WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular system

  1. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  2. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ocampo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  3. Cardiovascular system aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo, José M; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2005-01-01

    El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inot...

  4. The cardiovascular system after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from exercise refers to the time period between the end of a bout of exercise and the subsequent return to a resting or recovered state. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states occurring after exercise that are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. In this context, recovery of the cardiovascular system after exercise occurs across a period of minutes to hours, during which many characteristics of the system, even how it is controlled, change over time. Some of these changes may be necessary for long-term adaptation to exercise training, yet some can lead to cardiovascular instability during recovery. Furthermore, some of these changes may provide insight into when the cardiovascular system has recovered from prior training and is physiologically ready for additional training stress. This review focuses on the most consistently observed hemodynamic adjustments and the underlying causes that drive cardiovascular recovery and will highlight how they differ following resistance and aerobic exercise. Primary emphasis will be placed on the hypotensive effect of aerobic and resistance exercise and associated mechanisms that have clinical relevance, but if left unchecked, can progress to symptomatic hypotension and syncope. Finally, we focus on the practical application of this information to strategies to maximize the benefits of cardiovascular recovery, or minimize the vulnerabilities of this state. We will explore appropriate field measures, and discuss to what extent these can guide an athlete’s training. PMID:28153943

  5. PPARs and the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Milton; Chang, Lin; Fan, Yanbo; Zhang, Jifeng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone-receptor superfamily. Originally cloned in 1990, PPARs were found to be mediators of pharmacologic agents that induce hepatocyte peroxisome proliferation. PPARs also are expressed in cells of the cardiovascular system. PPARγ appears to be highly expressed during atherosclerotic lesion formation, suggesting that increased PPARγ expression may be a vascular compensatory response. Also, ligand-activated PPARγ decreases the inflammatory response in cardiovascular cells, particularly in endothelial cells. PPARα, similar to PPARγ, also has pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, including antiinflammatory and antiatherosclerotic properties. PPARα activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle proinflammatory responses, attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. However, PPARδ overexpression may lead to elevated macrophage inflammation and atherosclerosis. Conversely, PPARδ ligands are shown to attenuate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by improving endothelial cell proliferation and survival while decreasing endothelial cell inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Furthermore, the administration of PPAR ligands in the form of TZDs and fibrates has been disappointing in terms of markedly reducing cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Therefore, a better understanding of PPAR-dependent and -independent signaling will provide the foundation for future research on the role of PPARs in human cardiovascular biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1415–1452. PMID:19061437

  6. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  7. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  8. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  9. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18...... and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1......,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion...

  10. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Yukio; Ikehira, Hiroo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique for visualization of the cardiovascular system, and is used to evaluate tissue characteristics, cardiac function and blood flow abnormalities, as well as to obtain morphological information. In this paper we presented results of clinical and laboratory research obtained using conventional spin echo MRI with regard to cardiovascular anatomy, tissue characterization and physiology. Furthermore, experience with two new techniques, cine-MRI and volume-selected MR spectroscopy, and their potential clinical usefulness in detecting cardiovascular diseases are documented. (author)

  12. [Effect of lead on the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-11-01

    Lead is a metal widely spread in the natural environment. It is strongly toxic, particularly to the peripheral and central nervous systems. The toxic influence on the cardiovascular system is most pronounced in case of higher exposures, where myocardium and the renal circulation are affected, in consequence of which secondary arterial hypertension can develop. It seems that lead affects the cardiovascular system mainly by changing the peripheral autonomic nervous system and leading to chronic neuropathy. Chronic exposure, even to low doses of lead, can impair conduction in myocardium. In order to assess those changes thoroughly prospective studies involving newly employed workers with occupational exposure to toxic activity of lead will be necessary.

  13. PPAR-γ in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong Duan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, an essential transcriptional mediator of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, is increasingly recognized as a key player in inflammatory cells and in cardiovascular diseases (CVD such as hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. PPAR-γ agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs, increase insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose, decrease circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides, lower blood pressure, reduce inflammatory markers, and reduce atherosclerosis in insulin-resistant patients and animal models. Human genetic studies on PPAR-γ have revealed that functional changes in this nuclear receptor are associated with CVD. Recent controversial clinical studies raise the question of deleterious action of PPAR-γ agonists on the cardiovascular system. These complex interactions of metabolic responsive factors and cardiovascular disease promise to be important areas of focus for the future.

  14. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  16. Physiological Changes to the Cardiovascular System at High Altitude and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Callum James; Gavin, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Riley, Callum James, and Matthew Gavin. Physiological changes to the cardiovascular system at high altitude and its effects on cardiovascular disease. High Alt Med Biol. 18:102-113, 2017.-The physiological changes to the cardiovascular system in response to the high altitude environment are well understood. More recently, we have begun to understand how these changes may affect and cause detriment to cardiovascular disease. In addition to this, the increasing availability of altitude simulation has dramatically improved our understanding of the physiology of high altitude. This has allowed further study on the effect of altitude in those with cardiovascular disease in a safe and controlled environment as well as in healthy individuals. Using a thorough PubMed search, this review aims to integrate recent advances in cardiovascular physiology at altitude with previous understanding, as well as its potential implications on cardiovascular disease. Altogether, it was found that the changes at altitude to cardiovascular physiology are profound enough to have a noteworthy effect on many forms of cardiovascular disease. While often asymptomatic, there is some risk in high altitude exposure for individuals with certain cardiovascular diseases. Although controlled research in patients with cardiovascular disease was largely lacking, meaning firm conclusions cannot be drawn, these risks should be a consideration to both the individual and their physician.

  17. Systems biology approaches to the study of cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolsky, Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic lipids and chronic inflammation drive the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Many cardiovascular drugs target the liver which is involved in the formation of lipid and inflammatory risk factors. With robust systems biology tools and comprehensive

  18. Sleep and the Cardiovascular System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Grace R; Pinto, Swaroop

    2017-06-01

    Subspecialty pediatric practice provides comprehensive medical care for a range of ages, from premature infants to children, and often includes adults with complex medical and surgical issues that warrant multidisciplinary care. Normal physiologic variations involving different body systems occur during sleep and these vary with age, stage of sleep, and underlying health conditions. This article is a concise review of the cardiovascular (CV) physiology and pathophysiology in children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) contributing to CV morbidity, congenital and acquired CV pathology resulting in SDB, and the relationship between SDB and CV morbidity in different clinical syndromes and systemic diseases in the expanded pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BDNF - A key player in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2017-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) were first identified as target-derived survival factors for neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are known to control neural cell fate, development and function. Independently of their neuronal properties, NTs exert unique cardiovascular activity. The heart is innervated by sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which require NTs during early development and in the establishment of mature properties, contributing to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The identification of molecular mechanisms regulated by NTs and involved in the crosstalk between cardiac sympathetic nerves, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, and vascular cells, has a fundamental importance in both normal heart function and disease. The article aims to review the recent data on the effects of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) on various cardiovascular neuronal and non-neuronal functions such as the modulation of synaptic properties of autonomic neurons, axonal outgrowth and sprouting, formation of the vascular and neural networks, smooth muscle migration, and control of endothelial cell survival and cardiomyocytes. Understanding these mechanisms may be crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies, including stem cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of kynurenic acid on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic Acid (KYNA is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan (TRP which is produced by aminotransferase KAT I and KAT II in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Moreover it has been shown that it can be supplied with food. KYNA is an antagonist of glutamate receptors NMDA and antagonist of acetylcholine α7. As we know KYNA can not penetrate or penetrates in very small amounts through the blood-brain barier. Several studies have demonstrated that kynurenine metabolism plays an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia. Less is known about a peripheral KYNA. Studies suggest that KYNA may have antiatherosclerotic activity and many other beneficial effects on cardiovascular system.

  1. NMR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canby, R.C.; Evanochko, W.T.; Pohost, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging permits high-resolution tomographic and three-dimensional images of the human body to be obtained without exposure to ionizing radiation. Such imaging not only yields anatomic resolution comparable to X-ray examinations but also provides a potential means to discriminate between healthy tissue and diseased tissue. This potential is based on certain NMR properties known as relaxation times, which determine, in part, the signal intensity in an image. These properties are related to such factors as the sizes and concentrations of proteins and mobile lipids and the compartmentalization of the protons of water. Although NMR imaging (also called magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is becoming widely available for clinical use, application to the cardiovascular system, though promising, remains primarily a research tool. Gated proton NMR imaging can generate cardiac images with excellent morphologic detail and contrast; however, its ultimate importance as a cardiovascular diagnostic modality will depend on the development of several unique applications. These applications are discussed in this paper

  2. "TRP inflammation" relationship in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Kiriko; Inoue, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    Despite considerable advances in the research and treatment, the precise relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the immunoinflammatory processes underlying the initiation, progression, and exacerbation of many cardiovascular diseases is of prime importance. The innate immune system has an ancient origin and is well conserved across species. Its activation occurs in response to pathogens or tissue injury. Recent studies suggest that altered ionic balance, and production of noxious gaseous mediators link to immune and inflammatory responses with altered ion channel expression and function. Among plausible candidates for this are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that function as polymodal sensors and scaffolding proteins involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we will first focus on the relevance of TRP channel to both exogenous and endogenous factors related to innate immune response and transcription factors related to sustained inflammatory status. The emerging role of inflammasome to regulate innate immunity and its possible connection to TRP channels will also be discussed. Secondly, we will discuss about the linkage of TRP channels to inflammatory CV diseases, from a viewpoint of inflammation in a general sense which is not restricted to the innate immunity. These knowledge may serve to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of various inflammatory CV diseases and their novel therapeutic strategies.

  3. Growth Hormone (GH) and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Oscar; Devesa, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues. We include some preliminary data from a trial in which GH or placebo is given to elderly people suffering from critical limb ischemia, showing some of the benefits of the hormone on plasma markers of inflammation, and the safety of GH administration during short periods of time, even in diabetic patients. We also analyze how Klotho is strongly related to GH, inducing, after being released from the damaged vascular endothelium, the pituitary secretion of GH, most likely to repair the injury in the ischemic tissues. We also show how GH can help during wound healing by increasing the blood flow and some neurotrophic and growth factors. In summary, we postulate that short-term GH administration could be useful to treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29346331

  4. Depression, anxiety, and the cardiovascular system: the psychiatrist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, S P

    2001-01-01

    It is becoming clear that the comorbidity of depression and cardiovascular disease does not occur by chance but rather is an inevitable consequence of the relationship between the conditions. Depression in patients with cardiovascular disease is a significant risk factor for developing symptomatic and fatal ischemic heart disease. Moreover, depressed patients have a higher than expected rate of sudden cardiovascular death. Therefore, appropriate treatment of patients with depression and cardiovascular disease cannot be restricted to considerations of either depression or cardiovascular disease in isolation. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have various effects on the cardiovascular system, including Type IA antiarrhythmic activity that has been associated with an increased risk of mortality in post-myocardial infarction patients. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not associated with adverse cardiac effects. The SSRI paroxetine was compared with a therapeutic level of the TCA nortriptyline in a randomized, controlled study and demonstrated a benign cardiovascular profile, while the TCA induced a significantly higher rate of serious adverse cardiovascular events. On the basis of this favorable cardiovascular profile, the SSRIs should therefore be the preferred choice for the treatment of most patients with comorbid depression and cardiovascular disease. Investigation of putative pathophysiologic mechanisms linking depression and cardiovascular mortality, such as the role of platelet activation, will form the basis for further investigation of antidepressant treatments in order to establish if the antidepressants have a beneficial effect on the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Sleep apnoea syndromes and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Justin C

    2011-06-01

    Management of SAS and cardiovascular disease risk should be closely linked. It is important to screen for cardiovascular disease risk in patients with SAS and vice versa. CSA/CSR may be improved by ventilation strategies in heart failure, but benefit remains to be proven. For OSA, although CPAP may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, its main benefit is symptom control. In the longer-term, CPAP should be used alongside standard cardiovascular risk reduction strategies including robust weight management programmes, with referral for bariatric surgery in appropriate cases. CPAP and NIV should be considered for acute admissions with decompensated cardiac failure.

  6. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN CHILDREN WITH INFLUENZA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, V; Mantak, G; Andrikevych, I; Roizman, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical changes in the cardiovascular system observed in most patients. The extent and nature of these changes may depend on the characteristics of epidemic outbreaks, such as virus, immune responsiveness, age composition patients. Flu-like lesions of the cardiovascular system in most cases occurring beneficial--quickly disappear change of heart, normal pulse and blood pressure.

  7. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  8. Towards predictive cardiovascular safety : a systems pharmacology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues related to changes in blood pressure, arise frequently in drug development. In the thesis “Towards predictive cardiovascular safety – a systems pharmacology approach”, a system-specific model is described to quantify drug effects on the interrelationship between mean

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  10. Sirtuins in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Targets in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Alessandro; Yuan, Xuejun; Bober, Eva; Braun, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of death and morbidity. Cardiac and vascular pathologies develop predominantly in the aged population in part due to lifelong exposure to numerous risk factors but are also found in children and during adolescence. In comparison to adults, much has to be learned about the molecular pathways driving cardiovascular diseases in the pediatric population. Sirtuins are highly conserved enzymes that play pivotal roles in ensuring cardiac homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. In this review, we discuss novel findings about the biological functions of these molecules in the cardiovascular system and their possible involvement in pediatric cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  12. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    http://ww.bioline.org.br/ja. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar Rat (Rattus .... norvegicus) were gotten from the animal house of the. Department of Anatomy .... Locomotion and Respiration in. Marine Air – Breathing ...

  14. Autophagy in health and disease: focus on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialet-Perez, Jeanne; Vindis, Cécile

    2017-12-12

    Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosome-mediated protein and organelle degradation that plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last few years, specific functions for autophagy have been identified in many tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system, autophagy appears to be essential to heart and vessel homeostasis and function; however defective or excessive autophagy activity seems to contribute to major cardiovascular disorders including heart failure (HF) or atherosclerosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of cardiovascular autophagy in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhichao; Xie, Jia; Yu, Albert S; Stock, Jonathan; Du, Jianyang; Yue, Lixia

    2015-02-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a large number of nonselective cation channels with variable degree of Ca(2+)-permeability. The 28 mammalian TRP channel proteins can be grouped into six subfamilies: canonical, vanilloid, melastatin, ankyrin, polycystic, and mucolipin TRPs. The majority of these TRP channels are expressed in different cell types including both excitable and nonexcitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Unlike voltage-gated ion channels, TRP channels do not have a typical voltage sensor, but instead can sense a variety of other stimuli including pressure, shear stress, mechanical stretch, oxidative stress, lipid environment alterations, hypertrophic signals, and inflammation products. By integrating multiple stimuli and transducing their activity to downstream cellular signal pathways via Ca(2+) entry and/or membrane depolarization, TRP channels play an essential role in regulating fundamental cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. With the use of targeted deletion and transgenic mouse models, recent studies have revealed that TRP channels are involved in numerous cellular functions and play an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, several TRP channels are involved in inherited diseases of the cardiovascular system. This review presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the physiological functions of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system and their contributions to cardiovascular diseases. Ultimately, TRP channels may become potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allen, P.A. [Life Link, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  17. Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Algorithm: A New Sonographic Algorithm for Evaluation of the Fetal Cardiovascular System in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Luis, Juan; Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and feasibility of the new cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm for studying the extended fetal cardiovascular system, including the portal, thymic, and supra-aortic areas, in the second trimester of pregnancy (19-22 weeks). We performed a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with healthy fetuses (singleton and twin pregnancies) attending our center from March to August 2011. The extended fetal cardiovascular system was evaluated by following the new algorithm, a sequential acquisition of axial views comprising the following (caudal to cranial): I, portal sinus; II, ductus venosus; III, hepatic veins; IV, 4-chamber view; V, left ventricular outflow tract; VI, right ventricular outflow tract; VII, 3-vessel and trachea view; VIII, thy-box; and IX, subclavian arteries. Interobserver agreement on the feasibility and exploration time was estimated in a subgroup of patients. The feasibility and exploration time were determined for the main cohort. Maternal, fetal, and sonographic factors affecting both features were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all views except view VIII; the difference in the mean exploration time between observers was 1.5 minutes (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.1 minutes; P cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm is a reproducible and feasible approach for exploration of the extended fetal cardiovascular system in a second-trimester scan. It can be used to explore these areas in normal and abnormal conditions and provides an integrated image of extended fetal cardiovascular anatomy. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. RhoA/Rho-Kinase in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sunamura, Shinichiro; Satoh, Kimio

    2016-01-22

    Twenty years ago, Rho-kinase was identified as an important downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein, RhoA. Thereafter, a series of studies demonstrated the important roles of Rho-kinase in the cardiovascular system. The RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway is now widely known to play important roles in many cellular functions, including contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis, and its excessive activity induces oxidative stress and promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the important role of Rho-kinase has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Cyclophilin A is secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells and activated platelets in a Rho-kinase-dependent manner, playing important roles in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway plays crucial roles under both physiological and pathological conditions and is an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular medicine. Recently, functional differences between ROCK1 and ROCK2 have been reported in vitro. ROCK1 is specifically cleaved by caspase-3, whereas granzyme B cleaves ROCK2. However, limited information is available on the functional differences and interactions between ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the cardiovascular system in vivo. Herein, we will review the recent advances about the importance of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the cardiovascular system. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Dynamic Coupling Between Respiratory and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio

    The analysis of non-linear dynamics of the coupling among interacting quantities can be very useful for understanding the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular control mechanisms. In this chapter RP is used to detect and quantify the degree of non-linear coupling between respiration and spontaneous rhythms of both heart rate and blood pressure variability signals. RQA turned out to be suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the observed coupling patterns among rhythms, both in simulated and real data, providing different degrees of coupling. The results from the simulated data showed that the increased degree of coupling between the signals was marked by the increase of PR and PD, and by the decrease of ER. When the RQA was applied to experimental data, PD and ER turned out to be the most significant variables, compared to PR. A remarkable finding is the detection of transient 1:2 PL episodes between respiration and cardiovascular variability signals. This phenomenon can be associated to a sub-harmonic synchronization between the two main rhythms of HR and BP variability series.

  20. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  1. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  2. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  3. Effects of Interleukin 17 on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Marie; Miossec, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide and account for most of the premature mortality observed in chronic inflammatory diseases. Common mechanisms underlie these two types of disorders, where the contribution of Interleukin (IL)-17A, the founding member of the IL-17 family, is highly suspected. While the local effects of IL-17A in inflammatory disorders have been well described, those on the cardiovascular system remain less studied. This review focuses on the effects of IL-17 on the cardiovascular system both on isolated cells and in vivo. IL-17A acts on vessel and cardiac cells, leading to inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. In vivo and clinical studies have shown its involvement in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction that occur prematurely in chronic inflammatory disorders. As new therapeutic approaches are targeting the IL-17 pathway, this review should help to better understand their positive and negative outcomes on the cardio-vascular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiovascular system state of the first year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosynskyi E. О.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to definition of a level of state of health of students are shown. 94 students (48 girls and 46 youths of basic medical group took part in an experiment. The state of the cardiovascular system was probed on indexes by frequencies of heart-throbs, arteriotony, index of Robinson, adaptation potential of circulation of blood. It is marked that at the beginning of school year students have a low level of functioning of the cardiovascular system. At 73,5 % girls and 62,2 % youth is expose tachycardia. At 8,2 % girls and 26,7 % youth is expose the enhanceable norm of systole arteriotony.

  5. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H 2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H 2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H 2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H 2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K + channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H 2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H 2 S-related drugs in the future. This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hui; Lyu, Xing; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2017-09-01

    Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a special type of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It is a process that is characterized by the loss of features of endothelial cells and acquisition of specific markers of mesenchymal cells. A variety of stimuli, such as inflammation, growth factors, and hypoxia, regulate EndMT through various signaling pathways and intracellular transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are also involved in this process. Recent studies have identified the essential role of EndMT in the cardiovascular system. EndMT contributes to steps in cardiovascular development, such as cardiac valve formation and septation, as well as the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders, such as congenital heart disease, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial infarction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of EndMT will provide novel therapeutic strategies to overcome congenital heart disease due to abnormal development and other cardiovascular diseases. This review will focus on summarizing the currently understood signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of EndMT and the role of EndMT in pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    system that continues to sustain and control our vital organ systems. .... vagal tone and increased sympathetic outflow to the sinus node due to the fall in blood pressure) ... intraoperative autonomic balance of a particular patient population.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a key role for the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1-5)) in the cardiovascular system. Recent advances in sphingolipid research indicates that cardiomyocyte, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function is

  9. Structural identifiability analysis of a cardiovascular system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironet, Antoine; Dauby, Pierre C; Chase, J Geoffrey; Docherty, Paul D; Revie, James A; Desaive, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The six-chamber cardiovascular system model of Burkhoff and Tyberg has been used in several theoretical and experimental studies. However, this cardiovascular system model (and others derived from it) are not identifiable from any output set. In this work, two such cases of structural non-identifiability are first presented. These cases occur when the model output set only contains a single type of information (pressure or volume). A specific output set is thus chosen, mixing pressure and volume information and containing only a limited number of clinically available measurements. Then, by manipulating the model equations involving these outputs, it is demonstrated that the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally globally identifiable. A further simplification is made, assuming known cardiac valve resistances. Because of the poor practical identifiability of these four parameters, this assumption is usual. Under this hypothesis, the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally identifiable from an even smaller dataset. As a consequence, parameter values computed from limited but well-chosen datasets are theoretically unique. This means that the parameter identification procedure can safely be performed on the model from such a well-chosen dataset. Thus, the model may be considered suitable for use in diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogen in cardiovascular disease during systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L; Ryan, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against cardiovascular risk factors in

  11. Estrogen in Cardiovascular Disease during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. Methods PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. Findings The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against

  12. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases AGENCY... System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases. The purpose of this...) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR 4.100-4.104), (3) the Impairment of Auditory Acuity (38 CFR 4.85 and...

  13. Endocannabinoids and the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the cardiovascular system. Endocannabinoids play a minimal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function in normal conditions, but are altered in most cardiovascular disorders. In shock, endocannabinoids released within blood mediate the associated hypotension through CB(1) activation. In hypertension, there is evidence for changes in the expression of CB(1), and CB(1) antagonism reduces blood pressure in obese hypertensive and diabetic patients. The endocannabinoid system is also upregulated in cardiac pathologies. This is likely to be cardioprotective, via CB(2) and CB(1) (lesser extent). In the vasculature, endocannabinoids cause vasorelaxation through activation of multiple target sites, inhibition of calcium channels, activation of potassium channels, NO production and the release of vasoactive substances. Changes in the expression or function of any of these pathways alter the vascular effect of endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids have positive (CB(2)) and negative effects (CB(1)) on the progression of atherosclerosis. However, any negative effects of CB(1) may not be consequential, as chronic CB(1) antagonism in large scale human trials was not associated with significant reductions in atheroma. In neurovascular disorders such as stroke, endocannabinoids are upregulated and protective, involving activation of CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1 and PPARα. Although most of this evidence is from preclinical studies, it seems likely that cannabinoid-based therapies could be beneficial in a range of cardiovascular disorders.

  14. Evaluating a decision making system for cardiovascular dysautonomias diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idri, Ali; Kadi, Ilham

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system that is involved in homeostasis of the whole body functions. A malfunction in this system can lead to a cardiovascular dysautonomias. Hence, a set of dynamic tests are adopted in ANS units to diagnose and treat patients with cardiovascular dysautonomias. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a decision tree based cardiovascular dysautonomias prediction system on a dataset collected from the ANS unit of the Moroccan university hospital Avicenne. We collected a dataset of 263 records from the ANS unit of the Avicenne hospital. This dataset was split into three subsets: training set (123 records), test set (55 records) and validation set (85 records). C4.5 decision tree algorithm was used in this study to develop the prediction system. Moreover, Java Enterprise Edition platform was used to implement a prototype of the developed system which was deployed in the Avicenne ANS unit so as to be clinically validated. The performance of the decision tree-based prediction system was evaluated by means of the error rate criterion. The error rates were measured for each classifier and have achieved an average value of 1.46, 2.24 and 0.89 % in training, test, and validation sets respectively. The results obtained were encouraging but further replicated studies are still needed to be performed in order to confirm the findings of this study.

