-05-01

    During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.

  2. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (pmusic significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (pmusic group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (pmusic a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (pmusic produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (pmusic and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers.

  3. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  4. Sleep, sleep deprivation, autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Costantino, Giorgio; Solbiati, Monica; Cogliati, Chiara; Kara, Tomas; Nobili, Lino; Montano, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has become a relevant health problem in modern societies. We can be sleep deprived due to lifestyle habits or due to sleep disorders, such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and neurological disorders. One of the common element of sleep disorders is the condition of chronic SD, which has complex biological consequences. SD is capable of inducing different biological effects, such as neural autonomic control changes, increased oxidative stress, altered inflammatory and coagulatory responses and accelerated atherosclerosis. All these mechanisms links SD and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown that short sleep duration is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, arrhythmias, diabetes and obesity, after adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic risk factors and comorbidities. Thus, an early assessment of a condition of SD and its treatment is clinically relevant to prevent the harmful consequences of a very common condition in adult population.

  5. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  6. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  7. Perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiovascular system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Polák, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for basic research and regenerative medicine. They offer the same advantages as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and moreover new perspectives for personalized medicine. iPSCs can be generated from adult somatic tissues by over-expression of a few defined transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc. For regenerative medicine in particular, the technology provides great hope for patients with incurable diseases or potentially fatal disorders such as heart failure. The endogenous regenerative potentials of adult hearts are extremely limited and insufficient to compensate for myocardial loss occurring after myocardial infarction. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that iPSCs have the potential to significantly advance future cardiovascular regenerative therapies. Moreover, iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of patients with genetic basis for their disease. This human iPSC derivates offer tremendous potential for new disease models. This paper reviews current applications of iPSCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine and discusses progress in modeling cardiovascular diseases using iPSCs-derived cardiac cells. PMID:25595188

  8. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 in the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxi; Mukerjee, Snigdha; Silva-Alves, Cristiane R. A.; Carvalho-Galvão, Alynne; Cruz, Josiane C.; Balarini, Camille M.; Braga, Valdir A.; Lazartigues, Eric; França-Silva, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17 is a metalloprotease and disintegrin that lodges in the plasmatic membrane of several cell types and is able to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins. It is somatically expressed in mammalian organisms and its proteolytic action influences several physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the structure of ADAM17, its signaling in the cardiovascular system and its participation in certain disorders involving the heart, blood vessels, and neural regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular modulation. PMID:27803674

  9. Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Sharp, M; Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Mathematical modeling represents an important tool for analyzing cardiovascular function during spaceflight. This review describes how modeling of the cardiovascular system can contribute to space life science research and illustrates this process via modeling efforts to study postflight orthostatic intolerance (POI), a key issue for spaceflight. Examining this application also provides a context for considering broader applications of modeling techniques to the challenges of bioastronautics. POI, which affects a large fraction of astronauts in stand tests upon return to Earth, presents as dizziness, fainting and other symptoms, which can diminish crew performance and cause safety hazards. POI on the Moon or Mars could be more critical. In the field of bioastronautics, POI has been the dominant application of cardiovascular modeling for more than a decade, and a number of mechanisms for POI have been investigated. Modeling approaches include computational models with a range of incorporated factors and hemodynamic sophistication, and also physical models tested in parabolic and orbital flight. Mathematical methods such as parameter sensitivity analysis can help identify key system mechanisms. In the case of POI, this could lead to more effective countermeasures. Validation is a persistent issue in modeling efforts, and key considerations and needs for experimental data to synergistically improve understanding of cardiovascular responses are outlined. Future directions in cardiovascular modeling include subject-specific assessment of system status, as well as research on integrated physiological responses, leading, for instance, to assessment of subject-specific susceptibility to POI or effects of cardiovascular alterations on muscular, vision and cognitive function.

  10. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  11. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  12. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  13. Cardiovascular outcomes and systemic anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with severe psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Skov, L; Gislason, G

    2014-01-01

    intervals (CIs) of cardiovascular events associated with use of biological drugs, methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids and other antipsoriatic therapies, including topical treatments, phototherapy and climate therapy. RESULTS: A total of 6902 patients (9662 treatment exposures) with a maximum follow......-up of 5 years were included. Incidence rates per 1000 patients-years for cardiovascular events were 4.16, 6.28, 6.08, 18.95 and 14.63 for biological drugs, methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoid and other therapies respectively. Relative to other therapies, methotrexate (HR 0.53; CI 0...... during long-term follow-up compared to patients treated with other antipsoriatic therapies. The treatment strategy in patients with severe psoriasis may have an impact on cardiovascular outcomes and randomized trials to evaluate the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of systemic antipsoriatic therapies...

  14. Physiological interdependence of the cardiovascular and postural control systems under orthostatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexandre; Blaber, Andrew P

    2014-07-15

    The cardiovascular system has been observed to respond to changes in human posture and the environment. On the same lines, frequent fallers have been observed to suffer from cardiovascular deficits. The present article aims to demonstrate the existence of interactions between the cardiovascular and postural control systems. The behavior of the two systems under orthostatic challenge was studied through novel adaptations of signal processing techniques. To this effect, the interactions between the two systems were assessed with two metrics, coherence and phase lock value, based on the wavelet transform. Measurements from the cardiovascular system (blood pressure), lower limb muscles (surface electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure) were acquired from young healthy adults (n = 28, men = 12, age = 20-28 yr) during quiet stance. The continuous wavelet transform was applied to decompose the representative signals on a time-scale basis in a frequency region of 0.01 to 0.1 Hz. Their linear coupling was quantified through a coherence metric, and the synchrony was characterized via the phase information. The outcomes of this study present evidence that the cardiovascular and postural control systems work together to maintain homeostasis under orthostatic challenge. The inferences open a new direction of study for effects under abnormalities and extreme environmental conditions.

  15. Individual differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system: Relevance to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher S; Valentino, Rita J; Wood, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Repeated exposure to psychosocial stress is a robust sympathomimetic stressor and as such has adverse effects on cardiovascular health. While the neurocircuitry involved remains unclear, the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system suggest that it is poised to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability. A major theme throughout is to review studies that shed light on the role that the LC may play in individual differences in vulnerability to social stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. Recent findings are discussed that support a unique plasticity in afferent regulation of the LC, resulting in either excitatory or inhibitory input to the LC during establishment of different stress coping strategies. This contrasting regulation of the LC by either afferent regulation, or distinct differences in stress-induced neuroinflammation would translate to differences in cardiovascular regulation and may serve as the basis for individual differences in the cardiopathological consequences of social stress. The goal of this review is to highlight recent developments in the interplay between the LC-NE and cardiovascular systems during repeated stress in an effort to advance therapeutic treatments for the development of stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability.

  16. HYPERACTIVE TISSUE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEMS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DYSFUNCTION - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE AND CLINICAL HYPOTHESES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PINTO, YM; BUIKEMA, H; VANGILST, WH

    1995-01-01

    In this review, hypotheses are discussed with regard to the role of local, tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the progression of cardiovascular dysfunction. After local renin-anglotensin systems had been described as functionally distinct systems, recent experimental studies have suggested an assoc

  17. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Emprego de sistemas robóticos na cirurgia cardiovascular Robotic systems in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto T. Sant'Anna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de sistemas robóticos para cirurgia teve início na década de 80, por solicitação do exército norte-americano, que antevia a possibilidade de realizar operações em teatros de guerra, distantes do local onde estava o cirurgião. Entretanto, o primeiro uso em humanos só ocorreu anos mais tarde, numa ressecção transuretral de hiperplasia benigna de próstata. Cirurgiões cardíacos foram logo atraídos pela técnica robótica devido a possível aplicação com reduzido caráter invasivo; esperava-se menor trauma cirúrgico e redução da dor, morbidade, tempo de internação e custo do procedimento. Atualmente, de forma restrita e em casos selecionados, robôs são usados para revascularização do miocárdio e implante de marcapasso em cirurgias cardíacas totalmente endoscópicas; podendo também constituir apoio visual na retirada de artéria torácica interna, reconstrução valvar mitral e correção de defeitos congênitos. Utilizando o robô auxiliar AESOP® para controle do videotoracoscópio, com controle vocal por meio do sistema HERMES®, temos realizado dissecção da artéria torácica interna, implante de eletrodo ventricular esquerdo e abordagem de defeitos congênitos na cirurgia de correção. Apesar do entusiasmo científico inicial com a cirurgia robótica, ainda não existe evidência clara de superioridade desta técnica em relação à operação convencional, em termos de resultado. Isto se aplica também ao custo, pois o investimento inicial na aquisição de sistema cirúrgico completo (console, controle de vídeo, instrumental provavelmente é compensado após muitos procedimentos e longo intervalo. Mas é certo que a cirurgia robótica terá um lugar no futuro, possibilitando aprendizagem, telepresença e realização de procedimentos pouco invasivos, embora complexos.The development of robotic systems for surgery started in the 80's, motivated by the US army's need for surgical procedure in

  19. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  20. The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Di Somma, C; Grasso, L F S; Savanelli, M C; Colao, A; Pivonello, R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical conditions associated with GH excess and GH deficiency (GHD) are known to be associated with an increased risk for the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that either an excess or a deficiency in GH and/or IGF-I is deleterious for cardiovascular system. In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by a concentric cardiac hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and, in later stages, with systolic dysfunction ending in heart failure if GH/IGF-I excess is not controlled. Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and anomalies of cardiac valves can also occur. Moreover, the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, as well as dyslipidemia, confer an increased risk for vascular atherosclerosis. Successful control of the disease is accompanied by a decrease of the cardiac mass and improvement of cardiac function and an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with hypopituitarism, GHD has been considered the under- lying factor of the increased mortality when appropriate standard replacement of the pituitary hormones deficiencies is given. Either childhood-onset or adulthood-onset GHD are characterized by a cluster of abnormalities associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, including altered body composition, unfavorable lipid profile, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular atherosclerosis, a decrease in cardiac mass together with an impairment of systolic function mainly after exercise. Treatment with recombinant GH in patients with GHD is followed by an improvement of the cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in cardiac mass together with an improvement in cardiac performance. In conclusion, acromegaly and GHD are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the control of GH/IGF-I secretion reverses cardiovascular

  1. Complementary role of cardiovascular imaging and laboratory indices in early detection of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L; Dimitroulas, T; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Kolovou, G

    2017-03-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented in >50% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, due to a complex interplay between traditional risk factors and SLE-related factors. Various processes, such as coronary artery disease, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, vasculitis, valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, account for CVD complications in SLE. Methods Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography (echo), nuclear techniques, cardiac computed tomography (CT), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterization (CCa) can detect CVD in SLE at an early stage. ECG and echo are the cornerstones of CVD evaluation in SLE. The routine use of cardiac CT and nuclear techniques is limited by radiation exposure and use of iodinated contrast agents. Additionally, nuclear techniques are also limited by low spatial resolution that does not allow detection of sub-endocardial and sub-epicardial lesions. CCa gives definitive information about coronary artery anatomy and pulmonary artery pressure and offers the possibility of interventional therapy. However, it carries the risk of invasive instrumentation. Recently, CMR was proved of great value in the evaluation of cardiac function and the detection of myocardial inflammation, stress-rest perfusion defects and fibrosis. Results An algorithm for CVD evaluation in SLE includes clinical, laboratory, ECG and echo assessment as well as CMR evaluation in patients with inconclusive findings, persistent cardiac symptoms despite normal standard evaluation, new onset of life-threatening arrhythmia/heart failure and/or as a tool to select SLE patients for CCa. Conclusions A non-invasive approach including clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluation is key for early CVD detection in SLE.

  2. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  3. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  4. Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Ohnsorge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents. In humans, cardiotoxic agents due to mitochondrial dysfunction include anthracyclines (particularly doxorubicin), mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, fluorouracil, imatinib, bortezomib, trastuzumab, arsenic trioxide, cyclosporine-A, zidovudine, lamotrigine, glycosides, lidocain, isoproterenol, nitroprusside, pivalic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, cadmium, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, meat meal, or carbon monoxide. Even more agents exhibit cardiac abnormalities due to mitochondrion-toxicity only in animals or tissue cultures. The mitochondrion-toxic effect results from impairment of the respiratory chain, the oxidative phosphorylation, the Krebs cycle, or the β-oxidation, from decrease of the mitochondrion-membrane potential, from increased oxidative stress, reduced anti-oxidative capacity, or from induction of apoptosis. Cardiac abnormalities induced via these mechanisms include cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, or Takotsubo syndrome. Discontinuation of the cardiotoxic agent results in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. Antioxidants and nutritiants may be of additional help. Particularly coenzyme-Q, riboflavin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, L-carnitine, vitamin-D, thiamin, folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, and D-ribose may alleviate mitochondrial cardiotoxic effects.

  5. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Cardiorhythmography as a Method of Study of Human's Cardiovascular System Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this article a highly sensitive method for graphic recording of cardiogram by detecting the signal of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of human finger has been developed and signals directly related to movement of blood ejected by the heart into the vessels have been studied. Changes in the behavior of signals depending on the condition of the cardiovascular system of person have been discovered.

  7. On the track of syncope induced by orthostatic stress - feedback mechanisms regulating the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    A physiological realistic model of the controlled cardiovascular system is constructed and validated against clinical data. Special attention is paid to the heart rate control. Both sit-to-stand and head-up-tilt experiments are encapsulated by the model. The model may be used in studies of syncop...

  8. [Assessment of adaptive response of the cardiovascular system in a patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, S M; Zotova, T Iu; Zotov, A K; Skrylev, D S

    2010-01-01

    This study showed that monitoring arterial pressure and heart rate during a few consecutive days allows for early diagnosis of cardiovascular disorders long before manifestation of its clinical symptoms. It is maintained that atrial fibrillation and fluttering are preceded by systemic disturbances of systolic pressure regulation.

  9. The role of the autonomic nervous system in diabetes and cardiovascular disease : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease using an epidemiological approach. Based on earlier studies it has remained unclear whether impaired ANS function is a risk factor for the deve

  10. The role of the histaminergic system in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochem, Jerzy; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    The histaminergic system consists of neurons located in tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. It affects many functions of the central nervous system, including regulation of the brainstem cardiovascular center. In this paper, we present current review of the literature concerning the role of the histaminergic system in the cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension. Experimental studies demonstrate that in both, normotension and critical hemorrhagic hypotension, histamine, acting as a central neurotransmitter, evokes the pressor effect. Interestingly, increases in mean arterial pressure are significantly higher in hypovolaemic than in normovolaemic animals. Many lines of evidence support the hypothesis that in haemorrhagic shock, the histaminergic system is able to activate neural and humoral compensatory mechanisms involving the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems, arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We suggest that the histaminergic system could be a new target for treatment of hemorrhagic hypotension.

  11. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  12. Systems biology approaches and pathway tools for investigating cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheelock, C.E.; Wheelock, A.M.; Kawashima, S.; Diez, D.; Kanehisa, M.; Erk, M. van; Kleemann, R.; Haeggström, J.Z.; Goto, S.

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology aims to understand the nonlinear interactions of multiple biomolecular components that characterize a living organism. One important aspect of systems biology approaches is to identify the biological pathways or networks that connect the differing elements of a system, and examine ho

  13. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS: THE ROLE OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Poddubnyy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as factors of cardiovascular risk in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.Material andMethods. 100 patients with ankylosing spondylitis were included into the study. Screening for arterial hypertension (HT and conventional cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hyper- and dislipoproteinemia, body overweight, heredity and diabetes mellitus was performed in all patients. 10-year coronary disease risk (Framingham scale and 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular event (SCORE scale was calculated. Additionally the follows cardiovascular risk factors were assessed: C-reactive protein level (CRP, fibrinogen level, platelet count, antithrombin III activity, plasma fibrinolytic activity, vonWillebrand factor (vWF activity, circulating endothelial cells (CEC count. Besides, endothelial functionwas evaluated by Doppler-ultrasonography of brachial artery in testswith reactive (endothelium-dependent or flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerine (endotheliumindependent dilation hyperemia. 30 healthy patients were included into control group and were comparable with patients of studied group on sex and age.Results. 10-year coronary disease risk in patients with ankylosing spondylitis was significantly lower than this in patients of control group 4.0%(3,0; 7,5 vs 5.0%(3,0; 11,0, respectively (p<0,05. 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular event in studied group was relatively low 1.0% (1.0; 2.0. However, analysis of the additional risk factors shown increased thrombogenic potential of blood, which was related to systemic inflammation activity: high platelets count, high fibrinogen activity, increased vWF activity, and decreased fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, signs of endothelial injury (increased level of CEC and vWF activity and endothelial dysfunction were found in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.Conclusion. Cardiovascular risk in patientswith ankylosing spondylitis estimated

  14. A role for the central histaminergic system in the leptin-mediated increase in cardiovascular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sumangala P; Dunbar, Joseph C

    2005-01-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) histaminergic neurons have been shown to regulate feeding behavior and are a target of leptin in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the involvement of the histaminergic system in the leptin-mediated regulation of cardiovascular dynamics. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to the CNS administration of histamine, leptin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) both in the presence and absence of the histamine H1 antagonist, chlorpheniramine. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine resulted in an immediate increase in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and vasoconstricted the iliac, renal and superior mesenteric vessels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with chlorpheniramine attenuated the histamine-induced increase in MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. The i.c.v. administration of leptin increased MAP and HR and decreased vascular conductance. The i.c.v. pretreatment with chlorpheniramine decreased the leptin-induced increase in MAP and the leptin-mediated iliac vasoconstriction. The i.c.v. administration of alpha-MSH also increased MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. However, pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not influence the central alpha-MSH-mediated increase in MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. These results indicate that the central histaminergic system mediated by H1 receptors have a role in the central signaling pathway and is involved in leptin's regulation of cardiovascular dynamics. It appears that leptin directly or indirectly stimulates histaminergic neurons that lead to increased cardiovascular activity.

  15. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2013. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Data for this dataset has...

  16. Advances in Modern Capacitive ECG Systems for Continuous Cardiovascular Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schommartz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of capacitive electrocardiography (cECG is very promising in a flexible manner. Already integrated into several everyday objects, the single lead cECG system has shown that easy-to-use measurements of electrocardiograms are possible without difficult preparation of the patients. Multi-channel cECG systems enable the extraction of ECG signals even in the presence of coupled interferences, due to the additional redundant information. Thus, this paper presents challenges for electronic hardware design to build on developments in recent years, going from the one-lead cECG system to multi-channel systems in order to provide robust measurements - e.g. even while driving an automobile.

  17. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: cardiovascular effects of opioids and their receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, John P; Pepe, Salvatore; Peart, Jason N

    2012-01-01

    Opioid peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators within the cardiovascular system, implicated in modulation of electrophysiological function, heart rate, myocardial inotropy, vascular function, and cellular stress resistance. The opioid system is also involved in cardiovascular development, adaptation to injury and effects of advanced age. The significant roles of opioids are emphasized by the observation that the heart produces prodynorphin and proenkephalin, which are enzymatically processed from small to large active polypeptides. Indeed, depending on species, cardiac preproenkephalin mRNA levels are comparable to or higher than those found in the central nervous system. This review highlights and discusses current knowledge and recent findings regarding physiological and pathophysiological modulation of the heart and vessels by the opioid receptor system.

  18. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Miles-Chan, Jennifer Lynn; Charrière, Nathalie; Loonam, Cathríona R; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables. These inconsistencies are due, in part, to differences in methodologies, volume of drink ingested, and duration of postconsumption measurements, as well as subject variables during the test. Recent well-controlled, randomized crossover studies that used continuous beat-to-beat measurements provide evidence that cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of energy drinks are best explained by the actions of caffeine and sugar, with little influence from other ingredients. However, a role for other active constituents, such as taurine and glucuronolactone, cannot be ruled out. This article reviews the potentially adverse hemodynamic effects of energy drinks, particularly on blood pressure and heart rate, and discusses the mechanisms by which their active ingredients may interact to adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Research areas and gaps in the literature are discussed with particular reference to the use of energy drinks among high-risk individuals.

  19. Allometric Relations and Scaling Laws for the Cardiovascular System of Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Dawson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the cardiovascular system of mammals is discussed within the framework of governing allometric relations and related scaling laws for mammals. An earlier theory of the writer for resting-state cardiovascular function is reviewed and standard solutions discussed for reciprocal quarter-power relations for heart rate and cardiac output per unit body mass. Variation in the basic cardiac process controlling heart beat is considered and shown to allow alternate governing relations. Results have potential application in explaining deviations from the noted quarter-power relations. The work thus indicates that the cardiovascular systems of all mammals are designed according to the same general theory and, accordingly, that it provides a quantitative means to extrapolate measurements of cardiovascular form and function from small mammals to the human. Various illustrations are included. Work described here also indicates that the basic scaling laws from the theory apply to children and adults, with important applications such as the extrapolation of therapeutic drug dosage requirements from adults to children.

  20. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS THE ADAPTATION RESERVE INDICATOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efectiveness of the vegetative regulation action might be controlled by the method of heart rate variability (HRV, which has been very popularly used over the last 10 years worldwide. The analysis of many clinical studies indicates that the severity of the disease might be controlled using the method of HRV. Material and methods: All the experimental and controlled group participants, which consisted of healthy students with none sports experience, underwent the examination according to the 5-minute standard protocol of HRV. In addition, all the examinees performed a bicycle stress test. After the bicycle stress test, some additional tests of HRV were also carried out. Results: It was found that some signifcant diferences, between the group of sportsmen and the group of patients, exist. The parasympathetic activity of LF is maximum in athletes and tends to decrease in patients with cardiovascular pathologies. The decreases of the activity of the vasomotor centre was noticed in both study groups. The sympathetic system activity was the lowest in athletes. Conclusions: At the high depression of the vegetative regulation, any signifcant load (physical or psycho-emotional indicates cardiovascular instability which remains beyond the capacity of adaptation. The higher the variability, the more stable the CVS is to the external loads. A sharp decrease of the variability, such as the heart vegetative innervations, causes deteriorating quality of the regulatory mechanisms and, as a result, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases. Keywords: heart rate variability, deterministic and stochastic loads, cardiovascular system

  1. Subclinical Cardiovascular System Changes in Obese Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to determine the prevalence of excess body mass in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA children and to investigate the influence of obesity into the early, subclinical changes in cardiovascular system in these patients. Methods. Fifty-eight JIA patients, aged median 13 years, were compared to 36 healthy controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFα, adiponectin were studied together with IMT (intima-media thickness, FMD (flow mediated dilation, and LVMi (left ventricle mass index as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Thirteen JIA children (22% were obese and had increased systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, hsCRP, and IL-6 compared to nonobese JIA and controls. FMD was decreased compared to nonobese JIA and controls, whereas IMT and LVMi were increased. In multivariate regression analysis, TNFα, SDS-BMI, and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of early CV changes in JIA. Conclusions. Coincident obesity is common in JIA children and is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers leading to early changes in cardiovascular system. Thus, medical care of children with JIA should include strategies preventing cardiovascular disease by maintenance of adequate body weight.

  2. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    LUBNA MOIN; VALI UDDIN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver) on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System) physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems) and also with the CVS Wigge...

  3. The effect of liver disease on the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2007-01-01

    and clinical practice discussed by the best authors.It includes unique sections on: Symptoms and signs in liver diseaseIndustrial diseases affecting the liverThe effects of diseases of other systems on the liverThe effects of liver diseases on other systemsIt 's bigger and more extensive than other books...... into the practical applications to benefit people).Edited by ten leading experts in the liver and biliary tract and their diseases, along with outstanding contributions from over 200 international clinicians, this text has global references, evidence and extensive subject matter - giving you the best science...

  4. [Current concepts of the origin of circadian changes in the cardiovascular system under normal and pathological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanyan, E B

    2012-01-01

    The importance of circadian rhythms for the function of the cardiovascular system and its pharmacotherapy is discussed The central mechanisms regulating these rhythms at the level of suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nucleus and pineal gland are considered in conjunction with the approaches to modulating their activity for optimization of chronopharmnacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. System identification: a multi-signal approach for probing neural cardiovascular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinshu; Mullen, Thomas J; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2005-06-01

    Short-term, beat-to-beat cardiovascular variability reflects the dynamic interplay between ongoing perturbations to the circulation and the compensatory response of neurally mediated regulatory mechanisms. This physiologic information may be deciphered from the subtle, beat-to-beat variations by using digital signal processing techniques. While single signal analysis techniques (e.g., power spectral analysis) may be employed to quantify the variability itself, the multi-signal approach of system identification permits the dynamic characterization of the neural regulatory mechanisms responsible for coupling the variability between signals. In this review, we provide an overview of applications of system identification to beat-to-beat variability for the quantitative characterization of cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. After briefly summarizing the history of the field and basic principles, we take a didactic approach to describe the practice of system identification in the context of probing neural cardiovascular regulation. We then review studies in the literature over the past two decades that have applied system identification for characterizing the dynamical properties of the sinoatrial node, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and the baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate and total peripheral resistance. Based on this literature review, we conclude by advocating specific methods of practice and that future research should focus on nonlinear and time-varying behaviors, validation of identification methods, and less understood neural regulatory mechanisms. Ultimately, we hope that this review stimulates such future investigations by both new and experienced system identification researchers.

  6. Nano-constructed Carriers Loaded With Antioxidant: Boon For Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Kesharwani, Prashant; Garg, Neeraj Kumar; Jain, Atul; Nirbhavane, Pradip; Dwivedi, Nitin; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Iyer, Arun K; Iqbal Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul

    2015-01-01

    In the last couple of decades antioxidant agents have entered the health market as an easy and attractive means of managing diseases. These agents are of enormous interest for an increasingly health-concerned society, and may be particularly relevant for prophylaxis of a number of diseases i.e. arthritis, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataracts, brain disorders, etc. Antioxidants are also favorable to vascular healthiness and symbolize useful compounds because they are able to diminish overall cardiovascular risk by acting analogous to first line therapy or as adjuvants in case of failure or in situations where first line therapy cannot be used. Furthermore, well-designed trials are indeed needed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and health benefits of antioxidants. Numerous in vivo proof-of-concepts studies are offered to underline the feasibility of nanostructure system in order to optimizing the delivery of cardiovascular drugs. The present review highlights the recent approaches for management of cardiovascular disease using different vesicular and particulate carriers, including liposomes, nanoparticles, and nanoemulsions, with a primary emphasis on those which are expected to enhance the antioxidants level.

  7. Computational Models of the Cardiovascular System and Its Response to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Computational models of the cardiovascular system are powerful adjuncts to ground-based and in-flight experiments. We will provide NSBRI with a model capable of simulating the short-term effects of gravity on cardiovascular function. The model from this project will: (1) provide a rational framework which quantitatively defines interactions among complex cardiovascular parameters and which supports the critical interpretation of experimental results and testing of hypotheses. (2) permit predictions of the impact of specific countermeasures in the context of various hypothetical cardiovascular abnormalities induced by microgravity. Major progress has been made during the first 18 months of the program: (1) We have developed an operational first-order computer model capable of simulating the cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress. The model consists of a lumped parameter hemodynamic model and a complete reflex control system. The latter includes cardiopulmonary and carotid sinus reflex limbs and interactions between the two. (2) We have modeled the physiologic stress of tilt table experiments and lower body negative pressure procedures (LBNP). We have verified our model's predictions by comparing them with experimental findings from the literature. (3) We have established collaborative efforts with leading investigators interested in experimental studies of orthostatic intolerance, cardiovascular control, and physiologic responses to space flight. (4) We have established a standardized method of transferring data to our laboratory from the ongoing NSBRI bedrest studies. We use this data to estimate input parameters to our model and compare our model predictions to actual data to further verify our model. (5) We are in the process of systematically simulating current hypotheses concerning the mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance by matching our simulations to stand test data from astronauts pre- and post-flight. (6) We are in the process of developing a

  8. Minimizing Risk of Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Theresa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis is a rare condition appearing only in patients with severe renal impairment or failure and presents with dermal lesions and involvement of internal organs. Although many cases are mild, an estimated 5 % have a progressive debilitating course. To date, there is no known effective treatment thus stressing the necessity of ample prevention measures. An association with the use of Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA makes Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis a potential side effect of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and offers the opportunity for prevention by limiting use of gadolinium based contrast agents in renal failure patients. In itself toxic, Gadolinium is embedded into chelates that allow its safe use as a contrast agent. One NSF theory is that Gadolinium chelates distribute into the extracellular fluid compartment and set Gadolinium ions free, depending on multiple factors among which the duration of chelates exposure is directly related to the renal function. Major medical societies both in Europe and in North America have developed guidelines for the usage of GBCA. Since the establishment of these guidelines and the increased general awareness of this condition, the occurrence of NSF has been nearly eliminated. Giving an overview over the current knowledge of NSF pathobiochemistry, pathogenesis and treatment options this review focuses on the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency, the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, the FDA and the American College of Radiology from 2008 up to 2011 and the transfer of this knowledge into every day practice.

  9. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  10. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, B V; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, "gasotransmitters" in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST) from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO), which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.