  15. O-GlcNAc and the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayaka, Sujith; Jones, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is capable of robust changes in response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli through intricate signaling mechanisms. The area of metabolism has witnessed a veritable renaissance in the cardiovascular system. In particular, the post-translational β-O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to cellular proteins represents one such signaling pathway that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This highly dynamic protein modification may induce functional changes in proteins and regulate key cellular processes including translation, transcription, and cell death. In addition, its potential interplay with phosphorylation provides an additional layer of complexity to post-translational regulation. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway generally requires glucose to form the nucleotide sugar, UDP-GlcNAc. Accordingly, O-GlcNAcylation may be altered in response to nutrient availability and cellular stress. Recent literature supports O-GlcNAcylation as an autoprotective response in models of acute stress (hypoxia, ischemia, oxidative stress). Models of sustained stress, such as pressure overload hypertrophy, and infarct-induced heart failure, may also require protein O-GlcNAcylation as a partial compensatory mechanism. Yet, in models of Type II diabetes, O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in the subsequent development of vascular, and even cardiac, dysfunction. This review will address this apparent paradox and discuss the potential mechanisms of O-GlcNAc-mediated cardioprotection and cardiovascular dysfunction. This discussion will also address potential targets for pharmacologic interventions and the unique considerations related to such targets. PMID:24287310

  16. Statins and oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Marios; Sanna, Fabio; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2017-09-26

    Statins are widely established as an important class of medications for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to their lipid-lowering effects, mounting evidence suggests that statins exhibit non-lipid-lowering mediated effects in the cardiovascular system. These so called "pleiotropic" effects are partly due to antioxidant properties of statins. These are mediated by inhibition of the mevalonate pathway, which interferes with small GTP-ase protein prenylation. This, in turn, leads to anti-oxidant effects of statins via a plethora of mechanisms. Statins prevent the activation of the pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH-oxidase by interfering with Rac1 activation and translocation to the membrane, as well as reducing expression of crucial subunits of NADPH-oxidase. Statins also enhance the expression, enzymatic activity and coupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), through mevalonate-dependent effects. The net result is a restoration of the redox balance in the cardiovascular system, with subsequent anti-atherosclerotic and cardioprotective effects. While the evidence from basic science studies and animal models is strong, more clinical trials are required to establish the relevance of these pleiotropic effects to human cardiovascular disease and potentially lead to expanded indications for statin treatment or alternative therapeutic strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. The role of urocortins in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczewska, J; Dzieza-Grudnik, A; Siga, O; Grodzicki, T

    2014-12-01

    Urocortins (Ucn) 1, 2 and 3 are a group of endogenous peptide hormones belonging to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family of peptides. The presence of urocortins has been detected in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. They play an important role in a stress response (with respect to its duration, intensity and restoration of homeostasis). They also act as regulatory factors of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive and immune systems. Urocortins act by binding to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The "central" effects of urocortins are mediated mainly by activation of CRH receptor 1 (CRH-R1), and the "peripheral" effects by activation of CRH-R2. Ucn2 and Ucn3 are selective CRH-R2 agonists and have much higher binding affinity to this receptor than CRH and Ucn1. Recent studies have shown that urocortins exert various biological effects in the cardiovascular system, such as vasodilation, positive inotropic and lusitropic effects, as well as cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. They also suppress the renin-angiotensin system and may have an impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Urocortins and CRH-R2 may be a potential therapeutic target in coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and hypertension. This review summarizes the data published to date on the role of urocortins in the cardiovascular system.

  18. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular

  19. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  20. Air pollution and its impact on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Paris Colombini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great medical advances, cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. It develops as a result of countless complex interactions between genetic factors such as those related to age, sex, family history, weight, and post-menopausal status in women; and to environment-related factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, eating habits, physical activity, and others. For more than a decade, several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the existence of a consistent association between air pollution and increased risk for cardiovascular events, that is, not only cardiovascular death, but also acute myocardial infarction and arrhythmias. Experimental studies in different animal species, observational studies in humans, as well as in vitro cellular and acellular models attempt to elucidate the probable biological mechanisms that lend plausibility to these associations, but they fail to do it clearly, since the severity and progression of cardiovascular disease are much more affected than is its induction. However, some effects resulting from the exposure to different air pollutants have been evidenced and the most significant of which involve pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, blood clotting disorders, promotion and potentiation of the atherosclerotic process, and cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

  1. Cine MR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Fumiaki; Yoshino, Yasushi; Mihara, Junji; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Kimura, Masahiko; Yano, Masao; Umeda, Masahiro; Oouchi, Toshihiro

    1990-01-01

    In recent years cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed as a high-speed imaging technique that provides a high intensity signal even at a short repetition time (20-30 msec) by using an excited pulse with a small flip angle according to the gradient echo method, enabling about 20 to 30 continuous images of the same section per one cardiac cycle to be taken. On cine display of these continuous images, information concerning blood flow shown by a high intensity signal in comparison with that of the myocardium and vascular wall is obtained with high temporal resolution along with anatomical information. The present study reports the clinical usefulness of cine MRI in today's situation, inculding the following: calculation of the left ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in congenital shunt disease by integration of the area of multisections through application of Simpson's method; diagnosis of the severity of valvular regurgitation, evaluation of stenosal diseases, and diagnosis of inflow from the fissured entry of dissecting aortic aneurysm by evaluating of an area of low intensity signal, probably based on the high velocity or turbulent blood flow: and evaluation of patency of the internal mammary artery bypass graft of the basis of the possible visualization of even thin blood vessels because of the high intensity signal of blood flow. In particular, the characteristics of this procedures are described by comparing it with other technologies in the field of diseases of valvular regurgitation. (author)

  2. DEFEAT OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to studying of the submitted epidemiological, clinical, tool, laboratory data on pathology of cardiovascular system at various viral infections. The review is based on results of domestic and foreign researches. At viral infections damage of heart and his carrying-out system perhaps as during the sharp period of a disease, and the period of a convalescence or at the chronic course of virus process. The greatest cardiothrogenism is possessed by enteroviruses, which affect the myocardium in 5–15% of cases. Much attention is paid to herpesviruses, widespread, persistently persistent in the body, as one of the reasons for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy, coronary vasculitis, early atherosclerosis, cardiac rhythm disturbance. Other infections that may affect the cardiovascular system include influenza viruses, adenovirus, poliovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis, mumps, rubella, herpes simplex, varicella, arbovirus, respiratory-syntial virus, yellow fever virus et al. Complications from cardiovascular system can come to light at various age.

  3. 38 CFR 4.104 - Schedule of ratings-cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cardiovascular system. 4.104 Section 4.104 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System § 4.104 Schedule of ratings—cardiovascular system. Diseases of the Heart Rating Note (1): Evaluate cor pulmonale, which is a form of...

  4. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Y Demidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart disease, incident atrial fibrillation, and cardiac dysfunction.

  5. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    T Y Demidova; I N Drozdova

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart diseas...

  6. Neonatal cardiovascular system adaptation in babies with intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the adaptive features of the cardiovascular system in newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR on the basis of a clinical instrumental study.Subjects and methods. A study group included 100 newborn infants with IUGR; a control group consisted of 40 babies with normal anthropometric measurements at birth. Medical history and clinical data and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings were analyzed.Results. All the examinees with IUGR had manifestations of cardiovascular system dysadaptation. There was a high rate of electrocardiographic changes, such as cardiac arrhythmias; low voltage; systolic overload of the right heart and left ventricle; signs of ventricular hypertrophy; and transient myocardial ischemia. The specific features of cardiac hemodynamics were decreased sizes of the left ventricle, lower parameters of its systolic function, and longer functioning of fetal communications.Conclusion. IUGR is associated with the development of cardiovascular system dysadaptation syndrome, which is due to prior perinatal hypoxia. The findings necessitate a follow-up of children by involving a cardiologist.

  7. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  8. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  9. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  10. Development of data file system for cardiovascular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Kohei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Nisawa, Yoshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    A computer-assisted filing system for storing and processing data from cardiac pool scintigraphy and myocardial scintigraphy has been developed. Individual patient data are stored with his (her) identification number (ID) into floppy discs successively in order of receiving scintigraphy. Data for 900 patients can be stored per floppy disc. Scintigraphic findings can be outputted in a uniform file format, and can be used as a reporting format. Output or retrieval of filed individual patient data is possible according to each examination, disease code or ID. This system seems to be used for prospective study in patients with cardiovascular diseases. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. A histological ontology of the human cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, Claudia; Salazar, Liliana; Corcho, Oscar; Trujillo, Maria; Alegre, Enrique

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, we describe a histological ontology of the human cardiovascular system developed in collaboration among histology experts and computer scientists. The histological ontology is developed following an existing methodology using Conceptual Models (CMs) and validated using OOPS!, expert evaluation with CMs, and how accurately the ontology can answer the Competency Questions (CQ). It is publicly available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/HO and https://w3id.org/def/System . The histological ontology is developed to support complex tasks, such as supporting teaching activities, medical practices, and bio-medical research or having natural language interactions.

  12. The Equine Neonatal Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Celia M

    2015-12-01

    The neonatal foal is in a transitional state from prenatal to postnatal circulation. Healthy newborn foals often have cardiac murmurs and dysrhythmias, which are usually transient and of little clinical significance. The neonatal foal is prone to infection and cardiac trauma. Echocardiography is the main tool used for valuation of the cardiovascular system. With prompt identification and appropriate action, dysrhythmias and other sequel to cardiac trauma can be corrected. With infection, the management and prognosis are driven by concurrent sepsis. Congenital disease represents an interesting diagnostic challenge for the neonatologist, but surgical correction is not appropriate for most equids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-11-26

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products' sales and regulation of their contents should continue.

  14. 78 FR 79300 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems for Acute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    .... FDA-2013-N-0581] Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems... of these devices into class II. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 870 Medical devices, Cardiovascular... Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 870 is amended as follows: PART 870--CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES 0 1...

  15. 78 FR 36702 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems (IABP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    .... FDA-2013-N-0581] Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems... Device In the preamble to the proposed rule (44 FR 13369; March 9, 1979), the Cardiovascular Device... Bypass Grafting: A Propensity Score Analysis,'' Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, vol. 9...

  16. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed...

  17. Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders - new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The long history of Cannabis sativa had its development stimulated and oriented for medicine after the discovery and chemical characterization of its main active ingredient, the 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC. Consequently, a binding site for 9-THC was identified in rat brains and the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1 was cloned, followed by the CB2 and by the discover of two endogenous agonists: anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes that catalyze its synthesis and degradation constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS, which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. In vivo experiments with rats have demonstrated the action of anandamide and 2-AG on the development of atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an effect on heart rate, blood pressure, vasoactivity and energy metabolism (action in dyslipidemia and obesity. Recent studies with an antagonist of CB1 receptors showed that the modulation of ECS can play an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese and dyslipidemic patients. Similarly, studies in rats have demonstrated the action of CB2 receptors in adhesion, migration, proliferation and function of immune cells involved in the atherosclerotic plaque formation process. The evidence so far gathered shows that the modulation of ECS (as agonism or antagonism of its receptors is an enormous potential field for research and intervention in multiple areas of human pathophysiology. The development of selective drugs for the CB1 and CB2 receptors may open a door to new therapeutic regimens.This review article aims to address the key findings and evidences on the modulation of ECS, in order to prospect future forms of therapeutic intervention at the cardiovascular level. A recent, emerging, controversial and of undoubted scientific interest subject, which states as a potential therapeutic target to reach in the 21 st century.

  18. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Handbook of the diagnostic radiology. The cardiovascular system; Handbuch der diagnostishen Radiologie. Kardiovaskulaeres System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. (ed.) [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-07-01

    Cardiovascular system diseases are the most common causes for death besides the progress in medical sciences. The book contains the following contributions within two main chapters: The heart, normal anatomy and important variants, cardiac diseases, thoracic aorta and pulmonal vascular system, abdominal vascular system, peripheric vascular system, veins, supraaortal vascular system, thoracic and abdominal aorta, abdomial vascular system, kidney arteries, mesenterial vascular system, abdominopelvic vascular system, peripheric arteries, hemodialysis shunt, transjugular portosystemic shunt.

  20. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  1. Exosomes as agents of change in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, A J; Knowlton, A A

    2017-10-01

    Exosomes have an evolving role in paracrine and autocrine signaling, which is enhanced because these lipid vesicles are quite stable and can deliver miRNA, DNA, protein and other molecules to cells throughout the body. Most cell types release exosomes, and exosomes are found in all biological fluids, making them accessible biomarkers. Significantly, exosomes can carry a biologically potent cargo, which can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. In the cardiovascular system exosomes have been primarily studied for their role in mediating the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells after myocardial injury. Exosomes released by cardiac cells in disease states, such as myocardial ischemia, can potentially have important pathophysiologic effects on other cardiac cells as well as on distant organs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. State of cardiovascular system during exercise in sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usanov D.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the state of cardiovascular system of sportsmen involved in rowing and canoeing, both before and after training. Material et methods: The research has been performed by means of the developed mobile devices that allow non-invasive screening assessment of the potential risk of collapse complications. Results: The article outlines the results of the survey carried out to determine the presence of vagotonic tone with deficient activity supply and abnormal pulse wave that may lead to circulatory collapse in exercise. Conclusion: The technique of pulse wave and vegetative regulation assessment before and after training enables to prevent the circulatory collapse development in stressful physical exertion in sportsmen.

  3. A System Dynamics Model for Planning Cardiovascular Disease Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Jack; Evans, Elizabeth; Zielinski, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Planning programs for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a challenge to every community that wants to make the best use of its limited resources. Selecting programs that provide the greatest impact is difficult because of the complex set of causal pathways and delays that link risk factors to CVD. We describe a system dynamics simulation model developed for a county health department that incorporates and tracks the effects of those risk factors over time on both first-time and recurrent events. We also describe how the model was used to evaluate the potential impacts of various intervention strategies for reducing the county's CVD burden and present the results of those policy tests. PMID:20167899

  4. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  5. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: . To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. Methods: . The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed wi...

  6. Technological innovations in the development of cardiovascular clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Nan-Chen; Chang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Jeen-Chen; Chan, Chien-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that computerized clinical case management and decision support systems can be used to assist surgeons in the diagnosis of disease, optimize surgical operation, aid in drug therapy and decrease the cost of medical treatment. Therefore, medical informatics has become an extensive field of research and many of these approaches have demonstrated potential value for improving medical quality. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based cardiovascular clinical information system (CIS) based on innovative techniques, such as electronic medical records, electronic registries and automatic feature surveillance schemes, to provide effective tools and support for clinical care, decision-making, biomedical research and training activities. The CIS developed for this study contained monitoring, surveillance and model construction functions. The monitoring layer function provided a visual user interface. At the surveillance and model construction layers, we explored the application of model construction and intelligent prognosis to aid in making preoperative and postoperative predictions. With the use of the CIS, surgeons can provide reasonable conclusions and explanations in uncertain environments.

  7. Alternative pathways for angiotensin II generation in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Becari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS consists of enzymes and peptides that regulate blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II is one of the most important and extensively studied components of the RAS. The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, among other diseases, are well known. However, it has been reported that patients chronically treated with effective doses of these inhibitors do not show suppression of Ang II formation, suggesting the involvement of pathways alternative to ACE in the generation of Ang II. Moreover, the finding that the concentration of Ang II is preserved in the kidney, heart and lungs of mice with an ACE deletion indicates the important role of alternative pathways under basal conditions to maintain the levels of Ang II. Our group has characterized the serine protease elastase-2 as an alternative pathway for Ang II generation from Ang I in rats. A role for elastase-2 in the cardiovascular system was suggested by studies performed in heart and conductance and resistance vessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This mini-review will highlight the pharmacological aspects of the RAS, emphasizing the role of elastase-2, an alternative pathway for Ang II generation.

  8. The role of the apelinergic and vasopressinergic systems in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Research studies indicate a role of the apelinergic and vasopressinergic systems both in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of CVD, including in such settings as obesity and stress. Based on these data, it may be suggested that interactions between these systems underlie numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, some of them related to the cardiovascular system. Better understanding of the role of these systems and their interactions, both physiological and related to the pathogenesis of CVD, will allow further advances in prevention and drug therapy.

  9. Platelet-derived growth factor-C and -D in the cardiovascular system and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunsik; Li, Xuri

    2018-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is among the first organs formed during development and is pivotal for the formation and function of the rest of the organs and tissues. Therefore, the function and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system are finely regulated by many important molecules. Extensive studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are critical regulators of the cardiovascular system. Even though PDGF-C and PDGF-D are relatively new members of the PDGF family, their critical roles in the cardiovascular system as angiogenic and survival factors have been amply demonstrated. Understanding the functions of PDGF-C and PDGF-D and the signaling pathways involved may provide novel insights into both basic biomedical research and new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  11. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, S; Margiotta, D P; Navarini, L; Pierro, L; Pantano, I; Riccardi, A; Afeltra, A; Valentini, G

    2017-12-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statins have been suggested to play a prophylactic role of cardiovascular events. This study is devoted to reviewing the literature on the topic and assessing the effects of these drugs in preventing a first cardiovascular event in a two-centre Italian series. Methods A PubMed search on cardiovascular prevention in systemic lupus erythematosus was performed. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus patients admitted to two centres from 2000-2015, who at admission had not experienced any cardiovascular event, were investigated. Aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statin use, and the occurrence of any cardiovascular event, were recorded at each visit. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional, disease-related cardiovascular risk factors and of each of the three drugs in the occurrence of new cardiovascular events. Results The literature search produced conflicting results. Two hundred and ninety-one systemic lupus erythematosus patients were included in the study and followed for a median of eight years. During follow-up, 16 cardiovascular events occurred. At multivariate analysis, taking aspirin (hazard ratio: 0.24) and hydroxychloroquine for more than five years (hazard ratio: 0.27) reduced, while antiphospholipid antibody positivity (hazard ratio: 4.32) increased, the risk of a first cardiovascular event. No effect of statins emerged. Conclusion Our study confirms an additive role of aspirin and hydroxychloroquine in the primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The lack of any detected effect in previous reports may depend on the design of studies and their short follow-up period.

  12. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become

  13. Hábito de fumar: Repercusión sobre el aparato cardiovascular Smoking: Repercussion on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fadragas Fernández

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos propusimos revisar la literatura más actualizada, para dar a conocer la magnitud de este nocivo hábito, alarmados ante la terrible realidad de saber que el tabaco causa 1 muerte cada 10 s, según un informe publicado recientemente por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El tabaquismo provoca 3 500 000 muertes anuales y ocasiona enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es realizar una actualización de este tema, haciendo mayor énfasis en la repercusión del hábito de fumar en el aparato cardiovascular. Como resultado de esta revisión encontramos que el hábito de fumar constituye un factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, donde las lesiones ateroscleróticas se presentan en un porcentaje elevado de los pacientes que fallecen por esta causa, y es a su vez, factor importante en la aparición de otras enfermedades, como son: la hipertensión arterial, la cardiopatía isquémica y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares.Summary We propose ourselves to review the most updated literature to make known the magnitude of this harmful habit, alarmed by the terrible reality to know that tobbaco causes a death per 10 s, according to a report recently published by the World Health Organization. Smoking produces 3 500 000 deaths a year and brings about cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this bibliographic review is to update this topic, making emphasis on the repercussion of smoking on the cardiovascular system. As a result of this review, we found that smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, where the atherosclerotic lesions are present in an elevated percentage of the patients dying for this cause, and that it is at the same time an important factor in the appearance of other diseases, such as arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases.

  14. Cardiovascular outcomes and systemic anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with severe psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Skov, L; Gislason, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common disease and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce risk of cardiovascular events. We therefore examined the rate of cardiovascular events, i.e. cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, in patients...... with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs. METHODS: Individual-level linkage of administrative registries was used to perform a longitudinal nationwide cohort study. Time-dependent multivariable adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence...... intervals (CIs) of cardiovascular events associated with use of biological drugs, methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids and other antipsoriatic therapies, including topical treatments, phototherapy and climate therapy. RESULTS: A total of 6902 patients (9662 treatment exposures) with a maximum follow...

  15. Recent Advances in Circadian Rhythms in Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong eChen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that intrinsic circadian clocks are tightly related to cardiovascular functions. The diurnal changes in blood pressure and heart rate are well known circadian rhythms. Endothelial function, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation exhibit circadian changes as well. The onset of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs or events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death, also exhibits temporal trends. Furthermore, there is strong evidence from animal models and epidemiological studies showing that disruption of circadian rhythms is a significant risk factor for many CVDs, and the intervention of CVDs may have a time dependent effect. In this mini review, we summarized recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between circadian rhythm and cardiovascular physiology and diseases including blood pressure regulation and myocardial infarction.

  16. Responses to reductive stress in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing appreciation that reductive stress represents a disturbance in the redox state that is harmful to biological systems. On a cellular level, the presence of increased reducing equivalents and the lack of beneficial fluxes of reactive oxygen species can prevent growth factor-mediated signaling, promote mitochondrial dysfunction, increase apoptosis, and decrease cell survival. In this review, we highlight the importance of redox balance in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and consider the tenuous balance between oxidative and reductive stress. We explain the role of reductive stress in models of protein aggregation-induced cardiomyopathies, such as those caused by mutations in αB-crystallin. In addition, we discuss the role of NADPH oxidases in models of heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion to illustrate how oxidants may mediate the adaptive responses to injury. NADPH oxidase 4, a hydrogen peroxide generator, also has a major role in promoting vascular homeostasis through its regulation of vascular tone, angiogenic responses, and effects on atherogenesis. In contrast, the lack of antioxidant enzymes that reduce hydrogen peroxide, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, promotes vascular remodeling and is deleterious to endothelial function. Thus, we consider the role of oxidants as necessary signals to promote adaptive responses, such as the activation of Nrf2 and eNOS, and the stabilization of Hif1. In addition, we discuss the adaptive metabolic reprogramming in hypoxia that lead to a reductive state, and the subsequent cellular redistribution of reducing equivalents from NADH to other metabolites. Finally, we discuss the paradoxical ability of excess reducing equivalents to stimulate oxidative stress and promote injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of the cardiovascular system-associated adipose tissue on atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Grechko, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances. Adipokine appears to play an important protective role in cardiovascular system. Under chronic inflammation conditions, the repertoire of signaling molecules secreted by cardiac fat can be altered, leading to a higher amount of pro-inflammatory messengers, vasoconstrictors, profibrotic modulators. This further aggravates cardiovascular inflammation and leads to hypertension, induction of the pathological tissue remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Contemporary imaging techniques showed that epicardial fat thickness correlates with the visceral fat mass, which is an established risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. However, this correlation is no longer present after adjustment for other covariates. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that pericardial fat volume and epicardial fat thickness can probably serve as a better indicator for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.A. Bom (Anton)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractUntil recently, mainly rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats and dogs were used to study the cardiovascular effects of 5-HT. From these studies it was clear that for some effects of 5-HT (e.g. 5-HT-induced tachycardia) there exists a large heterogeneity with respect to receptor subtype(s)

  19. A smart system for cardiovascular healthcare at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayoola, I.B.I.; Chen, W.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as reported by the World Health Organization is the major cause of death in the world, and one of the most commonly found diseases within the elderly population. As life expectancy increases, with skewed demographic changes, there is an increasing need for independent

  20. [The adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system in miners exposed to vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevskikh, L A; Oranskiĭ, I E; Makogon, I S

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics criteria for work-related adaptation disorders in respect of cardiovascular system factors have been developed; the stages of disadaptation have been characterized through the example of vibration exposed miners working under the conditions of cool microclimate.