  11. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Nagpure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, “gasotransmitters” in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO, which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.

  12. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-01-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness. PMID:28345674

  14. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) – in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories – impairs the cardiovascular system. METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration-effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed. PMID:21165364

  15. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  16. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation...

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rayes, Hanan; Harvey, Paula J; Gladman, Dafna D; Su, Jiandong; Sabapathy, Arthy; Urowitz, Murray B.; Touma, Zahi

    2017-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiovascular disease (CVD) abnormalities (ECG-CVD) are predictive of subsequent CVD events in the general population. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are vulnerable to CVD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG-CVD in SLE patients and to examine the risk factors associated with ECG-CVD. Methods A 12-lead resting supine ECG was performed on consecutive adult patients attending the clinic. One cardiologist interpreted the ECGs. ECG-CVD were...

  18. [Cardiovascular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus in Dakar: Descriptive study about 50 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaïdé, A A; Ly, F; Ly, K; Diao, M; Kane, Ad; Mbaye, A; Lèye, M; Aw, F; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Ndao, C T; Gaye, N D; Ndiaye, M B; Bodian, M; Bah, M B; Ndiaye, M; Cissé, A F; Kouamé, I; Tabane, A; Mingou, J S; Thiombiano, P; Kane, A; Bâ, S A

    2016-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a non-specific inflammatory disorder of an organ of unknown cause and autoimmune origin. Visceral injuries, including those cardiovascular, determine the prognosis of this disease primarily affecting women. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency and describe the cardiovascular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus in a lupus population of the Dakar region. This is a multicenter prospective study descriptive and analytical conducted in the region of Dakar (Senegal) from 14 February 2011 to 2 July 2012. Patients were either hospitalized or monitored as outpatients. Included were all patients with lupus and meeting at least four criteria of the American College of Rheumatology of lupus disease classification 1997. All patients underwent physical examination, an electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram looking for cardiovascular damage. The collected data were entered into the Epi Info version 3.5.1 and processed with SPSS 16.0 software. Quantitative variables are described in the median and the qualitative workforce, percentage and frequency. We have included 50 patients. The average age of the population was 36.18 years. A female predominance is noted with a sex ratio man/woman of 0.09. Cardiovascular functional symptoms were dominated by dyspnea stage II to IV NYHA (26%) and palpitations (22%). The physical signs we have found were mainly tachycardia (40%), spontaneous turgor of the jugular veins (29%), a muffling of the heart sounds (29%) and a infandibulopulmonairy shock (18%). The frequency of cardiovascular events was 46%. Electrical cardiac events were dominated by sinus tachycardia (40%) of repolarization disorders (16.3%) type of ischemia, injury, ischemia injury, necrosis and hypertrophy with 18% atrial and left ventricular hypertrophy each. Furthermore, one case of BAV first degree at 280 ms was recorded. We found 19 cases of pericarditis including 2 tamponade, 3 cases of dilated cardiomyopathy

  19. Active games in physical education students of special medical group with limited capacity of cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva M.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the directions of the development an effective methods of usage moving elements of sports and games in exercises. The experiment involved students of special medical groups that have various abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. The study was conducted in four stages: a search, the first experimental, the second experimental, final. We used questioning and education registry books of academic work. Found that the use of sports and outdoor games is students' interest, and increasing motivation for physical activity. Justified by the possibility of using games and exercises performed their adaptation by changing the pulse value. The resulting modification of gaming exercises are divided into three groups: the game in the area of heart rate to 110, 110-130 and 130-150 beats per minute. The first version of the experimental procedure at a heart rate of 110 and 110-130 beats per minute was ineffective for the emergence of significant positive changes in the functional state of the cardiovascular system students. Recommended experimental procedure based on the alternation and equivalence ratio of mobile elements and sports games and increases the heart rate to 130-150 beats per minute. Application of the method increases the overall level of physical health, improves the functional state of the cardiovascular system, health, activity and mood of the students.

  20. Laboratory model of the cardiovascular system for experimental demonstration of pulse wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Nestorović, Zorica; Djurić, Biljana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Žikić, Dejan

    2017-03-01

    The velocity by which a disturbance moves through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is among the key parameters in hemodynamics. Investigation of wave propagation through the fluid-filled elastic tube has a great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Here, we present a laboratory model of the cardiovascular system. We have designed an experimental setup which can help medical and nursing students to properly learn and understand basic fluid hemodynamic principles, pulse wave and the phenomenon of wave propagation in blood vessels. Demonstration of wave propagation allowed a real time observation of the formation of compression and expansion waves by students, thus enabling them to better understand the difference between the two waves, and also to measure the pulse wave velocity for different fluid viscosities. The laboratory model of the cardiovascular system could be useful as an active learning methodology and a complementary tool for understanding basic principles of hemodynamics.

  1. Impact of the human circadian system, exercise, and their interaction on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun; Evoniuk, Heather; Kelly, Erin E; Malhotra, Atul; Hilton, Michael F; Shea, Steven A

    2010-11-23

    The risk of adverse cardiovascular events peaks in the morning (≈9:00 AM) with a secondary peak in the evening (≈8:00 PM) and a trough at night. This pattern is generally believed to be caused by the day/night distribution of behavioral triggers, but it is unknown whether the endogenous circadian system contributes to these daily fluctuations. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that the circadian system modulates autonomic, hemodynamic, and hemostatic risk markers at rest, and that behavioral stressors have different effects when they occur at different internal circadian phases. Twelve healthy adults were each studied in a 240-h forced desynchrony protocol in dim light while standardized rest and exercise periods were uniformly distributed across the circadian cycle. At rest, there were large circadian variations in plasma cortisol (peak-to-trough ≈85% of mean, peaking at a circadian phase corresponding to ≈9:00 AM) and in circulating catecholamines (epinephrine, ≈70%; norepinephrine, ≈35%, peaking during the biological day). At ≈8:00 PM, there was a circadian peak in blood pressure and a trough in cardiac vagal modulation. Sympathetic variables were consistently lowest and vagal markers highest during the biological night. We detected no simple circadian effect on hemostasis, although platelet aggregability had two peaks: at ≈noon and ≈11:00 PM. There was circadian modulation of the cardiovascular reactivity to exercise, with greatest vagal withdrawal at ≈9:00 AM and peaks in catecholamine reactivity at ≈9:00 AM and ≈9:00 PM. Thus, the circadian system modulates numerous cardiovascular risk markers at rest as well as their reactivity to exercise, with resultant profiles that could potentially contribute to the day/night pattern of adverse cardiovascular events.

  2. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009049 A 10 years review of the characteristics of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation victim in a single center. WANG Jing(王靖), et al. Clin Electrophysiol Lab & Arrhythmia Center, Cardiovasc Instit & Fuwai Hosp, PUMC & CAMS, Beijing 100037. Chin J Intern Med 2009;48(3):201-204. Objective To study the factors influencing the outcome of patients suffering from inhospital ventricular fibrillation (IHVF), as there have been few studies focusing on this topic. Methods Patients with IHVF collected in a single cardiac center were classified into a successful group and a failure group. Data relevant to the predicting factors of the two groups were compared. Results There were 206 events in the analysis.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    6.1 Cardiac Arrhythmias2007037 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor improves the effect of amiodarone on maintaining sinus rhythm of patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. JIA Xinwei(贾新未), et al. Dept Cardiol, Affili Hosp, Hebei Univ Baoding 071000. Chin Cir J 2006; 21(57):379-381. Objective To investigate whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) can improve the effect of amiodarone on maintaining sinus rhythm of patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and to elucidate its mechanism.

  4. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    6.1.Heart failure2005329 Early impairment of renal function inchronic heart failure and its clinical significance.JINZhengming(金争鸣),et al.Dept Cardiol,The 1st AffiliHosp,Med Coll,Zhejiang Univ,Hangzhou 310003.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(4):262-264

  5. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010191 Randomized study on T stenting and small protrusion technique versus simple stenting for patients with coronary artery bifurcation lesions and with big size side branch.CHENG Wanjun(成万钧),et al. Beijing Anzhen Hosp,Capital Med Univ,Beijing 100029.Chin J Cardiol 2010;38(2):131-134.

  6. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008515 Clinical effect of coronary artery stenting on 12 patients with coronary artery stenosis and spasm.CHU Guang(储光),et al.Dept Cardiol,Shanghai Jiaotong Univ,1st People’s,Shanghai 20008. Chin Cir J 2008;23(5):347-349. Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of stenting on drug refractory variant angina

  7. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011315 The efficacy and safety of transradial versus transfemoral approach for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. XIA Kun(夏昆),et al.Heart Center,Beijing Chaoyang Hosp,Capital Med Univ,Beijing 100020.Abstract:Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of radial artery access versus femoral artery access for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004474 Clinical efficacy and safety of torasemide in congestive heart failure patients. Li Yishi (李一石), et al. Dept Clin Pharmacol, Cardiovasc Instit & Fuwai Hosp, CAMS & PUMC,Beijing 100037. Chin Cir J 2004;19(4):290-293.

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    6.1 Heart failure2003409 The diagnostic value of plasma Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP in patients with congestive heart failure. HUANG Chenjun(黄陈军), et al. Dept Cardiol, PUMC Hosp, CAMS, Beijing 100730. Chin J Cardiol 2003; 31 (6) :405-407.

  10. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009428 Association between smoking status at follow-up and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing successful percutaneous coronary intervention. ZHU Zhongyu,et al.Dept Cardiol,Henan Prov People’s Hosp,Zhengzhou 450003.Chin J Cardiol 2009;37(9):777-780. Objective To assess the association between smoking

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    6.1 Cardiac arrhythmias2004337 Expression and function changes of ryan-odine receptors and inostol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors of atrial myocytes during atrial fibrillation GuoJihong (郭继鸿),et al. Dept Cardiol,People’s Hosp,

  12. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    8.1 Heart failure2003191 Carvedilol in chronic heart failure:a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ZHU Wen-ling(朱文玲).Dept Cardiol, PUMC Hosp, PUMC & CAMS, Beijing 100730. Chin J Cardiol 2003;31(1):7 -10.

  13. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006181 Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. QIAO Shubin (乔树宾) ,et al. Dept Cardiol,Car diovasc Instit & Fuwai Hosp, Beijingl00037 . Chin J Intern Med 2006;45(3) :210 -212. Objective: Gauging the acute effect of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation ( PTSMA) as a treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

  14. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011189 Vulnerable plaque burden post pharmaco-logical and interventional treatments in patients with acute coronary syndrome and borderline lesion: intravascular ultrasound follow up results. YU Danqing (余丹青)

  15. Injected nanoparticles: the combination of experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S; Riikonen, Joakim; Raula, Janne; Lobach, Anatoly S; Borzykh, Anna A; Smirin, Boris V; Kauppinen, Esko I; Eletskii, Alexander V; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Salonen, Jarno; Tavi, Pasi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2014-05-01

    When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.

  16. Clinical perspectives and fundamental aspects of local cardiovascular and renal renin-angiotensin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmor eDe Mello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the potential role of organ specific cardiovascular renin-angiotensin systems (RAS has been demonstrated experimentally and clinically with respect to certain cardiovascular and renal diseases. These findings have been supported by studies involving pharmacological inhibition during ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure; hypertension associated with left ventricular (LV ischemia, myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; structural and functional changes of the target organs associated with prolonged dietary salt excess; and intrarenal vascular disease associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Moreover, the severe structural and functional changes induced by these pathological conditions, can be prevented and reversed by agents producing RAS inhibition (even when not necessarily coincident with alterations in arterial pressure.In this review, we discuss specific fundamental and clinical aspects and mechanisms related to the activation or inhibition of local renin angiotensin systems and their implications for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Fundamental aspects involving the role of angiotensins on cardiac and renal functions including the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney and the controversial role of ACE2 on angiotensin peptide metabolism in humans, were discussed.

  17. PHYSIOLAB: a new laboratory for the study of the cardio-vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsal, O; Andre-Deshays, C; Cauquil, D; Kotovskaya, A; Gratchev, V; Noskin, A

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the experience gained during the previous french-russian missions on board MIR about the adaptation processes of the cardio-vascular system, a new laboratory has been designed. The objective of this "PHYSIOLAB" is to have a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the changes in the cardio-vascular system, with a special emphasis on the phenomenon of cardio-vascular deconditioning after landing. Beyond these scientific objectives, it is also intended to use PHYSIOLAB to help in the medical monitoring on-board MIR, during functional tests such as LBNP. PHYSIOLAB will be set up in MIR by the French cosmonaut during the next french-russian CASSIOPEE mission in 1996. Its architecture is based on a central unit, which controls the experimental protocols, records the results and provides an interface for transmission to the ground via telemetry. Different specific modules are used for the acquisition of various physiological parameters. This PHYSIOLAB under development for the CASSIOPEE mission should evolve towards a more ambitious laboratory, whose definition would take into account the results obtained with the first version of PHYSIOLAB. This "second generation" laboratory should be developed in the frame of wide International cooperation.

  18. Cardiovascular disease event rates in patients with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, L; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    with use of biological agents, methotrexate or other therapies, including retinoids, cyclosporine and phototherapy, in Denmark from 2007 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: A total of 2400 patients with severe psoriasis, including 693 patients treated......OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, including biological agents, are widely used in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular...... and other therapies, respectively. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.64) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.42-1.00) for patients treated with biological agents and methotrexate, respectively, using other therapies as the reference cohort. Corresponding HRs for a secondary composite...

  19. Cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis: role of the intravascular innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Soveri, Inga; Hilborn, Jöns; Fellström, Bengt; Nilsson, Bo

    2017-02-27

    Haemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement modality for end-stage renal disease, but this therapy also represents a major challenge to the intravascular innate immune system, which is comprised of the complement, contact and coagulation systems. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on haemodialysis. Biomaterial-induced contact activation of proteins within the plasma cascade systems occurs during haemodialysis and initially leads to local generation of inflammatory mediators on the biomaterial surface. The inflammation is spread by soluble activation products and mediators that are generated during haemodialysis and transported in the extracorporeal circuit back into the patient together with activated leukocytes and platelets. The combined effect is activation of the endothelium of the cardiovascular system, which loses its anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, leading to atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis. This concept suggests that maximum suppression of the intravascular innate immune system is needed to minimize the risk of CVD in patients on haemodialysis. A potential approach to achieve this goal is to treat patients with broad-specificity systemic drugs that target more than one of the intravascular cascade systems. Alternatively, 'stealth' biomaterials that cause minimal cascade system activation could be used in haemodialysis circuits.

  20. Investigating properties of the cardiovascular system using innovative analysis algorithms based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yun; Sun, Wei-Zen; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular system is known to be nonlinear and nonstationary. Traditional linear assessments algorithms of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance of cardiac system accompany the problem of nonstationary or inconvenience in practical applications. In this pilot study, two new assessment methods were developed: the first is ensemble empirical mode decomposition based reflection index (EEMD-RI) while the second is based on the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. Both methods utilise the EEMD algorithm which is suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary systems. These methods were used to investigate the properties of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance for a pig's cardiovascular system via ECG and blood pressure (BP). This experiment simulated a sequence of continuous changes of blood pressure arising from steady condition to high blood pressure by clamping the artery and an inverse by relaxing the artery. As a hypothesis, the arterial stiffness and systemic resistance should vary with the blood pressure due to clamping and relaxing the artery. The results show statistically significant correlations between BP, EEMD-based RI, and the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. The two assessments results demonstrate the merits of the EEMD for signal analysis.

  1. Cell Systems to Investigate the Impact of Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Grootaert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are a diverse group of micronutrients from plant origin that may serve as antioxidants and that contribute to human health in general. More specifically, many research groups have investigated their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases in several animal studies and human trials. Yet, because of the excessive processing of the polyphenol structure by human cells and the residing intestinal microbial community, which results in a large variability between the test subjects, the exact mechanisms of their protective effects are still under investigation. To this end, simplified cell culture systems have been used to decrease the inter-individual variability in mechanistic studies. In this review, we will discuss the different cell culture models that have been used so far for polyphenol research in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We will also review the current trends in cell culture research, including co-culture methodologies. Finally, we will discuss the potential of these advanced models to screen for cardiovascular effects of the large pool of bioactive polyphenols present in foods and their metabolites.

  2. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions.

  3. Community-Based ECG Monitoring System for Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Wong, Alice M; Tseng, Kevin C

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to develop a community-based electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system for cardiac outpatients to wirelessly detect heart rate, provide personalized healthcare, and enhance interactive social contact because of the prevalence of deaths from cardiovascular disease and the growing problem of aging in the world. The system not only strengthens the performance of the ECG monitoring system but also emphasizes the ergonomic design of wearable devices and user interfaces. In addition, it enables medical professionals to diagnose cardiac symptoms remotely and electronically manage medical reports and suggestions. The experimental result shows high performance of the dry electrode, even in dynamic conditions. The comparison result with different ECG healthcare systems shows the essential factors that the system should possess and the capability of the proposed system. Finally, a user survey was conducted based on the unified theory of acceptance and users of technology (UTAUT) model.

  4. Effects of 50-Hz magnetic field on the cardiovascular system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Jin-sheng; WAN Bao-quan; LIU Xing-fa; ZHANG Ye-mao; RUAN Guo-ran; HE Meng-ying; CHEN Chen; WANG Dao-wen

    2016-01-01

    AIM:The 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) is a potential health-risk factor.Its effects on the cardiovascular system have not been fully investigated .This study was conducted to explore the effects of long-term exposure to 50-Hz MF on the cardiovascular system . METHODS:In the study , an exposure system was constructed and the distribution of 50-Hz MF was detected .Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 50-Hz MF at 100 μT for 24 weeks, 20 hours per day, while another 64 rats were sham exposed. During the exposure, blood pressure was measured every 4 weeks, and 24 weeks later, echocardiography, cardiac catheterisation and electrocardiography were performed .Moreover , heart and body weight were recorded , while haematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time PCR were conducted .RESULTS:The results showed that compared with the sham group , exposure to 50-Hz MF did not exert any effect on blood pressure, pulse rate, heart rate and cardiac rhythm.Further, echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation showed that there were no significant differences in the cardiac morphology and haemodynamics .In addition , histopathological examination showed that 50-Hz MF exposure had no effect on the structure of hearts .Finally, the expression of the cardiac hypertrophic relative genes did not show any significant differences between 50-Hz MF exposure group and the sham group .CONCLUSION: Taken together , in SD rats, exposure to 50-Hz/100-μT MF for 24 weeks did not show any obvious effects on the cardiovascular system .

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  6. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system.

  7. The circadian organization of the cardiovascular system in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In normal conditions, the temporal organization of blood pressure (BP) is mainly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. Above all, the monoaminergic systems (including variations in activity of the autonomous nervous system, and in secretion of biogenic amines) appear to integrate the major driving factors of temporal variability, but evidence is available also for a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and endothelial systems, as well as other vasoactive peptides. Many hormones with established actions on the cardiovascular system (arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, melatonin, somatotropin, insulin, steroids, serotonin, CRF, ACTH, TRH, endogenous opioids, and prostaglandin E2) are also involved in sleep induction or arousal, which in turn affects BP regulation. Hence, physical, mental, and pathological stimuli which may drive activation or inhibition of these neuroendocrine effectors of biological rhythmicity, may also interfere with the temporal BP structure. On the other hand, the immediate adaptation of the exogenous components of BP rhythms to the demands of the environment are modulated by the circadian-time-dependent responsiveness of the biological oscillators and their neuroendocrine effectors. These notions may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapeutics of hypertension, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiac arrhythmias and all kind of acute cardiovascular accidents. For instance, the normal temporal balance between external stimuli and neurohumoral influences with endogenous rhythmicity is preserved in uncomplicated, essential hypertension, whereas it is frequently lost in complicated and secondary forms of hypertension where gross alterations are found in the circadian profile of BP. When all the gates of the critical physiologic functions are aligned at the same time, the susceptibility, and thus risk, of adverse

  8. Wearable Wireless Cardiovascular Monitoring Using Textile-Based Nanosensor and Nanomaterial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shyamkumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and ultraportable electronics coupled with pervasive computing are poised to revolutionize healthcare services delivery. The potential cost savings in both treatment, as well as preventive care are the focus of several research efforts across the globe. In this review, we describe the motivations behind wearable solutions to real-time cardiovascular monitoring from a perspective of current healthcare services, as well as from a systems design perspective. We identify areas where emerging research is underway, namely: nanotechnology in textile-based wearable monitors and healthcare solutions targeted towards smart devices, like smartphones and tablets.

  9. Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane effects on cardiovascular andrespiratory system during spontaneous ventilation in Angora goats

    OpenAIRE

    KUMANDAŞ, ALİ; ELMA, ERTUĞRUL

    2015-01-01

    Seven healthy Angora goats were used to compare the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during anesthesia periods. Once anesthesia was induced with propofol at 5.1 ± 0.9 mg/kg, it was maintained with isoflurane at 1%-3% in the first treatment period and sevoflurane at 2%-4% in the second treatment period after a 15-day interval. Heart rates measured immediately after anesthesia induction and 5 min later were found to be statistically significant...

  10. System analysis of changes in cardiovascular circulatory dynamics in experimental diphtheria in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, A K; Frolov, V A; Zotova, T J

    2009-09-01

    Trivariate correlation analysis of hemodynamic indices of the cardiovascular system in rabbits with diphtheria showed that adaptation of this system to direct action of diphtherin can be visualized by analysis of trivariate correlation tightness for indices of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles and indices of systemic blood pressure. Using empirical production functions for systemic blood pressure indices we found that the contribution of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles on blood pressure values is changed in diphtheria compared to the control. Basing on entropy analysis we established that the regimen of control over values of working intraventricular pressure in both left and right ventricles in diphtheria is changed from quasidetermined to stochastic.

  11. Study of nanosensor systems for hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension and hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are on a rise. At-least 970 million people in the world and Seventy percent of the American adults are affected by high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Even though blood pressure monitoring systems are readily available, the number of people being affected has been increasing. Most of the blood pressure monitoring systems require cumbersome approaches. Even the noninvasive techniques have not lowered the number of people affected nor did at-least increase the user base of these systems. Uncontrolled or untreated hypertension may lead to various cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, hypertensive crisis, lacunar infarcts intracerebral damage, microaneurysm, and cardiovascular disorders including heart failure, myocardial infraction, and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is rated as the one of the most important causes of premature death in spite of the technical advances in biomedical technology. This paper briefs a review of the widely adopted blood pressure monitoring methods, research techniques, and finally, proposes a concept of implementing nanosensors and wireless communication for real time non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.

  12. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems.

  13. Functional analysis of cardiovascular renin-angiotensin system using a gain or loss of function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, R; Aoki, M; Ogihara, T

    2000-03-01

    The study of the effect of autocrine-paracrine vasoactive modulators on cardiovascular biology is very difficult in vivo, because in vivo studies are limited. In particular, characterization of the role of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in vivo is limited by the difficulty in manipulating individual components of the RAS as well as by methodological limitations in studying the function of a local RAS in the absence of any contribution by the circulatory system. Recent progress in in vivo gene transfer technologies has provided us with the opportunity to study cellular responses to the manipulation of the individual components (i.e., by overexpression or inhibition). Many researchers have recently developed various in vivo gene transfer techniques for cardiovascular applications. Using in vivo gene transfer approaches, the roles of various tissues in the RAS, such as cardiac angiotensin, have been identified. Such an approach may increase our understanding of the biology and pathobiology of the autocrine-paracrine system. This review discusses the potential utility of in vivo gene transfer methods.

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function and aerobic capacity in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eHägglund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS function has been reported in type 1 diabetes patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak in healthy subjects, but relationship is unknown in type 1 diabetes. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in type 1 diabetes individuals. Ten type 1 diabetes patients (T1D (34 ± 7 years and 11 healthy control (CON (31 ± 6 years age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. Autonomic nervous system function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to manoeuvres in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05. VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 than in CON (45 ± 9 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1, p < 0.05. Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05 and when analysing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to manoeuvres, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in type 1 diabetes.

  15. Women with cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia: is there follow-up within the Unified Health System in Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Costa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify women with cardiovascular risk, five years after a preeclampsic episode (PE, and identify the follow-up of these women within the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS, in the city of Natal/RN. METHODS: a quantitative and exploratory study conducted at the Januário Cicco University Maternity Ward/RN. The sample consisted of 130 women, 65 with a PE episode and 65 who were normotensive. RESULTS: we found statistical significance with regard to body mass index, weight, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD and cardiovascular complications when comparing women with previous PE to normotensive women. The groups were unaware of their cardiovascular risk factors and, in addition, they reported difficulties in accessing primary health care (PHC services. CONCLUSIONS: women with a PE history are at increased risk of developing CVD, unaware of late PE complications, and lacked customized care when compared to normotensive patients.

  16. Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Several cardiometabolic factors present in obese and insulin-resistant individuals represent a continuum of increasing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The importance of abdominal obesity as an independent risk factor is underscored by its association with adverse endocrine function. Recent evidence from animal and human studies has shown a role for the endocannabinoid system in maintaining energy balance and glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, with overactivity linked to aberrant glycemic and lipoprotein control, and a link to adiposity. Modulation of this system through endocannabinoid-receptor blockade has resulted in an improvement in a number of important risk factors in clinical trials, including visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and measures of inflammation. These findings may have significant implications for the management of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease; however, the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events with rimonabant may preclude further development of centrally active endocannabinoid receptor antagonists for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Future research is needed to explore the role of selective peripheral CB(1) receptor antagonists in the treatment of patients at high cardiometabolic risk.

  17. Histamine H3 receptors--general characterization and their function in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, B; Godlewski, G; Schlicker, E

    1998-06-01

    The histamine H3 receptor was initially identified as a presynaptic autoreceptor controlling histamine release and synthesis in the brain. It belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. The existence of the H3 receptor which has not yet been cloned was definitely established by the design of highly potent and selective agonists (R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine, imetit) and antagonists (thioperamide, clobenpropit). These receptors also occur as heteroreceptors both in the central nervous system and on peripheral neurons of the gastrointestinal and bronchial tract, where they regulate the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. In the cardiovascular system, histamine H3 receptors are mainly located presynaptically on the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the blood vessels and the heart. Their activation leads to the inhibition of noradrenaline release and consequently to the reduction of the neurogenic vasopressor and cardiostimulatory responses. The presence of such receptors has been shown both in vitro (human, pig, guinea-pig, rabbit, rat isolated tissues) and in vivo (rat, guinea-pig). The vascular and cardiac presynaptic H3 receptors may be activated by endogenous histamine. The vascular H3 receptors appear to be operative in hypertension and interact with presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Postsynaptic vasodilatatory H3 receptors have been detected in several vascular beds as well. H3 receptor ligands affect basal cardiovascular parameters in conscious and anesthetized guinea-pigs but not rats. Presynaptic H3 receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of headache and cardiac ischemia.

  18. Advances in Experimental Pharmacological Studies of Effects of Astragalus on Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    han; ling

    2001-01-01

    Astragalus (AS), a traditional Chinese tonic medicine, refers to the dry root of perenial herbaceous plants Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) and Astragalus mongolicus Bge of leguminosae family, which was first recorded in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" (神农本草经). The herb is sweet in flavor, slightly warm in nature and acts on the Spleen and Lung channels. It was described that AS possesses the effects of "invigorating Qi to elevate Yang,consolidating superficies to stop sweating, inducing diuresis to remove edema and promoting healing of sore to regenerate tissue". Its chemical components have been discovered to be AS-saponins (ASS), AS-general flavone (AGF), AS-polysaccharides (APS), amino acid and microelements. During the past two decades, the effects of AS, the prescriptions containing AS and its active components on cardiovascular system have been widely studied(1,2). Its effects of positive inotropic action,reducing blood pressure, and in protecting myocardia against injuries caused by ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion or virus infection have been well documented. The underlying mechanisms of the effects have also been deeply studied. This paper summarizes the pharmacological studies on the effects of AS on cardiovascular system conducted in recent years.……

  19. Advances in Experimental Pharmacological Studies of Effects of Astragalus on Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲; 陈可冀

    2001-01-01

    @@Astragalus (AS), a traditional Chinese tonic medicine, refers to the dry root of perenial herbaceous plants Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) and Astragalus mongolicus Bge of leguminosae family, which was first recorded in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" (神农本草经). The herb is sweet in flavor, slightly warm in nature and acts on the Spleen and Lung channels. It was described that AS possesses the effects of "invigorating Qi to elevate Yang,consolidating superficies to stop sweating, inducing diuresis to remove edema and promoting healing of sore to regenerate tissue". Its chemical components have been discovered to be AS-saponins (ASS), AS-general flavone (AGF), AS-polysaccharides (APS), amino acid and microelements. During the past two decades, the effects of AS, the prescriptions containing AS and its active components on cardiovascular system have been widely studied(1,2). Its effects of positive inotropic action,reducing blood pressure, and in protecting myocardia against injuries caused by ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion or virus infection have been well documented. The underlying mechanisms of the effects have also been deeply studied. This paper summarizes the pharmacological studies on the effects of AS on cardiovascular system conducted in recent years.