  1. The effect of bedding system selected by manual muscle testing on sleep-related cardiovascular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Lai, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-01-01

    Different types of mattresses affect sleep quality and waking muscle power. Whether manual muscle testing (MMT) predicts the cardiovascular effects of the bedding system was explored using ten healthy young men. For each participant, two bedding systems, one inducing the strongest limb muscle force (strong bedding system) and the other inducing the weakest limb force (weak bedding system), were identified using MMT. Each bedding system, in total five mattresses and eight pillows of different firmness, was used for two continuous weeks at the participant's home in a random and double-blind sequence. A sleep log, a questionnaire, and a polysomnography were used to differentiate the two bedding systems. Heart rate variability and arterial pressure variability analyses showed that the strong bedding system resulted in decreased cardiovascular sympathetic modulation, increased cardiac vagal activity, and increased baroreceptor reflex sensitivity during sleep as compared to the weak bedding system. Different bedding systems have distinct cardiovascular effects during sleep that can be predicted by MMT.

  2. Exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: effect on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico Moreno, Karol; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Odreman, Rodolfo; Núñez, Tulio; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on left ventricular structure and function. Twenty-three patients of both sexes, aged 27 to 70 years, with a diagnosis of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (serum thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] ≤ 0.4mU/ml and normal free thyroxine [FT4]) were evaluated. The patients had been taking levothyroxine in suppressive doses for an average of 6.7 years (1 to 35 years). Twenty euthyroid individuals matched for age, sex and body mass index were selected as controls. A medical history was obtained and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis were quantified in all subjects. To evaluate left ventricular structure and function, as well as atrial conduction time, a two-dimensional echocardiogram and pulsed echo and tissue echo Doppler with electrocardiography monitoring were performed. The index of hemodynamic compensation of the left ventricular mass was calculated. Hyperthyroid symptom scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.0001). A positive correlation was found between hyperthyroidism scores and FT4 (p=0.005) and ejection fraction (p=0.04) and a negative correlation was found with TSH levels (p=0.03). End-diastolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output and stroke work were significantly higher in patients with SH (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was found between fractional shortening and FT4 level (p=0.022) and levothyroxine dose (p=0.016) and between stroke work and FT4 level (p=0.034). Left ventricular mass, diastolic function and atrial conduction time were similar in patients and controls. Our study suggests that patients with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism have hemodynamic changes resulting from adaptation to the biological effects of levothyroxine on the cardiovascular system. However, structural changes are not produced. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  3. The Effect of Mirthful Laughter on the Human Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael; Fry, William F.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized and more widely acknowledged during the past several decades, that a complex relationship exists between behavior associated with emotion and the human cardiovascular (CV) system. Early studies focused on the interplay between negative emotions and elevated CV risk, an effect that has in large part been attributed to increased adrenergic activity. Thus, a variety of adverse CV effects ranging from sudden cardiac death triggered by natural disasters such as earthquakes to transient myocardial stunning resulting from heightened sympathetic overload have been identified in response to acute emotional distress. In fact, the biologic interplay between emotion and CV health has been greatly enhanced through studies of the vascular endothelium. As the largest organ in humans, the inner blood vessel lining serves as a conduit for the transfer of blood cells, lipids and various nutrients across the lumen to neighboring tissues. Healthy endothelial cells secrete vasoactive chemicals, most notably endothelial-derived relaxing factor or nitric oxide (NO), that effects smooth muscle relaxation and vessel dilation via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) dependent protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, endothelial derived NO may reduce vascular inflammation by attenuating or inhibiting leukocyte adhesion and subendothelial transmigration as well as decreasing platelet activation via cGMP mediated pathways. Taken together, studying the endothelium provides an exceptional opportunity to advance our understanding of the potentially important interrelationship between emotions and the vasculature. Premised on the identification of physiological and biochemical correlates, the former was demonstrated after intracoronary administration of acetylcholine yielded paradoxical endothelial vasoconstriction in response to mental stress exercises. More recently, the brachial artery reactivity test (BART) has permitted endothelial function to be

  4. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  5. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J; Dreyer, Lene; Gislason, Gunnar; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2018-03-13

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis is a significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, while patients with localized scleroderma are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  7. Depression, anxiety, and the cardiovascular system: the cardiologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, D S; Sheffield, D

    2001-01-01

    Up to one fifth of patients with cardiovascular disease, including those who have experienced a myocardial infarction, may have concomitant major depression. Studies have suggested that the relative risk of major depression with cardiovascular disease ranges from 1.5 to 4.5. Further information is required to establish a dose-response relationship between depression and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, such a relationship has been shown between anxiety and CAD. Development of a conceptual model of the pathophysiologic actions of stress in CAD will assist in the understanding of this relationship. In patients with angiographic evidence of CAD, the presence of major depressive disorder was the best single predictor of cardiac events during the 12 months following diagnosis. Significantly, 6-month cumulative mortality following diagnosis of myocardial infarction has been shown to be higher in depressed patients than in nondepressed patients. A decrease in heart rate variability may mediate the deleterious effect of depression on post-myocardial infarction prognosis. Other factors such as mental stress and altered platelet function may also predispose depressed patients to a heightened risk of cardiac events. With an increased understanding of the relationship between depression and heightened risk of cardiovascular mortality, it is necessary to assess current overall treatment for cardiac patients.

  8. Aging: Molecular Pathways and Implications on the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur José Pontes Oliveira de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s population over 60 years is growing rapidly, reaching 22% of the global population in the next decades. Despite the increase in global longevity, individual healthspan needs to follow this growth. Several diseases have their prevalence increased by age, such as cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the aging biology mechanisms is fundamental to the pursuit of cardiovascular health. In this way, aging is characterized by a gradual decline in physiological functions, involving the increased number in senescent cells into the body. Several pathways lead to senescence, including oxidative stress and persistent inflammation, as well as energy failure such as mitochondrial dysfunction and deregulated autophagy, being ROS, AMPK, SIRTs, mTOR, IGF-1, and p53 key regulators of the metabolic control, connecting aging to the pathways which drive towards diseases. In addition, senescence can be induced by cellular replication, which resulted from telomere shortening. Taken together, it is possible to draw a common pathway unifying aging to cardiovascular diseases, and the central point of this process, senescence, can be the target for new therapies, which may result in the healthspan matching the lifespan.

  9. Re-evaluating the functional landscape of the cardiovascular system during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Norio; Omae, Madoka; Sagawa, Fumihiko; Chi, Neil C; Endo, Satsuki; Kozawa, Satoshi; Sato, Thomas N

    2017-11-15

    The cardiovascular system facilitates body-wide distribution of oxygen, a vital process for the development and survival of virtually all vertebrates. However, the zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism, appears to form organs and survive mid-larval periods without a functional cardiovascular system. Despite such dispensability, it is the first organ to develop. Such enigma prompted us to hypothesize other cardiovascular functions that are important for developmental and/or physiological processes. Hence, systematic cellular ablations and functional perturbations were performed on the zebrafish cardiovascular system to gain comprehensive and body-wide understanding of such functions and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. This approach identifies a set of organ-specific genes, each implicated for important functions. The study also unveils distinct cardiovascular mechanisms, each differentially regulating their expressions in organ-specific and oxygen-independent manners. Such mechanisms are mediated by organ-vessel interactions, circulation-dependent signals, and circulation-independent beating-heart-derived signals. A comprehensive and body-wide functional landscape of the cardiovascular system reported herein may provide clues as to why it is the first organ to develop. Furthermore, these data could serve as a resource for the study of organ development and function. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. FORECASTING OF SURVIVAL OF CHILDREN WITH THE PRENATALLY DIAGNOSED PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валериевна Дубовая

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective methods for the analysis and prognosis of the survival of newborns with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are the urgent task of modern medicine. Objective – a neural network model for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was developed. Materials and methods. To create the artificial neural networks, the method of constructing multifactor mathematical prediction models in the software package Statistica 6.0 was used. The significance level of the factors influencing the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was determined using Wald statistics. When checking statistical hypotheses, the critical level of significance was assumed to be 0,05. Results. A neural network model for the determination of the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, which has a high prognostic ability of 0,88, sensitivity of the model was 77,6 %, specificity 86,4 %. The value of prognostic survival probability is in the range from 0 to 100 %. With an indicator value of more than 80 %, the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system is estimated as high, ranging from 20 % to 80 % – as an average and less than 20 % – as low. Conclusion. In the algorithm for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system it is necessary to include a combination with other pathology of cardiovascular system, with other organs and systems, with chromosomal abnormalities, with microdeletion and monogenic syndromes.

  11. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 in the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxi; Mukerjee, Snigdha; Silva-Alves, Cristiane R A; Carvalho-Galvão, Alynne; Cruz, Josiane C; Balarini, Camille M; Braga, Valdir A; Lazartigues, Eric; França-Silva, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17 is a metalloprotease and disintegrin that lodges in the plasmatic membrane of several cell types and is able to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins. It is somatically expressed in mammalian organisms and its proteolytic action influences several physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the structure of ADAM17, its signaling in the cardiovascular system and its participation in certain disorders involving the heart, blood vessels, and neural regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular modulation.

  12. A DISINTEGRIN AND METALLOPROTEASE 17 IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ADAM17 is a metalloprotease and disintegrin that lodges in the plasmatic membrane of several cell types and is able to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins. It is somatically expressed in mammalian organisms and its proteolytic action influences several physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the structure of ADAM17, its signaling in the cardiovascular system and its participation in certain disorders involving the heart, blood vessels and neural regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular modulation.

  13. Chronic stress impacts the cardiovascular system: animal models and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Laher, Ismail

    2015-06-15

    Psychological stresses are associated with cardiovascular diseases to the extent that cardiovascular diseases are among the most important group of psychosomatic diseases. The longstanding association between stress and cardiovascular disease exists despite a large ambiguity about the underlying mechanisms. An array of possibilities have been proposed including overactivity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral changes, which then converge on endothelial dysfunction that initiates unwanted cardiovascular consequences. We review some of the features of the two most important stress-activated systems, i.e., the humoral and nervous systems, and focus on alterations in endothelial function that could ensue as a result of these changes. Cardiac and hematologic consequences of stress are also addressed briefly. It is likely that activation of the inflammatory cascade in association with oxidative imbalance represents key pathophysiological components of stress-induced cardiovascular changes. We also review some of the commonly used animal models of stress and discuss the cardiovascular outcomes reported in these models of stress. The unique ability of animals for adaptation under stressful conditions lessens the extrapolation of laboratory findings to conditions of human stress. An animal model of unpredictable chronic stress, which applies various stress modules in a random fashion, might be a useful solution to this predicament. The use of stress markers as indicators of stress intensity is also discussed in various models of animal stress and in clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The epigenetic landscape related to reactive oxygen species formation in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Thomas; Petry, Andreas; Shvetsova, Antonina; Gerhold, Joachim M; Görlach, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as damaging molecules but also represent central hubs in cellular signalling networks. Increasing evidence indicates that ROS play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms and consequences of pathophysiologically elevated ROS in the cardiovascular system are still not completely resolved. More recently, alterations of the epigenetic landscape, which can affect DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, ATP-dependent alterations to chromatin and non-coding RNA transcripts, have been considered to be of increasing importance in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. While it has long been accepted that epigenetic changes are imprinted during development or even inherited and are not changed after reaching the lineage-specific expression profile, it becomes more and more clear that epigenetic modifications are highly dynamic. Thus, they might provide an important link between the actions of ROS and cardiovascular diseases. This review will provide an overview of the role of ROS in modulating the epigenetic landscape in the context of the cardiovascular system. This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Management of cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades, C; Fuego, C; Manrique-Arija, S; Fernández-Nebro, A

    2017-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of interventions for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality and to review the effectiveness of interventions for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases Medline and Embase (1961-2015) were searched. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Low-calorie and/or low glycaemic index calories may be a useful option for secondary prevention in obese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and exercise would be useful in improving the endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation in this group of patients. The use of lipid-lowering drugs may improve the lipid profile in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and hyperlipidaemia, but the effect of this treatment on overall cardiovascular mortality remains unknown. Antiplatelets, anticoagulants, antimalarials and lipid-lowering drugs may be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of major cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Similarly, lipid-lowering drugs and antimalarial drugs appear to reduce the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, diastolic blood pressure and calcium deposition at the coronary arteries. They may also improve insulin resistance and the level of high-density lipoproteins. It appears that treatment with antihypertensive drugs reduces blood pressure in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, but the available studies are of low quality.

  16. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emprego de sistemas robóticos na cirurgia cardiovascular Robotic systems in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto T. Sant'Anna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de sistemas robóticos para cirurgia teve início na década de 80, por solicitação do exército norte-americano, que antevia a possibilidade de realizar operações em teatros de guerra, distantes do local onde estava o cirurgião. Entretanto, o primeiro uso em humanos só ocorreu anos mais tarde, numa ressecção transuretral de hiperplasia benigna de próstata. Cirurgiões cardíacos foram logo atraídos pela técnica robótica devido a possível aplicação com reduzido caráter invasivo; esperava-se menor trauma cirúrgico e redução da dor, morbidade, tempo de internação e custo do procedimento. Atualmente, de forma restrita e em casos selecionados, robôs são usados para revascularização do miocárdio e implante de marcapasso em cirurgias cardíacas totalmente endoscópicas; podendo também constituir apoio visual na retirada de artéria torácica interna, reconstrução valvar mitral e correção de defeitos congênitos. Utilizando o robô auxiliar AESOP® para controle do videotoracoscópio, com controle vocal por meio do sistema HERMES®, temos realizado dissecção da artéria torácica interna, implante de eletrodo ventricular esquerdo e abordagem de defeitos congênitos na cirurgia de correção. Apesar do entusiasmo científico inicial com a cirurgia robótica, ainda não existe evidência clara de superioridade desta técnica em relação à operação convencional, em termos de resultado. Isto se aplica também ao custo, pois o investimento inicial na aquisição de sistema cirúrgico completo (console, controle de vídeo, instrumental provavelmente é compensado após muitos procedimentos e longo intervalo. Mas é certo que a cirurgia robótica terá um lugar no futuro, possibilitando aprendizagem, telepresença e realização de procedimentos pouco invasivos, embora complexos.The development of robotic systems for surgery started in the 80's, motivated by the US army's need for surgical procedure in

  18. Assessment of function of the cardiovascular system in arterial hypertension using radionuclide methods of investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, N.M.; Babayan, A.S.; Mikaehlyan, R.S.; Mnatsakyan, Eh.L.

    1986-01-01

    Proceeding from a study of the nature of changes in hemodynamics during development of hypertensive disease (HD) at its different stages it was shown that hemodynamic changes in 42.1% of the patients with Stage 1-2A HD were of hypertensive type, in the patients with Stage 2B-3 HD normal and hypokinetic types of the blood circulation prevailed. After bicycle ergometry exercise the reactivity of the cardiovascular system was revealed more completely. The most complete information on function of the cardiovascular system and myocardial contractility can be obtained with the help of radioangiocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography. However in the absence of a gamma-chamber radiocardiography can provide necessary information on function of the cardiovascular system in case it is used in one and the same patient over time using bicycle ergometry testing

  19. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  20. Effects of Environmental Radioactive Pollution on the Cardiovascular Systems of Ural Region Residents: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Konstantinova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this comparative study was to evaluate the effects of radioactive pollution in river water and confounding risk factors on the prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in people living in the Ural region. Methods: We selected this region as a case territory for study because it is exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. The area is composed of coastal localities situated along the Techa River, into which liquid radioactive waste materials have been released. As a control, we selected settlements that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between radioactive contamination of a territory and the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular systems of people living in the Techa riverside villages (OR=2.31, p<0.001. The influence of covariates (gender, age, overweight status, and others on the development of cardiovascular pathologies was analyzed. Some of these factors have been recognized as confounding factors. After accounting for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the impact of radiation on the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system decreased to (OR=1.58, p=0.02. Conclusions: Statistically significant gender and age differences were observed in the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system in residents of radioactively contaminated areas compared to residents of control areas. These differences show a more pronounced reaction to contamination in older residents, residents with an overweight status and residents with meteotropic reactions.

  1. The interplay between adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system: is fat always bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological 'quality' of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognised as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers, and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways. Despite being able to mediate normal cardiovascular function under physiological conditions, AT undergoes a phenotypic shift characterised by acquisition of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties in cases of CVD. Crucially, recent evidence suggests that AT depots such as perivascular AT and epicardial AT are able to modify their phenotype in response to local signals of vascular and myocardial origin, respectively. Utilisation of this unique property of certain AT depots to dynamically track cardiovascular biology may reveal novel diagnostic and prognostic tools against CVD. Better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the 'quality' of AT secretome, as well as the communication links between AT and the cardiovascular system, is required for the efficient management of CVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Systemic Hemodynamic Atherothrombotic Syndrome and Resonance Hypothesis of Blood Pressure Variability: Triggering Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits different variabilities and surges with different time phases, from the shortest beat-by-beat to longest yearly changes. We hypothesized that the synergistic resonance of these BP variabilites generates an extraordinarily large dynamic surge in BP and triggers cardiovascular events (the resonance hypothesis). The power of pulses is transmitted to the peripheral sites without attenuation by the large arteries, in individuals with stiffened arteries. Thus, the effect of a BP surge on cardiovascular risk would be especially exaggerated in high-risk patients with vascular disease. Based on this concept, our group recently proposed a new theory of systemic hemodynamic atherothromboltic syndrome (SHATS), a vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease that advances organ damage and triggers cardiovascular disease. Clinical phenotypes of SHATS are large-artery atherothombotic diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, and aortic and pheripheral artery disease; small-artery diseases, and microcirculation-related disease such as vascular cognitive dysfunction, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. The careful consideration of BP variability and vascular diseases such as SHATS, and the early detection and management of SHATS, will achieve more effective individualized cardiovascular protection. In the near future, information and communication technology-based 'anticipation medicine' predicted by the changes of individual BP values could be a promising approach to achieving zero cardiovascular events.

  4. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB; Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix{sub TM} CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB. Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix[sub TM] CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Functional evidence for alternative ANG II-forming pathways in hamster cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishimura, H; Buikema, H; Baltatu, O; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    1998-01-01

    Like human chymase, hamster chymase is an ANG II-forming enzyme, but pathophysiological roles of chymase are still unknown. We determined the functional conversion of ANG I and [Pro(11), D-Ala(12)]ANG I, a chymase-selective substrate, to ANG II in the hamster cardiovascular system. ANG I and

  7. Numerical Model of the Human Cardiovascular System-Korotkoff Sounds Simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana; Brož, Z.; Štembera, V.

    Vol.4, č. 2 (2004), s. 193-199 ISSN 1432-9077 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiovascular system * Korotkoff sounds * numerical simulation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. On the track of syncope induced by orthostatic stress - feedback mechanisms regulating the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    A physiological realistic model of the controlled cardiovascular system is constructed and validated against clinical data. Special attention is paid to the heart rate control. Both sit-to-stand and head-up-tilt experiments are encapsulated by the model. The model may be used in studies of syncop...

  9. PATHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF TOBACCO SMOKING EFFECT ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Kirichuk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern patho-physiological mechanisms with the help of which tobacco smoking contributes to the development of cardiovascular pathology are represented in the review. The most significant of them are endothelial dysfunction, progressing of atherosclerotic processes, alteration of rheologic properties of blood, increase of carboxyhemoglobin levels, activation of sympathetic nervous system of the heart.

  10. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Systemic hypertension and the right-sided cardiovascular system: a review of the available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrinelli, Roberto; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Talini, Enrica; Canale, Maria Laura; Di Bello, Vitantonio

    2009-02-01

    Abnormal vasoconstriction of the lesser circulation characterizes a subset of patients with essential hypertension, a possible effect of mechanisms, such as enhanced sympathetic tone, increased delivery of blood-borne vasoconstrictor substances or abnormal local release of vasoactive factors, acting on both sides of the circulation or to backward transmission of increased pressure due to stiffer left ventricles with more advanced diastolic dysfunction. Elevated systemic pressure also associates with thickening of the right ventricle, a central element of the low-pressure system. Right ventricular remodelling develops in parallel with a similar process occurring at the left side, likely as a result of ventricular interdependence under the influence of trophic factors targeting both ventricles, though other mechanisms, including increased pulmonary afterload, may also be operative. By and large independent of the extent of structural remodelling of both ventricles, systemic hypertension also conditions an impaired filling rate of the right ventricle that accompanies a similar phenomenon at the left side. Thus, quite in contrast with the common and simplistic assumption of a separate behaviour of the two ventricles, the right-sided cardiovascular system is not immune to the effect of systemic hypertension, a concept whose clinical and pathophysiological implications require further studies.

  12. Cardiovascular involvement in systemic rheumatic diseases: An integrated view for the treating physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Seob; Kronbichler, Andreas; Eisenhut, Michael; Lee, Keum Hwa; Shin, Jae Il

    2018-03-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect various kinds of organs including the kidney, the skin, soft tissue and the bone. Among others, cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases has been shown to affect myocardium, pericardium, cardiac vessels, conduction system and valves, eventually leading to increased mortality. In general, underlying chronic inflammation leads to premature atherosclerosis, but also other manifestations such as arrhythmia and heart failure may have a 'silent' progress. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors play a secondary role, while disease-specific factors (i.e. disease duration, severity, antibody positivity, persistent disease activity) can directly influence the cardiovascular system. Therefore, early diagnosis is critical to optimize management and to control inflammatory activity and recent data suggest that risk factors (i.e. hypercholesterolemia and hypertension) need intensive treatment as well. With the advent of immunosuppressive agents, most rheumatic diseases are well controlled on treatment, but information related to their cardioprotective efficacy is not well-defined. In this review, we focus on cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases and highlight current evidence which should be of help for the treating physicians. Moreover, cardiotoxicity of immunosuppressive drugs is a rare issue and such potential adverse events will be briefly discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of blockage of the endocannabinoid system by CB(1) antagonism on cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is a crucial player in the inflammatory processes underlying atherosclerosis. Recently, basic research studies and animal models have strongly supported the role of the endocannabinoid system not only in the regulation of classical cardiovascular risk factors (including lipid profile and glucose homeostasis), but also in the activation of immune cells and inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials investigating treatment with rimonabant (a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor) have suggested a beneficial effect of this drug in the management of obesity. Further studies are needed to explore a possible use for rimonabant in treating type 2 diabetes and acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. Despite the slight increase in adverse events (mainly psychiatric), which has led to the recent withdrawal of rimonabant from the market, CB(1) receptor antagonism might represent a very promising therapeutic strategy to reduce the cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we focused on the most important experimental investigations into the role of the endocannabinoid system in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk.

  14. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 forward. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Indicators from this data...

  15. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  16. Resveratrol and polydatin as modulators of Ca2+ mobilization in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Chen, Peiya; Deng, Jianxin; Lv, Jingzhang; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    In the cardiovascular system, Ca 2+ controls cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and vascular contraction and dilation. Disturbances in intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis induce malfunctions of the cardiovascular system, including cardiac pump dysfunction, arrhythmia, remodeling, and apoptosis, as well as hypertension and impairment of vascular reactivity. Therefore, developing drugs and strategies manipulating Ca 2+ handling are highly valued in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Resveratrol (Res) and polydatin (PD), a Res glucoside, have been well established to have beneficial effects on improving cardiovascular function. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that they exhibit inotropic effects on normal heart and therapeutic effects on hypertension, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertrophy, and heart failure by manipulating Ca 2+ mobilization. The actions of Res and PD on Ca 2+ signals delicately manipulated by multiple Ca 2+ -handling proteins are pleiotropic and somewhat controversial, depending on cellular species and intracellular oxidative status. Here, we focus on the effects of Res and PD on controlling Ca 2+ homeostasis in the heart and vasculature under normal and diseased conditions and highlight the key direct and indirect molecules mediating these effects. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Miles-Chan, Jennifer Lynn; Charrière, Nathalie; Loonam, Cathríona R; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables. These inconsistencies are due, in part, to differences in methodologies, volume of drink ingested, and duration of postconsumption measurements, as well as subject variables during the test. Recent well-controlled, randomized crossover studies that used continuous beat-to-beat measurements provide evidence that cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of energy drinks are best explained by the actions of caffeine and sugar, with little influence from other ingredients. However, a role for other active constituents, such as taurine and glucuronolactone, cannot be ruled out. This article reviews the potentially adverse hemodynamic effects of energy drinks, particularly on blood pressure and heart rate, and discusses the mechanisms by which their active ingredients may interact to adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Research areas and gaps in the literature are discussed with particular reference to the use of energy drinks among high-risk individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Multifocal fibrosclerosis and IgG4-related disease involving the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Terasaki, Fumio; Sakamoto, Aiko; Imai, Yasushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular system may be involved as a target organ of multifocal fibrosclerosis, which may manifest as idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, inflammatory aortic aneurysm, inflammatory periarteritis, and inflammatory pericarditis. These pathological conditions can sometimes occur concomitantly. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm are both characterized by the presence of fibro-inflammatory tissue around the abdominal aorta expanding into the surrounding retroperitoneal structures, and together they may be termed 'chronic periaortitis'. Cardiovascular fibrosclerosis has become non-uncommonly encountered condition since imaging modalities have made its diagnosis more feasible. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that a certain fraction, but not all, of cardiovascular fibrosclerosis may have a link with immunoglobulin-G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). IgG4-SD is histologically characterized by dense fibrosclerosis and infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and these histopathologic findings seem to be essentially similar regardless of the organs involved. In this mini review, we summarize what is known so far about multifocal fibrosclerosis of the cardiovascular system and its association with IgG4-SD, and what remains to be clarified in future investigations. (author)

  19. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  20. New Sides of Aldosterone Action in Cardiovascular System as Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Patrycjusz; Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Anna; Aleksiejczuk, Michal; Chabielska, Ewa; Tutka, Piotr; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2018-03-26

    Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, plays a crucial role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Although, this role is undoubtedly important, it is not a hormonal action that attracts the most attention. Aldosterone seems to be very important important as a local messenger in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the last few years, the attention was focused on the correlation between raised aldosterone level and increased risk of cardiovascular events. It has been demonstrated that aldosterone contributes to fibrosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, fibrinolytic disordes, and oxidative stress leading to CVD development and progression. It used to be thought that the effects of aldosterone are mediated via classic nuclear receptors - mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). Now we know that the mechanism of aldosterone action in cardiovascular system is much more complex, since experimental and clinical studies indicate that MR blockade may be not sufficient to abolish aldosterone-incuced harmful effects in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the involvement of some other than MR, receptors and factors is suggested. Moreover, in addition to the generally known genomic action of aldosterone, which involves MR activation, the nongenomic pathways are postulated in the mode of hormone action. More and more attention is focused on the membrane-coupled receptors, which mediate the rapid effects of aldosterone and have been already confirmed in different cells and tissues of a cardiovascular system. The confirmation of multiple mechanisms of aldosterone action opens a new perspective for more effective therapeutic intervention in aldosterone-related CVD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  2. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-03-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness.

  4. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Modulation of Glucocorticoids in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie G. Burford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation—known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies. The cardiovascular system is especially susceptible to prolonged dysregulation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid production. There is debate about whether cardiovascular health risks arise from the direct detrimental effects of stress axis activation or whether pathologies develop secondary to the accompanying metabolic strain of excess glucocorticoids. In this review, we will explore the emerging research that indicates stress does have direct effects on the cardiovascular system via the HPA axis activation, with emphasis on the latest research on the impact of glucocorticoids signaling in the vasculature and the heart.

  5. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Modulation of Glucocorticoids in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Natalie G; Webster, Natalia A; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2017-10-16

    The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation-known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies. The cardiovascular system is especially susceptible to prolonged dysregulation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid production. There is debate about whether cardiovascular health risks arise from the direct detrimental effects of stress axis activation or whether pathologies develop secondary to the accompanying metabolic strain of excess glucocorticoids. In this review, we will explore the emerging research that indicates stress does have direct effects on the cardiovascular system via the HPA axis activation, with emphasis on the latest research on the impact of glucocorticoids signaling in the vasculature and the heart.

  6. Rate of cardiovascular system involvement and gender distribution in Behcets disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behcets disease is a systemic vasculitis affecting arteries and veins. According to the International Working Group on diagnostic criteria, a clinical description of other non-recurrent oral ulceration, at least two of findings of their examinations; genital ulceration, eye lesions, skin lesions and pathergy test positivity to be accompanied. Vascular involvement is very important symptom in determining the prognosis of the disease that is commonly observed. In this study, 581 Behcets patients who were treated between 1993-2009 were reviewed. 52 patients with cardiovascular involvement retrospectively reviewed. Total cardiovascular system involvements were found to be 9% in Behcets disease patients. 41 thrombophlebit, 11 deep venous thrombosis, 4 aneurysm cases were found. Pulmonary artery aneurysms in 2 of them, 1 in the abdominal aorta, 1 of which was found in the femoral artery. All of aneurysm and deep vein thrombosis and 77% of thrombophlebitis were male. As a result, together with common skin and mucosal involvement severe systemic symptoms such as the cardiovascular system involvement were significantly found in Behcets disease. Moreover, a high percentage of these findings is seen in men have been identified. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 46-49

  7. Acute effects of Surya Namaskar on the cardiovascular & metabolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Bhavesh Surendra

    2011-07-01

    With the recent rise in obesity awareness and the increased understanding of the importance of physical activity in promoting overall health, greater emphasis has been placed on improving physical fitness to enhance quality of life. Surya Namaskar, a component of Hatha Yoga, has been practiced by Asian Indians for hundreds of years and is often used in place of a typical fitness program. It consists of a series of postures (asanas) that are repeated 12 times per round. Only one published study has looked specifically at Surya Namaskar, measuring the energy cost of individual asanas (Sinha et al., 2004). However, practitioners typically perform several rounds of the asanas during a session. To assess the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of four rounds of Surya Namaskar, a typical amount performed by practitioners, to determine its potential as a training and weight loss tool. Six healthy Asian Indian men and women (18-22 years) who had trained in Surya Namaskar for over two years participated in the study. Testing was completed in a single session lasting about 30 min. To measure heart rate and oxygen consumption while performing the four rounds, participants were connected to a heart rate monitor and the Oxycon Mobile Metabolic System. Participants exercised at 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) during Round 2, 84% during Round 3, and 90% during Round 4. Average intensity during the four rounds was 80% HRmax, sufficient to elicit a cardiorespiratory training effect. Oxygen consumption averaged 26 ml/kg/min during each round, resulting in an energy expenditure of 230 kcals during a 30 min session for a 60 kg individual. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar may maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as promote weight management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  9. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Azevedo, Bruna; Barros Furieri, Lorena; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Frizera Vassallo, Paula; Ronacher Simões, Maylla; Fiorim, Jonaina; Rossi de Batista, Priscila; Fioresi, Mirian; Rossoni, Luciana; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, María Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Valentim Vassallo, Dalton

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced. PMID:22811600

  10. The effects of age on the spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in cerebral and systemic cardiovascular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tingying; Rowley, Alex B; Payne, Stephen J; Ainslie, Philip N; Murrell, Carissa; Thomas, Kate; Cotter, James D; Williams, Michael J A; George, Keith; Shave, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Although the effects of ageing on cardiovascular control and particularly the response to orthostatic stress have been the subject of many studies, the interaction between the cardiovascular and cerebral regulation mechanisms is still not fully understood. Wavelet cross-correlation is used here to assess the coupling and synchronization between low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) observed in cerebral hemodynamics, as measured using cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cerebral oxygenation (O 2 Hb), and systemic cardiovascular dynamics, as measured using heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), in both old and young healthy subjects undergoing head-up tilt table testing. Statistically significant increases in correlation values are found in the interaction of cerebral and cardiovascular LFOs for young subjects (P 2 Hb and ABP–O 2 Hb), but not in old subjects under orthostatic stress. The coupling between the cerebrovascular and wider cardiovascular systems in response to orthostatic stress thus appears to be impaired with ageing

  11. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Improving hemodynamics of cardiovascular system under a novel intraventricular assist device support via modeling and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shidong; Luo, Lin; Yang, Bibo; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-12-01

    Ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly recognized for supporting blood circulation in heart failure patients who are non-transplant eligible. Because of its volume, the traditional pulsatile device is not easy to implant intracorporeally. Continuous flow LVADs (CF-LVADs) reduce arterial pulsatility and only offer continuous flow, which is different from physiological flow, and may cause long-term complications in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to design a new pulsatile assist device that overcomes this disadvantage, and to test this device in the cardiovascular system. Firstly, the input and output characteristics of the new device were tested in a simple cardiovascular mock system. A detailed mathematical model was established by fitting the experimental data. Secondly, the model was tested in four pathological cases, and was simulated and coupled with a fifth-order cardiovascular system and a new device model using Matlab software. Using assistance of the new device, we demonstrated that the left ventricle pressure, aortic pressure, and aortic flow of heart failure patients improved to the levels of a healthy individual. Especially, in state IV level heart failure patients, the systolic blood pressure increased from 81.34 mmHg to 132.1 mmHg, whereas the diastolic blood pressure increased from 54.28 mmHg to 78.7 mmHg. Cardiac output increased from 3.21 L/min to 5.16 L/min. The newly-developed assist device not only provided a physiological flow that was similar to healthy individuals, but also effectively improved the ability of the pathological ventricular volume. Finally, the effects of the new device on other hemodynamic parameters are discussed.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rayes, Hanan; Harvey, Paula J.; Gladman, Dafna D.; Su, Jiandong; Sabapathy, Arthy; Urowitz, Murray B.; Touma, Zahi

    2017-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiovascular disease (CVD) abnormalities (ECG-CVD) are predictive of subsequent CVD events in the general population. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are vulnerable to CVD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG-CVD in SLE patients and to examine the risk factors associated with ECG-CVD. Methods A 12-lead resting supine ECG was performed on consecutive adult patients attending the clinic. One cardiologist interpreted the ECGs. ECG-CVD were...

  14. [Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenova, N V; Strokova, T V; Starodubova, A V

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.

  15. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has ...

  16. Sphingosine Kinases and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors: Signaling and Actions in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cannavo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2 catalyze the phosphorylation of the lipid, sphingosine, generating the signal transmitter, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P. The activation of such kinases and the subsequent S1P generation and secretion in the blood serum of mammals represent a major checkpoint in many cellular signaling cascades. In fact, activating the SphK/S1P system is critical for cell motility and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, survival, and response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, the physiological effects of S1P intervene through the binding and activation of a family of five highly selective G protein-coupled receptors, called S1PR1-5. Importantly, SphK/S1P signal is present on both vascular and myocardial cells. S1P is a well-recognized survival factor in many tissues. Therefore, it is not surprising that the last two decades have seen a flourishing of interest and investigative efforts directed to obtain additional mechanistic insights into the signaling, as well as the biological activity of this phospholipid, and of its receptors, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we will provide an up-to-date account on the structure and function of sphingosine kinases, discussing the generation, release, and function of S1P. Keeping the bull’s eye on the cardiovascular system, we will review the structure and signaling cascades and biological actions emanating from the stimulation of different S1P receptors. We will end this article with a summary of the most recent, experimental and clinical observations targeting S1PRs and SphKs as possible new therapeutic avenues for cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure.

  17. The Biphasic Effect of Vitamin D on the Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review summarizes beneficial and harmful vitamin D effects on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. Special attention is paid to the dose-response relationship of vitamin D with clinical outcomes. In infants and adults, the risk of musculoskeletal diseases is highest at circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD concentrations below 25 nmol/L and is low if 40–60 nmol/L are achieved. However, evidence is also accumulating that in elderly people the risk of falls and fractures increases again at circulating 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L. Cohort studies report a progressive increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD events at 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L, but the threshold may be influenced by the level of physical activity. In conclusion, dose-response relationships indicate deleterious effects on the musculoskeletal system and probably on the cardiovascular system at circulating 25OHD levels 100 nmol/L. Future studies should focus on populations with 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L.

  18. Cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis: role of the intravascular innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Soveri, Inga; Hilborn, Jöns; Fellström, Bengt; Nilsson, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Haemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement modality for end-stage renal disease, but this therapy also represents a major challenge to the intravascular innate immune system, which is comprised of the complement, contact and coagulation systems. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on haemodialysis. Biomaterial-induced contact activation of proteins within the plasma cascade systems occurs during haemodialysis and initially leads to local generation of inflammatory mediators on the biomaterial surface. The inflammation is spread by soluble activation products and mediators that are generated during haemodialysis and transported in the extracorporeal circuit back into the patient together with activated leukocytes and platelets. The combined effect is activation of the endothelium of the cardiovascular system, which loses its anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, leading to atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis. This concept suggests that maximum suppression of the intravascular innate immune system is needed to minimize the risk of CVD in patients on haemodialysis. A potential approach to achieve this goal is to treat patients with broad-specificity systemic drugs that target more than one of the intravascular cascade systems. Alternatively, 'stealth' biomaterials that cause minimal cascade system activation could be used in haemodialysis circuits.

  19. Association of cardiovascular system medications with cognitive function and dementia in older adults living in nursing homes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enwu; Dyer, Suzanne M; O'Donnell, Lisa Kouladjian; Milte, Rachel; Bradley, Clare; Harrison, Stephanie L; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Whitehead, Craig; Crotty, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To examine associations between cardiovascular system medication use with cognition function and diagnosis of dementia in older adults living in nursing homes in Australia. As part of a cross-sectional study of 17 Australian nursing homes examining quality of life and resource use, we examined the association between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular medication use (identified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Classification System) using general linear regression and logistic regression models. People who were receiving end of life care were excluded. Participants included 541 residents with a mean age of 85.5 years (± 8.5), a mean Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale-Cognitive Impairment (PAS-Cog) score of 13.3 (± 7.7), a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases of 44% and of hypertension of 47%. Sixty-four percent of participants had been diagnosed with dementia and 72% had received cardiovascular system medications within the previous 12 months. Regression models demonstrated the use of cardiovascular medications was associated with lower (better) PAS-Cog scores [Coefficient (β) = -3.7; 95% CI: -5.2 to -2.2; P cardiovascular system medication use and better cognitive status among older adults living in nursing homes. In this population, there may be differential access to health care and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. This association warrants further investigation in large cohort studies.

  20. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the cardiovascular system through a lumped-parameter approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsoglio, Stefania; Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2014-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting millions of people in the Western countries and, due to the widespread impact on the population and its medical relevance, is largely investigated in both clinical and bioengineering sciences. However, some important feedback mechanisms are still not clearly established. The present study aims at understanding the global response of the cardiovascular system during paroxysmal AF through a lumped-parameter approach, which is here performed paying particular attention to the stochastic modeling of the irregular heartbeats and the reduced contractility of the heart. AF can be here analyzed by means of a wide number of hemodynamic parameters and avoiding the presence of other pathologies, which usually accompany AF. Reduced cardiac output with correlated drop of ejection fraction and decreased amount of energy converted to work by the heart during blood pumping, as well as higher left atrial volumes and pressures are some of the most representative results aligned with the existing clinical literature and here emerging during acute AF. The present modeling, providing new insights on cardiovascular variables which are difficult to measure and rarely reported in literature, turns out to be an efficient and powerful tool for a deeper comprehension and prediction of the arrythmia impact on the whole cardiovascular system.

  1. Evaluation of the cardiovascular system by digital subtraction angiography in 246 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuma, Kikuhiko; Ohta, Takashi; Hiroto, Seiji

    1987-07-01

    Usefulness of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was examined in 246 patients with cardiovascular disorders. This examination was done by centrally intravenous DSA (CIVDSA) in all patients to reduce the risks and discomforts by peripheral intravenous DSA. 1) CIVDSA could be done safely in patients aged 18 to 81 years. 2) The good diagnostic quality by CIVDSA was obtained in 81.3% of patients. These images were classified into 7 groups according to the cardiovascular system, that is, the jugular arteries, the upper extremity arteries, the thoracic aorta, the left ventricle, the abnominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the lower extremity arteries, whose rate of good diagnostic quality were 100%, 70%, 67.7%, 79.5%, 84.8%, 87%, and 71.4% respectively. 3) The poor diagnostic quality was obtained in 18.7%. 4) The severe complications were not found in any case during this examination. Our results indicate that DSA is the safe, simple and useful method to obtain the diagnostic quality image of the cardiovascular system, especially, of the occulsive arterial disease, the aortic aneurisma, the renovascular stenosis and the cardiac function of postmyocardial infarction, even in aged patients.

  2. Evaluation of the cardiovascular system by digital subtraction angiography in 246 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuma, Kikuhiko; Ohta, Takashi; Hiroto, Seiji

    1987-01-01

    Usefulness of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was examined in 246 patients with cardiovascular disorders. This examination was done by centrally intravenous DSA (CIVDSA) in all patients to reduce the risks and discomforts by peripheral intravenous DSA. 1) CIVDSA could be done safely in patients aged 18 to 81 years. 2) The good diagnostic quality by CIVDSA was obtained in 81.3 % of patients. These images were classified into 7 groups according to the cardiovascular system, that is, the jugular arteries, the upper extremity arteries, the thoracic aorta, the left ventricle, the abnominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the lower extremity arteries, whose rate of good diagnostic quality were 100 %, 70 %, 67.7 %, 79.5 %, 84.8 %, 87 %, and 71.4 % respectively. 3) The poor diagnostic quality was obtained in 18.7 %. 4) The severe complications were not found in any case during this examination. Our results indicate that DSA is the safe, simple and useful method to obtain the diagnostic quality image of the cardiovascular system, especially, of the occulsive arterial disease, the aortic aneurisma, the renovascular stenosis and the cardiac function of postmyocardial infarction, even in aged patients. (author)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system: present state of the art and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates high-resolution images of the cardiovascular system. Conventional MRI techniques provide images in six to ten minutes per tomographic slice. New strategies have substantially improved the speed of imaging. The technology is relatively expensive, and its cost-effectiveness remains to be defined in relation to other effective, less expensive, and noninvasive technologies, such as echocardiography and nuclear medicine. The ultimate role of MRI will depend on several factors, including the development of specific applications such as (1) noninvasive angiography, especially of the coronary arteries;(2) noninvasive, high-resolution assessment of regional myocardial blood flow distribution (e.g., using paramagnetic contrast agents); (3) characterization of myocardial diseases using proton-relaxation property changes; and (4) evaluation of in vivo myocardial biochemistry. The three-dimensional imaging capability and the ability to image cardiovascular structures without contrast material give MRI a potential advantage over existing noninvasive diagnostic imaging techniques. This report analyzes current applications of MRI to the cardiovascular system and speculates on their future

  4. Roles of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins and Phosphodiesterases in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercu, Maria; Klussmann, Enno

    2018-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are essential enzymes in the cyclic adenosine 3′-5′ monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade. They establish local cAMP pools by controlling the intensity, duration and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling. Various members of the AKAP and PDE families are expressed in the cardiovascular system and direct important processes maintaining homeostatic functioning of the heart and vasculature, e.g., the endothelial barrier function and excitation-contraction coupling. Dysregulation of AKAP and PDE function is associated with pathophysiological conditions in the cardiovascular system including heart failure, hypertension and atherosclerosis. A number of diseases, including autosomal dominant hypertension with brachydactyly (HTNB) and type I long-QT syndrome (LQT1), result from mutations in genes encoding for distinct members of the two classes of enzymes. This review provides an overview over the AKAPs and PDEs relevant for cAMP compartmentalization in the heart and vasculature and discusses their pathophysiological role as well as highlights the potential benefits of targeting these proteins and their protein-protein interactions for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29461511

  5. The love of a lifetime: 5-HT in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephanie W

    2009-02-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is an amine made from the essential amino acid tryptophan. 5-HT serves numerous functions in the body, including mood, satiety, and gastrointestinal function. Less understood is the role 5-HT plays in the cardiovascular system, although 5-HT receptors have been localized to every important cardiovascular organ and 5-HT-induced changes in physiological function attributed to activation of these receptors. This manuscript relates a few scientific stories that test the idea that 5-HT is important to the control of normal vascular tone, more so in the hypertensive condition. Currently, our laboratory is faced with two different lines of experimentation from which one could draw vastly different conclusions as to the ability of 5-HT to modify endogenous vascular tone and blood pressure. Studies point to 5-HT being important in maintaining high blood pressure, but other studies solidly support the ability of 5-HT to reduce elevated blood pressure. This work underscores that our knowledge of the functions of 5-HT in the cardiovascular system is significantly incomplete. As such, this field is an exciting one in which to be, because there are superb questions to be asked.

  6. Vascular Stiffness and Increased Pulse Pressure in the Aging Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Steppan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe pulse wave velocity as a method to measure vascular stiffness and review the impact of increased vascular stiffness as an index of vascular health and as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms and how these may be modified in order to change the outcomes. A thorough understanding of these concepts is of paramount importance and has therapeutic implications for the increasingly elderly population.

  7. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase: An Ubiquitous Signaling Pathway With Key Roles in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Ian P; Hardie, D Grahame

    2017-05-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis, which acts to restore energy homoeostasis whenever cellular energy charge is depleted. Over the last 2 decades, it has become apparent that AMPK regulates several other cellular functions and has specific roles in cardiovascular tissues, acting to regulate cardiac metabolism and contractile function, as well as promoting anticontractile, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic actions in blood vessels. In this review, we discuss the role of AMPK in the cardiovascular system, including the molecular basis of mutations in AMPK that alter cardiac physiology and the proposed mechanisms by which AMPK regulates vascular function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Causes and Mechanisms of Intrauterine Hypoxia and Its Impact on the Fetal Cardiovascular System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hutter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until today the role of oxygen in the development of the fetus remains controversially discussed. It is still believed that lack of oxygen in utero might be responsible for some of the known congenital cardiovascular malformations. Over the last two decades detailed research has given us new insights and a better understanding of embryogenesis and fetal growth. But most importantly it has repeatedly demonstrated that oxygen only plays a minor role in the early intrauterine development. After organogenesis has taken place hypoxia becomes more important during the second and third trimester of pregnancy when fetal growth occurs. This review will briefly adress causes and mechanisms leading to intrauterine hypoxia and their impact on the fetal cardiovascular system.

  9. Investigating properties of the cardiovascular system using innovative analysis algorithms based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yun; Sun, Wei-Zen; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular system is known to be nonlinear and nonstationary. Traditional linear assessments algorithms of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance of cardiac system accompany the problem of nonstationary or inconvenience in practical applications. In this pilot study, two new assessment methods were developed: the first is ensemble empirical mode decomposition based reflection index (EEMD-RI) while the second is based on the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. Both methods utilise the EEMD algorithm which is suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary systems. These methods were used to investigate the properties of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance for a pig's cardiovascular system via ECG and blood pressure (BP). This experiment simulated a sequence of continuous changes of blood pressure arising from steady condition to high blood pressure by clamping the artery and an inverse by relaxing the artery. As a hypothesis, the arterial stiffness and systemic resistance should vary with the blood pressure due to clamping and relaxing the artery. The results show statistically significant correlations between BP, EEMD-based RI, and the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. The two assessments results demonstrate the merits of the EEMD for signal analysis.