  20. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  1. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  2. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  3. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  4. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  5. [Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide in the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz, Anna; Borkowska, Ewelina

    2004-03-03

    Heme oxygenase (HO) degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions, and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is subsequently reduced to the other important bile pigment, bilirubin, by biliverdin reductase. Fe2+ liberated from the heme molecule upregulates ferritin production, and bile pigments are potent endogenous antioxidants. The HO enzyme exists in three isophorms: HO-1 is expressed at low levels under physiological conditions, but is induced by numerous factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, an elevated level of substrate, and hypoxia. HO-2 is a constitutive enzyme involved in the baseline production of CO in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, whereas HO-3 is also ubiquitously expressed, but possesses low catalytic activity. Like nitric oxide, CO activates soluble guanylate cyclase and elevates cGMP in target tissues, which dilates blood vessels. It also does this by directly activating potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, CO inhibits platelet aggregation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits apoptosis, and stimulates angiogenesis. Both deficiency, and excess of HO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Induction of HO-1 attenuates atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacological and genetic induction of HO-1 as well as the delivery of exogenous CO are promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Modeling the cardiovascular system using a nonlinear additive autoregressive model with exogenous input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, M.; Suhrbier, A.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2008-07-01

    The parameters of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability have proved to be useful analytical tools in cardiovascular physics and medicine. Model-based analysis of these variabilities additionally leads to new prognostic information about mechanisms behind regulations in the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we analyze the complex interaction between heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration by nonparametric fitted nonlinear additive autoregressive models with external inputs. Therefore, we consider measurements of healthy persons and patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), with and without hypertension. It is shown that the proposed nonlinear models are capable of describing short-term fluctuations in heart rate as well as systolic blood pressure significantly better than similar linear ones, which confirms the assumption of nonlinear controlled heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of the nonlinear and linear approaches reveals that the heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects is caused by a higher level of noise as well as nonlinearity than in patients suffering from OSAS. The residue analysis points at a further source of heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects, in addition to heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration. Comparison of the nonlinear models within and among the different groups of subjects suggests the ability to discriminate the cohorts that could lead to a stratification of hypertension risk in OSAS patients.

  7. Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-α, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases.

  8. System of psycho-therapeutics influences in patients admitted to hospital with cardiovascular diseases. Sistema de influencias psicoterapéuticas en pacientes con afecciones cardiovasculares hospitalizados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rodríguez Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Fundaments: Within the restricted field of the patients' psychological environment, anxiety and depression seem ti play an important role although it is still pending how to clear it up definitely in the case of ischemic cardiopathy and coronary diseases. However, it isostensible that the patients who suffer from cardiovascular diseases frequently present psychological disorders, mainly emotional ones. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a system of psychotherapy influences in patients with cardiovasular diseases. Method: Intervention study witha cuasi experimental design in patients with cardiovascular urgencies hospitalized at the Integral Care Unit of the Heart of the ¨Dr. Gustavo A. Lima¨ Hospital from June 1st 2002 to june 1st 2003 and who received relaxing, stimulating and sleeping treatment. Psychological and physiological modifications were assessed after having received treatment with these psychological techniques. Result: Acute Myocardial infarction and Angina pectoris were the most common causes of admission. The variation of respiratory and cardiac frequency as well as blood pressure tend tomaintain, diminish or keep normal values. The psychological state of the patient was favoured after treatment. Conclusion: The effect of the system of psychotherapy influences were beneficial both organically and psychologically.
    Fundamento: Dentro del campo estricto del entorno psicológico de los pacientes, la ansiedad y la depresión parecen jugar un papel importante, aunque todavía queda por dilucidar de forma definitiva en el determinismo de la cardiopatía isquemica y las enfermedades coronarias, sin embargo, es ostensible que los pacientes portadores de enfermedades cardiovasculares presenten con marcada frecuencia alteraciones de índole psicológica, fundamentalmente alteraciones emocionales.

  9. Examing nursing students' understanding of the cardiovascular system in a BSN program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker Emerson

    This study investigated the alignment of important cardiovascular system (CVS) concepts identified by expert nurses with nursing student's knowledge. Specifically, it focused on the prevalence of nursing students' alternative conceptions for these important concepts as a potential reason for a theory-practice gap in nursing (Corlett, 2000; Jordan, 1994). This is the first study to target nursing student alternative conceptions exclusively whereas other studies focused on diverse groups of undergraduates' CVS knowledge (Michael et al., 2002). The study was divided into two phases and used a case study approach with each phase of the study representing a single case. The first phase of the study sought to understand what CVS concepts expert nurses deemed relevant to their daily practice and how these experts used these concepts. The second phase identified nursing student alternative conceptions through the use of open-ended scenarios based on the results of phase I. For the first phase of the study involved four CVS expert nurses practicing in emergency rooms and cardiac intensive care units at two local hospitals. Interviews were used to elicit important CVS concepts. The expert nurses identified five broad concepts as important to their practice. These concepts were a) cardiovascular anatomical concepts; b) cardiovascular physiological concepts; c) homeostasis and diseases of the CVS; d) the interdependence and interaction of the CVS with other organ systems and e) the intersection of the CVS and technology in patient diagnosis and treatment. These finding reinforce concepts already being taught to nursing students but also suggest that instruction should focus more on how the CVS interacts with other organ systems and how technology and the CVS interact. The presence of alternative conceptions in the nursing students was examined through the use of open-ended questions. A total of 17 students fully completed the scenario questions. Results indicate that this

  10. Cardiovascular system identification: Simulation study using arterial and central venous pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Vicario, Francesco; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a study of the identifiability of a lumped model of the cardiovascular system. The significance of this work from the existing literature is in the potential advantage of using both arterial and central venous (CVP) pressures, two signals that are frequently monitored in the critical care unit. The analysis is done on the system's state-space representation via control theory and system identification techniques. Non-parametric state-space identification is preferred over other identification techniques as it optimally assesses the order of a model, which best describes the input-output data, without any prior knowledge about the system. In particular, a recent system identification algorithm, namely Observer Kalman Filter Identification with Deterministic Projection, is used to identify a simplified version of an existing cardiopulmonary model. The outcome of the study highlights the following two facts. In the deterministic (noiseless) case, the theoretical indicators report that the model is fully identifiable, whereas the stochastic case reveals the difficulty in determining the complete system's dynamics. This suggests that even with the use of CVP as an additional pressure signal, the identification of a more detailed (high order) model of the circulatory system remains a challenging task.

  11. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Its Pharmacological Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Diseases: Complex and Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Claudio; Rossi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factor able to promote development and progression of several cardiovascular diseases, including left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Also, it is one of the major driven of high cardiovascular risk profile in patients with metabolic complications, including obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as in those with renal disease. Thus, effective control of hypertension is a key factor for any preventing strategy aimed at reducing the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases in the clinical practice. Among various regulatory and contra-regulatory systems involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role. However, despite the identification of renin and the availability of various assays for measuring its plasma activity, the specific pathophysiological role of RAS has not yet fully characterized. In the last years, however, several notions on the RAS have been improved by the results of large, randomized clinical trials, performed in different clinical settings and in different populations treated with RAS inhibiting drugs, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and antagonists of the AT1 receptor for angiotensin II (ARBs). These findings suggest that the RAS should be considered to have a central role in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases, for both therapeutic and preventive purposes, without having to measure its level of activation in each patient. The present document will discuss the most critical issues of the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases with a specific focus on RAS blocking agents, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs, in the light of the most recent evidence supporting the use of these drugs in the clinical management of hypertension and hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Differential protection against oxidative stress and nitric oxide overproduction in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems by propofol during endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yen-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both overproduction of nitric oxide (NO and oxidative injury of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems contribute to fatal cardiovascular depression during endotoxemia. We investigated in the present study the relative contribution of oxidative stress and NO to cardiovascular depression during different stages of endotoxemia, and delineated their roles in cardiovascular protective effects of a commonly used anesthetic propofol during endotoxemia. Methods Experimental endotoxemia was induced by systemic injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats that were maintained under propofol (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. anesthesia. Mean systemic arterial pressure (MSAP and heart rate (HR were monitored for 6 h after the endotoxin. Tissue level of NO was measured by chemical reduction-linked chemiluminescence and oxidative burst activity was determined using dihydroethidium method. Expression of NO synthase (NOS was determined by immunoblotting. The Scheffé multiple range test was used for post hoc statistical analysis. Results Systemic injection of LPS (15 mg/kg induced biphasic decreases in MSAP and HR. In the heart, lung and aorta, an abrupt increase in lipid peroxidation, our experimental index of oxidative tissue injury, was detected in early stage and sustained during late stage cardiovascular depression. LPS injection, on the other hand, induced a gradual increase in tissue nitrite and nitrate levels in the same organs that peaked during late stage endotoxemia. Propofol infusion (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in the heart, lung and aorta during early and late stage endotoxemia. High dose (30 mg/kg/h, i.v. propofol also reversed the LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS upregulation and NO production in the aorta, alongside a significant amelioration of late stage cardiovascular depression and increase in survival time during endotoxemia. Conclusion Together these

  13. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies.

  14. Multiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, S; Negroni, J; Lascano, E; Dauby, P C

    2017-02-01

    A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility.

  15. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the cardiovascular system through a lumped-parameter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting millions of people in the Western countries and, due to the widespread impact on the population and its medical relevance, is largely investigated in both clinical and bioengineering sciences. However, some important feedback mechanisms are still not clearly established. The present study aims at understanding the global response of the cardiovascular system during paroxysmal AF through a lumped-parameter approach, which is here performed paying particular attention to the stochastic modeling of the irregular heartbeats and the reduced contractility of the heart. AF can be here analyzed by means of a wide number of hemodynamic parameters and avoiding the presence of other pathologies, which usually accompany AF. Reduced cardiac output with correlated drop of ejection fraction and decreased amount of energy converted to work by the heart during blood pumping, as well as higher left atrial volumes and pressures are some of the most representative ...

  16. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M B

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet.

  17. Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population......-based cohort study including 687 adult (≥15 years) SM patients diagnosed during 1997-2012. A comparison cohort of 68,700 subjects from the general Danish population who were alive and without SM at the given SM subject's diagnosis were age- and gender-matched. Outcomes were a new diagnosis of solid cancer......, venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, or fracture. For solid cancers the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) with a 10-year absolute risk (AR) in the SM-cohort of 12.6% (95% CI 9.4-16.3). Specifically, we found a HR of 7...

  18. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed...... indicate that: 1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, 2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, 3) pressure...... and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and 4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected....

  19. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  20. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  1. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUBNA MOIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems and also with the CVS Wiggers diagram of heart cycle. As the cardiac activity is a multi domain process that includes mechanical, hydraulic, chemical and electrical events; therefore, for modeling such systems a unified modeling approach is needed. In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is proposed. The Bond Graph conventionalism approach is a graphical method principally powerful to portray multi-energy systems, as it is formulated on the portrayal of power exchanges. The model takes into account a simplified description of the left ventricle which is close to the medical investigation promoting the apperception and the dialogue between engineers and physiologists.

  2. [CKD-MBD (Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder). Effect of vitamin D on kidney and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hideki

    2010-07-01

    Recently, many investigators have reported that treatment with vitamin D improves outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease. Though the detailed mechanisms have remained unclear, it has been speculated that such a treatment may prevent progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that Vitamin D may attenuate renal injury and ameliorate renal function and proteinuria. In addition, several studies have shown that vitamin D may prevent progression of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and left ventricular hypertrophy. The emerging experimental and clinical evidence has suggested that vitamin D may protect kidney and cardiovascular system.

  3. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  4. [Age-related features of neurohumoral effects of dopamine activity on the cardiovascular system in elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzohub, V H; Dolynna, O V; Zaval's'ka, T V

    2012-12-01

    Determined the decrease in dopamine activity with age, that contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, abdominal obesity, the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. The article presents information describing the age-sensitive regulation of the cardiovascular system in elderly people, confirming the influence of the activity of dopamine receptors in the development of age pathology.

  5. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; Souza, De Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and a

  6. Allopurinol Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Ovine Fetal Cardiovascular System After Repeated Episodes of Ischemia-Reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jan B.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Torrance, Helen L.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; Benders, Manon J.; Rosen, Karl G.; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Burton, Graham J.; van Bel, Frank; Giussani, Dino A.

    2010-01-01

    In complicated labor, neonatal outcome may depend not only on the extent of fetal asphyxia and acidosis but also on the effects on the fetal cardiovascular system of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated with repeated compressions of the umbilical c

  7. [Pathophysiological and clinical correlations between endocrine and cardiovascular systems. An inter-systemic model of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Mario

    2006-12-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones affect the regulation of the cardiovascular system and the thermogenic and hemodynamic variation induced by thyroid disfunction. It is also stressed the hormonal role of the cardiac myocytes realising natriuretic peptides, involved in plasma volume homeostasis and cardiovascular remodelling; its rapid measurement is a useful clinical tool, in the diagnostic and prognostic of left ventricular dysfunction, correlating with the degree of the clinical symptoms. The endothelial layer is a receptor-effector endocrine organ that produces substances that maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. Cardiovascular risk factors causes oxidative stress that alter endothelial function and leads to endothelial dysfunction. On the basis of the present body of evidence there is no doubt that endothelial dysfunction contributes to the initiation, and progression, of atherosclerotic disease and that it could be considered an independent vascular risk factor for the micro- and macrovascular damages in the diabetes disease. In several extrathyroidal pathological condition, as well as in heart failure, the main alteration of the thyroid function is referred to as "low T3 syndrome". This syndrome is due to an adaptative reaction of the metabolic pathway of thyroxine, producing an increased amount of rT3, metabolically inactive, thus decreasing the detrimental metabolic effects of T3, in conditions of critically impaired hemodynamic and metabolic efficiency. Preliminary clinical trials, in heart failure, suggest the prognostic value of the level of circulating T3, as well as usefulness of T3, or of thyromimetic derivatives (DITPA), in chronic treatment of the heart ventricular dysfunction.

  8. Nitrergic system and plasmatic methylarginines: Evidence of their role in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Bassareo, Valentina; Flore, Giovanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, in turn preceded by endothelial dysfunction, underlies a series of important cardiovascular diseases. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide, by increasing vascular tone and promoting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, plays a key role in the onset of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, are associated with future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. Recent reports have demonstrated that another methylarginine, i.e., symmetric dimethylarginine, is also involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Almost a decade ago, prematurity at birth and intrauterine growth retardation were first associated with a potential negative influence on the cardiovascular apparatus, thus constituting risk factors or leading to early onset of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. Accordingly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among former preterm adults than in those born at term. The aim of this paper was to undertake a comprehensive literature review focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in both reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased methylarginine levels in subjects born preterm. Evidence of the involvement of these compounds in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular risk are also discussed.

  9. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  10. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-09-06

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases.

  11. Imaging of systemic lupus erythematosus. Part I: CNS, cardiovascular, and thoracic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Y P; Naidoo, P; Ngian, G S

    2013-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that has a relapsing and remitting course. It has a wide range of non-specific symptoms with various organ manifestations. In 1982, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published the revised criteria for the classification of SLE. The diagnosis of SLE may be made if four or more of the 11 ACR criteria are present, either serially or simultaneously, during any interval of observation. Whilst the diagnosis of SLE is based on clinical and laboratory features, with no universally accepted radiological diagnostic criteria, imaging is nonetheless useful for diagnosing specific organ manifestations, monitoring disease progression, and identifying complications secondary to immunosuppressive therapy. In this review, we describe the spectrum of radiological findings of SLE in various organ systems and compile a list of organ manifestations including the most frequently occurring diseases as well as the rare but not-to-be-missed diseases. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool in an endeavour to assist clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. This pictorial review presents the various radiological findings of CNS, cardiovascular and thoracic manifestation of SLE. The gastrointestinal, renal and musculoskeletal systems will be covered in part II.

  12. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-09-01

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases.

  13. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  14. A method to construct a points system to predict cardiovascular disease considering repeated measures of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Vigo, Maria Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Current predictive models for cardiovascular disease based on points systems use the baseline situation of the risk factors as independent variables. These models do not take into account the variability of the risk factors over time. Predictive models for other types of disease also exist that do consider the temporal variability of a single biological marker in addition to the baseline variables. However, due to their complexity these other models are not used in daily clinical practice. Bearing in mind the clinical relevance of these issues and that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide we show the properties and viability of a new methodological alternative for constructing cardiovascular risk scores to make predictions of cardiovascular disease with repeated measures of the risk factors and retaining the simplicity of the points systems so often used in clinical practice (construction, statistical validation by simulation and explanation of potential utilization). We have also applied the system clinically upon a set of simulated data solely to help readers understand the procedure constructed. PMID:26893963

  15. On the integration of the baroreflex control mechanism in a heterogeneous model of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P J; Trenhago, P R; Fernandes, L G; Feijóo, R A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the integration of a mathematical model for the baroreceptor reflex mechanism to provide regulatory action into a dimensionally heterogeneous (3D-1D-0D) closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Such heterogeneous model comprises a 1D description of the arterial tree, a 0D network for the venous, cardiac and pulmonary circulations and 3D patient-specific geometries for vascular districts of interest. Thus, the detailed topological description of the arterial network allows us to perform vasomotor control actions in a differentiated way, while gaining insight about the effects of the baroreflex regulation over hemodynamic quantities of interest throughout the entire network. Two examples of application are presented. Firstly, we simulate the hemorrhage in the abdominal aorta artery and analyze the action of the baroreflex over the system. Secondly, the self-regulated closed-loop model is applied to study the influence of the control action in the hemodynamic environment that determines the blood flow pattern in a cerebral aneurism in the presence of a regurgitating aortic valve.

  16. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  17. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra ePrysyazhna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as oxidative stress, a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cell and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e. signal transduction, which enables redox signaling. In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα (PKG disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP will also be considered.

  18. The Impact of Hypoglycemia on the Cardiovascular System: Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Wei; Park, Kyoung-Ha; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-01

    Intensive glycemic control may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality due to hypoglycemia. The pathophysiology of glucose counter-regulation in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes for over 15 years is characterized by impairment of the defense mechanisms against hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia causes pronounced physiological and pathophysiological effects on the CV system as consequences of autonomic system activation and counter regulatory hormones release. These effects provoke a series of hemodynamic changes that include an increase in heart rate and peripheral systolic blood pressure, a decrease in central blood pressure, reduced peripheral arterial resistance, and increased myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Cardiac electrophysiological changes including flattening or inversion of T waves, QT prolongation, and ST segment depression were observed in both insulin-induced and spontaneous hypoglycemia. Sympathoadrenal activation is the main cause of these changes through mechanisms that involve, but are not limited to, catecholamine-mediated hypokalemia. Hypoglycemia is also involved in platelet activation. There is growing concern about the long-term effects of hypoglycemia, especially as related to inflammation and atherogenesis.

  19. Role of histamine H1-and H2-receptors in the cardiovascular system of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    1980-01-01

    The effects of histamine were examined on the circulation of the blood-perfused heart, kidney, intestine, and hindlimb of rabbits. Single intrarterial injections of drugs were made into the perfusion system of the coronary, renal, mesenteric, or femoral vascular bed. In the hearts, histamine caused dose-dependent positive inotropic and chronotropic responses and vaso-constriction. 2-Methylhistamine, a relatively selective histamine H1-receptor agonist, produced vascular effects very similar to those of histamine, but had no cardiac actions at low and negative inotropic responses at high doses. 4-Methylhistamine, a relatively selective histamine H2-receptor agonist, induced slight vasodilatation and positive inotropic and chronotropic responses. In the renal, mesenteric, and femoral vascular beds, histamine and 2-methylhistamine caused vasoconstriction, while 4-methylhistamine induced slight vasodilatation. Mepyramine, a selective H1-receptor antagonist, blocked the vasoconstriction in response to histamine and 2-methylhistamine, but not the positive inotropic and chronotropic responses to histamine. The combined action of mepyramine and cimetidine (a selective H2-receptor antagonist) eliminated all cardiac and vascular effects of histamine. These results strongly support the view that in the cardiovascular system of the rabbit, H1-receptors mediate negative inotropic effects and vasoconstriction, whereas H2-receptors are responsible for positive inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasodilatation.

  20. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of the novel histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine: interaction with the adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, G; Gambarelli, E; Bertaccini, G; Timmerman, H

    1996-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of the new histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine were studied in the anaesthetized rat, with particular reference to a possible interaction with the adrenergic system. Amthamine (0.03-3 mumol/kg i.v.) caused vasodepressor responses which were antagonized by famotidine (3 mumol/kg i.v.). At higher doses (30-100 mumol/kg i.v.), amthamine induced a modest increase in the mean arterial pressure, which was significantly enhanced by the blockade of H2 receptors and significantly reduced by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mumol/kg i.v.). The vasopressor response to amthamine was not modified in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine, and was only minimally modified in adrenalectomized animals, thus suggesting a predominant interaction with postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors in the vascular muscle. The H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (0.3-100 mumol/kg i.v.) caused a reduction in arterial pressure, which was antagonized by famotidine, no pressor response being unmasked. Dimaprit (0.1-30 mumol/kg i.v.) did not modify heart rate but caused a modest bradycardia at 100 mumol/kg i.v. Amthamine (1-100 mumol/kg i.v.) induced a dose-dependent tachycardia, which was only partially (approximately 20%) reduced by famotidine and was totally blocked by propranolol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.). This effect was significantly reduced in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine and was further reduced by cocaine, thus suggesting a tyramine-like action of amthamine. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the H2 receptor agonist amthamine can also interact with the adrenergic system when used at doses higher than those necessary to activate H2 receptors. Whereas the increase in blood pressure induced by amthamine seems to be mainly mediated by a direct activation of postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors, the increase in heart rate is predominantly due to neuronal release of catecholamines. These effects should be considered when

  2. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L; Gislason, G; Kofoed, K

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed with SLE and CLE. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular endpoint and all-cause mortality, for patients with SLE and CLE. A total of 3282 patients with CLE and 3747 patients with SLE were identified and compared with 5,513,739 controls. The overall HR for the composite CVD endpoint was 1.31 (95% CI 1.16-1.49) for CLE and 2.05 (95% CI 1.15-3.44) for SLE. The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.32 (95% CI 1.20-1.45) for CLE and 2.21 (95% CI 2.03-2.41) for SLE. CLE and SLE were associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Local and chronic inflammation may be the driver of low-grade systemic inflammation.

  3. Role of neurons and glia in the CNS actions of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Liu, Meng; Rodríguez, Vermalí; Krause, Eric G; Sumners, Colin

    2015-09-01

    Despite tremendous research efforts, hypertension remains an epidemic health concern, leading often to the development of cardiovascular disease. It is well established that in many instances, the brain plays an important role in the onset and progression of hypertension via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Further, the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and of glial cell-mediated proinflammatory processes have independently been linked to this neural control and are, as a consequence, both attractive targets for the development of antihypertensive therapeutics. Although it is clear that the predominant effector peptide of the RAS, ANG II, activates its type-1 receptor on neurons to mediate some of its hypertensive actions, additional nuances of this brain RAS control of blood pressure are constantly being uncovered. One of these complexities is that the RAS is now thought to impact cardiovascular control, in part, via facilitating a glial cell-dependent proinflammatory milieu within cardiovascular control centers. Another complexity is that the newly characterized antihypertensive limbs of the RAS are now recognized to, in many cases, antagonize the prohypertensive ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects. That being said, the mechanism by which the RAS, glia, and neurons interact to regulate blood pressure is an active area of ongoing research. Here, we review the current understanding of these interactions and present a hypothetical model of how these exchanges may ultimately regulate cardiovascular function.

  4. The implication of protein malnutrition on cardiovascular control systems in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernanda C.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2015-01-01

    The malnutrition in early life is associated with metabolic changes and cardiovascular impairment in adulthood. Deficient protein intake-mediated hypertension has been observed in clinical and experimental studies. In rats, protein malnutrition also increases the blood pressure and enhances heart rate and sympathetic activity. In this review, we discuss the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on the resting mean arterial pressure and heart rate and their variabilities, cardiovascular...

  5. Fundamentals of laser light interaction with human tissue, especially in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haina, D; Landthaler, M

    1988-06-01

    The absorption of single photons in the molecules of biological tissue can induce various reactions. For the most medical laser applications the transformation from radiation energy into heat is relevant. The laser beam is used for coagulation or vaporization of tissue. The changes in tissue, which are created by light of different wavelengths depends on the thermal and optical properties (absorption and scatting) of tissue but also on the parameters of irradiation. As an example measurements from human skin are discussed. In the cardiovascular system laser light must have a clearly defined effect. Atherosclerotic plaques of different consistence have to be vaporized without damage of the vessel walls. From different reasons the usual medical CW-lasers, Argon-laser, CO2-laser and Nd:YAG-laser, are not optimal for direct ablation of arterial occlusions. In order to mimize reocclusion the walls of the channels have to be completely smooth and free of coagulation necrosis. This can be obtained by short laser pulses. Selection of a light wavelength, which is stronger absorbed in atherosclerotic plaques than in vessel walls and additional selective staining are two ways to reduce the risk of damaging the vessel walls.

  6. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC, it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.

  7. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620 followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741. Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet.

  8. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet. PMID:27006940

  9. Identification of genes encoding zinc finger motifs in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Hwang, D M; Cukerman, E; Liew, C C

    1997-01-01

    The Zn2+-finger DNA-binding domain has been identified in several developmental control proteins, transcription factors and gene products associated with diseases, as well as in several RNA-binding proteins. We applied library screening, expressed sequence tagging (EST sequencing), Zn2+-binding assays and Northern blot hybridization, in order to characterize novel cDNA clones of the human cardiovascular system which contain Zn2+-finger motifs. An embryonic (8-10 weeks gestation) heart lambda ZAP Express cDNA library was screened with an oligonucleotide probe deduced from a consensus amino acid sequence which is highly conserved for Zn2+-finger proteins, and approximately 350 positive clones were isolated from 1 x 10(4) plaque-forming units (pfu) initially plated. The isolated clones were classified as known and novel following single pass automated DNA sequencing. Analysis of Northern blot hybridization delineated the tissue specificity of these clones, as well as their association with cardiac growth and development. Existence of Zn2+-finger motifs in the novel clones was confirmed by Zn2+-binding assay. In this report, we present the characterization of eight novel clones, including the complete cDNA sequences of one of these clones (HHZ-123).

  10. Involvement of the histaminergic system in renal sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to leptin and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Mamoru; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Shen, Jiao; Nagai, Katsuya

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that histamine affects blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. Here, we examined the effects of lateral cerebral ventricular (LCV) injection of various doses of histamine on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in anesthetized rats. LCV injection of a low dose of histamine (0.0001nmol) suppressed RSNA and BP. Conversely, a high dose of histamine (100nmol) elevated both RSNA and BP. Moreover, inhibiting effects of a low dose of histamine were eliminated by LCV pre-injection of thioperamide, an antagonist of histaminergic H3-receptor, and accelerating effects of a high dose of histamine were abolished by LCV pre-injection of diphenhydramine, an antagonist of histaminergic H1-receptor. Thus, these evidences suggest that central histamine affects RSNA and BP via histaminergic receptors. In addition, we examined a role for histaminergic system in cardiovascular modulators such as leptin and ghrelin. The LCV pre-injection of thioperamide clearly blocked suppressing effects of ghrelin on RSNA and BP. The LCV pre-injection of diphenhydramine also blocked elevating effects of leptin. Therefore, these results suggest that leptin and ghrelin might affect RSNA and BP by mediating central histaminegic H1- and H3-receptors, respectively.

  11. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipke, D.W.; Couchman, J.R. (Hypertension Program, University of Alabama, Birmingham (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed to elevated pressure (left ventricle, LV and aorta above the clip, AOR increases) exhibited elevated PG synthesis after 4 days of hypertension. By 14 days, tissues both exposed to (LV and AOR increases) and protected from elevated pressure (right ventricle and kidney) exhibited elevated PG synthetic rates. Slight elevations in the proportion of galactosaminoglycans were observed with a concurrent proportional decrease in heparan sulfate PGs. Using the in vitro labeling procedure, no significant increases in PG synthesis were observed in any tissue at either 4 days or 14 days of hypertension. These data indicate that: (1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, (2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, (3) pressure and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and (4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected.

  12. Heart and aortic baroreceptors: operation in providing hemodynamic processes in cardiovascular system

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    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims Up to the present, ECGs have been classified on the basis of the analysis of the ECG curve shape. But this made impossible to classify many ECG shapes. The most promising methods for the classification must evaluate each of the 10 cardiac cycle phases both by their functions and hemodynamic parameters. The aim hereof is to develop the new classification principles for all possible ECG shape variations. Materials and methods The heart cycle phase analysis method is used to calculate the hemodynamic parameters in each of 10 phases, like the phase-related blood volumes and the level of contraction of the corresponding cardiovascular musculature determining its function dynamics in the cardiac cycle phase structure related to the compensation mechanism for maintaining normal hemodynamics. Results An ECG phase changes periodic table consisting of 10 groups of the actual ECG curves typical for the corresponding pathologies is proposed. Each group contains 4 levels of characteristic phase changes. Conclusion The ECG phase changes periodic table is the first attempt to classify the great variety of the ECG shapes. In this case the proposed system requires further investigations. It has been demonstrated that the theoretical concept of the table is in compliance with practice. Further it is planned to improve characteristics of every group and every level.