  10. [Cardiovascular medicine in the German diagnosis-related group--(G-DRG) system 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, T; Bunzemeier, H; Roeder, N; Reinecke, H

    2005-05-01

    The German diagnosis-related Group (G-DRG) System has recently been published in its third version. From 2005 on, this system will be the definite measure for the budgets of nearly all german hospitals. The preliminary phase with no budget reduction or redistribution being made and in which an inappropriate classification system had no negative impact on reimbursement has, thus, come to an end. At present, many hospitals are struggling in an economic competition about the independence or maintenance of the hospital or several sub-departments. The changes in the classification system with regard to a marked increase in the number of G DRGs, a modified grouping-logic, more properly determined reductions and extra charges for low and high outlier as well as the introduction of further additional charges contribute thereby to a better covering of services and treatments of cardiovascular patients. However, while many of the known problems have been eliminated, there are still weaknesses in the G-DRG System even concerning cardiovascular medicine. The G-DRG System has to be adapted continuously with consultation of the clinical expertise of the respective medical societies. The most important new aspects and changes in the G-DRG System 2005 and the accompanied execution regulations are explained with special view on cardiology.

  11. The Impact of Environmental Factors in Influencing Epigenetics Related to Oxidative States in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs. This has provided both the biological link and a potential molecular explanation between oxidative stress and cardiovascular/metabolic phenomena. Accordingly, in this review, we will provide current insights on the physiological and pathological impact of changes in oxidative states on cardiovascular disorders, by specifically focusing on the influence of epigenetic regulation. A special emphasis will highlight the effect on epigenetic regulation of human’s current life habits, external and environmental factors, including food intake, tobacco, air pollution, and antioxidant-based approaches. Additionally, the strategy to quantify oxidative states in humans in order to determine which biological marker could best match a subject’s profile will be discussed.

  12. Cell Systems to Investigate the Impact of Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Grootaert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are a diverse group of micronutrients from plant origin that may serve as antioxidants and that contribute to human health in general. More specifically, many research groups have investigated their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases in several animal studies and human trials. Yet, because of the excessive processing of the polyphenol structure by human cells and the residing intestinal microbial community, which results in a large variability between the test subjects, the exact mechanisms of their protective effects are still under investigation. To this end, simplified cell culture systems have been used to decrease the inter-individual variability in mechanistic studies. In this review, we will discuss the different cell culture models that have been used so far for polyphenol research in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We will also review the current trends in cell culture research, including co-culture methodologies. Finally, we will discuss the potential of these advanced models to screen for cardiovascular effects of the large pool of bioactive polyphenols present in foods and their metabolites.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  15. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  16. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Wearable Wireless Cardiovascular Monitoring Using Textile-Based Nanosensor and Nanomaterial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shyamkumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and ultraportable electronics coupled with pervasive computing are poised to revolutionize healthcare services delivery. The potential cost savings in both treatment, as well as preventive care are the focus of several research efforts across the globe. In this review, we describe the motivations behind wearable solutions to real-time cardiovascular monitoring from a perspective of current healthcare services, as well as from a systems design perspective. We identify areas where emerging research is underway, namely: nanotechnology in textile-based wearable monitors and healthcare solutions targeted towards smart devices, like smartphones and tablets.

  18. Influence of different fractionation regimens on the cardiovascular system in patients with esophagus cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musabaeva, L I; Schegolikhina, I N; Azhigaliev, N A; Valieva, R K; Kuanyshbaeva, R K

    1976-05-01

    Changes in the cardiovascular system of patients with cancer of the esophagus were observed following radiotherapy using small, average, and large dose fractionations. Disorders of the systolic rhythm, diffuse changes in the myocardium, and loading symptoms in the right heart were noted. Large dose fractionations caused nutritional disorders of the myocardium indicated by the electrocardiogram. Some time after telegammatherapy radiation pericarditis, dilatation of the cardiac muscle, and the pulmonary heart developed. Radiation injuries of the heart and pericardium were caused by the use of large cumulative doses of radiation.

  19. Modeling high-order synchronization epochs and transitions in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, David; Bahraminasab, Alireza; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2007-12-01

    We study a system consisting of two coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. This system is used as a model for the cardiorespiratory interaction in wakefulness and anaesthesia. We show that longrange correlated noise produces transitions between epochs with different n:m synchronisation ratios, as observed in the cardiovascular system. Also, we see that, the smaller the noise (specially the one acting on the slower oscillator), the bigger the synchronisation time, exactly as happens in anaesthesia compared with wakefulness. The dependence of the synchronisation time on the couplings, in the presence of noise, is studied; such dependence is softened by low-frequency noise. We show that the coupling from the slow oscillator to the fast one (respiration to heart) plays a more important role in synchronisation. Finally, we see that the isolines with same synchronisation time seem to be a linear combination of the two couplings.

  20. [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-yu; Song, Chun-xiao; Yu, Duo; Liu, Xiao-liang; Guo, Jian-qiu; Wang, Chuan; Ding, Yuan-wei; Zhou, Hong-xia; Ma, Shu-mei; Liu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Xin

    2012-03-01

    To observe the exposure levels of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in workplaces and to analyze the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of occupationally exposed people. Intensity of electromagnetic fields in two workplaces (control and exposure groups) was detected with EFA-300 frequency electromagnetic field strength tester, and intensity of the noise was detected with AWA5610D integral sound level. The information of health physical indicators of 188 controls and 642 occupationally exposed workers was collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS17.0 statistic software. The intensity of electric fields and the magnetic fields in exposure groups was significantly higher than that in control group (P 0.05). The results of physical examination showed that the abnormal rates of HCY, ALT, AST, GGT, ECG in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in control group (P 0.05). Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation may have some effects on the cardiovascular system of workers.

  1. Redox modification of caveolar proteins in the cardiovascular system- role in cellular signalling and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Kristen J; Birgisdottir, Asa Birna; Tang, Owen; Hansen, Thomas; Figtree, Gemma A

    2017-08-01

    Rapid and coordinated release of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O 2 .- ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and peroxynitrite, in specific microdomains, play a crucial role in cell signalling in the cardiovascular system. These reactions are mediated by reversible and functional modifications of a wide variety of key proteins. Dysregulation of this oxidative signalling occurs in almost all forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including at the very early phases. Despite the heavily publicized failure of "antioxidants" to improve CVD progression, pharmacotherapies such as those targeting the renin-angiotensin system, or statins, exert at least part of their large clinical benefit via modulating cellular redox signalling. Over 250 proteins, including receptors, ion channels and pumps, and signalling proteins are found in the caveolae. An increasing proportion of these are being recognized as redox regulated-proteins, that reside in the immediate vicinity of the two major cellular sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This review focuses on what is known about redox signalling within the caveolae, as well as endogenous protective mechanisms utilized by the cell, and new approaches to targeting dysregulated redox signalling in the caveolae as a therapeutic strategy in CVD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular and systemic effects of gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a common emergency condition in large and giant breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dogs with GDV classically fulfill the criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and can go on to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previously reported organ dysfunctions in dogs with GDV include cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, coagulation and renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular manifestations of GDV include shock, cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction is also multifactorial, with contributory factors including decreased respiratory excursion due to gastric dilatation, decreased pulmonary perfusion and aspiration pneumonia. Gastrointestinal dysfunction includes gastric necrosis and post-operative gastrointestinal upset such as regurgitation, vomiting, and ileus. Coagulation dysfunction is another common feature of MODS in dogs with GDV. Disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur, putting them at risk of complications associated with thrombosis in the early hypercoagulable state and hemorrhage in the subsequent hypocoagulable state. Acute kidney injury, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances are also reported in dogs with GDV. Understanding the potential for systemic effects of GDV allows the clinician to monitor patients astutely and detect such complications early, facilitating early intervention to maximize the chance of successful management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  4. Milan PM1 induces adverse effects on mice lungs and cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Francesca; Sancini, Giulio; Longhin, Eleonora; Mantecca, Paride; Camatini, Marina; Palestini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50); inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); endothelial-selectin (E-selectin)), cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); caspase-8-p18), and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1)). Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO); plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin); fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)). PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity.

  5. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS; endothelial-selectin (E-selectin, cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; caspase-8-p18, and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1. Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO; plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin; fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity.

  6. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  7. Cardiovascular System during the Post Partum State in Women with a History of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline S.; Gooch, Linda; Flotta, Deborah; Lykins, David; Powers, Robert W.; Landsittel, Douglas; Roberts, James M.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis In subjects with previous preeclampsia, differences in cardiovascular and/or blood biochemical parameters are present in the non-pregnant state and that a simultaneous assessment of multiple derived indices better differentiates between women with or without prior preeclampsia. We examined 18 prior preeclamptic and 50 prior uncomplicated pregnancies, ~16 months post partum. Cardiovascular assessment included: (1) systemic hemodynamics and mechanics (Doppler echocardiography, tonometry, oscillometric sphygmomanometry) (2) endothelial function (plethysmography) (3) left ventricular properties (echocardiography), and (4) blood biochemical analyses. Compared to women with prior uncomplicated pregnancies, prior preeclamptics had higher mean (80±1 vs. 86±3 mmHg, P=0.04) and diastolic (64±1 vs. 68±2 mmHg; P=0.04) pressures and total vascular resistance (1562±37 vs. 1784±114 dyne•s/cm5; P=0.03). Systolic blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular properties were not different. While heart-to-femoral pulse wave velocity was not different, heart-to-brachial pulse wave velocity tended to be faster in prior preeclamptics (374±8 vs. 404±20 cm/s; P=0.06). Stress-induced increase in forearm blood flow was less in prior preeclamptics (245±21% vs. 136±22%; P=0.01), indicating impaired endothelial function. No significant differences were observed in markers of endothelial activation, dyslipidemia, or oxidative stress; prior preeclamptics tended to have higher glucose level (58.7±1.9 vs. 95±5.2 mg/dl; P=0.06). Logistic regression analysis indicated that a simultaneous evaluation of multiple derived indices better discriminated between the two groups. The differences in the prior preeclamptic group are in directions known to be associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk later in life. PMID:21606389

  8. Hydra: A web-based system for cardiovascular analysis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, J; Hermida, A; Ortega, M; Barreira, N; Penedo, M G; López, J E; Calvo, C

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is a highly complex process involving an extensive set of clinical trials to support the clinical decision-making process. There are many clinical conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, stress, etc.) that can lead to the early diagnosis or establishment of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine all these clinical conditions, a complete set of clinical patient analyses is typically performed, including a physical examination, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP) analysis, etc. This article presents a web-based system, called Hydra, which integrates a full and detailed set of services and functionalities for clinical decision support in order to help and improve the work of clinicians in cardiovascular patient diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and monitoring over time. Hydra integrates a number of different services: a service for inputting all the information gathered by specialists (physical examination, habits, BP, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, etc.); a tool to automatically determine the CV risk stratification, including well-known standard risk stratification tables; and, finally, various tools to incorporate, analyze and graphically present the records of the ambulatory BP monitoring that provides BP analysis over a given period of time (24 or 48 hours). In addition, the platform presents a set of reports derived from all the information gathered from the patient in order to support physicians in their clinical decisions. Hydra was tested and validated in a real domain. In particular, internal medicine specialists at the Hypertension Unit of the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital (CHUS) validated the platform and used it in different clinical studies to demonstrate its utility. It was observed that the platform increased productivity and accuracy in the assessment of patient data yielding a cost reduction in clinical practice. This paper proposes a complete platform that includes

  9. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  10. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  11. Genomic and non-genomic effects of androgens in the cardiovascular system: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Alves-Lopes, Rheure; Montezano, Augusto C; Ahmed, S Faisal; Touyz, Rhian M

    2017-07-01

    The principle steroidal androgens are testosterone and its metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is converted from testosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. Through the classic pathway with androgens crossing the plasma membrane and binding to the androgen receptor (AR) or via mechanisms independent of the ligand-dependent transactivation function of nuclear receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects respectively. AR is widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Androgens are essential for many developmental and physiological processes, especially in male reproductive tissues. It is now clear that androgens have multiple actions besides sex differentiation and sexual maturation and that many physiological systems are influenced by androgens, including regulation of cardiovascular function [nitric oxide (NO) release, Ca 2+ mobilization, vascular apoptosis, hypertrophy, calcification, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation]. This review focuses on evidence indicating that interplay between genomic and non-genomic actions of testosterone may influence cardiovascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Mathematical modelling of the maternal cardiovascular system in the three stages of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Chiara; Cervi, Elena; Migliavacca, Francesco; Schievano, Silvia; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the female circulation during pregnancy is presented in order to investigate the hemodynamic response to the cardiovascular changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy. First, a preliminary lumped parameter model of the circulation of a non-pregnant female was developed, including the heart, the systemic circulation with a specific block for the uterine district and the pulmonary circulation. The model was first tested at rest; then heart rate and vascular resistances were individually varied to verify the correct response to parameter alterations characterising pregnancy. In order to simulate hemodynamics during pregnancy at each trimester, the main changes applied to the model consisted in reducing vascular resistances, and simultaneously increasing heart rate and ventricular wall volumes. Overall, reasonable agreement was found between model outputs and in vivo data, with the trends of the cardiac hemodynamic quantities suggesting correct response of the heart model throughout pregnancy. Results were reported for uterine hemodynamics, with flow tracings resembling typical Doppler velocity waveforms at each stage, including pulsatility indexes. Such a model may be used to explore the changes that happen during pregnancy in female with cardiovascular diseases. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  14. Cardiovascular safety of the oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) formulation of tamsulosin compared to the modified release (MR) formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Klauwinkel, W.; Shear, M.; Davies, J.; Quartel, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The potential to interfere with efferent adrenergic drive in the cardiovascular system was tested in elderly healthy subjects for the new oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg tablet formulation of tamsulosin compared to the modified release (MR) 0.4 mg capsule formulation of

  15. Examing nursing students' understanding of the cardiovascular system in a BSN program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker Emerson

    This study investigated the alignment of important cardiovascular system (CVS) concepts identified by expert nurses with nursing student's knowledge. Specifically, it focused on the prevalence of nursing students' alternative conceptions for these important concepts as a potential reason for a theory-practice gap in nursing (Corlett, 2000; Jordan, 1994). This is the first study to target nursing student alternative conceptions exclusively whereas other studies focused on diverse groups of undergraduates' CVS knowledge (Michael et al., 2002). The study was divided into two phases and used a case study approach with each phase of the study representing a single case. The first phase of the study sought to understand what CVS concepts expert nurses deemed relevant to their daily practice and how these experts used these concepts. The second phase identified nursing student alternative conceptions through the use of open-ended scenarios based on the results of phase I. For the first phase of the study involved four CVS expert nurses practicing in emergency rooms and cardiac intensive care units at two local hospitals. Interviews were used to elicit important CVS concepts. The expert nurses identified five broad concepts as important to their practice. These concepts were a) cardiovascular anatomical concepts; b) cardiovascular physiological concepts; c) homeostasis and diseases of the CVS; d) the interdependence and interaction of the CVS with other organ systems and e) the intersection of the CVS and technology in patient diagnosis and treatment. These finding reinforce concepts already being taught to nursing students but also suggest that instruction should focus more on how the CVS interacts with other organ systems and how technology and the CVS interact. The presence of alternative conceptions in the nursing students was examined through the use of open-ended questions. A total of 17 students fully completed the scenario questions. Results indicate that this

  16. Bioimpedance system for monitoring muscle and cardiovascular activity in the stump of lower-limb amputees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornero, G; Díaz, D; Casas, O

    2013-01-01

    A bioimpedance system for the continuous measurement of non-invasive physiological parameters in lower-limb amputees is presented. The aim of the system is to monitor as many physiological parameters as possible from a single bioimpedance electrode configuration. In this way, a simple, low-cost and low-size autonomous system is developed that is able to continuously monitor the amputee in different environments (home, work, etc). The system measures both electrical impedance myography and electrical impedance plethysmography in the stump with electrodes placed in the inside face of a silicone interface. Such a system allows for the monitoring of a patient's muscle activity, and heart and breath rate, thus enabling the study and continuous monitoring of prosthesis adaptation and improvement of patient's gait to reduce physiological stress. Additionally, it can prevent cardiovascular problems due to the effort involved in the use of prostheses, which can decrease the life expectancy of amputees with previous vascular diseases. Experimental results obtained from different amputees' test validate the purpose of the system. (paper)

  17. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  18. Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular system toxicity: A case for telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina; Vicent, Marίa J; Hoe, See Ziau; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-11-01

    While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M B

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet.

  20. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Chen, Yitong; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies. PMID:24741577

  1. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbiao Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies.

  2. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation strategies of Systems Medicine in clinical research and home care for cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Fiuza, Manuela; Pinto, Fausto J; Martelli, Antonietta; Palombo, Domenico; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mach, François; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-11-01

    Insights from the "-omics" science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Algrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-11-13

    A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three assessors for videos covering the clinical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For each video, the following information was collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority, and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos. A total of 1920 videos were screened. Only relevant videos covering the examination of adults in the English language were identified (n=56). Of these, 20 were found to be relevant to cardiovascular examinations and 36 to respiratory examinations. Further analysis revealed that 9 provided useful information on cardiovascular examinations and 7 on respiratory examinations: scoring mean 14.9 (SD 0.33) and mean 15.0 (SD 0.00), respectively. The other videos, 11 covering cardiovascular and 29 on respiratory examinations, were not useful educationally, scoring mean 11.1 (SD 1.08) and mean 11.2 (SD 1.29), respectively. The differences between these two categories were significant (P.86. A small number of videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were identified as educationally useful; these videos can be used by medical students for independent learning and by clinical teachers as learning resources. The scoring system utilized by this study is simple, easy to apply, and could be used by other researchers on similar topics.

  5. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  6. Usefulness of serum interleukin-18 in predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease--systems and clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Radom, Marcin; Formanowicz, Piotr

    2015-12-16

    The aim of this study was to check if serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) predicts 2-year cardiovascular mortality in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within the previous year. Diabetes mellitus was one of the key factors of exclusion. It was found that an increase in serum concentration of IL-18 above the cut-off point (1584.5 pg/mL) was characterized by 20.63-fold higher risk of cardiovascular deaths among studied patients. IL-18 serum concentration was found to be superior to the well-known cardiovascular risk parameters, like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), glomerular filtration rate, albumins, ferritin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in prognosis of cardiovascular mortality. The best predictive for IL-18 were 4 variables, such as CIMT, NT-proBNP, albumins and hsCRP, as they predicted its concentration at 89.5%. Concluding, IL-18 seems to be important indicator and predictor of cardiovascular death in two-year follow-up among non-diabetic patients suffering from CKD, with history of AMI in the previous year. The importance of IL-18 in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation has been confirmed by systems analysis based on a formal model expressed in the language of Petri nets theory.

  7. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However...

  8. Comparison of the cardiovascular effects of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and alfuzosin prolonged release (XL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Chapple, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cardiovascular (CV) effects of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg were compared with those of alfuzosin prolonged release (XL) 10 mg. METHODS: Two single-dose, crossover studies were performed. In study 1, CV alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism was assessed by

  9. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; Souza, De Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and

  10. Nitrergic system and plasmatic methylarginines: Evidence of their role in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Bassareo, Valentina; Flore, Giovanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-07

    Atherosclerosis, in turn preceded by endothelial dysfunction, underlies a series of important cardiovascular diseases. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide, by increasing vascular tone and promoting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, plays a key role in the onset of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, are associated with future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. Recent reports have demonstrated that another methylarginine, i.e., symmetric dimethylarginine, is also involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Almost a decade ago, prematurity at birth and intrauterine growth retardation were first associated with a potential negative influence on the cardiovascular apparatus, thus constituting risk factors or leading to early onset of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. Accordingly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among former preterm adults than in those born at term. The aim of this paper was to undertake a comprehensive literature review focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in both reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased methylarginine levels in subjects born preterm. Evidence of the involvement of these compounds in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular risk are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Implantable Cardiovascular Pressure Monitoring System with On-Chip Antenna and RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An implantable wireless system with on-chip antenna for cardiovascular pressure monitor is studied. The implantable device is operated in a batteryless manner, powered by an external radio frequency (RF power source. The received RF power level can be sensed and wirelessly transmitted along with blood pressure signal for feedback control of the external RF power. The integrated electronic system, consisting of a capacitance-to-voltage converter, an adaptive RF powering system, an RF transmitter and digital control circuitry, is simulated using a TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The implanted RF transmitter circuit is combined with a low power voltage-controlled oscillator resonating at 5.8 GHz and a power amplifier. For the design, the simulation model is setup using ADS and HFSS software. The dimension of the antenna is 1 × 0.6 × 4.8 mm3 with a 1 × 0.6 mm2 on-chip circuit which is small enough to place in human carotid artery.

  12. Imaging of systemic lupus erythematosus. Part I: CNS, cardiovascular, and thoracic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Y.P.; Naidoo, P.; Ngian, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that has a relapsing and remitting course. It has a wide range of non-specific symptoms with various organ manifestations. In 1982, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published the revised criteria for the classification of SLE. The diagnosis of SLE may be made if four or more of the 11 ACR criteria are present, either serially or simultaneously, during any interval of observation. Whilst the diagnosis of SLE is based on clinical and laboratory features, with no universally accepted radiological diagnostic criteria, imaging is nonetheless useful for diagnosing specific organ manifestations, monitoring disease progression, and identifying complications secondary to immunosuppressive therapy. In this review, we describe the spectrum of radiological findings of SLE in various organ systems and compile a list of organ manifestations including the most frequently occurring diseases as well as the rare but not-to-be-missed diseases. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool in an endeavour to assist clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. This pictorial review presents the various radiological findings of CNS, cardiovascular and thoracic manifestation of SLE. The gastrointestinal, renal and musculoskeletal systems will be covered in part II.

  13. Perceived determinants of cardiovascular risk management in primary care: disconnections between patient behaviours, practice organisation and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntink, E; Wensing, M; Klomp, M A; van Lieshout, J

    2015-12-15

    Although conditions for high quality cardiovascular risk management in primary care in the Netherlands are favourable, there still remains a gap between practice guideline recommendations and practice. The aim of the current study was to identify determinants of cardiovascular primary care in the Netherlands. We performed a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and patients with established cardiovascular diseases or at high cardiovascular risk. A framework analysis was used to cluster the determinants into seven domains: 1) guideline factors, 2) individual healthcare professional factors, 3) patient factors, 4) professional interaction, 5) incentives and recourses, 6) mandate, authority and accountability, and 7) social, political and legal factors. Twelve healthcare professionals and 16 patients were interviewed. Healthcare professionals and patients mentioned a variety of factors concerning all seven domains. Determinants of practice according to the health care professionals were related to communication between healthcare professionals, patients' lack of knowledge and self-management, time management, market mechanisms in the Dutch healthcare system and motivational interviewing skills of healthcare professionals. Patients mentioned determinants related to their knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, medication adherence and self-management as key determinants. A key finding is the mismatch between healthcare professionals' and patients' views on patient's knowledge and self-management. Perceived determinants of cardiovascular risk management were mainly related to patient behaviors and (but only for health professionals) to the healthcare system. Though health care professionals and patients agree upon the importance of patients' knowledge and self-management, their judgment of the current state of knowledge and self-management is entirely different.

  14. Information Decomposition in Multivariate Systems: Definitions, Implementation and Application to Cardiovascular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuously growing framework of information dynamics encompasses a set of tools, rooted in information theory and statistical physics, which allow to quantify different aspects of the statistical structure of multivariate processes reflecting the temporal dynamics of complex networks. Building on the most recent developments in this field, this work designs a complete approach to dissect the information carried by the target of a network of multiple interacting systems into the new information produced by the system, the information stored in the system, and the information transferred to it from the other systems; information storage and transfer are then further decomposed into amounts eliciting the specific contribution of assigned source systems to the target dynamics, and amounts reflecting information modification through the balance between redundant and synergetic interaction between systems. These decompositions are formulated quantifying information either as the variance or as the entropy of the investigated processes, and their exact computation for the case of linear Gaussian processes is presented. The theoretical properties of the resulting measures are first investigated in simulations of vector autoregressive processes. Then, the measures are applied to assess information dynamics in cardiovascular networks from the variability series of heart period, systolic arterial pressure and respiratory activity measured in healthy subjects during supine rest, orthostatic stress, and mental stress. Our results document the importance of combining the assessment of information storage, transfer and modification to investigate common and complementary aspects of network dynamics; suggest the higher specificity to alterations in the network properties of the measures derived from the decompositions; and indicate that measures of information transfer and information modification are better assessed, respectively, through entropy

  15. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  16. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  17. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Khurana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging.

  18. The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the cardiovascular system in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Galli, Gina; Abe, Augusto; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias

    2005-10-01

    The roles that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the cardiovascular system of reptiles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on its effects on central vascular blood flows in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. New data is presented that describes the effects on hemodynamic variables in varanid lizards of exogenously administered NO via the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Furthermore, preliminary data on the effects of SNP on hemodynamic variables in the tegu lizard are presented. The findings are compared with previously published data from our laboratory on three other species of reptiles: pythons (), rattlesnakes () and turtles (). These five species of reptiles possess different combinations of division of the heart and structural complexity of the lungs. Comparison of their responses to NO donors and NOS inhibitors may reveal whether the potential contribution of NO to vascular tone correlates with pulmonary complexity and/or with blood pressure. All existing studies on reptiles have clearly established a potential role for NO in regulating vascular tone in the systemic circulation and NO may be important for maintaining basal systemic vascular tone in varanid lizards, pythons and turtles, through a continuous release of NO. In contrast, the pulmonary circulation is less responsive to NO donors or NOS inhibitors, and it was only in pythons and varanid lizards that the lungs responded to SNP. Both species have a functionally separated heart, so it is possible that NO may exert a larger role in species with low pulmonary blood pressures, irrespective of lung complexity.

  19. A comparative analysis of alternative approaches for quantifying nonlinear dynamics in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has emerged as an important research topic to evaluate autonomic cardiac function. However, traditional time and frequency-domain analysis characterizes and quantify only linear and stationary phenomena. In the present investigation, we made a comparative analysis of three alternative approaches (i.e., wavelet multifractal analysis, Lyapunov exponents and multiscale entropy analysis) for quantifying nonlinear dynamics in heart rate time series. Note that these extracted nonlinear features provide information about nonlinear scaling behaviors and the complexity of cardiac systems. To evaluate the performance, we used 24-hour HRV recordings from 54 healthy subjects and 29 heart failure patients, available in PhysioNet. Three nonlinear methods are evaluated not only individually but also in combination using three classification algorithms, i.e., linear discriminate analysis, quadratic discriminate analysis and k-nearest neighbors. Experimental results show that three nonlinear methods capture nonlinear dynamics from different perspectives and the combined feature set achieves the best performance, i.e., sensitivity 97.7% and specificity 91.5%. Collectively, nonlinear HRV features are shown to have the promise to identify the disorders in autonomic cardiovascular function.

  20. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli, E-mail: rbestetti44@gmail.com; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B. [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.

  1. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC, it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.

  2. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation

  3. The state of the cardiovascular system in young patients with mitral valve prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kuznetsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Due to the signifi cant increase of complications developing in young patients with mitral valve prolapse detection of this disease is important.In order to examine the state of the cardiovascular system in young patients 135 patients with mitral valve prolapse at the age of 16–25 years were examined. Methods and results. During the survey medical history was taken, the information from the medical records of оutpatients and extracts from the medical histories of patients were studied, clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (EchoCG were conducted with subsequent analysis of the obtained data. Conclusion. It was established that signifi cant differences were obtained in the analysis of auscultative symptoms in groups with MVP of grade 1 and grade 2. ECG studies in young patients showed that functional impairment was signifi cantly more frequently observed in the group with grade 2 MVP (56.4%, less frequently – in the group with grade 1 MVP (50.0% and only in 30.0% of cases in the control group (p <0.01.

  4. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. Tissue perfusion during normovolemic hemodilution investigated by a hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, S; Messmer, K; Intaglietta, M

    1987-01-01

    Normovolemic hemodilution on a whole body basis is studied by means of a steady flow, hydraulic analogue simulation of the cardiovascular system, based on the Casson's model and current hemodynamic and rheological data. The vasculature is divided into serially connected compartments whose hydraulic resistance is characterized by the average diameter, length, number of vessels, and the corresponding rheological properties of blood formulated by Dintenfass (1971) and Lipowsky et al. (1980). This model computes the pressure distributions in all compartments, where the calculated venous pressure modulates the cardiac function according to the Starling mechanism for cardiac performance. The alterations of flow induced by the action of the heart are added to the effects due to changes in peripheral vascular resistance as a result of hematocrit variation. This model shows that when the response of heart to the changes of venous pressure is impaired, the maximum oxygen carrying capacity occurs at 40% hematocrit (H) where it is 1% higher than normal hematocrit (H = 44%). The normal cardiac response to the changes of venous pressure, causes the maximum oxygen carrying capacity to occur at 32% H where it is 12% greater than that at normal hematocrit. Mean arteriolar pressure and capillary pressure increase while venular pressure is slightly reduced during normovolemic hemodilution.

  6. Mechanisms of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. New therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pedrera, Chary; Aguirre-Zamorano, M Ángeles; Pérez-Sánchez, Carlos

    2017-08-22

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are 2 highly related autoimmune-rheumatic diseases associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite the great progresses made in understanding the pathological mechanisms leading to CV diseases in those pathologies, there is still the unmet need to improve long term prognosis. CV diseases in SLE and APS is thought to happen as the result of a complex interaction between traditional CV risk factors, immune deregulation and disease activity, including the synergic effect of cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, proteases, autoantibodies, adhesion receptors, oxidative stress and a plethora of intracellular signalling molecules. Genomic and epigenomic analyses have further allowed the identification of specific signatures explaining the proathero-thrombotic profiles of APS and SLE patients. This review examines the complex role of these heterogeneous factors, and analyses new therapeutic approaches under study to reduce the CV risk in these autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipke, D.W.; Couchman, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed to elevated pressure (left ventricle, LV and aorta above the clip, AOR increases) exhibited elevated PG synthesis after 4 days of hypertension. By 14 days, tissues both exposed to (LV and AOR increases) and protected from elevated pressure (right ventricle and kidney) exhibited elevated PG synthetic rates. Slight elevations in the proportion of galactosaminoglycans were observed with a concurrent proportional decrease in heparan sulfate PGs. Using the in vitro labeling procedure, no significant increases in PG synthesis were observed in any tissue at either 4 days or 14 days of hypertension. These data indicate that: (1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, (2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, (3) pressure and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and (4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected

  8. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Jiří; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is testosterone treatment dangerous for the cardiovascular system in older hypogonadal men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aversa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS and men's vascular health has a great impact in the modern approach to the aging male. There is good evidence that low testosterone (T is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED and that ED is a strong marker for cardiovascular risk; also, TDS is frequently associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Noteworthy, the occurrence of increased levels of glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and myointimal carotid thickness may be associated with reduced T levels especially in cardiac older frail men. Screening for low T should be mandatory in high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. The rising demand from patients to be treated for ED associated with TDS will increase the prescribing of T and facilitate future long-term studies on its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies suggest warnings with regard to T prescription in older frail men, but we regret that these studies had consistent bias in inclusion criteria and statistical evaluation. Data from studies conducted in more selected populations suggest that T replacement therapy may improve multiple surrogate markers for CVD as well as reducing cardiovascular mortality. After analyzing the most important studies' limitation, we can conclude that at present there is insufficient evidence of a causal relationship between T therapy and adverse cardiovascular outcomes to support against T supplementation in older hypogonadal frail men.

  10. Protective effect of yerba mate intake on the cardiovascular system: a post hoc analysis study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga, D T A; Bringhenti, R; Copes, R; Tatsch, E; Moresco, R N; Comim, F V; Premaor, M O

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increased in postmenopausal women, which contributes to the burden of illnesses in this period of life. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native bush from Southern South America. Its leaves are rich in phenolic components, which may have antioxidant, vasodilating, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic proprieties. This post hoc analysis of the case-control study nested in the Obesity and Bone Fracture Cohort evaluated the consumption of yerba mate and the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary diseases in postmenopausal women. Ninety-five postmenopausal women were included in this analysis. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate the risk factors and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and consumption of yerba mate infusion. Student's t-test and chi-square test were used to assess significant differences between groups. The group that consumed more than 1 L/day of mate infusion had significantly fewer diagnoses of coronary disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (P<0.049, P<0.048, and P<0.016, respectively). Furthermore, the serum levels of glucose were lower in the group with a higher consumption of yerba mate infusion (P<0.013). The serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between the groups. This pragmatic study points out the benefits of yerba mate consumption for the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The ingestion of more than 1 L/day of mate infusion was associated with fewer self-reported cardiovascular diseases and lower serum levels of glucose. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the association between yerba mate infusion and reduction of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women.

  11. Evaluation of the Educational Value of YouTube Videos About Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azer, Samy A; AlGrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. Objective This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. Methods During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three ass...

  12. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Link between diet and cardiovascular disease in Latin America and the Caribbean using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jennifer; Brevard, Patricia B; Lee, Robert E; Wagner, Tammy

    2009-10-01

    To determine the visual, spatial, and/or statistical relationships between food availability/dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). CVD mortality rates and diet information (the number of kilocalories and amount of alcohol, fats, fish, fruits, meats, sugars, and vegetables available per person daily) were obtained from internationally available databases. The analyses included 32 LAC countries with sufficient data (15 of 47 had been excluded for incomplete data). Pearson's correlations (r) were used to determine relationships between diet and CVD mortality, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of mortality. ArcGIS version 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, United States) was used to construct maps to explore visual relationships between CVD and diet. No relationships were found between CVD and alcohol, fruit, meat, sugar, or vegetable intake. Statistically significant, positive correlations were found between oil-crops (r = 0.680, P = 0.000) and fish and seafood (r = 0.411, P = 0.019) and CVD mortality. Regression analysis revealed that high kilocalorie availability was a predictor of low CVD mortality (P = 0.020). High oil-crop availability was a predictor of high CVD mortality (P = 0.000). Maps constructed show visual relationships between availability of fish and seafood, kilocalories, and oil-crops, and CVD mortality. Fish and seafood, kilocalorie, and oil-crop availability appear to be related to CVD mortality, but further investigation is needed. Associations between diet and CVD mortality create the opportunity to target specific countries for nutrition education and CVD prevention programs.

  14. Simulation of left atrial function using a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pironet

    Full Text Available During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors.

  15. Risk factors for diseases of the cardiovascular system among Catholics living in areas of southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the most frequent cause of mortality of Polish residents. In Poland, there are few publications regarding research on the influence of people’s religiosity on their health. Aim of the research : To determine some factors of cardiovascular risk and the risk of cardiovascular events among Catholics. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 134 randomly selected Catholics and based on the results of: questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, physical examination, the SCORE scale, laboratory tests (CRP, homocysteine. glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides and assessing the risk of cardiovascular events based on the SCORE scale. Statistical analysis was based on the χ 2 test. Founded significance level was 0.05. Results: More than half of the respondents were diagnosed delevated homocysteine level and gluteal-femoral obesity. A little more than half of those surveyed had elevated total cholesterol levels and increased blood pressure, a little more than one-quarter of the respondents had raised triglyceride levels, and one-tenth had heightened glucose and C-reactive protein levels. The higher the age of the respondents, the more often the results of their biochemical exceed standards. Over half of those examined were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Among examined gynoid obesity prevailed over android obesity. The risk assessment of CVD Catholics revealed that among the modifiable factors, biochemical levels of homocysteine proved to be the most important new risk factor, but among the classic factors it was blood pressure value. More than half of the respondents had moderate risk of cardiovascular events in the study group. Conclusions : Nurses should promote pro-health attitudes, and should encourage the elimination of risk factors and biochemical testing and measurement among Catholics, who are a religious group at higher risk of cardiovascular

  16. Impact of the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination-based Payment System on cardiovascular medicine-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2005-09-01

    In 2003, a lump-sum payment system based on Diagnosis Procedure Combinations (DPC) was introduced to 82 specific function hospitals in Japan. While the US DRG/PPS system is a "per case payment" system, the DPC based payment system adopts a "per day payment." It is generally believed that the Japanese system provides as much of an incentive as the DRG/PPS system to shorten the average length of stay (LOS). We performed an empirical analysis of the effect of LOS shortening on hospital revenue and expenditure under the DPC-based payment system, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. We also point out fundamentally controversial aspects of the current system. A total 109 cases were selected from patients hospitalized at the University of Tokyo Hospital from May to July, 2003 and classified into one of three categories: (1) cardiac catheter interventions, (2) cardiac catheter examinations, and (3) other conservative treatments. We analyzed the changes in profit per day in cases of a reduction in average LOS and an increase in the number of cases. In category (1) profit increased significantly in conjunction with reduced LOS. In category (2) profit increased only minimally. In category (3), profit increased rarely and sometimes decreased. In cases of conservative treatment, profits sometimes decreased because an increase in material costs exceeded the increase in revenue. It therefore became clear that the DPC-based payment system does not decisively provide an economic incentive to reduce LOS in cardiovascular medicine.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles among 'healthy' siblings of patients with early-onset cardiovascular disease: application of the new SCORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Paul G; Kamaruddin, Muhammad S; Moore, Michael J; McCarty, David; Spence, Mark S; McGlinchey, Paul G; Murphy, Gillian; Jardine, Tracy C L; Patterson, Chris C; McKeown, Pascal P

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs more frequently in individuals with a family history of premature CVD. Within families the demographics of CVD are poorly described. We examined the risk estimation based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system and the Joint British Guidelines (JBG) for older unaffected siblings of patients with premature CVD (onset siblings. Siblings were screened for clinically overt CVD by a standard questionnaire and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). A total of 790 siblings was identified and full demographic details were available for 645. The following siblings were excluded: 41 with known diabetes mellitus; seven with random plasma glucose of 11.1 mmol/l or greater; and eight with ischaemic ECG. Data were analysed for 589 siblings from 405 families. The mean age was 55.0 years, 43.1% were men and 28.7% were smokers. The mean total serum cholesterol was 5.8 mmol/l and hypertension was present in 49.4%. Using the SCORE system, when projected to age 60 years, 181 men (71.3%) and 67 women (20.0%) would be eligible for risk factor modification. Using JBG with a 10-year risk of 20% or greater, 42 men (16.5%) and four women (1.2%) would be targeted. Large numbers of these asymptomatic individuals meet both European and British guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and should be targeted for risk factor modification. The prevalence of individuals defined as eligible for treatment is much higher when using the SCORE system.

  18. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  19. Correlation of Endostatin and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2 Serum Levels With Cardiovascular Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Dziankowska-Bartkowiak

    2005-01-01

    pathogenesis of SSc. Heart fibrosis is one of the most important prognostic factors in SSc patients. So, the aim of our study was to examine cardiovascular dysfunction in SSc patients and its correlation with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endostatin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2. The study group comprised 34 patients (19 with limited scleroderma (lSSc and 15 with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc. The control group consisted of 20 healthy persons, age and sex matched. Internal organ involvement was assessed on the basis of specialist procedures. Serum VEGF, endostatin, and TIMP2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found cardiovascular changes in 15 patients with SSc (8 with lSSc and 7 with dSSc. The observed symptoms were of different characters and also coexisted with each other. Higher endostatin serum levels in all systemic sclerosis patients in comparison to the control group were demonstrated (P<.05. Also higher serum levels of endostatin and TIMP2 were observed in patients with cardiovascular changes in comparison to the patients without such changes (P<.05. The obtained results support the notion that angiogenesis and fibrosis disturbances may play an important role in SSc. Evaluation of endostatin and TIMP2 serum levels seems to be one of the noninvasive, helpful examinations of heart involvement in the course of systemic sclerosis.

  20. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  1. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in

  2. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, L.B.; Li, M.; van Esch, B.C.A.M.; Garssen, J.; Folkerts, G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases is often attributable to loss of endothelial functions of the vascular tissue or to decreased contractile function of the heart muscle. These disturbances are often caused by imbalances in lipid and glucose metabolism. For instance, these imbalances can

  3. Computer model for the cardiovascular system: development of an e-learning tool for teaching of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roy Warriner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study combined themes in cardiovascular modelling, clinical cardiology and e-learning to create an on-line environment that would assist undergraduate medical students in understanding key physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system. Methods An interactive on-line environment was developed incorporating a lumped-parameter mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model outputs were used to characterise the progression of key disease processes and allowed students to classify disease severity with the aim of improving their understanding of abnormal physiology in a clinical context. Access to the on-line environment was offered to students at all stages of undergraduate training as an adjunct to routine lectures and tutorials in cardiac pathophysiology. Student feedback was collected on this novel on-line material in the course of routine audits of teaching delivery. Results Medical students, irrespective of their stage of undergraduate training, reported that they found the models and the environment interesting and a positive experience. After exposure to the environment, there was a statistically significant improvement in student performance on a series of 6 questions based on cardiovascular medicine, with a 33% and 22% increase in the number of questions answered correctly, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Considerable improvement was found in students’ knowledge and understanding during assessment after exposure to the e-learning environment. Opportunities exist for development of similar environments in other fields of medicine, refinement of the existing environment and further engagement with student cohorts. This work combines some exciting and developing fields in medical education, but routine adoption of these types of tool will be possible only with the engagement of all stake-holders, from educationalists, clinicians, modellers to

  4. Computer model for the cardiovascular system: development of an e-learning tool for teaching of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, David Roy; Bayley, Martin; Shi, Yubing; Lawford, Patricia Victoria; Narracott, Andrew; Fenner, John

    2017-11-21

    This study combined themes in cardiovascular modelling, clinical cardiology and e-learning to create an on-line environment that would assist undergraduate medical students in understanding key physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system. An interactive on-line environment was developed incorporating a lumped-parameter mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model outputs were used to characterise the progression of key disease processes and allowed students to classify disease severity with the aim of improving their understanding of abnormal physiology in a clinical context. Access to the on-line environment was offered to students at all stages of undergraduate training as an adjunct to routine lectures and tutorials in cardiac pathophysiology. Student feedback was collected on this novel on-line material in the course of routine audits of teaching delivery. Medical students, irrespective of their stage of undergraduate training, reported that they found the models and the environment interesting and a positive experience. After exposure to the environment, there was a statistically significant improvement in student performance on a series of 6 questions based on cardiovascular medicine, with a 33% and 22% increase in the number of questions answered correctly, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001 respectively. Considerable improvement was found in students' knowledge and understanding during assessment after exposure to the e-learning environment. Opportunities exist for development of similar environments in other fields of medicine, refinement of the existing environment and further engagement with student cohorts. This work combines some exciting and developing fields in medical education, but routine adoption of these types of tool will be possible only with the engagement of all stake-holders, from educationalists, clinicians, modellers to, most importantly, medical students.

  5. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  6. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospective association between a dietary quality index based on a nutrient profiling system and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Menai, Mehdi; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K

    2016-10-01

    Public health strategies are essential to guide consumers' choices and produce a substantial population impact on cardiovascular disease risk prevention through nutrition. Our aim was to investigate the prospective association between the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) and cardiovascular disease risk. The FSA-NPS has been proposed to serve as a basis for a five-colour nutrition label suggested in France to be put on the front of pack of food products. A total of 6515 participants to the SU.VI.MAX cohort (1994-2007), who completed at least six 24-hour dietary records during the first two years of the study, were followed for a median of 12.4 years (25th-75th percentiles: 11.0-12.6). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterise the associations between FSA-NPS DI (continuous and sex-specific quartiles) and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Interactions with individual characteristics were tested; 181 major cardiovascular events were reported (59 myocardial infarctions, 43 strokes, 79 anginas). A higher FSA-NPS DI, characterising poorer food choices, was associated with an overall increase in cardiovascular disease risk (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.14 (1.03-1.27); HRQ4vs.Q1 = 1.61 (1.05-2.47), Ptrend Q4-Q1 = 0.03). This association tended to be stronger in smokers (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.39 (1.11-1.73); Pinteraction = 0.01) and those less physically active (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.26 (1.08-1.46); Pinteraction = 0.04). Our results suggest that poorer food choices, as reflected by a higher FSA-NPS DI, may be associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk, especially in at-risk individuals (smokers and physically inactive persons). This score could be a useful tool for public health prevention strategies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00272428. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  8. Effect of Global Postural Reeducation on cardiovascular system of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Márcia de Carvalho Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effect of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR on cardiovascular system by heart rate variability (HRV, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR. Materials and methods Seventeen healthy men (22.47 ± 3.02 years were submitted to the postures frog on the floor, frog on the air, sitting, standing against the wall and inclined standing, two postures per session. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP and HR were recorded. The intervals between heartbeats were collected during the whole session (Polar S810i. The frequency domain was analyzed (Wavelet Transform, the low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were obtained. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (p < 0.05. Results Increased LF/HF ratio was observed in the frog on the floor (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.3 p < 0.05 and on the air postures (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.2 p < 0.01. There was an increase in SBP in the postures frog on the floor (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, frog on the air (122 ± 2 vs. 133 ± 3 p < 0.05, standing against the wall (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, inclined standing (124 ± 3 vs. 146 ± 5 p < 0.05. There was increase of DBP in the postures frog on the floor (69 ± 2 vs. 81 ± 2 p < 0.01, frog on the air (72 ± 2 vs. 83 ± 3 p < 0.05, sitting (85 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 p < 0.01. There was increase in HR in the postures frog on the air (67 ± 2 vs. 77 ± 3 p < 0.05 and inclined standing (88 ± 3.5 vs. 101 ± 3 p < 0.05. Conclusion The increase in LF/HF ratio and also the BP and HR indicates high sympathetic activity, possibly related to the work isometric developed during GPR method. [P

  9. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  10. Oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figtree, Gemma A; Keyvan Karimi, Galougahi; Liu, Chia-Chi; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2012-12-15

    The Na(+)-K(+) pump is an essential heterodimeric membrane protein, which maintains electrochemical gradients for Na(+) and K(+) across cell membranes in all tissues. We have identified glutathionylation, a reversible posttranslational redox modification, of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's β1 subunit as a regulatory mechanism of pump activity. Oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump by angiotensin II- and β1-adrenergic receptor-coupled signaling via NADPH oxidase activation demonstrates the relevance of this regulatory mechanism in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. This has implications for dysregulation of intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) as well as increased oxidative stress in heart failure, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, and regulation of vascular tone under conditions of elevated oxidative stress. Treatment strategies that are able to reverse this oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump have the potential for cardiovascular-protective effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Hrabánková, M

    1993-06-01

    Antidepressants, in particular tricyclic ones (TCA), and inhibitors of monoaminooxidase (IMAO) exert a number of undesirable cardiovascular effects. TCA and IMAO frequently cause postural hypotension (PH). IMAO administration is associated with the risk of hypertensive crisis. TCA raises the heart rate and can cause abnormalities in the conduction of the cardiac excitation. TCA are contraindicated after myocardial infarction and are the cause of death after overdosage. When PH is undesirable, in hypertension and cardiac insufficiency the following safe antidepressants are recommended: nortriptyline, mianserine, trazodone and viloxazine. In abnormalities of conduction of the cardiac excitation and after myocardial infarction only mianserine, trazodione and viloxazine are recommended. With regard to cardiovascular toxicity, antidepressants from the series of selective inhibitors of serotonin reabsorption are very promising: fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and sertraline. The same applies also to the reversible IMAO type A moclobemide.

  12. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Rojas, Rosalba; Villalpando, Salvador; Barquera, Simón; Rull, Juan; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >or=2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >or=2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%).