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

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    Xia Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease. From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic.

  14. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

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    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli, E-mail: rbestetti44@gmail.com; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B. [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.

  15. Impact of Bisphenol A on the Cardiovascular System — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

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    Xiaoqian Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA’s toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.

  16. Bionic cardiology: exploration into a wealth of controllable body parts in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Bionic cardiology is the medical science of exploring electronic control of the body, usually via the neural system. Mimicking or modifying biological regulation is a strategy used to combat diseases. Control of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation by selective vagal stimulation, suppression of ischemia-related ventricular fibrillation by vagal stimulation, and reproduction of neurally commanded heart rate are some examples of bionic treatment for arrhythmia. Implantable radio-frequency-coupled on-demand carotid sinus stimulators succeeded in interrupting or preventing anginal attacks but were replaced later by coronary revascularization. Similar but fixed-intensity carotid sinus stimulators were used for hypertension but were also replaced by drugs. Recently, however, a self-powered implantable device has been reappraised for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Closed-loop spinal cord stimulation has successfully treated severe orthostatic hypotension in a limited number of patients. Vagal nerve stimulation is effective in treating heart failure in animals, and a small-size clinical trial has just started. Simultaneous corrections of multiple hemodynamic abnormalities in an acute decompensated state are accomplished simply by quantifying fundamental cardiovascular parameters and controlling these parameters. Bionic cardiology will continue to promote the development of more sophisticated device-based therapies for otherwise untreatable diseases and will inspire more intricate applications in the twenty-first century.

  17. Inactivation of endothelial proprotein convertase 5/6 decreases collagen deposition in the cardiovascular system: role of fibroblast autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Chiara; Essalmani, Rachid; Lemarié, Catherine A; Leibovitz, Eyal; Ebrahimian, Talin; Paradis, Pierre; Seidah, Nabil G; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Prat, Annik

    2011-11-01

    Proprotein convertase (PC) 5/6 belongs to a family of secretory proteases involved in proprotein proteolysis. Several studies suggest a role for PC5/6 in cardiovascular disease. Because lethality at birth of mice lacking PC5/6 precluded elucidation of its function in the adult, we generated mice in which the gene of PC5/6 (pcsk5) is specifically inactivated in endothelial cells (ecKO), which are viable and do not exhibit overt abnormalities. In order to uncover the function of PC5/6 in the cardiovascular system, the effect of ecKO was studied in aging mice. In 16 to 18-month-old ecKO mice, the left ventricle (LV) mass, media cross-sectional area of aorta and coronary arteries, and media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric arteries were decreased. The LV presented decreased diastolic function, and mesenteric arteries showed decreased stiffness. Collagen was decreased in the LV myocardial interstitium and perivascularly in coronary arteries and aorta. Cardiovascular hypotrophy likely develops with aging, since no significant changes were observed in 2-month-old ecKO mice. Fibroblasts, as a source of collagen in myocardium and vasculature, may play a role in the decrease in collagen deposition. Fibroblasts co-cultured with ecKO endothelial cells showed decreased collagen production, decreased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1/Akt/mTOR signaling, and enhanced autophagic activation. PC5/6 inactivation in endothelial cells results in cardiovascular hypotrophy associated with decreased collagen deposition, decreased LV diastolic function, and vascular stiffness, suggesting a trophic role of endothelial PC5/6 in the cardiovascular system, likely mediated by IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling and control of autophagy.

  18. The renin angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular disease: role of aliskiren in risk reduction

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    Paolo Verdecchia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Verdecchia1, Fabio Angeli1, Giovanni Mazzotta1, Giorgio Gentile2, Gianpaolo Reboldi21Department of Cardiology, Clinical Research Unit ‘Preventive Cardiology’, Hospital ‘Santa Maria della Misericordia’, and Fondazione Umbra Cuore e Ipertensione – AUCI Onlus, Perugia, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine University of Perugia, ItalyAbstract: An association has been shown between plasma renin activity (PRA and the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is also evidence that angiotensin II exerts detrimental effects on progression and instabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS can be inhibited through inhibition of angiotensin I (Ang I generation from angiotensinogen by direct renin inhibitors, inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II generation from angiotensin I by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and finally by direct inhibition of the action of Ang II receptor level. Aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor to reach the market, is a lowmolecular-weight, orally active, hydrophilic nonpeptide. Aliskiren blocks Ang I generation, while plasma renin concentration increases because the drugs blocks the negative feed-back exerted by Ang II on renin synthesis. Because of its long pharmacological half-life, aliskiren is suitable for once-daily administration. Its through-to-peak ratio approximates 98% for the 300 mg/day dose. Because of its mechanism of action, aliskiren might offer the additional opportunity to inhibit progression of atherosclerosis at tissue level. Hypertension is an approved indication for this drug, which is also promising for the treatment of heart failure. The efficacy of this drug in reducing major clinical events is being tested in large ongoing clinical trials.Keywords: plasma renin activity, renin angiotensin system, aliskiren, angiotensinogen, renin, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes

  19. Vitamin D and the cardiovascular system: an overview of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Piergiorgio; Curreri, Manuela; Regalia, Anna; Alfieri, Carlo Maria

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery that the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of the most active natural vitamin D metabolite(calcitriol) and the vitamin D-specific receptor (VDR)were expressed in a wide range of tissues and organs, not only involved in the mineral metabolism (MM), there has been increasing interest on the putative ‘non classical’ roles of vitamin D metabolites, particularly on their possible effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. These hypothetical CV effects of vitamin D gained particular interesting the nephrology field, given the high prevalence of CV disease in patients affected by either acute or chronic kidney diseases. However, notwithstanding a huge amount of experimental data suggesting a possible protective role of vitamin D on the CV system, the conclusions of two recent meta-analyses from the Cochrane group and a recent statement from the Institute of Medicine, based on a complete revision of the available data, concluded that there is no clear evidence for a role of vitamin D other than that strictly associated with bone health. However, a continuous and increasing flow of new studies still continues to add information on this topic. In the present review, we have tried to critically address the data added on this topicin the last 2 years, considering separately the experimental,observational, and intervention studies that have appeared in PubMed in the last 2 years, discussing the data providing proof, pro or contra, the involvement of vitamin D in CV disease, both in the absence or presence of kidney function impairment.

  20. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Jiří; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community.

  1. Is testosterone treatment dangerous for the cardiovascular system in older hypogonadal men?

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    Antonio Aversa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS and men's vascular health has a great impact in the modern approach to the aging male. There is good evidence that low testosterone (T is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED and that ED is a strong marker for cardiovascular risk; also, TDS is frequently associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Noteworthy, the occurrence of increased levels of glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and myointimal carotid thickness may be associated with reduced T levels especially in cardiac older frail men. Screening for low T should be mandatory in high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. The rising demand from patients to be treated for ED associated with TDS will increase the prescribing of T and facilitate future long-term studies on its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies suggest warnings with regard to T prescription in older frail men, but we regret that these studies had consistent bias in inclusion criteria and statistical evaluation. Data from studies conducted in more selected populations suggest that T replacement therapy may improve multiple surrogate markers for CVD as well as reducing cardiovascular mortality. After analyzing the most important studies' limitation, we can conclude that at present there is insufficient evidence of a causal relationship between T therapy and adverse cardiovascular outcomes to support against T supplementation in older hypogonadal frail men.

  2. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  3. Nimesulide (Nise influence on blood serum prostaglandin E2 concentration and cardiovascular system function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    B F Nemtsov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the current study was to investigate nimesulide effects on prostaglandin E 2 concentration in blood serum and some parameters of the cardiovascular system in pts with RA during a 6-month period. Materials and methods. 40 RA pts were studied, 20 of them took 200 mg of nimesulide per day (24 hours in combination with low doses of metatrexate (7.5-10.0 mg per week. The pts were studied for 6 months. The content of E2 prostaglandin in blood serum was evaluated and estimated by means of the immuneenzymic method in 20 pts who took 200 mg of nimesulide per day (24 hours in comparison with 20 pts who took 100 mg of sodium diclofenac per day. The cardiovascular system was evaluated and estimated by means of screening examinations and after the 6-month treatment period by means of 24-hour monitoring of arterial blood pressure, ECG-monitoring and echocardioscopy. Results. In case of the nimesulide treatment the above RA pts did not show reliable reduction of PGE- 2 in blood serum as compared with sodium dicofenac after a 5 day and the 6-month treatment. This showed the selective effect of nimesulide in relation to COX-2. As far as the parameters of the cardiovascular system are concerned, no negative dynamics were revealed at the background of nimesulide treatment . It was revealed that nimesulide is quite effective and has good tolerance.

  4. Human postmortem device retrieval and analysis--orthopaedic, cardiovascular, and dental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, J; Brott, B; Eberhardt, A

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of decades of analyzing implant devices, tissues, and clinical records from revision surgical explants (called device failure), studies now include postmortem donors and in situ conditions (called success). A key issue has been information exchange from an interdisciplinary team where basic physical and biological studies complement details of the clinical conditions for each device. Overall, the summary information has shown that most revisions were based on factors associated with the patient health, disease, and compliance, with few outcomes directly correlated with technology and device-specific factors. However, because of the large numbers of devices implanted annually (millions), any sampling that reveals adverse circumstances could result in a high level of importance and the need for additional studies of this type. Experience from prior retrieval and analysis demonstrates significant value where peer reviewed results from investigations have altered the discipline and have improved the quality and longevity of health care associated with implanted devices. This report summarizes completed and ongoing studies of cardiovascular, dental, and orthopaedic systems. Endovascular stents from autopsies showed damage including fretting and corrosion from overlapping and intersecting conditions, plus some corrosion and element transfers to tissues from individual stents. Studies are proposed to increase numbers to evaluate clinical significance. Dental implants from postmortem donors that functioned more than 10 years provided evaluations of cobalt alloy devices and calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes originally investigated in the 1970s. Tissue integration and stability correlated with data from prior laboratory in vitro and in vivo investigations. Studies of articulation and fixation from orthopaedic total joint arthroplasties showed some limitations related to surface changes of YTZ zirconia, specific damage due to implantation procedures, which

  5. Critical Analysis of Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System Fixed Dose Combinations Available in Indian Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Krunal; Shah, Samidh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) are being increasingly used to improve compliance and achieve greater benefits of the two or more active ingredients given together than the corresponding individual drug components given separately. Aim To analyse the rationality of Cardiovascular (CV) and Central Nervous System (CNS) FDCs available in Indian market. Materials and Methods CVS and CNS FDCs, enlisted in Indian Drug Review, 2014, were analysed by a pretested validated eight point criteria tool. Each FDC was assessed for number of active pharmacological ingredients, approval by regulatory authority, listing in WHO Essential Medicine List. While efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic interactions and advantages of each FDC were analysed by literature search. The total score of the tool was 12 and score ≥7 was considered rational. FDCs were divided in four groups as per rationality and DCGI approval. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and p45 belonged to CNS group and 40 had documented evidence of efficacy and safety. Majority of FDCs showed advantage of being convenient by reducing pill count and only 32 showed reducing adverse drug reactions. Out of 107 CV FDCs, 46 were rational and 61 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.72±2.82 (CI– 95 %, 3.90 - 9.54). While out of 45 CNS FDCs, 8 were rational and 37 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.22±2.08 (CI – 95 %, 4.14 - 8.30). A significant difference in mean rationality score of group A (DCGI approved + rational) was observed as compared to group B (DCGI approved + irrational) and group C (DCGI unapproved + rational) as compared to group D (DCGI unapproved + irrational) (p<0.05). Conclusion The absence of watertight pre-requisite, critical analysis of the scientific validity of the formulations and ‘convenience’ category has resulted into proliferation of irrational FDCs. This calls for strict regulatory approval process to avoid miserable FDC scenario in

  6. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

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    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  7. Research on Cardiovascular System Simulation Model%心血管系统仿真模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泓

    2014-01-01

    为了深入研究心血管系统的生理机制以及探讨心血管系统的血流动力学参数与心血管疾病之间的关系,文中基于流体力学与电气网络的相关基础理论,根据人体心血管循环系统的解剖模型,提出一种基于集总参数的由体循环、肺循环和心脏组成的心血管系统仿真模型。重点分析了体循环子模型,并利用MATLAB 工具进行数学仿真,得出正常生理状况下的心血管参数,给出收缩压、舒张压、心室血容量等血流动力学参数。根据临床诊断参数调整体循环模型的各个参数,利用计算机仿真出高血压和心衰状况下的血流动力学仿真结果。仿真结果与临床的症状相一致,证明文中提出的模型具有一定的可行性。%In order to study the physiological mechanism of cardiovascular system in depth,and discuss the relationship between the hemo-dynamic parameters of cardiovascular system and cardiovascular disease,a lumped-parameter human cardiovascular circulation system has been put forward based on the relative basic theories of fluid mechanics and electrical network,which is divided into three parts:systemic circulation,pulmonary circulation,and the heart model. The systemic sub models has been emphatically analyzed and the mathematical simulation has been conducted by MATLAB to obtain cardiovascular parameters of the normal physiological conditions,giving the ven-tricular hemodynamic parameters such as systolic pressure,diastolic pressure,blood capacity. According to the clinical diagnosis to adjust each parameter of systemic model,use the computer to simulate the blood flow dynamics simulation results under the conditions of hyper-tension and heart failure. The simulation result is consistent with the clinical symptoms,which verifies the feasibility of the model.

  8. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  9. Correlation of Endostatin and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2 Serum Levels With Cardiovascular Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis Patients

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    Bozena Dziankowska-Bartkowiak

    2005-01-01

    pathogenesis of SSc. Heart fibrosis is one of the most important prognostic factors in SSc patients. So, the aim of our study was to examine cardiovascular dysfunction in SSc patients and its correlation with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endostatin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2. The study group comprised 34 patients (19 with limited scleroderma (lSSc and 15 with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc. The control group consisted of 20 healthy persons, age and sex matched. Internal organ involvement was assessed on the basis of specialist procedures. Serum VEGF, endostatin, and TIMP2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found cardiovascular changes in 15 patients with SSc (8 with lSSc and 7 with dSSc. The observed symptoms were of different characters and also coexisted with each other. Higher endostatin serum levels in all systemic sclerosis patients in comparison to the control group were demonstrated (P<.05. Also higher serum levels of endostatin and TIMP2 were observed in patients with cardiovascular changes in comparison to the patients without such changes (P<.05. The obtained results support the notion that angiogenesis and fibrosis disturbances may play an important role in SSc. Evaluation of endostatin and TIMP2 serum levels seems to be one of the noninvasive, helpful examinations of heart involvement in the course of systemic sclerosis.

  10. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Lachowska, Kamila; Schlaich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A high incidence of acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death following unexpected acute emotional stress or a natural catastrophic disaster has been well-documented over the past decades. Chronic psychosocial factors have been shown to be directly linked to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Activation of various neurogenic pathways is an important mediator of acute and chronic stress-induced hypertension and heart disease. Heightened sympathetic activation has been shown to be a critical contributor linking psychogenic effects on cardiovascular regulation to serious and often fatal CV outcomes. Accordingly, several therapeutic approaches that attenuate autonomic imbalance via modulation of increased sympathetic outflow by either non-pharmacological or interventional means have been shown to alleviate clinical symptoms. Likewise stress reduction per se achieved with transcendental medicine has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Therapies that oppose adrenergic activity and/or have the potential to attenuate negative emotions are likely to reduce cardiovascular risk and its adverse consequences attributable to chronic mental stress.

  11. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of cardiova

  12. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, L.B.; Li, M.; van Esch, B.C.A.M.; Garssen, J.; Folkerts, G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases is often attributable to loss of endothelial functions of the vascular tissue or to decreased contractile function of the heart muscle. These disturbances are often caused by imbalances in lipid and glucose metabolism. For instance, these imbalances can res

  13. The psychobiology of strained breathing and its cardiovascular implications : A functional system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, DS

    1999-01-01

    Strained breathing is a natural respiratory pattern, with cardiovascular implications. It is associated with social factors, attention, expectation, and anxiety and with defense behavior in animals. An inhibition of active behavior is characteristic. Strained breathing is based on the functional het

  14. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  15. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers.

  16. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  17. Effects of air pollution caused by sugarcane burning in Western São Paulo on the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Paula Roberta da Silva; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Oliveira, Ariadna Ferraz; Osadnik, Christian Robert; Ferreira, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Dionei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of acute exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) on hospitalization of adults and older people with cardiovascular diseases in Western São Paulo. METHODS Daily cardiovascular-related hospitalization data (CID10 – I00 to I99) were acquired by the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2009 to December 2012. Daily levels of NO2 and PM10 and weather data were obtained from Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB – São Paulo State Environmental Agency). To estimate the effects of air pollutants exposure on hospital admissions, generalized linear Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS During the study period, 6,363 hospitalizations were analysed. On the day of NO2 exposure, an increase of 1.12% (95%CI 0.05–2.20) was observed in the interquartile range along with an increase in hospital admissions. For PM10, a pattern of similar effect was observed; however, results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Even though with values within established limits, NO2 is an important short-term risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:28273230

  18. NASA'S Standard Measures During Bed Rest: Adaptations in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Martin, David S.; Cromwell, Roni L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted analog of space flight that has been used extensively to investigate physiological adaptations in a larger number of subjects in a shorter amount of time than can be studied with space flight and without the confounding effects associated with normal mission operations. However, comparison across studies of different bed rest durations, between sexes, and between various countermeasure protocols have been hampered by dissimilarities in bed rest conditions, measurement protocols, and testing schedules. To address these concerns, NASA instituted standard bed rest conditions and standard measures for all physiological disciplines participating in studies conducted at the Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU) at the University of Texas-Medical Branch. Investigators for individual studies employed their own targeted study protocols to address specific hypothesis-driven questions, but standard measures tests were conducted within these studies on a non-interference basis to maximize data availability while reducing the need to implement multiple bed rest studies to understand the effects of a specific countermeasure. When possible, bed rest standard measures protocols were similar to tests nominally used for medically-required measures or research protocols conducted before and after Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. Specifically, bed rest standard measures for the cardiovascular system implemented before, during, and after bed rest at the FARU included plasma volume (carbon monoxide rebreathing), cardiac mass and function (2D, 3D and Doppler echocardiography), and orthostatic tolerance testing (15- or 30-minutes of 80 degree head-up tilt). Results to-date indicate that when countermeasures are not employed, plasma volume decreases and the incidence of presyncope during head-up tilt is more frequent even after short-duration bed rest while reductions in cardiac function and mass are progressive as bed rest duration

  19. The potential application and challenge of powerful CRISPR/Cas9 system in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Yu, Xi-Yong

    2017-01-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a precision-guided munition found in bacteria to fight against invading viruses. This technology has enormous potential applications, including altering genes in both somatic and germ cells, as well as generating knockout animals. Compared to other gene editing techniques such as zinc finger nucleases and TALENS, CRISPR/Cas9 is much easier to use and highly efficient. Importantly, the multiplex capacity of this technology allows multiple genes to be edited simultaneously. CRISPR/Cas9 also has the potential to prevent and cure human diseases. In this review, we wish to highlight some key points regarding the future prospect of using CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful tool for cardiovascular research, and as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Advances in ultrasound methods for high-resolution imaging of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, S A

    1997-07-01

    Acoustic microscopy entails the use of high-frequency high-resolution ultrasound methods to produce images of sound waves reflected from or propagated through some tissue of interest. The image contrast depends on microscopic differences in the intrinsic material properties of the substance imaged, such as mass density or compressibility. Pathologic changes in cardiovascular tissues at the subcellular level can be observed with high-frequency acoustic imaging techniques, based on alterations in the structure, properties, and organization of cells and their surrounding matrix. Potential applications extend from delineation of cardiovascular development in experimental animals to clinical characterization of the composition of atherosclerotic lesions with intravascular ultrasound and estimation of the potential for plaque rupture and infarction. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:168-174). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  1. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  2. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  3. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  4. [The pneumoperitoneum course forecasting and surgery tactic in the group of patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis and concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkyĭ, V M; Soliaryk, S O; Tsyganok, A M; Sysak, O M

    2012-01-01

    The share of elderly and senile patients with acute cholecystitis concomitant cardiovascular pathology whom the laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been provided is increased. The heightened intraabdominal pressure has negative influence at the cardiovascular system, so the alternative ways for treatment of this group of patients are used in clinic. We propose the pneumoperitoneum model using the pneumatic belt which is fixed at the abdomen in preoperative period in patients with an acute and chronic cholecystitis. This model is useful to forecast cardiovascular disorders during future laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The arterial pressure level, pulse score and ECG are monitored during the test (90 min). Myocardial ischemia appearance seems that the risk of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum is high. The alternative method of surgery in such group of patients (no pneumoperitoneum is applied) is laparoscopic assisted cholecystectomya from miniaccess. This method allows to reducing frequency of intra- and postoperative complications connected with pneumoperitoneum negative influence at the patients with concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system.

  5. The blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hemodialysis patients to control hypertension and prevent cardiovascular disease: optimal pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for CVD. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of HT in HD patients. Previous studies suggested that the blockade of RAAS may be effective to control blood pressure (BP) and to prevent CVD in HD patients. A certain level of preventive effects against CVD by RAAS blockade in HD patients has been reported independently from a BP lowering effect. This review focuses on the effect of blocking RAAS in HD patients for the control of HT and the prevention of CVD.

  6. [Influence of the dolphin-therapy on functioning of cardiovascular system of children with various cns lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, AP; Vasylevska, NYu; Sorokin, MYu; Podgorna, VV

    2015-01-01

     Dynamics of changes in functional maintenance of cardiovascular system under direct influence of one procedure and course dolphin-therapy has been shown in children with different CNS lesions. Optimizing effect of the dolphin-therapy is found on cardiac pumping function a sufficient level of which increased from 18,8 to 56,3 % of cases, and autonomic heart rate to ensure, a sufficient lever of which increased from 18,8 to 31,3 % of case. The existence of these positive changes indicates...

  7. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However...... to the conclusion that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels have important, but different, functions in mice. T-type Cav3.1 channels affect heart rate, whereas Cav3.2 channels are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the vascular system, Cav3.2 activation leads to dilation of blood vessels, whereas Cav3.1 channels are mainly.......2, are expressed in blood vessels, the kidney, and the heart. Studies with gene-deficient mice have provided a way to investigate the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels and their role in the cardiovascular system. This review discusses the results from these knockout mice. Evaluation of the literature leads...

  8. Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: a preliminary study of resonance in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschillo, Evgeny; Lehrer, Paul; Rishe, Naphtali; Konstantinov, Mikhail

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the use of a biofeedback method for the noninvasive study of baroreflex mechanisms. Five previously untrained healthy male participants learned to control oscillations in heart rate using biofeedback training to modify their heart rate variability at specific frequencies. They were instructed to match computer-generated sinusoidal oscillations with oscillations in heart rate at seven frequencies within the range of 0.01-0.14 Hz. All participants successfully produced high-amplitude target-frequency oscillations in both heart rate and blood pressure. Stable and predictable transfer functions between heart rate and blood pressure were obtained in all participants. The highest oscillation amplitudes were produced in the range of 0.055-0.11 Hz for heart rate and 0.02-0.055 Hz for blood pressure. Transfer functions were calculated among sinusoidal oscillations in the target stimuli, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration for frequencies at which subjects received training. High and low target-frequency oscillation amplitudes at specific frequencies could be explained by resonance among various oscillatory processes in the cardiovascular system. The exact resonant frequencies differed among individuals. Changes in heart rate oscillations could not be completely explained by changes in breathing. The biofeedback method also allowed us to quantity characteristics of inertia, delay, and speed sensitivity in baroreflex system. We discuss the implications of these findings for using heart rate variability biofeedback as an aid in diagnosing various autonomic and cardiovascular system disorders and as a method for treating these disorders.

  9. Impact of weight-loss medications on the cardiovascular system: focus on current and future anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale; Poirier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been rising dramatically worldwide and are associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea. In fact, obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and CVD risks have also been documented in obese children. The majority of overweight and obese patients who achieve a significant short-term weight loss do not maintain their lower bodyweight in the long term. This may be due to a lack of intensive counseling and support from a facilitating environment including dedicated healthcare professionals such as nutritionists, kinesiologists, and behavior specialists. As a result, there has been a considerable focus on the role of adjunctive therapy such as pharmacotherapy for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Beyond an unfavorable risk factor profile, overweight and obesity also impact upon heart structure and function. Since the beginning, the quest for weight loss drugs has encountered warnings from regulatory agencies and the withdrawal from the market of efficient but unsafe medications. Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market because of unacceptable pulmonary and cardiac adverse effects. Nevertheless, there is extensive research directed at the development of new anti-obesity compounds. The effect of these molecules on CVD risk factors has been studied and reported but information regarding their impact on the cardiovascular system is sparse. Thus, instead of looking at the benefit of weight loss on metabolism and risk factor management, this article discusses the impact of weight loss medications on the cardiovascular system. The potential interaction of available and potential new weight loss drugs with heart function and structure is reviewed.

  10. [Clinical associations between retinal vascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases in patients with systemic atheromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu-Dima, Alin; Bătăiosu, Constantin; Sas, Teodor; Puianu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted on a sample of 48 patients examined within 3 months. Of these, 27 patients were recruited by ophtalmologic criteria and 21 recruited by cardiologic criteria, 25% of these patients coming for routine check. They were investigated by ophthalmic examination, cardiological examination, imaging and laboratory examination. Testing has shown a strong link between cardiovascular disease and the eye of the patients investigated. The study demonstrated the need for interdisciplinary consultation for patients with vascular complaints in the carotid territory and a close correlation between the vascular and ophthalmologic pathology at this level.

  11. [Effects of the 520-day isolation on the functional state of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, G P; Buĭlov, S P; Eshchenko, A I; Skedina, M A; Voronkov, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study the cardiovascular effects of simulated factors in a 520-day crewed mission to Mars, and to validate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic investigation of microcirculation and endothelium-dependent dilation of the right brachial artery in 6 male volunteers at the age of 28 to 39 years. It appears that 520-d isolation affected intracardiac hemodynamics and endothelium function more dramatically compared with 105-d isolation, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. These findings add insight into the "cost of human adaptation" to very long isolation.

  12. System of psycho-therapeutics influences in patients admitted to hospital with cardiovascular diseases. Sistema de influencias psicoterapéuticas en pacientes con afecciones cardiovasculares hospitalizados.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Navarro López; Teresa Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Fundaments: Within the restricted field of the patients' psychological environment, anxiety and depression seem ti play an important role although it is still pending how to clear it up definitely in the case of ischemic cardiopathy and coronary diseases. However, it isostensible that the patients who suffer from cardiovascular diseases frequently present psychological disorders, mainly emotional ones. Objective: To assess the effectiv...

  13. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  14. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Gao, Lu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Yilin; Wu, Yue; Fang, Ligang; Deng, Kan; Yao, Yong; Lian, Wei; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI) were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  15. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  16. The Role of the Nrf2/ARE Antioxidant System in Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor. It is a master regulator of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. Nrf2 controls the expression of many antioxidant and detoxification genes, by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs that are commonly found in the promoter region of antioxidant (and other genes, and that control expression of those genes. The mechanisms by which Nrf2 relieves oxidative stress and limits cardiac injury as well as the progression to heart failure are described. Also, the ability of statins to induce Nrf2 in the heart, brain, lung, and liver is mentioned. However, there is a negative side of Nrf2. When over-activated, it can cause (not prevent cardiovascular diseases and multi-drug resistance cancer.

  17. The psychoemotional status and cardiovascular system functional state of the first-year students under the influence of examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana K. Tokaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study of the influence of examination stress on psycho-emotional status and functional state of the cardiovascular system of the 1-st year students of pedagogical high school. Methods – The study involved 105 young men aged 17-18 enrolled in the specialty "Physical Education". The studies were conducted during the period in-between the exams and during the examination session. The psycho-emotional status was determined by the SAN test questionnaire and test and the CH.D. Spielberg test, adapted for Russia by Ju.L. Khanin. The state of CVS autonomic regulation was evaluated by heart rate, blood pressure, endurance ratio, Kerdo index and the adaptive capacities by P.M. Bayevsky. Results – In the absence of exposure to stress in the majority of young men the studied parameters are within normal limits, indicating sufficient adaptive capabilities. A clear correlation between the level of personal anxiety in students and the nature of their reactivity to examination stress was found: the higher the anxiety level in a student is, the more stress resistance decreases and more pronounced changes in the cardiovascular system autonomic regulation appear. The strain of adaptation mechanism was found in a stressful situation in the first-year students with a high level of personal anxiety and satisfactory adaptation – in young men with average and low personal anxiety.

  18. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  19. [Effects of antiosteoporotic agents on glucose and lipid metabolism and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho

    2008-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main contributor of mortality among postmenopausal women. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has been reported to have a beneficial effect on metabolic and vascular factors. Although, randomized clinical trials have questioned the efficacy of HRT in primary and secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention despite confirming the lipid-lowering effect of HRT. As for selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) , the available information suggests a neutral balance on CAD and stroke, and an increase in risk similar to estrogens for venous thromboembolic diseases. Evidence from both basic science and clinical studies supports the protective role of vitamin D beyond its effect on mineral metabolism. Recent studies suggest that Vitamin D improves vascular compliance, and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines which may contribute to the improved survival observed in retrospective studies examining the outcome of patients treated with activated Vitamin D compared to those who were not.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a regulator of systemic and brain energy metabolism and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Sarah M; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Wan, Ruiqian; Mattson, Mark P

    2012-08-01

    Overweight sedentary individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some neurological disorders. Beneficial effects of dietary energy restriction (DER) and exercise on brain structural plasticity and behaviors have been demonstrated in animal models of aging and acute (stroke and trauma) and chronic (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) neurological disorders. The findings described later, and evolutionary considerations, suggest brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in the integration and optimization of behavioral and metabolic responses to environments with limited energy resources and intense competition. In particular, BDNF signaling mediates adaptive responses of the central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous systems from exercise and DER. In the hypothalamus, BDNF inhibits food intake and increases energy expenditure. By promoting synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, BDNF mediates exercise- and DER-induced improvements in cognitive function and neuroprotection. DER improves cardiovascular stress adaptation by a mechanism involving enhancement of brainstem cholinergic activity. Collectively, findings reviewed in this paper provide a rationale for targeting BDNF signaling for novel therapeutic interventions in a range of metabolic and neurological disorders.

  1. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Renier; Hochfeld, Warren E; Dodgen, Tyren M; Ker, James; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    Human genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as more complex structural variations such as insertions, deletions and copy number variants, is partially responsible for the clinical variation seen in response to pharmacotherapeutic drugs. This affects the likelihood of experiencing adverse drug reactions and also of achieving therapeutic success. In this paper, we review key studies in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics that reveal genetic variations underlying the outcomes of drug treatment in cardiovascular disease. Examples of genetic associations with drug efficacy and toxicity are described, including the roles of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics (e.g. drug metabolizing enzymes) and pharmacodynamics (e.g. drug targets). These findings have functional implications that could lead to the development of genetic tests aimed at minimizing drug toxicity and optimizing drug efficacy in cardiovascular medicine.

  2. Development of the Digital Astronaut Project for the analysis of the mechanisms of physiologic adaptation to microgravity: Validation of the cardiovascular system module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas; Meck, Janice

    The physiologic adaptation of humans to the microgravity environment is complex and requires an integrative perspective to fully understand the mechanisms involved. A large computer model of human systems physiology provides the framework for the development of the Digital Astronaut to be used by NASA in the analysis of adaptive mechanisms. While project expansion is ongoing to include all relevant systems, we describe the validation results of the cardiovascular phase of model development. The cardiovascular aspects of the model were validated by benchmark comparisons to published literature findings of changes in left ventricular mass, right atrial pressure and plasma volumes. Computer simulations using the model predicted microgravity induced changes in the target endpoints within statistical validity of experimental findings. Therefore, the current cardiovascular portion of the Digital Astronaut Project computer model appears to accurately predict observed microgravity induced physiologic adaptations. The ongoing process of model development to include all spaceflight relevant systems will require similar validations.

  3. Multistructure index in revealing complexity of regulatory mechanisms of human cardiovascular system at rest and orthostatic stress in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec, Danuta; Graff, Beata; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2017-02-01

    Biological regulation is sufficiently complex to pose an enduring challenge for characterization of both its equilibrium and transient non-equilibrium dynamics. Two univariate but coupled observables, heart rate and systolic blood pressure, are commonly characterized in the benchmark example of the human cardiovascular regulatory system. Asymmetric distributions of accelerations and decelerations of heart rate, as well as rises and falls in systolic blood pressure, recorded in humans during a head-up tilt test provide insights into the dynamics of cardiovascular response to a rapid, controlled deregulation of the system's homeostasis. The baroreflex feedback loop is assumed to be the fundamental physiological mechanism for ensuring homeostatic blood supply to distant organs at rest and during orthostatic stress, captured in a classical beat-to-beat autoregressive model of baroreflex by de Boer et al. (1987). For model corroboration, a multistructure index statistic is proposed, seamlessly evaluating the size spectrum of magnitudes of neural reflexes such as baroreflex, responsible for maintaining the homeostatic dynamics. The multistructure index exposes a distinctly different dynamics of multiscale asymmetry between results obtained from real-life signals recorded from healthy subjects and those simulated using both the classical and perturbed versions of the model. Nonlinear effects observed suggest the pronounced presence of complex mechanisms resulting from baroreflex regulation when a human is at rest, which is aggravated in the system's response to orthostatic stress. Using our methodology of multistructure index, we therefore show a marked difference between model and real-life scenarios, which we attribute to multiscale asymmetry of non-linear origin in real-life signals, which we are not reproducible by the classical model.

  4. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  5. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

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    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  6. The role of Notch in the cardiovascular system: potential adverse effects of investigational Notch inhibitors

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    Paola eRizzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the Notch pathway is a new promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Inhibition of Notch is effective in the oncology setting because it causes a reduction of highly proliferative tumor cells and it inhibits survival of cancer stem cells which are considered responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Additionally, since Delta- like ligand 4 (Dll4- activated Notch signalling is a major modulator of angiogenesis, anti-Dll4 agents are being investigated to reduce vascularization of the tumor. Notch plays a major role in the heart during the development and, after birth, in response to cardiac damage. Therefore, agents used to inhibit Notch in the tumors (gamma secretase inhibitors and anti-Dll4 agents could potentially affect myocardial repair. The past experience with trastuzumab and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for cancer therapy demonstrates that the possible cardiotoxicity of agents targeting shared pathways between cancer and heart and the vasculature should be considered. To date, Notch inhibition in cancer patients has resulted only in mild gastrointestinal toxicity. Little is known about the potential long term cardiotoxicity associated to Notch inhibition in cancer patients. In this review we will focus on mechanisms through which inhibition of Notch signalling could lead to cardiomyocytes and endothelial dysfunctions. These adverse effects could contrast with the benefits of therapeutic responses in cancer cells during times of increased cardiac stress and/or in the presence of cardiovascular risk factor

  7. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HGF/Met in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Simona; Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2015-12-01

    Met tyrosine kinase receptor, also known as c-Met, is the HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor. The HGF/Met pathway has a prominent role in cardiovascular remodelling after tissue injury. The present review provides a synopsis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HGF/Met in the heart and blood vessels. In vivo, HGF/Met function is particularly important for the protection of the heart in response to both acute and chronic insults, including ischaemic injury and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, conditional deletion of Met in cardiomyocytes results in impaired organ defence against oxidative stress. After ischaemic injury, activation of Met provides strong anti-apoptotic stimuli for cardiomyocytes through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Recently, we found that HGF/Met is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes via the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. HGF/Met induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells through Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) activation. In fibroblasts, HGF/Met antagonizes the actions of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor β1) and AngII (angiotensin II), thus preventing fibrosis. Moreover, HGF/Met influences the inflammatory response of macrophages and the immune response of dendritic cells, indicating its protective function against atherosclerotic and autoimmune diseases. The HGF/Met axis also plays an important role in regulating self-renewal and myocardial regeneration through the enhancement of cardiac progenitor cells. HGF/Met has beneficial effects against myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction: the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying repair function in the heart and blood vessels are common and include pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Thus administration of HGF or HGF mimetics may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the

  9. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  10. Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a wellknown benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is not adversely affected; in moderation, there may be some benefit for CHF. There is no apparent increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Overall, there also appears to be a beneficial inverse association with all-cause mortality, although this is not absolute for extra heavy intake. Benefit in reducing stroke also has supportive evidence. Hypertension is not increased by coffee. Boiled and unfiltered coffee appears to increase plasma cholesterol and triglycerides but for the overall metabolic syndrome, there appears to be benefit. There is also some evidence that paper-filtered coffee results in an increase in some markers of inflammation. Association of coffee with arrhythmias has been a major concern though in moderation it is not a significant overall problem. Therefore, only if a patient were to associate major arrhythmic symptoms with coffee would cessation have to be advised. Where coffee clearly shines from a CV standpoint is in the established decrease in onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Any benefit or harm has always been attributed to caffeine as the apparent major component. However, coffee contains a myriad of compounds, including polyphenols. These other substances may be most relevant for potential benefit or harm and some of these may be partially removed or altered by coffee preparation methods such as paper filtration. Multiple studies

  11. VEGETATIVE PROVISION INDICATORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF WOMEN ATHLET-SPRINTERS

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    M. V. Didenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a significant increase in physical activity during the preparation of qualified athletes-sprinters. However, it is clear that a simple increase in volume and intensity of training loads in preparation can not be infinite. Russian sport trainers see tactics mistakes. Some authors consider that optimum technique construction of training is possible when taking into account normalizing the volume and load intensity based on the types of circulation (TC. The aim of work was to study the bioelectrical activity of the heart, heart rate variability (HRV, central hemodynamics and physical performance (PP in sportswomen-sprinters qualifications from II-III level to HMS. Materials and research methods. Carried out a comprehensive survey of 30 sportswomen-sprinters, qualifications from II-III level to HMS. For the analysis of vegetative cardiovascular regulation mathematical methods of HRV were used. Central hemodynamics were studied by automated tetrapolar rheography. Determination of PP was performed by using a submaximal cycle ergometer test PWC170. The index of the functional state (IFC was counted on a formula suggested and patented by us. Results of research. The correct sinus rhythm is found in all sportswomen with sufficient voltage and not rejected electrical axis of the heart. Comparison of the mean values of HRV showed the presence in all groups of runners prevalence of a parasympathetic link of VNS. At sportswomen-sprinters qualifications MS-HMS had prevailed hypokinetic TC and the lowering of qualifications the ratio of TC varied: as a runner of qualification I level prevailed eukinetic TC, while the runners of qualifications II-III level has have appeared sportswomen-sprinters with hyperkinetic TC. PP was bigger in sprinters qualifications MS-HMS and tended to decrease with decreasing of the qualifications. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between SI and CI, negative – between the CI and

  12. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as “the world’s first killer” of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a “CVDs pathway” consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

  14. On the heart, the mind, and how inflammation killed the Cartesian dualism. Commentary on the 2015 Named Series: Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders. The manuscripts included in this Named Series range across a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding biological mechanisms explaining comorbidity between cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders to new insights into the dysregulation of inflammation associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Clearly, inflammation emerges as a cross-cutting theme across all studies. Data presented in this Series contribute to putting an end to an era in which the heart and the mind were considered to be separate entities in which the responses of one system did not affect the other.

  15. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release.

  16. Health system barriers and facilitators to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Khandelwal, Shweta; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Peck, Victoria; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Smyth, Andrew; Leong, Darryl; Werba, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. Methods Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of β blockers, statins, angiotensin–renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. Results Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case–control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. Conclusions High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS : A STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Rao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder in which organs and cells undergo damage mediated by tissue - binding auto antibodies and immune complexes 1 . Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a multigenic disease . 1 People of all sexes, all ages and all ethnic groups are susceptible. Lupus nephrits, infection and thromboembolism contribute for mortality. Cardiac manifestations are not uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus. It involves all the layers of the heart, pericardium, myocardium and endocardium as well as coronary arteries. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of cardiac manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in t he Department of Medicine, Andhra Medical College, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is a tertiary care hospital. It was a study done on a selected population of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus based on the 1997 update of the 1982 Americ an College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. RESULTS: In this study consisting of fifty patients, changes suggestive of cardiac disease were seen in 74% of patients. CONCLUSION: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a mult isystem disease. Prevalence of cardiac disease is not uncommon . Pericarditis or pericardial effusion is the most common followed by valvular heart disease

  18. A system for prevention, care and rehabilitation of subject with cardiovascular risk: the signal processing algorithm library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F; Bonacina, S; Signorini, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last years the home monitoring development is increased both for its capability as a real time tool to manage patients health and to reduce hospitalization costs. The home monitoring system is a complex structure that needs the collaboration of different disciplines, from medicine to engineering, and technologies. This project has been developed with the integration of different groups of research as to unify all the necessary knowledge. According to physician exigencies a signal processing library has been implemented to describe in a synthetic and effective way the pathological status of patients with moderate cardiovascular risk. Consequently a software and hardware architecture have been designed to acquire ECG signal, to extract HRV and respiratory information through a multiparametric approach and to store the results. This home monitoring system has been projected to work during an appropriate physical training section and its function is both diagnostic and therapeutic as well as for rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to describe the structure of the signal processing library.

  19. A system-level investigation into the mechanisms of Chinese Traditional Medicine: Compound Danshen Formula for cardiovascular disease treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Li

    Full Text Available Compound Danshen Formula (CDF is a widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM which has been extensively applied in clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. However, the underlying mechanism of clinical administrating CDF on CVDs is not clear. In this study, the pharmacological effect of CDF on CVDs was analyzed at a systemic point of view. A systems-pharmacological model based on chemical, chemogenomics and pharmacological data is developed via network reconstruction approach. By using this model, we performed a high-throughput in silico screen and obtained a group of compounds from CDF which possess desirable pharmacodynamical and pharmacological characteristics. These compounds and the corresponding protein targets are further used to search against biological databases, such as the compound-target associations, compound-pathway connections and disease-target interactions for reconstructing the biologically meaningful networks for a TCM formula. This study not only made a contribution to a better understanding of the mechanisms of CDF, but also proposed a strategy to develop novel TCM candidates at a network pharmacology level.

  20. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system.

  1. Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Steerable Cardiac Ablation Catheter Remote Control System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  2. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  3. Investigating Autonomic Control of the Cardiovascular System: A Battery of Simple Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Roe, Sean; Tansey, Etain A.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system constantly control the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) and blood vessels (predominantly the sympathetic division) to maintain appropriate blood pressure and organ blood flow over sometimes widely varying conditions. This can be adversely affected by…

  4. 78 FR 79300 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems for Acute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems for Acute Coronary Syndrome, Cardiac and Non- Cardiac Surgery... coronary syndrome, cardiac and non- cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the...

  5. Light Microscopic Evaluation of Cardio-vasculare System in Alloksan-induced Diabetic Rats in Acute Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Bahçeci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complication of diabetes and acute effects of diabetes on heart and aorta is not clear. We aimed to determine acute effects of diabetes on cardio-vasculare system with light microscopy. We used 20 Spraque-Dawley rats and applied 150 mg/kg alloxan, intraperitoneally for inducing diabetes and 1 ml SF in control group. After 24 hours, venous blood samples were measured. Blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were accepted as DM and treated with 4 IU/d human insülin. After 7 days rats were sacrified under ketamin anaesthesia. Heart and aorta were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. The sectiones were embedded in paraffin and were serially sectioned at 5 m thickness, then stained with Hematoxyline-Eosine (H&E and Heidenhein’s Azan modification.There was no histopathological changes in cardiac muscle cells in control group. But there was a heterogen appearance in cardiac muscle cells and we determined some hydropic degenerations in some of the cardiac muscle cells and a minimal fibrosis in perivasculare and interstitial area in diabetic group. All histological stratums of aorta were seen normally in control group. In diabetic group, there was a clear anisostosis in smooth muscle cells and decreased in nucleus of smooth muscle cells in tunica media. We concluted that DM is caused degeneration and fibrosis in cardiac muscle cells and effective on smooth muscle cells in aorta in acute period.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Amaya-Amaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Latin American (LA patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5% Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%. Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors.

  7. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular disease patients in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Hashemi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggest that antioxidant vitamins might reduce the risk of disease outcomes by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supplementation of vitamins E and C on oxidant and antioxidant status in CVD patients. We conducted a case-control study with vitamin E (400 IU/d) and vitamin C (500 mg/d) supplementation in 40 CVD patients for 2 mo. Antioxidant (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and oxidant status were analyzed pre and post supplementation. In the initial stage the activity of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were lower, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated (pvitamin E (83.7%), C (145.3%), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (62.8%) and a significant decrease in MDA (40%) value were observed (pvitamins E and C reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened the antioxidant defense system. Hence, there will be beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in CVD patients.

  8. Short term control of the cardiovascular system: Assessment with the isometric handgrip exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Médigue, Claire; Papelier, Yves; Bise, Sylvain; Sorine, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the short term control of the Cardio Vascular system (CV), through a physiological test which involves strictly autonomic response: the handgrip isometric exercise, under vagal influence during the first minute. CVS parameters are extracted from RR and the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals, respectively giving frequency and amplitude information on the CVS. Mean time series, spectral values and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), seen as the spectral controller gain...

  9. Study of the Effects of Drugs upon the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    excellent health and filaria free. One nl of blood will be taken and checked for the presence of microfi- laria using the Knott’s test, an indicator of...of filaria . Also, becaus6 pilot studies showed that this drug seems to induce defeca- tion, frequency of defecation will be noted. 14 VI. Data...purchased from Ridglan Animal Care Systems (Mt.’Horeb, WI) for these studies. The dogs were certified to be in excellent health and filaria free and were

  10. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as “oxidative stress,” a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-tran...

  11. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy). From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%. PMID:28081164

  12. Exercise hemodynamics during extended continuous flow left ventricular assist device support: the response of systemic cardiovascular parameters and pump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Jerson; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Rutten, Marcel; Kirkels, J Hans; Klöpping, Corinne; Rodermans, Ben; Sukkel, Eveline; Hulstein, Nelienke; Mol, Bas; Lahpor, Jaap

    2013-09-01

    Patients on continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) are able to return to an active lifestyle and perform all sorts of physical activities. This study aims to evaluate exercise hemodynamics in patients with a HeartMate II cf-LVAD (HM II). Thirty (30) patients underwent a bicycle exercise test. Along with exercise capacity, systemic cardiovascular responses and pump performance were evaluated at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation. From rest to maximum exercise, heart rate increased from 87 ± 14 to 140 ± 32 beats/minute (bpm) (P<0.01), while systolic arterial blood pressure increased from 93 ± 12 to 116 ± 21 mm Hg (P<0.01). Total cardiac output (TCO) increased from 4.1 ± 1.1 to 8.5 ± 2.8 L/min (P<0.01) while pump flow increased less, from 5.1 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.6 L/min (P<0.01). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased from 1776 ± 750 to 1013 ± 83 dynes.s/cm(5) (P<0.001) and showed the strongest correlation with TCO (r= -0.72; P<0.01). Exercise capacity was affected by older age, while blood pressure increased significantly in men compared with women. Exercise capacity remained consistent at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation, 51% ± 13% and 52% ± 13% of predicted VO2 max for normal subjects corrected for age and gender. In conclusion, pump flow of the HM II may contribute partially to TCO during exercise, while SVR was the strongest determinant of TCO.

  13. Treadmill running and swimming imposes distinct cardiovascular physiological adaptations in the rat: focus on serotonergic and sympathetic nervous systems modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, S; Piloto, N; Reis, F; Teixeira-de-Lemos, E; Garrido, A P; Dias, A; Lourenço, M; Palmeiro, A; Ferrer-Antunes, C; Teixeira, F

    2008-12-01

    Physical exercise may improve the metabolic and haemodynamic responses, but the beneficial effects seem to depend on intensity, duration and muscular mass recruitment, which may vary between different types of protocols. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of two distinct moderate/long-term aerobic training protocols in the normal Wistar rat, the treadmill running and the swimming, on several important parameters related to cardiovascular (CV) physiological adaptations, namely: lipid profile, haemorheological measures, lipid peroxidation, peripheral serotonergic system (SS) modulation and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. In both groups under training an HDL-c increment versus the sedentary control was demonstrated. There was a noticeable increase in ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the exercised rats, together with higher PDW and MPV values. The RBC patterns were altered in both groups under training; in the swimming one, however, significantly higher RBC and HCT and lower MCH and MCHC values were found, suggesting renovation of the RBCs. Plasma and platelet SS measures were generally higher in both groups under training, being noticeably relevant the 5-HT and 5-HIAA increment in the treadmill. In opposition, concerning the plasma and platelet NE and E concentrations, the rise was remarkably higher in the rats under a swimming protocol. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, despite the similar beneficial effects on lipid profile, different aerobic exercise protocols may produce distinct CV physiological adaptations. Therefore, treadmill running was more influent than swimming concerning peripheral SS modulation while swimming was more important on SNS activation, thus recommending a judicious choice of the protocol to be tested in works which make use of rat models of exercise to study physiological or pathophysiological conditions.

  14. General Pharmacology of Artesunate, a Commonly used Antimalarial Drug:Effects on Central Nervous, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, is used primarily as a treatment for malaria. Its effects on the central nervous system, general behavior, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and other organ systems were studied using mice, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Artesunate was administered orally to mice at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg and to rats and guinea pigs at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. In dogs, test drugs were administered orally in gelatin capsules at doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg. Artesunate induced insignificant changes in general pharmacological studies, including general behavior, motor coordination, body temperature, analgesia, convulsion modulation, blood pressure, heart rate (HR) , and electrocardiogram (ECG) in dogs in vivo; respiration in guinea pigs; and gut motility or direct effects on isolated guinea pig ileum, contractile responses, and renal function. On the other hand, artesunate decreased the HR and coronary flow rate (CFR) in the rat in vitro; however, the extent of the changes was small and they were not confirmed in in vivo studies in the dog. Artesunate increased hexobarbital-induced sleeping time in a dose-related manner. Artesunate induced dose-related decreases in the volume of gastric secretions and the total acidity of gastric contents, and induced increases in pH at a dose of 400 mg/kg. However, all of these changes were observed at doses much greater than clinical therapeutic doses (2.4 mg/kg in humans, when used as an anti-malarial) . Thus, it can be concluded that artesunate is safe at clinical therapeutic doses.

  15. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Herbs for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM’s action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD, one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7% of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal

  16. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  17. [Methodological approaches to the hygienic evaluation of total artificial lighting of classrooms with different light sources on the basis of the response of the cardiovascular system of schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksheva, L M; Zvezdina, I V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of innovative equipment in educational institutions requires the use of appropriate methods permitting to establish valuable criterias for the effectiveness of the application of new technologies. The study of the response of the cardiovascular system of schoolchildren under using different light sources allowed to establish the increase in adaptive capacities and the improvement of the functional state of the organism in LED in comparison with fluorescent lighting.

  18. Old and new gasotransmitters in the cardiovascular system: focus on the role of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancardi, Daniele; Pla, Alessandra Florio; Moccia, Francesco; Tanzi, Franco; Munaron, Luca

    2011-09-01

    The functional relevance of nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiovascular system is well established since the end of the 80', when it was firstly proposed as a key controller of vasodilation. More recent evidences, still debated and partly conflicting, point to a role of NO in the angiogenic progression. On the other hand hydrogen sulfide is a new entry as a gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system. The variety of its biological functions seems to grow day after day. The first to be described is surely its reversible and poisoning binding of the cytochrome c oxidase that leads to impairment of the respiratory chain in mitochondria. However, sub-toxic concentrations have been later proved to be essential to maintain fundamental physiological functions in several tissues. The basal production of H2S is determined by the activity of, at least, three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MPT) with tissue specificity for CBS and CSE in the central nervous and cardiovascular system, respectively. The assumption of a pivotal role of H2S in regulating physiological function is supported by the demonstration that reduced production of this gaseous molecule by CSE induces hypertension in mice. The increasing number of studies showing the regulatory functions of H2S reveals that maintaining the normal blood pressure levels is only one of its multiple biological actions. In this review, we would like to explore the recent literature on NO and H2S roles on cardiovascular system and to elucidate potential outcomes in the use of pharmacological drugs interfering with their metabolism.

  19. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Local and Systemic Cardiovascular Effects from Monochromatic Infrared Therapy in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR therapy is used for pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. However, IR’s effects on the cardiovascular system remain uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the local and systemic cardiovascular effects of monochromatic IR therapy on patients with knee OA in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-one subjects with knee OA received one session of 40 min of active or placebo monochromatic IR treatment (with power output of 6.24 W, wavelength of 890 nm, power density of 34.7 mW/cm2 for 40 min, total energy of 41.6 J/cm2 per knee per session over the knee joints. Heart rate, blood pressure, and knee arterial blood flow velocity were periodically assessed at the baseline, during, and after treatment. Data were analyzed by repeated-measure analysis of covariance. Compared to baseline, there were no statistically significant group x time interaction effects between the 2 groups for heart rate (P=0.160, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure: P=0.861; diastolic blood pressure: P=0.757, or mean arterial blood flow velocity (P=0.769 in follow-up assessments. The present study revealed that although there was no increase of knee arterial blood flow velocity, monochromatic IR therapy produced no detrimental systemic cardiovascular effects.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  4. Type I interferons are associated with subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Somers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients have a striking increase in cardiovascular (CV comorbidity not fully explained by the Framingham risk score. Recent evidence from in vitro studies suggests that type I interferons (IFN could promote premature CV disease (CVD in SLE. We assessed the association of type I IFN signatures with functional and anatomical evidence of vascular damage, and with biomarkers of CV risk in a cohort of lupus patients without overt CVD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum type I IFN activity (induction of five IFN-inducible genes; IFIGs from 95 SLE patient and 38 controls was quantified by real-time PCR. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT were quantified by ultrasound, and coronary calcification by computed tomography. Serum vascular biomarkers were measured by ELISA. We evaluated the effect of type I IFNs on FMD, CIMT and coronary calcification by first applying principal components analysis to combine data from five IFIGs into summary components that could be simultaneously modeled. Three components were derived explaining 97.1% of the total IFIG variation. Multivariable linear regression was utilized to investigate the association between the three components and other covariates, with the outcomes of FMD and CIMT; zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for modeling of coronary calcification. After controlling for traditional CV risk factors, enhanced serum IFN activity was significantly associated with decreased endothelial function in SLE patients and controls (p<0.05 for component 3, increased CIMT among SLE patients (p<0.01 for components 1 and 2, and severity of coronary calcification among SLE patients (p<0.001 for component 3. CONCLUSIONS: Type I IFNs are independently associated with atherosclerosis development in lupus patients without history of overt CVD and after controlling for Framingham risk factors. This study further

  5. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system: news from the world of knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-02-15

    Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However, the lack of highly specific blockers cast doubt on the conclusions. As new T-type channel antagonists are being designed, the roles of T-type channels in cardiovascular and renal pathology need to be elucidated before T-type blockers can be clinically useful. Two types of T-type channels, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are expressed in blood vessels, the kidney, and the heart. Studies with gene-deficient mice have provided a way to investigate the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels and their role in the cardiovascular system. This review discusses the results from these knockout mice. Evaluation of the literature leads to the conclusion that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels have important, but different, functions in mice. T-type Cav3.1 channels affect heart rate, whereas Cav3.2 channels are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the vascular system, Cav3.2 activation leads to dilation of blood vessels, whereas Cav3.1 channels are mainly suggested to affect constriction. The Cav3.1 channel is also involved in neointima formation following vascular damage. In the kidney, Cav3.1 regulates plasma flow and Cav3.2 plays a role setting glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 are new therapeutic targets in several cardiovascular pathologies, but the use of T-type blockers should be specifically directed to the disease and to the channel subtype.

  6. Investigation on Cardiovascular System Functional Changes of Railcar Drivers%轨道车司机心血管系统功能改变的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新纯; 何春华; 刘肖辉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of railcar driving on the cardiovascular system of drivers. [ Methods ] A total of 241 railcar drivers and 37 the new joined drivers were selected and examined for blood pressure and ECG. [ Results ] The cardiovascular system functional change of the new joined drivers was lower than the railcar drivers group. There was significant difference between the 2 groups in hypertension prevalence rate. (P <0.01). With the extending of service length, the abnormal rate of cardiovascular system increased; hypertension prevalence rate increased significanTLy with extending of service length ( P < 0.01 ). ECG abnormal rate, ST-T changes of new drivers were significantly lower than those of railcar drivers ( P < 0.05 ). [ Conclusion ] The railcar driving work has effect on the cardiovascular system of the railcar drivers to some extent. It is necessary to strength the occupational health surveillance of cardiovascular system of the railcar drivers to ensure the safety of transportation.%目的 探讨轨道车驾驶作业对轨道车司机心血管系统的影响.方法 选择241名轨道车司机和37名新加入人员进行血压测量和常规心电图检查.结果 新加入人员心血管系统功能改变低于轨道车司机组,其中高血压患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);随着工龄增加,轨道车司机心血管系统功能异常检出率增加,其中高血压随着工龄增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);新加入人员心电图异常检出率低于轨道车司机组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时ST-T段改变发生率也低于轨道车司机组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 轨道车驾驶作业对驾驶人员的心血管系统功能有一定程度的影响,应加强对轨道车司机心血管系统的职业健康监护,以保证行车安全.