  13. Brief Report: Association Between Pregnancy Outcomes and Death From Cardiovascular Causes in Parous Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Study Using Swedish Population Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, May Ching; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Dib, Fadia; Westgren, Magnus; McCowan, Lesley; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2015-09-01

    To determine if maternal placental syndromes (MPS) are associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Between 1973 and 2011, women with SLE and a history of pregnancy were identified using linked Swedish population registries. The outcome was death from primarily cardiovascular causes, defined as death from acute coronary syndrome or coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease. The exposure was MPS, defined as any hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, stillbirth, placental abruption, or delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. The association of preterm delivery (delivery at death from cardiovascular causes was also explored. Risk of death from cardiovascular causes was determined using logistic regression, adjusting for the year of first delivery, duration of SLE, number of inpatient admissions, and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 3,977 women with SLE had 7,410 pregnancies during the study interval. Death from primarily cardiovascular causes occurred in 44 of the 325 women who died (13.5%). The median age at death from cardiovascular causes was 54 years (interquartile range 48-58 years), and these women were more likely to have had hypertension and renal disease. MPS was associated with an increased risk of death from primarily cardiovascular causes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-4.22]), specifically, a history of placental abruption (adjusted OR 5.78 [95% CI 1.61-20.72]). Delivery at death from primarily cardiovascular causes (adjusted OR 2.49 [95% CI 1.06-5.85]). MPS in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of death from primarily cardiovascular causes in women with SLE. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  15. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  16. Physiological role of FGF signaling in growth and remodeling of developing cardiovascular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Eliška; Peševski, Živorad; Naňka, O.; Sedmera, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 425-435 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * vasculogenesis * FGF2 * FGFR1 * myocyte proliferation * conotruncal banding * SU5402 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  17. A Comparative Study of Personality Traits and Brain Behavioral activation Systems and Inhibition in Women with Cancer, Cardiovascular Diseases and Normal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Amiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic diseases are among the most important causes of mortality. The aim of the current study was to compare the Brain/behavioral systems and Dark personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy in cancer, cardiovascular female patients and normal women. Methods: In this study, 60 individuals were selected using available sampling in three groups of 20 cancer patients, cardiovascular patients, and normal subjects. Finally, in order to test the goals and hypotheses of the research, the participants were studied based on Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System, and Dark Triad traits. Data analysis was performed using multivariate ANOVA, univariate ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results: In this study, there was a significant difference among the three groups in Brain/behavioral systems and traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, so that the cancer and cardiovascular patients had higher score in dark triad traits compared to normal individuals. Also, the cancer patients had a higher score in Machiavellianism trait compared to the cardiovascular patients. In the brain/behavioral systems, cardiovascular and cancer patients had higher score in behavioral inhibition system (BIS component compared to the normal individuals in the of behavioral inhibition system (BIS. Also, in the reward seeking subscale of behavioral activation system (BAS-f, cancer patients had a higher score compared to cardiovascular patients, which was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cancer and cardiovascular patients, have greater extent of social disgusting personality traits as well as behavioral inhibition system as anxiety-predisposing factor.

  18. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  19. Effects of medical therapy on insulin resistance and the cardiovascular system in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; McGrath, Barry P; Teede, Helena Jane

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to determine the impact of medical therapy for symptom management on insulin resistance, metabolic profiles, and surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an insulin-resistant pre-diabetes condition. One hundred overweight women (BMI >27 kg/m2), average age 31 years, who were nonsmokers, were not pregnant, did not have diabetes, and were off relevant medications for 3 months completed this 6-month open-label controlled trial. Randomization was to a control group (higher-dose oral contraceptive [OCP] 35 microg ethinyl estradiol [EE]/2 mg cyproterone acetate, metformin [1 g b.d.] or low-dose OCP [20 microg EE/100 microg levonorgestrel + aldactone 50 mg b.d.]). Primary outcome measures were insulin resistance (area under curve on oral glucose tolerance test) and surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]) and endothelial function. All treatments similarly and significantly improved symptoms including hirsutism and menstrual cycle length. Insulin resistance was improved by metformin and worsened by the high-dose OCP. Arterial stiffness worsened in the higher-dose OCP group (PWV 7.46 vs. 8.03 m/s, P insulin resistance. In overweight women with PCOS, metformin and low- and high-dose OCP preparations have similar efficacy but differential effects on insulin resistance and arterial function. These findings suggest that a low-dose OCP preparation may be preferable if contraception is needed and that metformin should be considered for symptomatic management, particularly in women with additional metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Study of the Effects of Drugs upon the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    gave no response (See figures la & 1b). Blood plasma samples have been taken before and after each injection of liposome suspension and may be sent...cholinesterase activity with cardiovascular and pulmonary function before, during and after administracion of pyridostigmine. The formulation of this drug...Composite Summaries - Beagles Note: All variation bars represent S.E.M. Best Available Copy C% C 0 % C% 0(1C) C0 C C 0 C 0 0 C% % 0 0 % - - - - - - . 84 CT LA

  1. An anatomical and physiological basis for the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system consequences of sport-related brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F

    2017-11-29

    Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems. An emerging consequence of concussion is the presence of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction that is most apparent through hemodynamic perturbations and provocations. Further interrogation of data that are derived from continuous digital electrocardiograms and/or beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring often reveal an imbalance of parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system activity during a provocation after an injury. The disturbance is often greatest early after injury and a resolution of the dysfunction occurs in parallel with other symptoms. The possibility exists that the disturbance may remain if the concussion does not resolve. Unfortunately, there is little evidence in humans to support the etiology for the emergence of this post-injury dysfunction. As such, evidence from experimental models of traumatic brain injury and casual observations from human studies of concussion implicate a transient abnormality of the anatomical structures and functions of the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this review article is to provide a mechanistic narrative of multi-disciplinary evidence to support the anatomical and physiological basis of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction after concussion. The review article will identify the anatomical structures of the autonomic nervous system and propose a theoretical framework

  2. The Role of the Nrf2/ARE Antioxidant System in Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor. It is a master regulator of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. Nrf2 controls the expression of many antioxidant and detoxification genes, by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs that are commonly found in the promoter region of antioxidant (and other genes, and that control expression of those genes. The mechanisms by which Nrf2 relieves oxidative stress and limits cardiac injury as well as the progression to heart failure are described. Also, the ability of statins to induce Nrf2 in the heart, brain, lung, and liver is mentioned. However, there is a negative side of Nrf2. When over-activated, it can cause (not prevent cardiovascular diseases and multi-drug resistance cancer.

  3. Effects of thyroid hormone on β-adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have compared the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T 3 )-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T 3 treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T 3 treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial β-adrenergic receptor sites measured by [ 125 I]cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, β-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T 3 -treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T 3 treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the β-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T 3 treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals

  4. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  5. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-28

    Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. The results showed a 25%-27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect.

  7. Hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow LVADs on the cardiovascular system: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiming; Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Wan, Feng; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) on the cardiovascular system using a numerical cardiovascular system model. Material/Methods Three support modes were selected for controlling the CF-LVAD: constant flow mode, constant speed mode, and constant pressure head mode of CF-LVAD. The CF-LVAD is established between the left ventricular apex and the ascending aorta, and was incorporated into the numerical model. Various parameters were evaluated, including the blood assist index (BAI), the left ventricular external work (LVEW), the energy of blood flow (EBF), pulsatility index (PI), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). Results The results show that the constant flow mode, when compared to the constant speed mode and the constant pressure head mode, increases LVEW by 31% and 14%, and EBF by 21% and 15%, respectively, indicating that this mode achieved the best ventricular unloading among the 3 support modes. As BAI is increased, PI and SHE are gradually decreased, whereas PI of the constant pressure head reaches the maximum value. Conclusions The study demonstrates that the continuous flow control mode of the CF-LVAD may achieve the highest ventricular unloading. In contrast, the constant rotational speed mode permits the optimal blood perfusion. Finally, the constant pressure head strategy, permitting optimal pulsatility, should optimize the vascular function. PMID:24793178

  8. The psychoemotional status and cardiovascular system functional state of the first-year students under the influence of examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana K. Tokaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study of the influence of examination stress on psycho-emotional status and functional state of the cardiovascular system of the 1-st year students of pedagogical high school. Methods – The study involved 105 young men aged 17-18 enrolled in the specialty "Physical Education". The studies were conducted during the period in-between the exams and during the examination session. The psycho-emotional status was determined by the SAN test questionnaire and test and the CH.D. Spielberg test, adapted for Russia by Ju.L. Khanin. The state of CVS autonomic regulation was evaluated by heart rate, blood pressure, endurance ratio, Kerdo index and the adaptive capacities by P.M. Bayevsky. Results – In the absence of exposure to stress in the majority of young men the studied parameters are within normal limits, indicating sufficient adaptive capabilities. A clear correlation between the level of personal anxiety in students and the nature of their reactivity to examination stress was found: the higher the anxiety level in a student is, the more stress resistance decreases and more pronounced changes in the cardiovascular system autonomic regulation appear. The strain of adaptation mechanism was found in a stressful situation in the first-year students with a high level of personal anxiety and satisfactory adaptation – in young men with average and low personal anxiety.

  9. The peculiarities of functional state changes of cardiovascular system of girls at the age 18-19 years in the process of practicing sport and health tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Denisenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics estimation of the integral indices of cardiovascular system among the female students of higher educational institution during the process of physical education activities, including means of sports and health tourism, has been conducted. There are 40 girls at the age of 18-19 years that participated in the experiment. It is found that by the end of the research the positive decrease of all the types of arterial pressure, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s and cardiac indices, common peripheral resistance and significant increase of functional state of cardiovascular system of the organism are being observed among the examined students. There were stated that significantly more optimal cardiac rate indices, systolic, diastolic and average, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s index and the level of functional state of organism cardiovascular system (LFSсvs had been observed among the girls of experimental rather than control group of female students. It is found that the rates of almost all the used indices of cardiovascular system were significantly higher among the students practiced sports and health tourism, than those ones engaged into the traditional program of physical education for higher educational institution. Obtained results certified the sufficiently high effectiveness of using the tourism facilities in optimization of functional state of cardiovascular system among the female students at the age of 18-19 years.

  10. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  11. Health system challenges for the management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: an empirical qualitative study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Fouad, Fouad M; Elias, Madonna; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To explore through empirical qualitative data health system barriers to effective management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Syria before the crisis, and how such analysis can inform the building of a post-crisis system. Data were collected through document review, semi-structured key informant interviews, and fieldwork in clinics. Institutional commitment to address the increasing burden of CVD and diabetes in Syria was limited and uncoordinated. Challenges included an increasingly split healthcare system, with private provision for those who could afford it, and a residual state health sector for the majority. Public trust in the system had been declining. We conclude that lack of effective management of CVD and diabetes indicated weaknesses of the state and its retracting role in providing effective healthcare. Such weaknesses that existed before the crisis are now compounded by new challenges resulting from wide destruction of the health system due to the ongoing war. The rebuilding of post-conflict heath care system may benefit from insights into the structural problems of the pre-crisis system.

  12. Clinical characteristics of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in patients with combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vyshnyvetskyy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to assess the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of patients with a combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF. Materials and methods. The study included 177 patients who had been diagnosed COPD by criteria GOLD. CHF was diagnosed in 77 (43.5 % cases – 29 (16.4 % with reduced systolic function and 48 (27.1 % with preserved systolic function. We analyzed some important parameters characterizing respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We tried to identify statistically significant difference of parameters between patients with COPD and those with COPD and CHF. Moreover, patients with CHF were evaluated as a whole, and separately with reduced and with preserved systolic function. Results. Thus, we observed significant deterioration in general clinical, laboratory, spirometric and echocardiographic parameters depending on the presence and severity of CHF in patients with COPD. In particular, the presence of CHF, especially with impaired systolic function significantly impair indicators such as incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and signs of ischemia on the ECG, NT-proBNP levels, prevalence of concentric, eccentric hypertrophy and concentric LV remodeling and diastolic dysfunction type "relaxation disorder", and incidence of a-wave absence during assessment of motion of the rear pulmonary artery valve wall. Listed changes as well as some of the tendencies that have not reached a certain level of significance, indicate that patients with COPD and concomitant CHF, especially with impaired systolic function, worsens general clinical parameters (breath rate, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, frequency arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia on ECG; laboratory levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate; spirometric indicators of bronchial obstruction (FEV1, FVC, instant volume expiratory flow rates; echocardiographic indicators suggest the

  13. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  14. Multistructure index in revealing complexity of regulatory mechanisms of human cardiovascular system at rest and orthostatic stress in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec, Danuta; Graff, Beata; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2017-02-01

    Biological regulation is sufficiently complex to pose an enduring challenge for characterization of both its equilibrium and transient non-equilibrium dynamics. Two univariate but coupled observables, heart rate and systolic blood pressure, are commonly characterized in the benchmark example of the human cardiovascular regulatory system. Asymmetric distributions of accelerations and decelerations of heart rate, as well as rises and falls in systolic blood pressure, recorded in humans during a head-up tilt test provide insights into the dynamics of cardiovascular response to a rapid, controlled deregulation of the system's homeostasis. The baroreflex feedback loop is assumed to be the fundamental physiological mechanism for ensuring homeostatic blood supply to distant organs at rest and during orthostatic stress, captured in a classical beat-to-beat autoregressive model of baroreflex by de Boer et al. (1987). For model corroboration, a multistructure index statistic is proposed, seamlessly evaluating the size spectrum of magnitudes of neural reflexes such as baroreflex, responsible for maintaining the homeostatic dynamics. The multistructure index exposes a distinctly different dynamics of multiscale asymmetry between results obtained from real-life signals recorded from healthy subjects and those simulated using both the classical and perturbed versions of the model. Nonlinear effects observed suggest the pronounced presence of complex mechanisms resulting from baroreflex regulation when a human is at rest, which is aggravated in the system's response to orthostatic stress. Using our methodology of multistructure index, we therefore show a marked difference between model and real-life scenarios, which we attribute to multiscale asymmetry of non-linear origin in real-life signals, which we are not reproducible by the classical model.

  15. Systems-based biological concordance and predictive reproducibility of gene set discovery methods in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, Francisco; Zheng, Huiru; Camargo, Anyela; Wang, Haiying

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of novel disease biomarkers is a crucial challenge for translational bioinformatics. Demonstration of both their classification power and reproducibility across independent datasets are essential requirements to assess their potential clinical relevance. Small datasets and multiplicity of putative biomarker sets may explain lack of predictive reproducibility. Studies based on pathway-driven discovery approaches have suggested that, despite such discrepancies, the resulting putative biomarkers tend to be implicated in common biological processes. Investigations of this problem have been mainly focused on datasets derived from cancer research. We investigated the predictive and functional concordance of five methods for discovering putative biomarkers in four independently-generated datasets from the cardiovascular disease domain. A diversity of biosignatures was identified by the different methods. However, we found strong biological process concordance between them, especially in the case of methods based on gene set analysis. With a few exceptions, we observed lack of classification reproducibility using independent datasets. Partial overlaps between our putative sets of biomarkers and the primary studies exist. Despite the observed limitations, pathway-driven or gene set analysis can predict potentially novel biomarkers and can jointly point to biomedically-relevant underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeted basic research to highlight the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworatzek, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies revealed that sex differences exist in the manifestation and outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in these sex differences are not fully understood. The reasons for sex differences in CVD are definitely multifactorial, but major evidence points to the contribution of sex steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), and its receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). In this review, we summarize past and present studies that implicate E2 and ER as important determinants of sexual dimorphism in the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart. In particular, we give an overview of studies aimed to reveal the role of E2 and ER in the physiology of the observed sex differences in CVD using ER knock-out mice. Finally, we discuss recent findings from novel transgenic mouse models, which have provided new information on the sexual dimorphic roles of ER specifically in cardiomyocytes under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  18. Role of Systemic Markers in Periodontal Diseases: A Possible Inflammatory Burden and Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalburgi, V; Sravya, L; Warad, S; Vijayalaxmi, K; Sejal, P; Hazeil, DJ

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontium triggered by bacterial insult leading to systemic inflammatory mayhem in the host. Epidemiologically, it has been modestly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with elevated acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheological variables such as total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), which are potential predictors of CVD. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum CRP level, leukocyte count in chronic periodontitis patients and their relation to the severity of chronic periodontitis. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 30 subjects, of which 20 were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis based on the Gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment levels and 10 healthy subjects as controls. Following, which peripheral blood samples were drawn and serum CRP, TLC and DLC were quantified using the turbidimetric immunoassay. Data was analyzed using Intercooled Stata 9.2 version, (Stata corporation, LP, USA) ANOVA, Mann Whitney U test and Newman-Keuls post hoc procedures. P values less than) 0.05 were considered as significant Results: The mean serum CRP levels were statistically significant (P periodontitis subjects when compared with healthy controls. Leukocytes were significantly elevated in severe periodontitis compared with moderate periodontitis and controls; this finding was primarily explained by the increase in number of neutrophils. Conclusion: The increased serum CRP levels and neutrophils in chronic periodontitis subjects suggest an addition to the inflammatory burden of the individual potentially striking toward an increasing risk for cardiovascular events. Further research is needed to determine the specificity of these markers and their role in the inflammatory burden of one's systemic health. PMID:24971214

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with chronic kidney disease and its relationship with the functional status of the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Postovitenko; I. A. Iliuk; S. V. Shevchuk; G. V. Bezsmertna; І. O. Bezsmertnyi; I. V. Kurylenko

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important medical, social and economic problem nowadays. Patients with CKD are known to have an increased risk of development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. However, the causes and pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications are not well understood. One of the recently recognized “non-traditional” risk factors for the increased development of cardiovascular pathology in severe stages of CKD is hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC). The article presents th...

  20. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  1. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Tadjine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state

  2. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  3. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  4. VEGETATIVE PROVISION INDICATORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF WOMEN ATHLET-SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Didenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a significant increase in physical activity during the preparation of qualified athletes-sprinters. However, it is clear that a simple increase in volume and intensity of training loads in preparation can not be infinite. Russian sport trainers see tactics mistakes. Some authors consider that optimum technique construction of training is possible when taking into account normalizing the volume and load intensity based on the types of circulation (TC. The aim of work was to study the bioelectrical activity of the heart, heart rate variability (HRV, central hemodynamics and physical performance (PP in sportswomen-sprinters qualifications from II-III level to HMS. Materials and research methods. Carried out a comprehensive survey of 30 sportswomen-sprinters, qualifications from II-III level to HMS. For the analysis of vegetative cardiovascular regulation mathematical methods of HRV were used. Central hemodynamics were studied by automated tetrapolar rheography. Determination of PP was performed by using a submaximal cycle ergometer test PWC170. The index of the functional state (IFC was counted on a formula suggested and patented by us. Results of research. The correct sinus rhythm is found in all sportswomen with sufficient voltage and not rejected electrical axis of the heart. Comparison of the mean values of HRV showed the presence in all groups of runners prevalence of a parasympathetic link of VNS. At sportswomen-sprinters qualifications MS-HMS had prevailed hypokinetic TC and the lowering of qualifications the ratio of TC varied: as a runner of qualification I level prevailed eukinetic TC, while the runners of qualifications II-III level has have appeared sportswomen-sprinters with hyperkinetic TC. PP was bigger in sprinters qualifications MS-HMS and tended to decrease with decreasing of the qualifications. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between SI and CI, negative – between the CI and

  5. The functional state of the cardiovascular system in adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenjev, M.M.; Kostenko, T.O.; Borisko, G.O.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Cherevatova, S. Kh.; Bondarenko, V.L.

    2010-01-01

    The state of the cardiovascular system of the adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up was characterized by a high incidence of myocardium bioelectric activity disorders, presence of congenital small heart defects, widening of the left ventricle cavity, reduction of contractile function and myocardium tolerance to physical load.

  6. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  7. A moving image system for cardiovascular nuclear medicine. A dedicated auxiliary device for the total capacity imaging system for multiple plane dynamic colour display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.; Toyama, H.; Murata, H.; Takaoka, S.

    1981-01-01

    The recent device of the authors, the dedicated multiplane dynamic colour image display system for nuclear medicine, is discussed. This new device is a hardware-based auxiliary moving image system (AMIS) attached to the total capacity image processing system of the authors' department. The major purpose of this study is to develop the dedicated device so that cardiovascular nuclear medicine and other dynamic studies will include the ability to assess the real time delicate processing of the colour selection, edge detection, phased analysis, etc. The auxiliary system consists of the interface for image transferring, four IC refresh memories of 64x64 matrix with 10 bit count depth, a digital 20-in colour TV monitor, a control keyboard and a control panel with potentiometers. This system has five major functions for colour display: (1) A microcomputer board can select any one of 40 different colour tables preset in the colour transformation RAM. This key also provides edge detection at a certain level of the count by leaving the optional colour and setting the rest of the levels at 0 (black); (2) The arithmetic processing circuit performs the operation of the fundamental rules, permitting arithmetic processes of the two images; (3) The colour level control circuit is operated independently by four potentiometers for four refresh image memories, so that the gain and offset of the colour level can be manually and visually controlled to the satisfaction of the operator; (4) The simultaneous CRT display of the maximum four images with or without cinematic motion is possible; (5) The real time movie interval is also adjustable by hardware, and certain frames can be freezed with overlapping of the dynamic frames. Since this system of AMIS is linked with the whole capacity image processing system of the CPU size of 128kW, etc., clinical applications are not limited to cardiovascular nuclear medicine. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Alvarez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. Methods: We performed a systematic review looking for reports about cardiovascular compromise during chikungunya disease. Cardiac compromise is not so common in isolated episodes; but countries where chikungunya virus is an epidemic should be well informed about this condition. We used 6 bibliographical databases as resources: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Ovid and SciELO. Dengue reports on cardiovascular affectation were included as well, to compare both arbovirus’ organic affectations. Articles that delved mainly into the rheumatic articular and cutaneous complications were not considered, as they were not in line with the purpose of this study. The type of articles included were reviews, meta-analyses, case-controls, cohort studies, case reports and case series. Results: Originally based on 737 articles, our reviewed selected 40 articles with 54.2% at least mentioning CHIKV cardiovascular compromise within the systemic affectation. Cardiovascular manifestations can be considered common and have been reported in France, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Colombia, Venezuela and USA, including mainly, but no limited to: hypotension, shock and circulatory collapse, Raynaud phenomenon, arrhythmias, murmurs, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive insufficiency, heart failure and altered function profile (Troponins, CPK. Conclusions: Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness

  9. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  10. On the heart, the mind, and how inflammation killed the Cartesian dualism. Commentary on the 2015 Named Series: Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders. The manuscripts included in this Named Series range across a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding biological mechanisms explaining comorbidity between cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders to new insights into the dysregulation of inflammation associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Clearly, inflammation emerges as a cross-cutting theme across all studies. Data presented in this Series contribute to putting an end to an era in which the heart and the mind were considered to be separate entities in which the responses of one system did not affect the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in normal cardiovascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were carried out on adult mongrel dogs (20 to 30 kilograms) to investigate the importance of the renin-angiotensin system. Results indicate that the renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the maintenance of circulatory homeostasis when extracellular fluid volume is depleted. It was also found that angiotensin II concentration, in addition to renal perfusion pressure, is a factor in the regulation of renin release.

  12. Systems biology: An emerging strategy for discovering novel pathogenetic mechanisms that promote cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Reductionist theory proposes that analyzing complex systems according to their most fundamental components is required for problem resolution, and has served as the cornerstone of scientific methodology for more than four centuries. However, technological gains in the current scientific era now allow for the generation of large datasets that profile the proteomic, genomic, and metabolomic signatures of biological systems across a range of conditions. The accessibility of data on such a vast s...