  7. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into a new environmental chamber to facilitate long term in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution 3-D in vivo imaging of embryonic development over long periods of time under constant physiological conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity) was a challenging task for researchers working on early cardiovascular development. Without appropriate maintenance of temperature, for example...... development. Here we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system integrated into a new environmental incubation chamber (EIC) to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The EIC provides stable...... conditions for embryonic development with respect to temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels. An OCT probe is integrated into the EIC and facilitates visualization of embryos at micrometer resolution, including the acquisition of M-mode, Doppler OCT, and Doppler M-mode data....

  8. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  9. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  10. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  11. Cardiovascular events prior to or early after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Anderson, N M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and within the first 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: The systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) atherosclerosis inception cohort enters patients within......% CI 2.38 to 23.57) remained significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In some patients with lupus, MI may develop even before the diagnosis of SLE or shortly thereafter, suggesting that there may be a link between autoimmune inflammation and atherosclerosis....

  12. [Effect of a new bronchodilator, S-1540 (Bitolterol) and S-1541 on the tracheo-bronchial and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, N; Kushiku, K; Morishita, H; Nakagami, K; Nakahara, T

    1975-10-01

    The actions on the bronchial smooth muscle and cardiovascular system S-1540 (Bitolterol) (Shionogi Pharmaceuticals), a new bronchodilator which is chemically related to isoprenaline, and S-1541 which is the active metabolite of S-1540 were studied in comparison with the action of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) and orciprenaline (metaproterenol). 1) The relaxing effect on isolated guinea-pig tracheal muscle constricted previously with histamine BaCl2 or acetylcholine was highest with S-1541, followed by isoprenaline and orciprenaline, in that order, and lowest with S-1540. The relaxing effect of S-1541 on acetylcholine-induced tracheal constriction was reduced and that of S-1540 was completely abolished by a previous treatment with propranolol. The relaxing actions of those drugs on bronchial spasms induced by histamine in vivo were highest with S-1541, followed by isoprenaline, and lowest with S-1540. 2) All these drugs exhibited the depressor and positive chronotropic actions in guinea-pigs. The potencies of the actions were found to be in the following order; isoprenaline was most potent, followed by S-1541 with a little less intensity, orciprenaline much weaker, and S-1540 still weaker with a positive chronotropic action of about 1/1000 of S-1541 and depressor action about 1/500. In the open chest guinea-pig, positive inotropic and chronotropic actions of S-1541 were about the same or slightly more potent than those of isoprenaline; S-1540 had a very weak action, being only about 1/1000 as active as S-1541. These actions of S-1540 were completely eliminated by propranolol pretreatment. S-1540 induced to remarkable changes in the electrocardiogram wave forms even in high doses. 3) Those drugs elicited the depressor, positive chronotropic and inotropic actions in rabbits and dogs. In rabbits, isoprenaline was most potent; S-1541 was similar to or a little weaker than isoprenaline; and S-1540 was extremely weak. In the dog, isoprenaline showed the highest of the

  13. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  14. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  15. [Role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease system under the action of heavy metals in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiev, A K

    2015-01-01

    The main anthropogenic air pollutants are heavy metals, World Health Organization related to toxic substances hazard class 1. Penetrating into the body in different ways, metals have a strong toxic effect on all body systems, but one of the most vulnerable, due to a number of reasons, is the cardiovascular system. There are many mechanisms of pathogenic influence of xenobiotics, leading to the development of disorders of the cardiovascular system, but our attention was attracted by the ability of metals to realize their negative effects through the activation of free radical. To confirm this assumption, it was necessary to conduct a pilot study of the effect of antioxidants in long-term effect of heavy metals. As an antioxidant agent used melatonin. Investigation of the state of systemic hemodynamics is to determine the mean arterial pressure, specific peripheral vascular resistance, stroke index and cardiac index. The intensity of free radical concentration was estimated by malondialdehyde and hydroperoxides in the blood of animals. The results of experimental studies revealed that prolonged intake of heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium and mercury) leads to the development of marked hemodynamic disturbances, combined with a sharp increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products in the blood. Melatonin under intoxication by heavy metals significantly reduced hypertensive effect of heavy metals on systemic hemodynamics, which together with a reduction of lipid peroxidation processes allows us to consider the activation of lipid peroxidation one of the major pathogenic factor in the development of hemodynamic disorders in conditions of heavy metal poisoning.

  16. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  17. [The participation of nitric oxide in the functions of the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushkov, I; Markova, Ts; Tsankov, A

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts its vasodilatator effect in smooth muscle by activation of guanylyl cyclase. This in turn leads to decreases in intracellular calcium and dephosphorylation of myosin light chains and relaxation. NO is synthesised from L-arginine by a family of enzymes called Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In the vascular system two isoenzymes of NOS are largely expressed: the constitutive NOS and the inducible NOS. The constitutive NOS identified in the endothelium generates NO continuously providing the vasodilatator tone and modulating platelet function. NOS type 1 is expressed in preoptic and infundibular nucleus of hypothalamus. NO acts as presynaptic agonist of glutamatergic NMDA-receptor mediation in the motor nucleus of nervus vagus. NO decreases the frequency of the spontaneous discharges in the carotid bodies. NO is involved in the processes of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  18. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Deepak; Rao, A Koneti; Jalagadugula, Gauthami S; Myers, Rachel; Harris, Emily; Ortel, Thomas L; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS) in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI). Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 - a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor) showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  19. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Voora, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI. Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 – a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  20. Temporal trends of system of care for STEMI: insights from the Jakarta Cardiovascular Care Unit Network System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Dharma

    Full Text Available AIM: Guideline implementation programs are of paramount importance in optimizing acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI care. Assessment of performance indicators from a local STEMI network will provide knowledge of how to improve the system of care. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2008-2011, 1505 STEMI patients were enrolled. We compared the performance indicators before (n = 869 and after implementation (n = 636 of a local STEMI network. In 2011 (after introduction of STEMI networking compared to 2008-2010, there were more inter-hospital referrals for STEMI patients (61% vs 56%, p12 hours after symptom onset were similar (53% vs 51%, NS. Moreover, the numbers of patients with door-to-balloon time ≤ 90 minutes were similar (49.1% vs 51.3%, NS, and in-hospital mortality rates were similar (8.3% vs 6.9%, NS in 2011 compared to 2008-2010. CONCLUSION: After a local network implementation for patients with STEMI, there were significantly more inter-hospital referral cases, primary PCI procedures, and patients with a door-to-needle time ≤ 30 minutes, compared to the period before implementation of this network. However, numbers of patients who presented very late, the targeted door-to-balloon time and in-hospital mortality rate were similar in both periods. To improve STEMI networking based on recent guidelines, existing pre-hospital and in-hospital protocols should be improved and managed more carefully, and should be accommodated whenever possible.

  1. HIV protease inhibitors and onset of cardiovascular diseases: a central role for oxidative stress and dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Essop, M Faadiel

    2014-02-01

    The successful roll-out of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended life expectancy and enhanced the overall well-being of HIV-positive individuals. There are, however, increased concerns regarding HAART-mediated metabolic derangements and its potential risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the long-term. Here certain classes of antiretroviral drugs such as the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are strongly implicated in this process. This article largely focuses on the direct PI-linked development of cardio-metabolic complications, and reviews the inter-linked roles of oxidative stress and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as key mediators driving this process. It is proposed that PIs trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that leads to serious downstream consequences such as cell death, impaired mitochondrial function, and UPS dysregulation. Moreover, we advocate that HIV PIs may also directly lower myocardial UPS function. The attenuation of cardiac UPS can initiate transcriptional changes that contribute to perturbed lipid metabolism, thereby fueling a pro-atherogenic milieu. It may also directly alter ionic channels and interfere with electrical signaling in the myocardium. Therefore HIV PI-induced ROS together with a dysfunctional UPS elicit detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system that will eventually result in the onset of heart diseases. Thus while HIV PIs substantially improve life expectancy and quality of life in HIV-positive patients, its longer-term side-effects on the cardiovascular system should lead to a) greater clinical awareness regarding its benefit-harm paradigm, and b) the development and evaluation of novel co-treatment strategies.

  2. Cardiovascular Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that causes the blood vessels to tighten (constrict). Annulus - The ring around a heart valve where the ... system after injection of a contrast dye. Arterioles - Small, muscular branches of arteries. When they contract, they ...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 4,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  5. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  6. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of choice to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) . However, there is a wide variability in ...

  7. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  8. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to use a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate the support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous pulsatile valveless dual-piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared with measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared with the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device.

  9. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment.

  10. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes.Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014. Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and direct renin (DR inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke-singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome-and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality-singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants, with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90-1.18, ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79-1.19, DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96-1.81, and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73-1.38. For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90-1.40, ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72-1.29, DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65-1.57, and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78-1.84. No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with

  11. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M.; Davis, Barry R.; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant

  12. Preliminary Study of Cardiovascular Manifestations and Cardiac Severity Scale in 58 Patients with Systemic Sclerosis in Iran Using the Medsger Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Almasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc is more prevalent than previously thought. In this study, the frequency and severity of cardiovascular involvement were assessed in SSc patients referred to Firouzgar Hospital.Methods: Fifty-eight patients with SSc, selected from the data bank of SSc patients, were reviewed for the frequency and severity of 8 organ involvements in this case series.The preliminary severity scale, published by international SSc study groups, was employed for the determination of theseverity grade in the cardiovascular system. In the cardiac scoring scale, grade 0 represents normal heart (no cardiac involvement, grade 1 denotes mild involvement [electrocardiography (ECG conduction defect and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of 45-49%], grade 2 signifies moderate involvement (arrhythmia, LVEF = 40-44%, grade 3 indicates severe involvement (LVEF <40%], and grade 4 stands for end stage (congestive heart failure and arrhythmia requiring treatment.Results: In this study, 24 (41.4% patients were in the diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc subset. The female to male ratio was 10.5:1,and the mean duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 7.35 years for the dcSSc subset and 8.41 years for the limited cutaneous (lcSSc subset of disease, there being no significant difference. Cardiac involvement in this series was seen in 13 (22.4% cases; and there was no significant difference in terms of frequency and severity between the two disease subgroups(p value = 0.96 and p value = 0.46 respectively.Conclusion: Our findings showed that the cardiac involvement in this series was infrequent and that there was no significant difference in the severity of cardiovascular involvement between the two subtypes of SSc in the late stage of the disease.

  13. Add-on therapy with a nighttime dose of doxazosin in patients with uncontrolled hypertension: effects on autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Adamska, Karolina; Milewska, Agata; Wesseling, Karel H; Wysocki, Henryk

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to determine whether or not the addition of a single nighttime dose of doxazosin in extended-release form (GITS; gastrointestinal therapeutic system) would affect the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system in patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with a multi-drug regimen. Resting 5-min noninvasive finger blood pressure and ECG signals, as well as 24-h Holter ECGs, were recorded in 30 patients with uncontrolled hypertension on multi-drug treatment before and after 16-week add-on therapy with doxazosin GITS. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and a cross-correlation method for spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in 5-min resting recordings, and by the analysis of Poincaré plots and phase-rectified signal averaging of the duration of cardiac cycles in 24-h ECG recordings. This combined therapy significantly reduced systolic pressure (19.4+/-3.5 mmHg; p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (9.4+/-2.0 mmHg; p=0.0003), and pulse pressure (10.0+/-2.8 mmHg; p=0.0021). Concomitantly, there was a significant increase in resting spontaneous BRS (p=0.0191) and increases in 24-h short-term (p=0.0129) and total (p=0.0153) HRV, but with no significant change in heart rate or other measures of HRV. The improvements in HRV and BRS were observed mainly in patients already treated with thiazide diuretics. There was a significant association (r=0.49; p=0.0065) between the degree of change in diastolic blood pressure and short-term HRV caused by the combined treatment. The addition of 4 mg doxazosin GITS to multi-drug antihypertensive therapy is associated with an improvement in cardiovascular autonomic control.

  14. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcharan Singh; Simran Pal Singh Aneja

    2011-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite) disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatolog...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  16. Effect of Piper sarmentosum Extract on the Cardiovascular System of Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats: Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Piper sarmentosum (PS is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C, PS-treated control group (CTx, untreated diabetic group (D, and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx. Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg body weight was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125 g/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM. DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues.

  17. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1 blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2 cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3 reaction time, (4 cognitive functions, and (5 response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38. Methods. Heart rate (HR and arterial blood pressure (ABP, blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject’s attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  18. Mitochondrial cytopathies and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Elizabeth A; Ramezani, Ali; Anker, Stefan D; Verma, Mukesh; Mehta, Nehal; Rao, Madhumathi

    2014-04-01

    The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and across the world. Functional and structural integrity of mitochondria are essential for the physiological function of the cardiovascular system. The metabolic adaptation observed in normal heart is lost in the failing myocardium, which becomes progressively energy depleted leading to impaired myocardial contraction and relaxation. Uncoupling of electron transfer from ATP synthesis leads to excess generation of reactive species, leading to widespread cellular injury and cardiovascular disease. Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutation has been linked to ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Mitochondria are known to regulate apoptotic and autophagic pathways that have been shown to play an important role in the development of cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options have been explored in the management of mitochondrial diseases with variable success.

  19. Social factors and cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric John

    2017-03-01

    Recent progress in population health at aggregate level, measured by life expectancy, has been accompanied by lack of progress in reducing the difference in health prospects between groups defined by social status. Cardiovascular disease is an important contributor to this undesirable situation. The stepwise gradient of higher risk with lower status is accounted for partly by social gradients in health behaviors. The psychosocial hypothesis provides a stronger explanation, based on social patterning of living and working environments and psychological assets that individuals develop during childhood. Three decades of research based on Whitehall II and other cohort studies provide evidence for psychosocial pathways leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Job stress is a useful paradigm because exposure is long term and depends on occupational status. Studies of social-biological translation implicate autonomic and neuroendocrine function among the biological systems that mediate between chronic adverse psychosocial exposures and increased cardiometabolic risk and cardiovascular disease incidence.

  20. [Cardiovascular manifestations of human toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar-Mejía, Adrián; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Delgado, Olinda

    2013-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection produced by helminths that cannot reach their adult stage in humans. For their etiological species (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), man is a paratenic host. Infection by such helminths can produce a variety of clinical manifestations, such as: visceral larvae migrans syndrome, ocular larvae migrans syndrome and covert toxocariasis. In the visceral larvae migrans syndrome, the organs that are mainly involved include liver, lungs, skin, nervous system, muscles, kidneys and the heart. Regarding the latter, the importance of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, as well as its clinical relevance, has increasingly begun to be recognized. The current article is based on a systematic information search, focused mainly on the clinical and pathological aspects of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, including its pathophysiology, laboratory findings, diagnosis and therapeutical options, with the objective of highlighting its importance as a zoonosis and its relevance to the fields of cardiovascular medicine in adults and children.

  1. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  2. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  3. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  4. Framingham Risk Score underestimates cardiovascular disease risk in severe psoriatic patients: implications in cardiovascular risk factors management and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tiago; Sales, Rita; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Martins da Silva, Berta; Selores, Manuela

    2013-11-01

    Severe psoriasis has been associated with increase cardiovascular mortality, due to a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and premature atherosclerosis, as a consequence of its systemic inflammation. Recently, it has been estimated that severe psoriasis may confer an increased 6.2% on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease based on Framingham Risk Score, which can have practical implications in the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as treatment guidelines account for the risk of cardiovascular disease in treatment goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the attributable risk of severe psoriasis on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and its implication on the correct treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease on a real-world cohort of patients. One hundred severe psoriasis patients without psoriatic arthritis or previous cardiovascular disease were evaluated and it was found that more than half of the patients were reclassified to a higher cardiovascular risk category with important clinical implications on the correct management of their cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as a considerable proportion of patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease equivalent risk were not being correctly managed.

  5. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  6. Apelin/APJ系统与心血管系统相关性研究进展%Research advances in correlation between apelin/APJ system and cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珍; 郭晓玲

    2013-01-01

    @@@Apelin is a novel cardiovascular regulator that functions as an endogenous ligand for angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein. The apelin/APJ system is widely present in the cardiovascular system and plays a variety of cardiovascular protective roles by dilating vessels, decreasing blood pressure, enhancing cardiac contractility, inhibiting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and autophagy, and promoting angiogenesis. The system is also implicated in the pathophysiological processes of many diseases such as heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation. For this reason, the correlation between apelin/APJ system and cardiovascular system is drawing increasing attention.%Apelin作为一种新近发现的心血管调节物质,是血管紧张素II1型受体相关蛋白的内源性配体。Apelin/APJ系统在心血管系统中分布广泛,具有扩张血管、降血压,增强心肌收缩力,抑制心肌细胞肥大、纤维化、自噬,促进血管生成等保护作用,参与心力衰竭、冠心病,高血压,心房纤颤等多种疾病的病理生理过程,因此Apelin/APJ系统与心血管系统相关性日益受到人们的重视。

  7. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  8. 钙蛋白酶与心血管疾病的关系%Roles of calpains in cardiovascular system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金兰; 万福生

    2011-01-01

    钙蛋白酶(calpain)是一种依赖 Ca2+激活的蛋白水解酶,属于半胱氨酸蛋白水解酶超家族成员.钙蛋白酶广泛分布于心血管系统,可被Ca2+澈活,产生多种生物学效应,如降解心肌收缩蛋白、促进细胞凋亡、参与心血管重构等.近年,钙蛋白酶与心肌缺血再灌注损伤、血栓、房颤、动脉粥样硬化等心血管疾病的关系正受到越来越多的关注.%Calpain is a Ca2+-activated protease, which belongs to the super family of homocystein protease. Upon activation, calpains can cleave myocardial contractile protein, promote myocardial apoptosis, be involved in cardiovascular remodeling,and so on. The relationship between calpains and cardiovascular system diseases such as ischemia reperfusion injury, thrombosis,atrial fibrillation, atherosclerosis, etc, has received more and more attention in recent years.

  9. Transferring a Classic Dog Laboratory To Videodisc: Cardiovascular Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, J.K.; Harris, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    This demonstration presents the development process and intended uses of the Classic Laboratory Experiments in Basic Health Sciences: Cardiovascular Physiology videodisc containing over thirty experiments. This interactive videodisc is designed to teach the physiological effects of procedures and drugs on the cardiovascular system. The Cardiovascular Physiology program is the first in a series of classic dog laboratory videodiscs to be developed.

  10. Analysis of cardiovascular system responses to forced vital capacity in COPD Análise das respostas do sistema cardiovascular ao teste de capacidade vital forçada na DPOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. R. Mendes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The forced vital capacity (FVC test is routinely performed to evaluate pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the influence of the FVC maneuver on the cardiovascular system of patients with COPD is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the behavior of heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and heart rate variability (HRV during the FVC test in COPD patients. METHODS: Nineteen men with COPD (72±7 years, GOLD stage I=3, II=5, III=7 and IV=4 patients performed the FVC test while having their HR monitored. HRV was assessed in time (rMSSD and frequency domains (LF, HF and LF/HF at rest, before and after the best FVC maneuver. BP was measured at rest, immediately before and at the end of the test, as well as 10 minutes after the end of the test. RESULTS: At the beginning of the FVC maneuver, HR decreased (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O teste de capacidade vital forçada (CVF é rotineiramente realizado na avaliação da função pulmonar de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC. Entretanto, permanece pouco compreendida a influência do teste de CVF sobre o sistema cardiovascular de pacientes com DPOC. OBJETIVOS: Analisar o comportamento da frequência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial (PA e variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC no teste de CVF na DPOC. MÉTODOS: Dezenove homens com DPOC (72 ± 7 anos, no estágio de gravidade GOLD I=3, II=5, III=7 e IV=4 pacientes realizaram a manobra de CVF e tiveram sua FC monitorada durante todo o exame, e a VFC analisada nos domínios do tempo (rMSSD e da frequência (BF, AF e BF/AF durante o repouso, antes e após a melhor manobra de CVF. A PA foi analisada no repouso, imediatamente ao final da manobra de CVF e 10 minutos após o término de todos os testes. RESULTADOS: Ao início da manobra de CVF, a FC reduziu (p<0,001 e, em seguida, aumentou progressivamente até o final do teste (p<0,001. Após término da manobra, a FC continuou

  11. 基于ARM的无创心血管功能检测系统%Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Monitoring System Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学玲; 陈小红; 刘瑾; 杜振辉; 徐可欣

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent non-invasive cardiovascular monitoring device was developed to measure ten important parame-ters on the basis of arterial windkessel model and hemodynamic theory of pulse wave. By using the technology of advanced RISC machines(ARM) based on embedded platform, some defectiveness of the existing commercial systems was overcome,such as computer-attached, clumsy volume, and singularity of cardiovascular parameters measured, etc. Both the hardware and software design were described in detail. Through a preliminary experiment of 30 persons, it is proved that the system keeps good reliability and stability, which can achieve the correlation of 0.95 with the consulted device, and its repeatability error is less than 2.36%. The acquired parameters can be used to better evaluate the cardiovascular state of a person. The sys-tem is expected to be applied to the clinic and home healthcare.%研发了一种智能化的无创心血管参数诊断系统.该系统应用动脉弹性腔模型和血液动力学理论,可以对10个重要的心血管参数进行测量.采用了基于ARM的嵌入式系统技术,克服了目前其他同类仪器体积大、测量参数单一等缺点.详细介绍了系统的硬件构成与软件流程.为了验证系统的性能,该系统在30个人中进行了初步实验.结果证明,该仪器具有良好的准确性和稳定性,与参考仪器测量结果的相关系数可达到0.95,重复性误差最大为2.36%,所获得的参数能较好地评价心血管功能状况,系统可运用于临床诊断和家庭健康监护.

  12. Cardiovascular system involvement in rheumatic diseases in children%常见儿童风湿性疾病的心血管损害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧玲

    2015-01-01

    儿童常见的风湿性疾病有风湿热、幼年特发性关节炎、系统性红斑狼疮(包括新生儿红斑狼疮)、幼年皮肌炎、川崎病、过敏性紫癜等.风湿性疾病作为一组病因不明的自身免疫性疾病,可累及不同脏器的结缔组织和胶原纤维,均具有系统性炎症的特点,往往造成多器官脏器受损.近十几年越来越多的研究证实,该类风湿性疾病患者远期的心血管损害远高于健康人群,其特征性的系统性炎性反应的病理过程作为动脉粥样硬化的独立危险因素已引起广泛的重视.现就儿童常见自身免疫性疾病合并的心血管损害进行阐述.%The common rheumatic diseases in children including rheumatic fever,juvenile idiopathic arthritis,systemic lupus erythematosus (including neonatal lupus),juvenile dermatomyositis,Kawasaki disease,anaphylactoid purpura.Rheumatic diseases as a group of unknown etiology autoimmune diseases,connective tissue and collagen fibers of different organs can be affected.Systemic inflammatory is the common prominent characteristics of this kind of disease,often resulting in multiple organ damage.Over recent decades,there has been considerable interest in the long-term outcomes of individuals with chronical inflammatory disease and an area of particular concern has been the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease.Since sustained systemic inflammation is known to accelerate atherosclerosis,doctor should pay attention to rheumatic diseases associated cardiovascular involvements during daily clinical work.The cardiovascular involvement of common rheumatic diseases in children is summarized in this paper.

  13. Hepatitis C virus and cardiovascular: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a systemic disease that leads to increased risks of cirrhosis and its complications, as well as extrahepatic disturbances, including immune-related disorders and metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and steatosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that HCV infection can increase cardiovascular risk, and that viral eradication can improve cardiovascular outcomes in the clinical setting. These data are strengthened by evidence identifying potential mechanisms (indirectly linking HCV infection to vascular damage. However, the high prevalence of both HCV infection and cardiovascular alterations, as well as the presence of contrasting results not identifying any association between HCV infection and cardiovascular dysfunction, provides uncertainty about a direct association of HCV infection with cardiovascular risk. Further studies are needed to clarify definitively the role of HCV infection in cardiovascular alterations, as well as the impact of viral eradication on cardiovascular outcomes. These features are now more attractive, considering the availability of new, safe, and very effective interferon-free antiviral agents for the treatment of HCV infection. This review aims to discuss carefully available data on the relationship between HCV infection and cardiovascular risk.

  14. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  15. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Avian cardiac disease in pet birds occurs more often than previously assumed. The article focuses on anatomic peculiarities of the avian cardiovascular system and common diseases. Diagnostic possibilities are demonstrated, and therapeutic measures are discussed.

  16. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina

    2014-01-01

    cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND...... by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8)) compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can...... non-additively interfere with cancer-related mechanisms....

  17. Renin–angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system inhibition (RASI) is frequently avoided in aortic stenosis (AS) patients because of fear of hypotension. We evaluated if RASI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased mortality in patients with mild...... to moderate AS. METHODS: All patients (n=1873) from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study: asymptomatic patients with AS and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction were included. Risks of sudden cardiac death (SCD), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality according to RASI...... treatment were analyzed by multivariable time-varying Cox models and propensity score matched analyses. RESULTS: 769 (41%) patients received RASI. During a median follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.9 years, 678 patients were categorized as having severe AS, 545 underwent aortic valve replacement, 40 SCDs, 103...

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of the Essential Oil of Croton argyrophylloides in Normotensive Rats: Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Santos, Thayane Rebeca; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. (EOCA) were investigated in normotensive rats. In saline-pretreated anesthetized or conscious rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of the EOCA induced dose-dependent hypotension. Dose-dependent tachycardia was observed only in conscious rats. In anesthetized rats, cervical bivagotomy failed to enhance EOCA-induced hypotension but unmasked significant bradycardia. In conscious rats, i.v. pretreatment with methylatropine, but not with atenolol or L-NAME, reduced both hypotensive and tachycardiac responses to EOCA. However, hexamethonium pretreatment reverted the EOCA-induced tachycardia into significant bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. In aortic ring preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was significantly reduced by vascular endothelium removal and pretreatment with atropine, indomethacin, or glibenclamide but remained unaffected by pretreatment with L-NAME or TEA. It is concluded that i.v. treatment with EOAC decreased blood pressure probably through an active vascular relaxation rather than withdrawal of sympathetic tone. Muscarinic receptor stimulation, liberation of the endothelium-derived prostacyclin, and opening KATP channels are partially involved in the aortic relaxation induced by EOCA and in turn in the mediation of EOCA-induced hypotension. EOCA-induced tachycardia in conscious rats appears to be mediated reflexly through inhibition of vagal drive to the heart. PMID:27956919

  19. Transactivation of ErbB receptors by leptin in the cardiovascular system: mechanisms, consequences and target for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jazmroz-Wiśniewska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated leptin concentration in patients with obesity/metabolic syndrome contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis after coronary angioplasty and myocardial hypertrophy. Receptor tyrosine kinases belonging to the ErbB family, especially ErbB1 (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ErbB2 are abundantly expressed in the blood vessels and the heart. EGFR is activated not only by its multiple peptide ligands but also by many other factors including angiotensin II, endothelin-1, norepinephrine, thrombin and prorenin; the phenomenon referred to as "transactivation". Augmented EGFR signaling contributes to abnormalities of vascular tone and renal sodium handling as well as vascular remodeling and myocardial hypertrophy through various intracellular mechanisms, in particular extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Recent experimental studies indicate that chronically elevated leptin transactivates the EGFR through the mechanisms requiring reactive oxygen species and cytosolic tyrosine kinase, c-Src. In addition, hyperleptinemia increases ErbB2 activity in the arterial wall. Stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2 downstream signaling pathways such as ERK and PI3K in the vascular wall and the kidney may contribute to the increase in vascular tone, enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption as well as vascular and renal lesions in hyperleptinemic obese subjects.

  20. Persistent release of IL-1s from skin is associated with systemic cardio-vascular disease, emaciation and systemic amyloidosis: the potential of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Yamanaka

    Full Text Available The skin is an immune organ that contains innate and acquired immune systems and thus is able to respond to exogenous stimuli producing large amount of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1 and IL-1 family members. The role of the epidermal IL-1 is not limited to initiation of local inflammatory responses, but also to induction of systemic inflammation. However, association of persistent release of IL-1 family members from severe skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, epidermolysis bullosa, atopic dermatitis, blistering diseases and desmoglein-1 deficiency syndrome with diseases in systemic organs have not been so far assessed. Here, we showed the occurrence of severe systemic cardiovascular diseases and metabolic abnormalities including aberrant vascular wall remodeling with aortic stenosis, cardiomegaly, impaired limb and tail circulation, fatty tissue loss and systemic amyloid deposition in multiple organs with liver and kidney dysfunction in mouse models with severe dermatitis caused by persistent release of IL-1s from the skin. These morbid conditions were ameliorated by simultaneous administration of anti-IL-1α and IL-1β antibodies. These findings may explain the morbid association of arteriosclerosis, heart involvement, amyloidosis and cachexia in severe systemic skin diseases and systemic autoinflammatory diseases, and support the value of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Efeitos da angiotensina II no sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp, S. M.; Vailati, M. C. F.; Matsubara,Beatriz Bojikian; Schwartz,D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin is an important peptide of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This peptide has an important function on arterial blood pressure regulation and body fluid homeostasis. However, its action on abnormal conditions causes deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. Vascular resistance, hypertension, vascular and myocytes hipertrophy, production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory substances are some of the actions of angiotensin II that can result on cardiovascular remodelin...

  2. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Albert C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR examinations.

  3. Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Alanna; Musunuru, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) systems, have emerged as an invaluable technology to achieve somatic and germline genomic manipulation in cells and model organisms for multiple applications, including the creation of knockout alleles, introducing desired mutations into genomic DNA, and inserting novel transgenes. Genome editing is being rapidly adopted into all fields of biomedical research, including the cardiovascular field, where it has facilitated a greater understanding of lipid metabolism, electrophysiology, cardiomyopathies, and other cardiovascular disorders, has helped to create a wider variety of cellular and animal models, and has opened the door to a new class of therapies. In this Review, we discuss the applications of genome-editing technology throughout cardiovascular disease research and the prospect of in vivo genome-editing therapies in the future. We also describe some of the existing limitations of genome-editing tools that will need to be addressed if cardiovascular genome editing is to achieve its full scientific and therapeutic potential.

  4. Regulating autonomic nerve system:a new field of anti-inflammatory therapy for cardiovascular diseases%调节自主神经系统:心血管疾病抗炎治疗的新领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马度芳; 姜萍; 杨金龙; 李晓

    2015-01-01

    The role of chronic inflammation and autonomic neuropathy in the crucial underlying process con -tributing to the initiation and the progression of various cardiovascular diseases is well established .It is well known that the immune system is innervated by the autonomic nervous system , and the inflammatory reaction and immune reaction are re-gulated by the autonomic nerve system .Vagus nerve depresses inflammatory reaction via cholinergic anti-inflammatory path-way (CAP), while sympathetic nervous system has bidirectional regulation of pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation, which are affected by several factors such as the concentration of neurotransmitters or types of receptors .In this paper , we reviewed different effects of CAP and sympathetic nervous system on cardiovascular inflammatory reaction .Activation of CAP and regaining normal sympathetic function will improve the chronic inflammation in the process of cardiovascular disea -ses.Low-toxic and selective α7nAchR agonist is expected to be applied in cardiovascular diseases to alleviate chronic in -flammation .

  5. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun;

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down......-regulate the systemic expression of IL-6, but whether they can ameliorate the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI is uncertain. We sought to determine whether IL-6 contributes to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI, and whether budesonide/formoterol ameliorates this process. Wild-type mice were...... these impairments (vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, P = 0.005; cardiac output, P = 0.025). Pretreatment with the combination of budesonide and formoterol, but not either alone, ameliorated the vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine (P = 0.018) and cardiac output (P drugs also attenuated...

  6. Prevalence of risk factors, coronary and systemic atherosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm: Comparison with high cardiovascular risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Palazzuoli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Maddalena Gallotta, Giuseppe Guerrieri, Ilaria Quatrini, Beatrice Franci, et alDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Unit of Aortic Surgery, University of Siena, ItalyBackground: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is considered a manifestation of atherosclerosis, however there are epidemiologic, biochemical, and structural differences between occlusive atherosclerosis and AAA. The pathogenesis of AAA involves several factors, first of all destruction of collagen and elastin in the aortic wall. Classical risk factors may influence the evolution and development of AAA, though no consistent association has been found. Aims of the study were to evaluate associations between risk factors and to establish the prevalence of carotid, peripheral vascular and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with AAA.Methods: We studied 98 patients with AAA (Group 1 awaiting surgery compared with high cardiovascular risk population having two or more risk factors (n = 82 Group 2. We evaluated traditional risk factors and we studied by eco-doppler and echocardiography the presence of carotid peripheral and coronaric atherosclerosis in two groups.Results: We found a higher incidence of AAA in males (p < 0.01. The prevalence of infrarenal AAA was significantly higher than suprarenal AAA (81 vs 17 p < 0.001. No differences in total cholesterol (199 ± 20 vs. 197 ± 25 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein (142 ± 16 vs. 140 ± 18 mg/dl, triglycerides (138 ± 45 vs. 144 ± 56 mg/dl, glycemia (119 ± 15 vs. 122 ± 20 mg/dl, and fibrinogen (388 ± 154 vs. 362 ± 92 mg/dl were found between groups. We demonstrated significant differences for cigarette smoking (p < 0.002, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (150 ± 15 vs. 143 ± 14 mmHg and 88 ± 6 vs. 85 ± 7 mmHg, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively and high sensititivity C reactive protein (2.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl, p < 0.001. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels were

  7. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  8. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  9. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  10. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system Prevención de la enfermedad cardiovascular basada en tratamiento hipolipemiante: un reto para el sistema de salud de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Gómez-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. RESULTS: A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%.OBJETIVO: Calcular el porcentaje de adultos que requiere tratamiento hipolipemiante de acuerdo con las recomendaciones del Programa Nacional de Educación en Colesterol-III, usando los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4040 individuos con edad entre 20 y 69 años estudiados bajo un ayuno de 9 a 12 horas. RESULTADOS: Un equivalente de enfermedad cardiovascular fue identificado en 13.8% de los participantes. El 31.5% de la población tenía >2 factores de riesgo cardiovascular. La concentración de colesterol LDL estuvo arriba de la meta terapéutica en 70% de los casos con alto riesgo cardiovascular y en el 38.6% de los sujetos con >2 factores de riesgo. Cerca de 12 millones de mexicanos deben modificar su estilo de vida para reducir su concentración de colesterol LDL. Casi 8 millones califican para recibir tratamiento farmacológico. CONCLUSIONES: Una tercera parte de los adultos requiere alguna forma de tratamiento hipolipemiante (cambios en el estilo de vida: 36

  11. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  12. Efeito do vinho tinto associado ao exercício físico no sistema cardiovascular de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos Efecto del vino tinto asociado al ejercicio físico en el sistema cardiovascular de ratones espontáneamente hipertensos Effect of red wine associated with physical exercise in the cardiovascular system of spontaneously hipertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Soares Filho

    2011-04-01

    effect. Beverage-derived polyphenols have antioxidant properties benefiting blood vessels. There is little evidence on the consumption of red wine associated with PE and the influences on the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical exercise (PE and moderate red wine intake interaction on systolic blood pressure (SBP, high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, physical performance (PP and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Sample of 32 SHRs divided into four groups: wine and exercise group (WEG, wine group (WG, exercise group (EG and control group (CG. Red wine doses were given by intra-gastric gavage, during ten weeks, coincident with PE period, performed on treadmills. The SHRs received red wine doses of 3.715 ml/kg/day. Physical performance was analyzed by maximal exercise test (MET and LVEF by echocardiographic measures. SBP measurement was made before and after the PE protocol. RESULTS: Demonstrated that the three groups which suffered intervention presented significant SBP reduction compared to CG. At the end of the protocol, WEG showed the largest reduction. Like in SBP results, WEG showed the best outcome on HDL levels at the experiment end. There was no significant difference of physical performance and LVEF between groups. CONCLUSION: PE associated with moderate red wine intake has cardioprotective effects on SBP and HDL levels in SHR. Their physical performance and LVEF are not modified.

  13. Vitamin D and cardiovascular diseases: Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-12-24

    Vitamin D regulates blood pressure, cardiac functions, and endothelial and smooth muscle cell functions, thus, playing an important role in cardiovascular health. Observational studies report associations between vitamin D deficiency with hypertension and cardiovascular-related deaths. Peer-reviewed papers were examined in several research databases as per the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews, using key words that address the relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Correlations and interpretations were made considering the risks-benefits, broader evidence, and implications. This review analyzed current knowledge regarding the effects of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. 1,25(OH)2D and related epigenetic modifications subdue cellular inflammation, improve overall endothelial functions, reduce age-related systolic hypertension and vascular rigidity, and attenuate the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Most observational and ecological studies support 25(OH)vitamin D having protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the association of vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular diseases is based primarily on observational and ecological studies and thus, is a matter of controversy. Adequately powered, randomized controlled clinical trial data are not available to confirm these associations. Thus, to test the hypothesis that correction of vitamin D deficiency protects the cardiovascular system, well-designed, statistically powered, longer-term clinical trials are needed in persons with vitamin D deficiency. Nevertheless, the available data support that adequate vitamin D supplementation and/or sensible sunlight exposure to achieve optimal vitamin D status are important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases.

  14. 'Integrative Physiology 2.0': Integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. van der Velden (Jolanda); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased '-omics' techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of s

  15. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  16. Urocortin and cardiovascular protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu HUANG; Xiao-qiang YAO; Chi-wai LAU; Yau-chi CHAN; Suk-ying TSANG; Franky Leung CHAN

    2004-01-01

    Urocortin and other hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) polypeptides play biologically diverse roles in the stress, cardiovascular and inflammatory responses by acting on central and peripheral CRF receptors.Urocortin shows a significantly high sequence homology to CRF, and the concurrent expression of type-2 CRF (CRF2) receptors with urocortin in the heart suggests that urocortin may play a physiological role in the cardiac function. Urocortin is thought to be the endogenous agonist producing the cardiovascular actions previously attributed to CRF. This review highlights the current novel findings on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which urocortin may exert its cardiovascular protective action.

  17. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-06

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD.

  18. Actions and interactions of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide in the cardiovascular system and in inflammation--a tale of three gases!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Hsu, Anna; Moore, Philip K

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) together make up a family of biologically active gases (the so-called 'gaseous triumvirate') with an increasingly well defined range of physiological effects plus roles to play in a number of disease states. Over the years, most researchers have concentrated their attention on understanding the part played by a single gas in one or more body systems. It is becoming more clear that all three gases are synthesised naturally in the body, often by the same cells within the same organs, and that all three gases exert essentially similar biological effects albeit via different mechanisms. Within the cardiovascular system, for example, all are vasodilators, promote angiogenesis and vascular remodelling and are protective towards tissue damage in for example, ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the heart. Similarly, all exhibit complex effects in inflammation with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects recognised. It seems likely that cell function is controlled not by the activity of single gases working in isolation but by the concerted activity of all three of these gases working together.

  19. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios; K; Andrikopoulos; Dimitrios; K; Alexopoulos; Sotirios; P; Gartaganis

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation(PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process.

  20. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J Braz

    2009-06-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter particles (aerodynamic diameter biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles.

  1. SUPPRESSION OF RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM TO PREVENT COMPLICATIONS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: CURRENT "ROLES" DISTRIBUTION FROM CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGIST’S POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gilyarevskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases treatment and prevention is discussed. Some large randomized clinical trials are analyzed. Physical and chemical properties of drugs and its evidence base are considered among possible factors of ACE inhibitors choice. A problem of ACE inhibitor choice is also discussed in context of secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications in arterial hypertension and after myocardial infarction. It is concluded that the choice of any drug for cardiovascular disease treatment is mainly determined by its evidence base.

  2. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vairamani Kandan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that cardiovascular manifestations are quite common and varied in hyperthyroidism which are to be looked for in the management. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3032-3038

  3. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cédric; Berlan, Michel

    2006-02-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are essential in mammals to regulate blood volume and pressure. The functional roles of NP are not limited to natriuresis and diuresis. Several peripheral and central actions of the peptides have been characterized. Studies on transgenic mice have revealed their key function in the regulation of cardiomyocyte growth. Plasma NP levels increase in patients with cardiovascular disorders and heart failure. They represent useful clinical markers for clinicians to diagnose heart diseases. The recent discovery of their potent lipolytic action in adipose tissue is a breakthrough in cardiovascular medicine. This new function of NP in the regulation of lipid metabolism offers interesting questions in the field of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This review will briefly describe the effects of NP on the cardiovascular system and lipid metabolism.

  4. Wearable Technology Surveillance Data for the Personal Health Record Using the Omaha System: Noise Exposure, Cardiovascular and Stress Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Chin, Dal Lae; Monsen, Karen A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-01-01

    This poster describes a method to prepare noise and health data from wearable technology for standardized representation in the electronic personal health record thus enabling individuals to identify noise-related health risks. Using a case study approach, the authors demonstrate transformation of data to the Omaha System standardized terminology in order to depict the data graphically in a personal health record.

  5. Monitoring and analysis of adverse reactions associated with medicines recently approved for treatment of cardiovascular disease collected through the spontaneous reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Tarapués Román, Mónica Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Existen varios medicamentos disponibles para el tratamiento de la patología cardiovascular, así como para otras enfermedades consideradas factores de riesgo cardiovasculares, como son; diabetes, hipertensión y dislipidemia. Cuando un medicamento es comercializado por primera vez, su perfil de seguridad debe considerarse provisional debido a limitaciones propias de los ensayos clínicos pre-comercialización. Para los nuevos medicamentos, la información relevante sobre su seguridad en la poblaci...

  6. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans [Department of Radiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium); Walter Desmet [Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  7. Subject-specific cardiovascular system model-based identification and diagnosis of septic shock with a minimally invasive data set: animal experiments and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Starfinger, Christina; Hann, Christopher E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Dauby, Pierre C; Desaive, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A cardiovascular system (CVS) model and parameter identification method have previously been validated for identifying different cardiac and circulatory dysfunctions in simulation and using porcine models of pulmonary embolism, hypovolemia with PEEP titrations and induced endotoxic shock. However, these studies required both left and right heart catheters to collect the data required for subject-specific monitoring and diagnosis-a maximally invasive data set in a critical care setting although it does occur in practice. Hence, use of this model-based diagnostic would require significant additional invasive sensors for some subjects, which is unacceptable in some, if not all, cases. The main goal of this study is to prove the concept of using only measurements from one side of the heart (right) in a 'minimal' data set to identify an effective patient-specific model that can capture key clinical trends in endotoxic shock. This research extends existing methods to a reduced and minimal data set requiring only a single catheter and reducing the risk of infection and other complications-a very common, typical situation in critical care patients, particularly after cardiac surgery. The extended methods and assumptions that found it are developed and presented in a case study for the patient-specific parameter identification of pig-specific parameters in an animal model of induced endotoxic shock. This case study is used to define the impact of this minimal data set on the quality and accuracy of the model application for monitoring, detecting and diagnosing septic shock. Six anesthetized healthy pigs weighing 20-30 kg received a 0.5 mg kg(-1) endotoxin infusion over a period of 30 min from T0 to T30. For this research, only right heart measurements were obtained. Errors for the identified model are within 8% when the model is identified from data, re-simulated and then compared to the experimentally measured data, including measurements not used in the identification

  8. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  9. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  10. 内源性大麻素系统对心血管功能的调节作用%The endocannabinoid system in regulation of cardiovascular functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广海; 金松南; 文今福

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid exerts various cardiovascular effects such as vasorelaxation, lower blood pressure and negative inotropic effects via multiple signaling transduction by its receptor dependent and independent pathway. It is also involved in antiinflammatoryand endothelial-protecting effects. Therefore, the research on the pharmacological mechanism of the endocannabinoid system( ECS ) may play an important role in treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and heart failure.%内源性大麻素通过受体依赖性和非依赖性途径经一系列细胞内信号传导通路,可发挥多种重要的心血管效应,如舒张血管、降低血压和抑制心肌收缩等.它还参与抗炎、保护内皮细胞的作用.因此,对其作用机制的深入研究在防治高血压、动脉粥样硬化、缺血/再灌注损伤和心衰等心血管疾病中有重要意义.

  11. ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2008-12-15

    The endogenous competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular events. Elevated ADMA concentrations have been described in patients with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Recently, various studies investigated the independent role of ADMA as a cardiovascular risk predictor in several patient cohorts. In addition, ADMA might not only be a risk marker but also a causative factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature on the relationship between ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  12. Development of RI protein chip system for measurement of ADMA as risk factor of liver disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established

  13. Cloud-Based Smart Health Monitoring System for Automatic Cardiovascular and Fall Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, P; Orrico, A; Scala, P; Crispino, F; Pecchia, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the design and the preliminary validation of a platform developed to collect and automatically analyze biomedical signals for risk assessment of vascular events and falls in hypertensive patients. This m-health platform, based on cloud computing, was designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, and to provide proactive remote monitoring via data-mining functionalities. A retrospective study was conducted to train and test the platform. The developed system was able to predict a future vascular event within the next 12 months with an accuracy rate of 84 % and to identify fallers with an accuracy rate of 72 %. In an ongoing prospective trial, almost all the recruited patients accepted favorably the system with a limited rate of inadherences causing data losses (<20 %). The developed platform supported clinical decision by processing tele-monitored data and providing quick and accurate risk assessment of vascular events and falls.

  14. Effects of mixture of lidocaine and ropivacaine at different concentrations on the central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Qiu-xia; BO Yu-long; LI Hai-bo; LI Wen-zhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Lidocaine and ropivacaine are often combined in clinical practice to obtain a rapid onset and a prolonged duration of action. However, the systemic toxicity of their mixture at different concentrations is unclear. This study aimed to compare the systemic toxicity of the mixture of ropivacaine and lidocaine at different concentrations when administered intravenously in rats.Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12 each): 0.5% ropivacaine (group Ⅰ); 1.0% ropivacaine and 1.0% lidocaine mixture (group Ⅱ); 1.0% ropivacaine and 2.0% lidocaine mixture (group Ⅲ); and 1.0% lidocaine (group IV). Local anesthetics were infused at a constant rate until cardiac arrest. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and arterial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The onset of toxic manifestations (seizure, dysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest) was recorded, and then the doses of local anesthetics were calculated. Arterial blood samples were drawn for the determination of local anesthetics concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography.Results The onset of dysrhythmia was later significantly in group IV than in group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ, and group Ⅲ (P 0.05). The onset of seizure, cardiac arrest in group Ⅰ ((9.2±1.0) min, (37.0±3.0) min) was similar to that in group Ⅱ ((9.1±0.9) min, (35.0±4.0) min) (P>0.05), but both were later in group Ⅲ ((7.5±0.7) min, (28.0±3.0) min) (P0.05).Conclusions The systemic toxicity of the mixture of 1.0% ropivacaine and 2.0% lidocaine is the greatest while that of 1.0% lidocaine is the least. However, the systemic toxicity of the mixture of 1.0% ropivacaine and 1.0% lidocaine is similar to that of 0.5% ropivacaine alone.

  15. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field.

  16. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C: a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakerolhosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner

  17. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner.

  18. BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES WITH PREVENTIVE EFFECT IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Juana; Abellán, José; Zafrilla, Pilar; Amores, Diego; Hernández Sánchez, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of diet on cardiovascular disease prevention has been widely studied for many years. Numerous studies have confirmed that diets rich in fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet) are beneficial to the cardiovascular system and various bioactive food components have preventive effect on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this paper we review the effect of bioactive substances included in the group of flavonoids (catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavones), stilbenes such as resveratrol, bioactive peptides, plant sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega- 3 on the cardiovascular system.

  19. Food Consumption and its impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions focused on the globalized food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozafarrian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, based on a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in CVD, the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries, age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggest the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps are highlighted. There are large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. Based on the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods/emphasizing plant protein sources, provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. PMID:26429085

  20. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marjan Boerma; Gregory A Nelson; Vijayalakshmi Sridharan; Xiao-Wen Mao; Igor Koturbash; Martin Hauer-Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation,and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Groundbased studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses,appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk,and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover,astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation,and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined,the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  1. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  2. Comparison of dynamic of autonomic control indices in cardiovascular system under the treatment by ACE inhibitor (Enalapril and beta-blocker (Metoprolol in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Kiselev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to compare the influence of Enalapril and Metoprolol on synchronization of 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. 42 patients aged 49±9 years old with hypertension I, II were included in the study. 0.1 Hz-oscillations in heart rate variability (HRV and blood microcirculation were registered during the passive orthostatic sign while breathing spontaneously. The duration of each test was 10 minutes. Synchronization was estimated as a phase difference between 0.1 Hz-rhythms in heart rate and in filling of blood microcirculation. Quantitative measures of synchronization were also estimated. In addition frequency values of HRV spectrum in LF- and HF-ranges were assessed. Enalapril and Metoprolol had comparable effect on blood pressure reduction. Treatment with both Enalapril and Metoprolol in patients with significant vegetative dysfunction resulted in repair of functional interaction between 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. Enalapril was preferred in hypertensive patients with prevalence of disorders of vegetative regulation of blood microcirculation. Metoprolol influenced positively on 0,1 Hz-rhythm synchronization in patients with predominance of heart vegetative regulation dysfunction and in patients with sympathicotonia. In patients with hypertension and initially normal level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-mechanisms treatment with Enalapril or Metoprolol caused functional dissociation. Differentiated approach to the choice of hypertensive therapy should consider individual peculiarities of system vegetative dysfunction. The level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system should especially be evaluated initially and during the treatment

  3. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  4. Evaluation of HDL-modulating interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction using a systems pharmacology approach[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, Kapil; Lu, James; Sahasranaman, Srikumar; Davis, John; Mazer, Norman A.; Ramanujan, Saroja

    2016-01-01

    The recent failures of cholesteryl ester transport protein inhibitor drugs to decrease CVD risk, despite raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, suggest that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C may not always reflect elevations in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the process by which HDL is believed to exert its beneficial effects. HDL-modulating therapies can affect HDL properties beyond total HDL-C, including particle numbers, size, and composition, and may contribute differently to RCT and CVD risk. The lack of validated easily measurable pharmacodynamic markers to link drug effects to RCT, and ultimately to CVD risk, complicates target and compound selection and evaluation. In this work, we use a systems pharmacology model to contextualize the roles of different HDL targets in cholesterol metabolism and provide quantitative links between HDL-related measurements and the associated changes in RCT rate to support target and compound evaluation in drug development. By quantifying the amount of cholesterol removed from the periphery over the short-term, our simulations show the potential for infused HDL to treat acute CVD. For the primary prevention of CVD, our analysis suggests that the induction of ApoA-I synthesis may be a more viable approach, due to the long-term increase in RCT rate. PMID:26522778

  5. Detection of Cardiovascular Anomalies: An Observer-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in [1] is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in [2], used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.

  6. Effects of silodosin and tamsulosin on the urethra and cardiovascular system in young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Tomiyama, Yoshitaka; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Hoyano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu

    2009-06-24

    We examined whether the effects (efficacy on the urethra and hypotension) of silodosin (alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and tamsulosin (alpha(1A+1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist) in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia altered with age. We used young and old dogs, diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia by veterinarian's palpation. Under anesthesia, the increase in intraurethral pressure evoked by hypogastric nerve stimulation was measured, together with the level of systemic mean blood pressure. Each drug was administered intravenously in progressively increasing doses. At the end of the experiment, the prostate was isolated from each dog, then weighed and investigated pathologically to confirm benign prostatic hyperplasia. The wet weight of the prostate was greater in old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. By light microscopy, hyperplasia in the prostatic epithelium was confirmed in both groups. Silodosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the hypogastric nerve stimulation-induced increase in intraurethral pressure (without significant hypotensive effects) in both young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) also dose-dependently inhibited the intraurethral pressure increase in both groups, but it had a hypotensive effect that was significantly greater in old than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In conclusion, as regards the effect of silodosin on intraurethral pressure, potency was similar between young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it was without significant hypotensive effects. We therefore suggest that silodosin might be a good medication for lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in all age groups.

  7. Construction of evaluation index system of core competence of cardiovascular specialist nurses%心血管专科护士核心能力评价指标体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雁北; 孙新风; 王萍; 侯文秀; 栾晓嵘

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To construct a set of scientific and reasonable evaluation index system of core competence for cardiovascular specialist nurses.Method:Through literature review and theoretical analysis,the core compe-tence evaluation index system for cardiovascular specialist nurses was constructed.And the weights were set up through two rounds of expertsconsultation of Delphy index screening and the use of optimal sequence chart.Re-sults:It has determined the oretical knowledge,professional skills,related skills,professional characteristics of 4 primary indicators and 25 the second level indicators of cardiovascular specialist nurses’core competency evalua-tion index system.Conclusion:The construction of the index system is scientific,reliable and credible.Which could provide references for the training and assessment of cardiovascular specialist nurses.%[目的]构建一套科学、合理的心血管专科护士核心能力评价指标体系。[方法]通过文献回顾、理论分析构建心血管专科护士核心能力评价指标,通过两轮德尔菲专家咨询进行指标筛选,运用优序图表设置权重。[结果]确定了理论知识、专业技能、相关能力、职业特质4个一级指标和25个二级指标的心血管专科护士核心能力评价指标体系。[结论]构建的指标体系科学、可靠、可信度高,可为心血管专科护士的培养和考核提供参考。

  8. Impact of Diet-Induced Obesity and Testosterone Deficiency on the Cardiovascular System: A Novel Rodent Model Representative of Males with Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome (TDMetS)

    OpenAIRE

    Donner, Daniel G.; Elliott, Grace E.; Belinda R. Beck; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current models of obesity utilise normogonadic animals and neglect the strong relationships between obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male testosterone deficiency (TD). The joint presentation of these conditions has complex implications for the cardiovascular system that are not well understood. We have characterised and investigated three models in male rats: one of diet-induced obesity with the MetS; a second using orchiectomised rats mimicking TD; and a third co...

  9. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Kendall, Patrick J; Kendall, David A

    2012-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to stress. The ECS has numerous cardiovascular effects including modulation of blood pressure, heart rate, the baroreflex, and direct vascular actions. It is also involved in a protective manner in response to stressors in cardiac preconditioning, and various stressors (for example, pain, orthostasis and social stress) increase plasma levels of endocannabinoids. Given the multitude of vascular effects of endocannabinoids, this is bound to have consequences. Beneficial effects of ECS upregulation could include cardioprotection, vasodilatation, CB(2)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Negative effects of endocannabinoids could include mediation of the effects of glucocorticoids, CB(1)-mediated metabolic changes, and metabolism to vasoconstrictor products. It is also likely that there is a central role for the ECS in modulating cardiovascular activity via the HPA and SNS. However, much more work is required to fully integrate the role of the ECS in mediating many of the physiological responses to stress, including cardiovascular responses.

  10. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  11. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  12. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  13. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las principales características del envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular reflejan cambios anatómicos y estructurales a nivel de la pared de los vasos, la relajación miocárdica, el llenado ventricular y la respuesta a las catecolaminas . Muchos de los cambios funcionales asociados con la edad están relacionados con estos fenómenos. Esta revisión describe los cambios relacionados con el envejecimiento a nivel estructural y funcional del sistema cardiovascular, sus posibles factores etiológ...

  14. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  15. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  16. Myeloperoxidase and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2005-06-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a number of reactive oxidant species. In addition to being an integral component of the innate immune response, evidence has emerged that MPO-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage during inflammation. MPO-catalyzed reactions have been attributed to potentially proatherogenic biological activities throughout the evolution of cardiovascular disease, including during initiation, propagation, and acute complication phases of the atherosclerotic process. As a result, MPO and its downstream inflammatory pathways represent attractive targets for both prognostication and therapeutic intervention in the prophylaxis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  17. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  18. A computational model of cardiovascular physiology and heart sound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Raymond L

    2009-01-01

    A computational model of the cardiovascular system is described which provides a framework for implementing and testing quantitative physiological models of heart sound generation. The lumped-parameter cardiovascular model can be solved for the hemodynamic variables on which the heart sound generation process is built. Parameters of the cardiovascular model can be adjusted to represent various normal and pathological conditions, and the acoustic consequences of those adjustments can be explored. The combined model of the physiology of cardiovascular circulation and heart sound generation has promise for application in teaching, training and algorithm development in computer-aided auscultation of the heart.

  19. Pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie A; Humma, Larisa M

    2002-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a field aimed at understanding the genetic contribution to inter-patient variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Treatment of cardiovascular disease is, in most cases, guided by evidence from well-controlled clinical trials. Given the solid scientific basis for the treatment of most cardiovascular diseases, it is common for patients with a given disease to be treated in essentially the same manner. Thus, the clinical trials have been very informative about treating large groups of patients with a given disease, but are slightly less informative about the treatment of individual patients. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have the potential of taking the information derived from large clinical trials and further refining it to select the drugs with the greatest likelihood for benefit, and least likelihood for harm, in individual patients, based on their genetic make-up. In this paper, the current literature on cardiovascular pharmacogenetics is emphasised, and how the use of pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic information may be particularly useful in the future in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is also highlighted.

  20. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  2. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  3. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  4. Artificial neural interfaces for bionic cardiovascular treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    An artificial nerve, in the broad sense, may be conceptualized as a physical and logical interface system that reestablishes the information traffic between the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Studies on artificial nerves targeting the autonomic nervous system are in progress to explore new treatment strategies for several cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we will review our research targeting the autonomic nervous system to treat cardiovascular diseases. First, we identified the rule for decoding native sympathetic nerve activity into a heart rate using transfer function analysis, and established a framework for a neurally regulated cardiac pacemaker. Second, we designed a bionic baroreflex system to restore the baroreflex buffering function using electrical stimulation of the celiac ganglion in a rat model of orthostatic hypotension. Third, based on the hypothesis that autonomic imbalance aggravates chronic heart failure, we implanted a neural interface into the right vagal nerve and demonstrated that intermittent vagal stimulation significantly improved the survival rate in rats with chronic heart failure following myocardial infarction. Although several practical problems need to be resolved, such as those relating to the development of electrodes feasible for long-term nerve activity recording, studies of artificial neural interfaces with the autonomic nervous system have great possibilities in the field of cardiovascular treatment. We expect further development of artificial neural interfaces as novel strategies to cope with cardiovascular diseases resistant to conventional therapeutics.

  5. DEVOTIONAL MUSIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A slight reduction of blood pressure and pulse rate can reduce the risk of developing cardio vascular disease. Indian and western music have been considered among preventing programmes for time in order to reduce risk associated with cardio vascular disease. Therefore the aim of study is to describe the effect of listening hanuman chalisa music on systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in asymptomatic individuals MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty healthy MBBS subjects, aged 18 to 22years were seated in a comfortable sitting posture with spine straight, body relaxed. The music of hanuman chalisa plays for 10 minutes. Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate is monitored before and after the intervention. Result – Statistically significant reduction in SBP (10.62 mmHg, DBP (3.91mmHg and pulse rate (5.77per minute were observed after listening to hanuman chalisa music (p value< 0.001. Conclusion- hanuman chalisa music may have a potential benefit in reducing blood pressure and can be used in cardio vascular disease preventive programmes. It helps to improve the quality of life as well as increased life expectancy of the patient

  6. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  7. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  8. Freqüência de doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica e de seus fatores de risco em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    2007-06-01

    cardiovasculares deve ser objeto de novos estudos.INTRODUCTION: the pathogenesis of coronary disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients is not completely understood. Risk factors associated with lupus or its treatment may be associated with traditional risk factors for coronary disease. Such risk factors are more common in patients with lupus. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency of cardiovascular disease and traditional risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at Rheumatology Division of Hospital das Clínicas of Minas Gerais Federal University. METHODS: 172 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were evaluated. Cardiovascular events, traditional risk factors and clinical-laboratorial findings were investigated in this cross-sectional research. RESULTS: the mean age (SD of the patients was 38.5 years (11.2 years. 95.9% were female and 64.5% were non white. Cardiovascular disease was identified in 8 patients (4.7%, with 11 different diagnoses. Three patients had coronary insufficiency, three had stroke and five had peripheral arterial disease. Systemic arterial hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (48.8%, followed by dyslipidemia in 70 patients (40.7% and hypertriglyceridemia in 51 patients (29.7%. LDL-c > 100 mg/dl was found in 77 patients (44.8%. Among 165 female patients, 67 (40.6% had menopause, 43.3% of them with early menopause. CONCLUSION: the present study describes the frequency of risk factors for coronary artery disease in a Brazilian sample of lupus patients. The impact of recognition and management of those risk factors in prevention of cardiovascular events should be object of others studies.

  9. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD.

  10. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Calkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPAR agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPAR agonists, and more recently dual PPAR/ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPAR receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  11. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C.; Thomas, Merlin C.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARα agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARγ agonists, and more recently dual PPARα/γ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARγ receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:18288280

  12. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C; Thomas, Merlin C

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARalpha agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARgamma agonists, and more recently dual PPARalpha/gamma coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARgamma receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  13. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes.

  14. Circulating CD62E+ microparticles and cardiovascular outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Tae Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activated endothelial cells release plasma membrane submicron vesicles expressing CD62E (E-selectin into blood, known as endothelial microparticles (EMPs. We studied whether the levels of endothelial microparticles expressing CD62E(+, CD31(+/Annexin-V(+, or CD31(+/CD42(- predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stroke history. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with stroke history at least 3 months prior to enrolment were recruited. Peripheral blood EMP levels were measured by flow cytometry. Major cardiovascular events and death were monitored for 36 months. Three hundred patients were enrolled, of which 298 completed the study according to protocol. Major cardiovascular events occurred in 29 patients (9.7%. Nine patients died, five from cardiovascular causes. Cumulative event-free survival rates were lower in patients with high levels of CD62E(+ microparticles. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, medications and stroke etiologic groups showed an association between a high CD62E(+ microparticle level and a risk of major cardiovascular events and hospitalization. Levels of other kinds of EMPs expressing CD31(+/Annexin-V(+ or CD31(+/CD42(- markers were not predictive of cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSION: A high level of CD62E(+ microparticles is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with stroke history, suggesting that the systemic endothelial activation increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidities.

  15. Angiotensin System Blockade Combined With Calcium Channel Blockers Is Superior to Other Combinations in Cardiovascular Protection With Similar Blood Pressure Reduction: A Meta-Analysis in 20,451 Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chen; Tai, Chenhui; Bai, Bin; Yu, Shikai; Karamanou, Marianna; Wang, Jiguang; Protogerou, Athanase; Blacher, Jacques; Safar, Michel E; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yawei

    2016-08-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the superiority of angiotensin system blockade (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) plus a calcium channel blocker (CCB) (A+C) over other combination therapies in antihypertensive treatment. A meta-analysis in 20,451 hypertensive patients from eight randomized controlled trials was conducted to compare the A+C treatment with other combination therapies in terms of blood pressure (BP) reduction, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. The results showed that BP reduction did not differ significantly among the A+C therapy and other combination therapies in systolic and diastolic BP (P=.87 and P=.56, respectively). However, A+C therapy, compared with other combination therapies, achieved a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular composite endpoints, including cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke (risk ratio [RR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.91; Pother combinations (Pother combination therapies (P=.34) but presented a significantly lower incidence of serious adverse events (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98; P=.03). In conclusion, A+C therapy is superior to other combinations of antihypertensive treatment as it shows a lower incidence of cardiovascular events and adverse events, while it has similar effects in lowering BP and preserving renal function.

  16. 内源性二氧化硫:心血管调节的新型气体信号分子%Endogenous sulfur dioxide:a novel gasotransmitter in cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真真

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide has been considered as a toxic gas.However,recently more and more studies have shown that sulfur dioxide can be generated endogenously in cardiovascular system and has broad physiologic effects.Studies demonstrate that sulfur dioxide plays an important role in the regulation in the pathophysiologic process of many cardiovascular diseases,such as hypertension,atherosclerosis.These findings suggest that sulfur dioxide might be a novel endogenous gaseous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions.%长期以来二氧化硫一直被认为是一种废气,近年来越来越多的研究表明二氧化硫在心血管系统内源性生成,具有重要的心血管生理学效应,并对多种心血管疾病如高血压、动脉粥样硬化等疾病的病理生理学过程具重要的调节意义,成为继一氧化氮、一氧化碳和硫化氢后的又一具心血管调节作用的气体信号分子.该文对内源性二氧化硫在心血管系统的研究现状作一综述.

  17. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  19. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals.

  20. Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by repeated disruptions of breathing during sleep. This disease has many potential consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive deterioration, endocrinologic and metabolic effects, and decreased quality of life. Patients with OSAS experience repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during transient cessation of breathing that provoke systemic effects. Furthermore, there may be increased levels of biomarkers linked to endocrine-metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Epidemiological studies have identified OSAS as an independent comorbid factor in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and physiopathological links may exist with onset and progression of heart failure. In addition, OSAS is associated with other disorders and comorbidities which worsen cardiovascular consequences, such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is an emerging public health problem that represents a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors. Both OSAS and metabolic syndrome may exert negative synergistic effects on the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms (e.g., hypoxemia, sleep disruption, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory activation. It has been found that CPAP therapy for OSAS provides an objective improvement in symptoms and cardiac function, decreases cardiovascular risk, improves insulin sensitivity, and normalises biomarkers. OSAS contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease independently and by interaction with comorbidities. The present review focuses on indirect and direct evidence regarding mechanisms implicated in cardiovascular disease among OSAS patients.

  1. Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, Nikmah S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burgner, David; Cheung, Michael M H; Kurniati, Nia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Uiterwaal, Cuno SPM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection in children is now considered as a chronic condition, in which various non-infectious complications may occur, including those affecting the developing cardiovascular system. As children are expected to survive well into adulthood, understanding childhood as well as potenti

  2. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  3. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina; Arbeeva, Liubov; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Stallard, Eric; Christensen, Kaare; Schupf, Nicole; Province, Michael A; Yashin, Anatoli I

    2014-01-01

    Enduring interest in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism is ensured by its evolutionary-driven uniqueness in humans and its prominent role in geriatrics and gerontology. We use large samples of longitudinally followed populations from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND). The analyses show that women's lifespan is more sensitive to the e4 allele than men's in all these populations. A highly significant adverse effect of the e4 allele is limited to women with moderate lifespan of about 70 to 95 years in two FHS cohorts and the LLFS with relative risk of death RR = 1.48 (p = 3.6 × 10(-6)) in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans increasing the risks of death of the e4 carriers with cancer two-fold compared to the non-e4 carriers, i.e., RR = 2.07 (p = 5.0 × 10(-7)). The results suggest a pivotal role of non-sex-specific cancer as a nonlinear modulator of survival in this sample that increases the risk of death of the ApoE4 carriers by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8)) compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can non-additively interfere with cancer-related mechanisms.

  4. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Kulminski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enduring interest in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE polymorphism is ensured by its evolutionary-driven uniqueness in humans and its prominent role in geriatrics and gerontology. We use large samples of longitudinally followed populations from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS original and offspring cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND. The analyses show that women's lifespan is more sensitive to the e4 allele than men's in all these populations. A highly significant adverse effect of the e4 allele is limited to women with moderate lifespan of about 70 to 95 years in two FHS cohorts and the LLFS with relative risk of death RR = 1.48 (p = 3.6 × 10(-6 in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans increasing the risks of death of the e4 carriers with cancer two-fold compared to the non-e4 carriers, i.e., RR = 2.07 (p = 5.0 × 10(-7. The results suggest a pivotal role of non-sex-specific cancer as a nonlinear modulator of survival in this sample that increases the risk of death of the ApoE4 carriers by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8 compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can non-additively interfere with cancer-related mechanisms.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 functional promoter polymorphism G1575A is associated with elevated circulatory MMP-2 levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrehmand, F; Vaisi-Raygani, A; Kiani, A; Rahimi, Z; Tavilani, H; Navabi, S J; Shakiba, E; Hassanzadeh, N; Pourmotabbed, T

    2012-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a zinc dependent endonuclease that degrades type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. MMP-2 functional promoter polymorphism G1575A affects circulating level of MMP-2 and may be considered an important genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, association between MMP-2 1575A allele with serum MMP-2, neopterin and lipid-lipoprotein levels and with SLE and developing CVD was investigated. The present case-control study consisted of 109 SLE patients with and without CVD (mean age, 35.6 years) and 101 gender- and age-matched, unrelated, healthy controls (mean age, 37.1 years) from the population in the west of Iran. MMP-2 1575G/A polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction (restriction fragment length polymorphism) PCR-RFLP, serum MMP-2, neopterin and lipid levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme assay, respectively. The presence of MMP-2 G1575A allele was found to be associated with SLE and developed CVD (OR = 1.78, p = 0.029 and OR = 3.43, p = 0.025, respectively). The SLE patients with MMP-2 A (G/A + A/A) allele had higher MMP-2 activity (301 ± 166 vs. 194 ± 35.5, p = 0.002), neopterin (29.4 ± 39.4 vs. 7.3 ± 4.6, p = 0.005), LDL-C (120 ± 25.7 vs. 87 ± 39.3, p = 0.045) and lower HDL-C (39.6 ± 11 vs. 45.9 ± 11.8, p = 0.031) levels than the control subjects. There was a significantly positive correlation between MMP-2 level with neopterin, total cholesterol and TG levels and negative correlation with HDL-C level in SLE patients with CVD. MMP-2 G1575A allele may be a risk factor for SLE. The carriers of this allele have high levels of MMP-2, neopterin, total cholesterol and TG and lower levels of HDL, thus, they are more likely to develop heart disease.

  6. [Multiculturalism and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Carlo; Corsi, Filippo; Esposito, Cosimo; Di Michele, Sara; Nguyen, Bich Lien; Khatibi, Shahrzad; Sciarretta, Tesir; Franchitto, Silvia; Mirabelli, Francesca; Pannarale, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Immigration has increased drastically to the point of becoming an ordinary structure of our society. Once in Italy, the immigrant's health is compromised rapidly due to a series of conditions and illnesses that exist in our country: lack of work, inadequate salary, inappropriate residence, lacking family support, climate changes, nutritional differences. Cardiovascular illnesses represent 7.6% of the diseases of the immigrants, and cause 36.6% of deaths. The risk factors that affect the genesis of cardiovascular diseases include: subjective factors (age, ethnic group), environmental, nutritional and pathological (arterial hypertension, AIDS, tuberculosis, alcohol). The challenge for our time is to design a new solidarity model to promote cultural and social integration in order to meet the multiethnical and multiracial needs of western society. This model should permit reconsideration of doctor-patient relationship in order to build a real intercultural society.

  7. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  8. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  9. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  10. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  11. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    (ECG) abnormalities, heart rate, family history (of ischaemic heart disease), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, walking duration and pace, leisure time physical activity, forced expiratory volume (FEV)1%pred, household income, education, vital exhaustion, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......AIM: European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed...

  12. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  13. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  14. Personalized medicine in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Personalized medicine is a novel medical model with all decisions and practices being tailored to individual patients in whatever ways possible. In the era of genomics, personalized medicine combines the genetic information for additional benefit in preventive and therapeutic strategies. Personalized medicine may allow the physician to provide a better therapy for patients in terms of efficiency, safety and treatment length to reduce the associated costs. There was a remarkable growth in scientific publication on personalized medicine within the past few years in the cardiovascular field. However, so far, only very few cardiologists in the USA are incorporating personalized medicine into clinical treatment. We review the concepts, strengths, limitations and challenges of personalized medicine with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are many challenges from both scientific and policy perspectives to personalized medicine, which can overcome them by comprehensive concept and understanding, clinical application, and evidence based practices. Individualized medicine serves a pivotal role in the evolution of national and global healthcare reform, especially, in the CVDs fields. Ultimately, personalized medicine will affect the entire landscape of health care system in the near future.

  15. 基于肠促胰素的治疗药物在心血管系统中作用的研究进展%Advances in Studies on the Effect of Incretin-Based Therapy on Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于倩; 于德民

    2014-01-01

    心血管疾病(CVD)是糖尿病的大血管并发症之一,也是致患者死亡的主要原因。新型药物的心血管安全性是广受关注的问题,胰高血糖素样肽-1受体激动剂(GLP-1RA)和二肽基肽酶-4抑制剂(DPP-4I)是两类通过提高肠促胰素活性治疗2型糖尿病(T2DM)的新型药物。GLP-1RA和DPP-4I对心血管功能异常的动物模型及缺血性心脏病患者的心功能都具有保护作用。但其对已合并心脏疾病的糖尿病患者心血管系统的作用尚不确定。本文将近年来关于GLP-1RA和DPP-4I对心血管系统影响的研究进行综述,为临床治疗糖尿病及其并发症提供依据。%Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which results in a high risk of mortality. Thus, the cardiovascular safety of new anti-diabetic agents has become an important prob⁃lem with wide concern. There are two classes of incretine-based medications: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (DPP-4I). It has been demonstrated that GLP-1RA and DPP-4I possesse beneficial actions in both animal models of cardiovascular dysfunction and patients with ischemic heart diseases. However, their effects on the cardiovascular system in diabetic patients with heart diseases are still uncertain. Here, we sys⁃tematically reviewed the effects of GLP-1RA and DPP-4I on cardiovascular system to provide more evidence of incretin-based therapy application for diabetes and complications.

  16. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  17. Cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects: lack of evidence for a central nervous system site of action based on hemodynamic studies with cocaine methiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, L W; Rodak, D J; Kuhn, F E; Wahlstrom, S K; Tessel, R E; Visner, M S; Schaer, G L; Gillis, R A

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that cocaine acts directly in the brain to enhance central sympathetic outflow. However, some studies suggested that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine are related to a peripheral action. To characterize further the site of cocaine's cardiovascular effect, we compared the hemodynamic effects of cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) with those observed after administration of an equimolar dose (2.62 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) of cocaine methiodide, a quaternary derivative of cocaine that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, by using sufentanil-sedated dogs. Cocaine produced significant (p < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+37+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+55+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+5.3+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (+2.4+/-0.9 L/min). Cocaine methiodide produced increases in heart rate (+57+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+45+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+3.4+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (1.1+/-0.9 L/min), which were not significantly different from those observed with cocaine. Because opiate sedation potentially might have attenuated central sympathetic outflow, we further confirmed the qualitative similarity of the actions of cocaine and cocaine methiodide on heart rate and blood pressure in unsedated, conscious dogs. Our data suggest that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine result primarily from a peripheral site of action.

  18. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome - the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka Rutkowska, Jolanta; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35-60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  19. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Israel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV. However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D velocity acquisition sequence for concise quantification of SPCF and flow distribution in patients with SV. Methods 29 patients with SV physiology prospectively underwent CMR (1.5 T (n = 14 bidirectional cavopulmonary connection [BCPC], age 2.9 ± 1.3 years; and n = 15 Fontan, 14.4 ± 5.9 years and 20 healthy volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 13.1 years served as controls. A single whole-heart 4D velocity acquisition and five 2D flow acquisitions were performed in the aorta, superior/inferior caval veins, right/left pulmonary arteries to serve as gold-standard. The five 2D velocity acquisition measurements were compared with 4D velocity acquisition for validation of individual vessel flow quantification and time efficiency. The SPCF was calculated by evaluating the disparity between systemic (aortic minus caval vein flows and pulmonary flows (arterial and venour return. The pulmonary right to left and the systemic lower to upper body flow distribution were also calculated. Results The comparison between 4D velocity and 2D flow acquisitions showed good Bland-Altman agreement for all individual vessels (mean bias, 0.05±0.24 l/min/m2, calculated SPCF (−0.02±0.18 l/min/m2 and significantly shorter 4D velocity acquisition-time (12:34 min/17:28 min,p 2; Fontan 0.62±0.82 l/min/m2 and not in controls (0.01 + 0.16 l/min/m2, (3 inverse relation of right/left pulmonary artery perfusion and right/left SPCF (Pearson = −0.47,p = 0.01 and (4 upper to lower body flow distribution trend related to the weight (r = 0.742, p  Conclusions 4D

  20. Proceedings of the Symposium Teaching Cardiovascular Physiology Outside the Lecture Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel A.; Rovick, Allen A., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Provided are 10 papers presented during a symposium on teaching cardiovascular physiology outside the lecture hall. Topics addressed include a mechanical model of the cardiovascular system for effective teaching, separate course for experiments in cardiovascular physiology, selective laboratory (alternative to cookbook experiments), cardiovascular…

  1. Related risk factors of cardiovascular system damage in children with mycoplasma pneumonia%儿童支原体肺炎心血管系统损害相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李碧莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨支原体肺炎患儿心血管系统损害的临床特点及相关危险因素。方法回顾性分析自2013年1月至2014年6月期间宁波市鄞州区茅山社区卫生服务中心收治的189例支原体肺炎患儿的临床资料,采集患血管系统损害的临床表现,并对发生心血管系统损害的相关危险因素进行单因素以及多因素Logistic回归分析。结果在189例肺炎支原体感染患儿中,共有42例并发肺外心血管系统损害,发病率为22.2%;多因素Logistic回归分析提示:年龄(OR=2.452)、热程(OR=1.337)、C-反应蛋白(OR=1.563)、发热程度(OR=1.310)、大环内酯类抗生素应用起始时间(OR=2.452)与支原体肺炎患儿肺外心血管系统损害均呈正相关(均P<0.05),而CD4+/CD8+比值升高(OR=0.679)则为保护性因素(P<0.05)。结论年龄、热程、高C-反应蛋白、发热程度、大环内酯类抗生素应用起始时间及低血清CD4+/CD8+比值是肺炎支原体感染患儿肺外心血管系统损害的高危因素,临床应根据这些高危因素制定防止措施以改善患儿的预后。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of cardiovascular system damage in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae ( MP) and related risk factors. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 189 children with MP treated during the period of January 2013 to June 2014 in Ningbo Yinzhou District Maoshan Community Health Service Center, and clinical manifestations of cardiovascular system damage were collected. Related risk factors of cardiovascular system damage were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results Of 189 cases with MP, 42 children were complicated with cardiovascular system damage, and the incidence was 22. 2%. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=2. 452), course of fever (OR=1. 337), CRP (OR=1. 563), degree of fever (OR=1. 310) and starting time of

  2. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried; Drechsler, Christiane; Ritz, Eberhard; Zittermann, Armin; Cavalier, Etienne; Pieber, Thomas R; Lappe, Joan M; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    A poor vitamin D status, i.e. low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], is common in the general population. This finding is of concern not only because of the classic vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal outcomes, but also because expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the heart and blood vessels suggests a role of vitamin D in the cardiovascular system. VDR-knockout mice suffer from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various experimental studies suggest cardiovascular protection by vitamin D, including antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and direct cardio-protective actions, beneficial effects on classic cardiovascular risk factors as well as suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. In epidemiological studies, low levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk of CVD and mortality. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are sparse and have partially, but not consistently, shown some beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. arterial hypertension). We have insufficient data on vitamin D effects on cardiovascular events, but meta-analyses of RCTs indicate that vitamin D may modestly reduce all-cause mortality. Despite accumulating data suggesting that a sufficient vitamin D status may protect against CVD, we still must wait for results of large-scale RCTs before raising general recommendations for vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of CVD. In current clinical practice, the overall risks and costs of vitamin D supplementation should be weighed against the potential adverse consequences of untreated vitamin D deficiency.

  3. Cardiovascular histamine receptors in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, N; Eyre, P

    1975-08-01

    The effects of mepyramine (H1-antagonist) and burimamide (H2-antagonist) were studied on histamine, 2-methylhistamine (a selective H1-agonist), 4-methylhistamine (a selective H2-agonist) and acetylcholine-induced changes in systemic arterial and central venous pressure and respiration in anaesthetized chickens. The result of this study suggested a predominance of H1 and some H2 histamine receptors in the cardiovascular system of domestic fowl where both are mediating systemic hypotension. There also appears to be predominance of H1 receptors mediating venous hypertension and respiratory apnoea to large doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine. In addition, a possible involvement of H2-receptors in the cardiovascular system of chicken is suggested by the finding that burimamide always blocked mepyramine potentiated secondary pressor response to histamine and its analogues.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  5. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is a common disorder that is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in conjunction with free thyroxine concentrations within the normal reference range. Thyroid hormones are known to affect the heart and vasculature and, as a result, the impact of SCH on the cardiovascular (CV system has recently become an important topic of research. Strong evidence points to a link between SCH and CV risk factors such as alterations in blood pressure, lipid levels, and atherosclerosis. Additionally, accumulating evidence indicates that SCH is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. The present review proposes that SCH may be a potentially modifiable risk factor of CV disease and mortality. However, large-scale clinical trials with appropriate power investigating the risks and benefits of SCH treatment are required to determine whether these benefits can be achieved with levothyroxine therapy.

  7. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  8. Understanding changes in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chummun, Harry

    Cardiovascular pathophysiological changes, such as hypertension and enlarged ventricles, reflect the altered functions of the heart and its circulation during ill-health. This article examines the normal and altered anatomy of the cardiac valves, the contractile elements and enzymes of the myocardium, the significance of the different factors associated with cardiac output, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in the heart beat. It also explores how certain diseases alter these functions and result in cardiac symptoms. Nurses can benefit from knowledge of these specific changes, for example, by being able to ask relevant questions in order to ascertain the nature of a patients condition, by being able to take an effective patient history and by being able to read diagnostic results, such as electrocardiograms and cardiac enzyme results. All this will help nurses to promote sound cardiac care based on a physiological rationale.

  9. Osteoporosis y enfermedad cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Sarahí Mendoza; Miriam Noa; Rosa Más

    2007-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y la osteoporosis son causas frecuentes de morbilidad en la población adulta, cuya frecuencia aumenta con la edad, por lo que al aumentar la expectativa de vida, constituyen importantes problemas de salud. El riesgo a padecer ambas patologías depende de factores de riesgo, y la prevención consiste en controlar los modificables. Las ECV y la osteoporosis presentan factores etiológicos comunes que involucran la biosíntesis del colesterol y la oxidación li...

  10. Postnatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetus depends on placental circulation in utero. A successful transition from intrauterin to extrauterine life depends on succesful physiological changes during labor. During delivery, fetus transfers from a liquid environment where oxygen comes via umbilical vein to air environement where oxygenation is supported via air breathing. Endocrinological changes are important for fetus to adapt to extrauterine life. In addition to these, cord clemping plays a crucial role in postnatal adaptation. Establishment of neonatal postnatal life and succesful overcome, the fetal cardiovascular transition period are important to stay on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 181-190

  11. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  12. Antioxidantes y enfermedad cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Clotilde

    2004-01-01

    La enfermedad cardiovascular se mantiene como la más importante causa de morbi y mortalidad en la mayoría de los países desarrollados, siendo cada vez más frecuente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La orteroesclerosis es un enfermedad crónica de las arterias de mediano y gran calibre, caracterizadas por el endurecimiento y pérdida de elasticidad de su pared, que se acompaña de estrechamiento de su luz. En general, la lesión arteriosclerótica se desarrolla en tres fases: a) inici...

  13. Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew D

    2006-10-01

    Lipids are water-insoluble molecules that have a wide variety of functions within cells, including: 1) maintenance of electrochemical gradients; 2) subcellular partitioning; 3) first- and second-messenger cell signaling; 4) energy storage; and 5) protein trafficking and membrane anchoring. The physiological importance of lipids is illustrated by the numerous diseases to which lipid abnormalities contribute, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Lipidomics, a branch of metabolomics, is a systems-based study of all lipids, the molecules with which they interact, and their function within the cell. Recent advances in soft-ionization mass spectrometry, combined with established separation techniques, have allowed the rapid and sensitive detection of a variety of lipid species with minimal sample preparation. A "lipid profile" from a crude lipid extract is a mass spectrum of the composition and abundance of the lipids it contains, which can be used to monitor changes over time and in response to particular stimuli. Lipidomics, integrated with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, will contribute toward understanding how lipids function in a biological system and will provide a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of lipid-based disease, for biomarker screening, and for monitoring pharmacologic therapy.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Bas J.M.; Olaf H Klungel; de Boer, Anthonius; Ch Stricker, Bruno H; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2009-01-01

    In developed countries cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death. Cardiovascular drugs such as platelet aggregation inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, antihypertensives and cholesterol lowering drugs are abundantly prescribed to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Notable interindividual variation exists in the response to these pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which can be partially explained by factors such as gender, age, diet, concomitant drug use and environmental f...

  15. Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Guy

    2017-05-01

    With observational epidemiological studies it has been possible in the 1950-60 s to identify what has been called cardiovascular risk factors. The multifactorial origin of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease has been elucidated and in multifactorial intervention trials it was demonstrated that lifestyle changes related to smoking, diet and exercise can prevent the incidence of premature cardiovascular events. The application of that knowledge at the level of the community has resulted in a reversal of the cardiovascular disease epidemic. More investment is needed in the prevention of the development of cardiovascular risk from childhood onwards. More studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of low-intensity exposure to environmental factors on the cardiovascular system using the most appropriate study design and biosensors. More epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate societal changes on cardiovascular disease. Given the actual knowledge on how to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need for a shift from aetiological epidemiological research into preventive research.

  16. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  17. Research Advances on Hydrogen Therapy in Cardiovascular System Diseases%氢气对心血管系统疾病治疗作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡景景

    2012-01-01

    氧化应激在心血管系统疾病的发生发展中起了重要作用.最近,氢气被证实在体内具有选择性的抗氧化作用.氢气可以选择性地清除羟自由基和过氧亚硝基,而对体内生理活性氧无影响.在心血管系统中,氢气被证实具有抗氧化、抗炎、抗凋亡作用.在心肌缺血再灌注损伤、动脉粥样硬化、放射性心脏损伤等疾病中被证实具有抗氧化保护作用.至此,氢气作为一种新型抗氧化剂为心血管系统疾病的临床治疗提供了崭新的方法.%Oxidalive stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that hydrogen has a selective antionidative effect; it reduces the hydroxyl radical and peruxynilrite, but does not affect other reactive oxygen species. Numerous other studies have shown that hydrogen, through anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis, has a significant therapeutic effect in various cardiovascular system diseases. Hydrogen is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatmenl of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  19. Protean manifestations of vitamin D deficiency, part 3: association with cardiovascular disease and disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David S H

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the risk factors of inflammation, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular hypertrophy. As a result there is an increase in cardiovascular events (CVEs) associated with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency itself or secondary hyperparathyroidism or both may be responsible for the increase in CVEs. Correction of vitamin D deficiency may decrease the incidence of CVEs. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, depression, and chronic pain and muscle weakness. Vitamin D deficiency is early treated with oral vitamin D supplements which may improve the manifestations of the diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency.

  20. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.