  13. [The significance of sympathovagal balance in the forming of respiration-dependent oscillations in cardiovascular system in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnikov, G V; Tiurina, M Ĭ; Tankanag, A V; Piskunova, G M; Cheremis, N K

    2014-01-01

    The effect of deep breathing controlled in both rate and amplitude on the heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of forearm and finger-pad skin has been studied in 29 young healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old. To reveal the effect of the segments of the vegetative autonomic nervous system on the amplitudes of HRV and respiration-dependent oscillations of skin blood flow we estimated the parameters of the cardiovascular system into two groups of participants: with formally high and low sympathovagal balance values. The sympathovagal balance value was judged by the magnitude of LF/HF power ratio calculated for each participant using the spontaneous breathing rhythmogram. It was found what the participants with predominant parasympathetic tonus had statistically significant higher amplitudes of H R V and skin blood flow oscillations in the breathing rate less than 4 cycles per min than the subjects with predominant sympathetic tonus. In the forearm skin, where the density of sympathetic innervations is low comparatively to that in the finger skin, no statistically significant differences in the amplitude of respiratory skin blood flow oscillations was found between the two groups of participants.

  14. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Intelligent System of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Based on Extension Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This thesis gives the general definition of the concepts of extension knowledge, extension data mining and extension data mining theorem in high dimension space, and also builds the IDSS integrated system by the rough set, expert system and neural network, develops the relevant computer software. From the diagnosis tests, according to the common diseases of myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris and hypertension, and made the test result with physicians, the results shows that the sensitivity, specific and accuracy diagnosis by the IDSS are all higher than the physicians. It can improve the rate of the accuracy diagnosis of physician with the auxiliary help of this system, which have the obvious meaning in low the mortality, disability rate and high the survival rate, and has strong practical values and further social benefits.

  16. Stress-induced modulation of the innate immune system in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagraauw, Hendrik Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which lipids and cells of the immune system accumulate in the vessel wall. Clinical complications, such as a myocardial infarction or stroke may occur when advanced atherosclerotic lesions become unstable and rupture. In this thesis, the influence

  17. PVA/Dextran hydrogel patches as delivery system of antioxidant astaxanthin: a cardiovascular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, M; Gregnanin, G; Cencetti, C; Di Meo, C; Gueguen, V; Letourneur, D; Meddahi-Pellé, A; Pavon-Djavid, G; Matricardi, P

    2017-12-28

    After myocardial infarction, the heart's mechanical properties and its intrinsic capability to recover are compromised. To improve this recovery, several groups have developed cardiac patches based on different biomaterials strategies. Here, we developed polyvinylalcohol/dextran (PVA/Dex) elastic hydrogel patches, obtained through the freeze thawing (FT) process, with the aim to deliver locally a potent natural antioxidant molecule, astaxanthin, and to assist the heart's response against the generated myofibril stress. Extensive rheological and dynamo-mechanical characterization of the effect of the PVA molecular weight, number of freeze-thawing cycles and Dex addition on the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels, were carried out. Hydrogel systems based on PVA 145 kDa and PVA 47 kDa blended with Dex 40 kDa, were chosen as the most promising candidates for this application. In order to improve astaxanthin solubility, an inclusion system using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was prepared. This system was posteriorly loaded within the PVA/Dex hydrogels. PVA145/Dex 1FT and PVA47/Dex 3FT showed the best rheological and mechanical properties when compared to the other studied systems; environmental scanning electron microscope and confocal imaging evidenced a porous structure of the hydrogels allowing astaxanthin release. In vitro cellular behavior was analyzed after 24 h of contact with astaxanthin-loaded hydrogels. In vivo subcutaneous biocompatibility was performed in rats using PVA145/Dex 1FT, as the best compromise between mechanical support and astaxanthin delivery. Finally, ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed good mechanical and compatibility properties of this hydrogel. The obtained results showed that the studied materials have a potential to be used as myocardial patches to assist infarcted heart mechanical function and to reduce oxidative stress by the in situ release of astaxanthin.

  18. Modelling of cardiovascular system: development of a hybrid (numerical-physical) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Kozarski, M; De Lazzari, C; Górczyńska, K; Mimmo, R; Guaragno, M; Tosti, G; Darowski, M

    2003-12-01

    Physical models of the circulation are used for research, training and for testing of implantable active and passive circulatory prosthetic and assistance devices. However, in comparison with numerical models, they are rigid and expensive. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a model of the circulation based on the merging of a lumped parameter physical model into a numerical one (producing therefore a hybrid). The physical model is limited to the barest essentials and, in this application, developed to test the principle, it is a windkessel representing the systemic arterial tree. The lumped parameters numerical model was developed in LabVIEW environment and represents pulmonary and systemic circulation (except the systemic arterial tree). Based on the equivalence between hydraulic and electrical circuits, this prototype was developed connecting the numerical model to an electrical circuit--the physical model. This specific solution is valid mainly educationally but permits the development of software and the verification of preliminary results without using cumbersome hydraulic circuits. The interfaces between numerical and electrical circuits are set up by a voltage controlled current generator and a voltage controlled voltage generator. The behavior of the model is analyzed based on the ventricular pressure-volume loops and on the time course of arterial and ventricular pressures and flow in different circulatory conditions. The model can represent hemodynamic relationships in different ventricular and circulatory conditions.

  19. Toxicological study of DTPA as a drug, (4). Effect of intravenously injected DTPA on cardiovascular system in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

    1988-09-01

    We have previously reported that the side effects on cardiovascular system such as the heart failure, increases of blood pressure and pulse accompanied with hypocalcemia occurred in rats when Zn-DTPA was injected intravenously, but those did not occur by Ca-DTPA. This is in the reverse that it is generally said that Zn-DTPA is more safe than Ca-DTPA. This study was carried out to examine whether the same side effects occurred in different animal species or not. Zn-DTPA or Ca-DTPA (30, 150, 300 and 600 ..mu..mol/kg) was injected intravenously to beagle dogs. The hypocalcemia was observed in the dogs by Zn-DTPA injection, but it was not by Ca-DTPA. After Zn-DTPA injection, the increase of blood pressure and pulse, and heart failure was observed in 3 out of 5 dogs at 300 ..mu..mol/kg dose, and in 3 out of 8 dogs at 600 ..mu..mol/kg dose. These changes were the same degrees as those in rats. In the present study, it is suggested that the side effects induced by Zn-DTPA intravenous injection occur independently of animal species and the data obtained from animal experiments can be available to estimate DTPA toxicity in humans.

  20. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives.

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    Alejandro Arrieta

    Full Text Available The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy. From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%.

  1. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

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    Parsaei H.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan.

  2. A Wireless Electronic Esophageal Stethoscope for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems during Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, H.; Vakily, A.; Shafiei, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The basic requirements for monitoring anesthetized patients during surgery are assessing cardiac and respiratory function. Esophageal stethoscopes have been developed for this purpose, but these devices may not provide clear heart and lung sound due to existence of various noises in operating rooms. In addition, the stethoscope is not applicable for continues monitoring, and it is unsuitable for observing inaccessible patients in some conditions such as during CT scan. Objective: A wireless electronic esophageal stethoscope is designed for continues auscultation of heart and lung sounds in anesthetized patients. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The former acquires, amplifies and transmits the acquired sound signals to the latter via a frequency modulation transmitter. The receiver demodulates, amplifies, and delivers the received signal to a headphone to be heard by anesthesiologist. Results: The usability and effectiveness of the designed system was qualitatively evaluated by 5 anesthesiologists in Namazi Hospital and Shahid Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, Iran on 30 patients in several operating rooms in different conditions; e.g., when electro surgery instruments are working. Fortunately, the experts on average ranked good quality for the heard heart and lung sounds and very good on the user friendly being of the instrument. Conclusion: Evaluation results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of capturing and transmitting heart and lung sounds successfully. Therefore, it can be used to continuously monitor anesthetized patients’ cardiac and respiratory function. Since via the instrument wireless auscultation is possible, it could be suitable for observing inaccessible patients in several conditions such as during CT scan. PMID:28451580

  3. Internet-based system for simulation-based medical planning for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Brooke N; Draney, Mary T; Ku, Joy P; Taylor, Charles A

    2003-06-01

    Current practice in vascular surgery utilizes only diagnostic and empirical data to plan treatments, which does not enable quantitative a priori prediction of the outcomes of interventions. We have previously described simulation-based medical planning methods to model blood flow in arteries and plan medical treatments based on physiologic models. An important consideration for the design of these patient-specific modeling systems is the accessibility to physicians with modest computational resources. We describe a simulation-based medical planning environment developed for the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the Java programming language.

  4. Acute effects on cardiovascular oscillations during controlled slow yogic breathing

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    Om Lata Bhagat

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Significant increase in cardiovascular oscillations and baroreflex recruitments during-ANB suggested a dynamic interaction between respiratory and cardiovascular system. Enhanced phasic relationship with some delay indicated the complexity of the system. It indicated that respiratory and cardiovascular oscillations were coupled through multiple regulatory mechanisms, such as mechanical coupling, baroreflex and central cardiovascular control.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE WORKING ABILITY OF THE WORKERS SUFFERING FROM A CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DISEASE

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    Jovica Jovanović

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The working ability evaluation is a process of numerous examinations, measurements and estimates that are done by a team of medical and other experts. It is utterly unacceptable to think that the opinion about someone's working ability is given by some individual specialist of any expert domain especially regarding the invalids' category since this can lead to either confusion or undesired conflicts between the patient and those who are professionally and legally qualified to evaluate his working ability. In order to carry out the medical part of the expertise for evaluating the working ability it is necessary have an accurate diagnosis of particular disease, an opinion whether the process is definite or can be improved by and adequate therapy in addition to the state of morphology and function of all the organs and systems essential for responding to the biological requirements of the working operations at a given job as well as the estimate of the functional ability of the organs or systems. The practical evaluation of the working ability also has to include the professional utilization factor, that is, it is necessary to determine the working operations' requirements as well as the conditions in which they are performed at a given job. Within the working ability it is necessary to take into consideration the psychosocial structure of the sick person, years of age, qualification and professional degree as well as the society's possibility to accept the proposals made by the medical and other experts. Tn judging the working ability of the patients having a cardiac disease it is indispensable to view every case separately since it always implies its own factors. The evaluation must be done in specially-qualified institutions having an adequate team of experts including a specialist of labor medicine, a cardiologist, a safety-at-work expert, a technologist, a psychologist, a social worker and other medical and non-medical staff.

  6. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  7. Cardiovascular assessment of asymptomatic patients with juvenile-onset localized and systemic scleroderma: 10 years prospective observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, A; Dabrowski, R; Wozniak, J; Jasek, S; Chwyczko, T; Kowalik, I; Musiej-Nowakowska, E; Szwed, H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was non-invasive evaluation of the cardiovascular system in asymptomatic young adult patients with juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS) and juvenile systemic sclerosis (JSS). A group of 34 consecutive children with scleroderma were prospectively observed in the study. The control group (CG) consisted of 20 healthy subjects. In each subject 12-lead electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, ECG Holter, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring examinations were performed at the baseline visit and after 10 years. Additionally, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured after 10 years. Examinations were performed in 13 patients with JLS and 15 with JSS at the final visit. Two children had died (one from each group). Four patients were alive but refused the final visit. After 10 years, a higher prevalence of ventricular extrasystoles (p = 0.01) and an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (JLS: p = 0.04, JSS: p = 0.03) were observed in both groups, but in comparison with the controls there was no significant difference at the final visit. In JLS patients more cases of left ventricle diastolic dysfunction, hypertension, and sinus tachycardia were diagnosed at the final visit (p ≤ 0.05). More atrioventricular block episodes in both groups of scleroderma patients were observed. Over the 10 years, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in three patients from the JLS group and in two with JSS. There were no significant differences in BNP concentrations at the final visit. The results of the present study show that juvenile scleroderma seems to be more benign than adult-onset disease. This observational study shows subclinical, not severe, cardiac abnormalities in adult patients with juvenile-onset disease.

  8. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

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    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  9. Predictors of cardiovascular damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from LUMINA (LXVIII), a multiethnic US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; González, Luis A; Zhang, Jie; Burgos, Paula I; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2009-07-01

    To determine the features predictive of atherosclerotic cardiovascular damage in patients with SLE. SLE LUMINA (LUpus in MInorities: NAture vs nurture) patients (n = 637), aged >or=16 years, disease duration cardiovascular damage was defined by the following items of the SLICC Damage Index (SDI) cardiovascular domain: angina or coronary artery by pass surgery, myocardial infarction and/or congestive heart failure; factors associated with its occurrence were examined by univariable and multivariable regression analyses. Forty-three (6.8%) of 637 patients developed cardiovascular damage over a mean +/- S.D. total disease duration of 6.6 +/- 3.6 years. Nearly 90% of the patients were women with a mean +/- s.d. age of 36.5 (12.6) years; all ethnic groups were represented. By multivariable analyses, after adjusting for the cardiovascular manifestations present, age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03, 1.09], male gender (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.35, 9.09) SDI at baseline (OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.09, 1.50) and CRP levels [highest tertile (OR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.17, 5.91)] were associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular damage, whereas the number of years of education was negatively associated with such outcome (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74, 0.94). Our data suggest that atherosclerotic cardiovascular damage in SLE is multifactorial; traditional (age, gender) and disease-related factors (CRP levels, SDI at baseline) appear to be important contributors to such an occurrence. Tight control of the inflammatory process must be achieved to prevent it.

  10. SMARTHealth India: Development and Field Evaluation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Patel, Anushka; Raghu, Arvind; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Mohammad Abdul, Ameer; Mogulluru, Kishor; Tarassenko, Lionel; MacMahon, Stephen; Peiris, David

    2014-12-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature death and disability in India and yet few people at risk of CVD are able to access best practice health care. Mobile health (mHealth) is a promising solution, but very few mHealth interventions have been subjected to robust evaluation in India. The objectives were to develop a multifaceted, mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) for CVD management and evaluate it for use by public nonphysician health care workers (NPHWs) and physicians in a rural Indian setting. Plain language clinical rules were developed based on standard guidelines and programmed into a computer tablet app. The algorithm was validated and field-tested in 11 villages in Andhra Pradesh, involving 11 NPHWs and 3 primary health center (PHC) physicians. A mixed method evaluation was conducted comprising clinical and survey data and in-depth patient and staff interviews to understand barriers and enablers to the use of the system. Then this was thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. During validation of the algorithm, there was an initial agreement for 70% of the 42 calculated variables between the CDSS and SPSS software outputs. Discrepancies were identified and amendments were made until perfect agreement was achieved. During field testing, NPHWs and PHC physicians used the CDSS to screen 227 and 65 adults, respectively. The NPHWs identified 39% (88/227) of patients for referral with 78% (69/88) of these having a definite indication for blood pressure (BP)-lowering medication. However, only 35% (24/69) attended a clinic within 1 month of referral, with 42% (10/24) of these reporting continuing medications at 3-month follow-up. Physicians identified and recommended 17% (11/65) of patients for BP-lowering medications. Qualitative interviews identified 3 interrelated interview themes: (1) the CDSS had potential to change prevailing health care models, (2) task-shifting to NPHWs was the central driver of change, and (3) despite high

  11. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

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    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  12. Prognostic value of metabolic syndrome for the development of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villegas, Elsy Aidé; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Flores-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Márquez González, Horacio; Villa-Romero, Antonio Rafael

    2015-04-08

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. In lupus patients there is an increased cardiovascular risk due to an accelerated atherogenesis. Furthermore, Metabolic Syndrome (MS) adds an independent risk for developing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in the population. Therefore, it is important to determine whether lupus patients have an increased risk of developing Cardiovascular Disease in the presence of MS. To estimate the prognostic value of MS in the incidence of cardiovascular events in a cohort of premenopausal patients with SLE. Cohort study in 238 patients was carried out. Clinical, biochemical, dietetic and anthropometric evaluations were performed. Patients were classified according to the prevalence of MS in 2001. There was a patient follow-up from 2001 to 2008. In 2008, after studying the records, we obtained the "cases" (patients with CVD) and the "no cases" (patients without CVD). The basal prevalence of MS in the cohort was of 21.8% (ATPIII). The MS component with the highest prevalence in the population studied in 2001 was low HDL-Cholesterol (<50mg/dL) with a prevalence of 55.0%. The cumulative incidence of CVD in the group with MS was 17.3% and in the group without MS it was 7.0% with a Relative Risk (RR) of 2.48 (1.12-5.46) and p<0.05. In the multivariable analysis it was noted that MS is a predictive factor of CVD. We observed the prognostic value of MS for an increased risk of cardiovascular damage in premenopausal patients with lupus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Research of functional backlogs of the cardiovascular system of sportsmen in the process of competition activity with the use of frequency and fractal methods

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    Tkachuk V.G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The features of reactions of the cardiovascular system are considered on the physical loadings in a preparatory period. Researches were conducted before and after championship of Europe 2009 The mathematical analysis of rhythm of heart is resulted. The frequency and fractal methods of research of cardiac rhythm sportsmen the combined team of Ukraine are studied on taekwondo. Informing of some indexes of fractal of cardiac rhythm (coefficient of Khersta is rotined for determination of readiness of sportsman to competition activity.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  16. Metabolomic Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL Mapping Implicates the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Kraus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Levels of certain circulating short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (SCDA, long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (LCDA and medium chain acylcarnitine (MCA metabolites are heritable and predict cardiovascular disease (CVD events. Little is known about the biological pathways that influence levels of most of these metabolites. Here, we analyzed genetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics with metabolomics in samples from a large CVD cohort to identify novel genetic markers for CVD and to better understand the role of metabolites in CVD pathogenesis. Using genomewide association in the CATHGEN cohort (N = 1490, we observed associations of several metabolites with genetic loci. Our strongest findings were for SCDA metabolite levels with variants in genes that regulate components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (USP3, HERC1, STIM1, SEL1L, FBXO25, SUGT1 These findings were validated in a second cohort of CATHGEN subjects (N = 2022, combined p = 8.4x10-6-2.3x10-10. Importantly, variants in these genes independently predicted CVD events. Association of genomewide methylation profiles with SCDA metabolites identified two ER stress genes as differentially methylated (BRSK2 and HOOK2. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL pathway analyses driven by gene variants and SCDA metabolites corroborated perturbations in ER stress and highlighted the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS arm. Moreover, culture of human kidney cells in the presence of levels of fatty acids found in individuals with cardiometabolic disease, induced accumulation of SCDA metabolites in parallel with increases in the ER stress marker BiP. Thus, our integrative strategy implicates the UPS arm of the ER stress pathway in CVD pathogenesis, and identifies novel genetic loci associated with CVD event risk.

  17. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Overweight and obesity vs. simple carbohydrates consumption by elderly people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Kolarzyk, Emilia

    2017-12-23

    Overweight and obesity belong to the alarming and constantly increasing problems of the 21st century among all age groups. One of the major factors enhancing these problems are simple carbohydrates commonly found in popular sweet drinks. The aim of the study was to estimate the nutritional patterns of elderly people with diagnosed cardiovascular system diseases, and analysis of the relationship between consumption of simple carbohydrates and prevalence of overweight and obesity. From 233 individuals hospitalized in the Clinic of Cardiology and Hypertension in Krakow, Poland, a group of 128 elderly people was selected (66 women and 62 men). Actual food consumption for each individual was assessed using a 24-hour nutrition recall. BMI values was calculated for assessment of nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed on two groups: one with BMI 2 and other with BMI≥25kg/m2. Overweight was stated among 33.8% of women and 50% of men, obesity among 27.7% of women and 17.7% of men. Results indicated that consumption of products rich in sucrose was associated with overweight and obesity. People with overweight and obesity statistically more often ate sweet products comparing to those with proper weight: 46.2 g vs 33.8g. The growing world-wide epidemic of overweight and obesity is one of the main priorities of preventive medicine remains changing eating patterns As observed in this study, one additional spoon of sugar consumed daily increases the risk of being overweight or obese by about 14%. Overweight and obesity was found among 60% of the examined elderly people. Correlation was found between rise in risk of obesity or overweight by about 14% with each additional spoon of sugar (5g) eaten every day.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V 1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP 8-37 ) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM 22-52 ) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V 1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl 1 , O-me-Tyr 2 ,Arg 8 ]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V 1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR

  20. Type I interferons are associated with subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Somers

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients have a striking increase in cardiovascular (CV comorbidity not fully explained by the Framingham risk score. Recent evidence from in vitro studies suggests that type I interferons (IFN could promote premature CV disease (CVD in SLE. We assessed the association of type I IFN signatures with functional and anatomical evidence of vascular damage, and with biomarkers of CV risk in a cohort of lupus patients without overt CVD.Serum type I IFN activity (induction of five IFN-inducible genes; IFIGs from 95 SLE patient and 38 controls was quantified by real-time PCR. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT were quantified by ultrasound, and coronary calcification by computed tomography. Serum vascular biomarkers were measured by ELISA. We evaluated the effect of type I IFNs on FMD, CIMT and coronary calcification by first applying principal components analysis to combine data from five IFIGs into summary components that could be simultaneously modeled. Three components were derived explaining 97.1% of the total IFIG variation. Multivariable linear regression was utilized to investigate the association between the three components and other covariates, with the outcomes of FMD and CIMT; zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for modeling of coronary calcification. After controlling for traditional CV risk factors, enhanced serum IFN activity was significantly associated with decreased endothelial function in SLE patients and controls (p<0.05 for component 3, increased CIMT among SLE patients (p<0.01 for components 1 and 2, and severity of coronary calcification among SLE patients (p<0.001 for component 3.Type I IFNs are independently associated with atherosclerosis development in lupus patients without history of overt CVD and after controlling for Framingham risk factors. This study further supports the hypothesis that type I IFNs promote premature

  1. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations.

  2. Cardiovascular events prior to or early after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Anderson, N M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and within the first 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: The systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) atherosclerosis inception cohort enters patients within......% CI 2.38 to 23.57) remained significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In some patients with lupus, MI may develop even before the diagnosis of SLE or shortly thereafter, suggesting that there may be a link between autoimmune inflammation and atherosclerosis....

  3. Nutritional habits & cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Hélia; Capitão, Sandra; Ferro-Lebres, Vera

    2010-01-01

    An elevated predominance of the risk factors associated to the illnesses of the circulatory system, particurily hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension aim for a special attention to its prevention. This way, the composition of the digested food daily can influence the sprouting of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which has shown association between the risk factors and the things we consume. The present study had an objective to identify the influential factors of social economics...

  4. [Thyroid and cardiovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

  5. The Role of Decision Support System (DSS) in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Anchala (Raghupathy); M.P. Pinto (Maria); A. Shroufi (Amir); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); J. Sanderson (Jean); L.A. Johnson (Laura); P. Blanco (Patricia); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The potential role of DSS in CVD prevention remains unclear as only a few studies report on patient outcomes for cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies was done using

  6. Could cut-price cardiovascular procedures in India help Europe's hard-pressed health-care systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Until recently, travelling to India for a cardiovascular procedure was unheard of, but huge improvements in the quality of medical care available in the subcontinent, and its relative cheapness, have fostered the growth of 'medical tourism' and could impact on health care in Europe, reports Barry Shurlock, PhD.

  7. The effect of short message system (SMS) reminder on adherence to a healthy diet, medication, and cessation of smoking among adult patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhu-Zaheya, Laila M; Shiyab, Wa'ed Y

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular Disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Non-adherence to a recommended regimen among patients with Cardiovascular Diseases represents a significant problem which could lead to an increase in Cardiovascular Diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of Short Message System (SMS) reminders on adherence to a healthy diet, medication, and cessation of smoking among adult patients with Cardiovascular Diseases. Randomized controlled trial design with three groups was used for this study. A non-probability convenient sample of 160 patients was recruited in this study. The participants were assigned randomly to an experimental group (received SMS regarding adherence to a healthy diet, medication, and smoking cessation), placebo group (received general messages) and control group (routine care). Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), and Readiness to Quit Ladder, were used to assess patients' adherence to medication, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and smoking cessation, respectively. The outcomes were assessed at the beginning of the study and three months later, following completion of the intervention. One way ANONVA was used to assess the study hypothesis. Significant differences between study groups found in terms of adherence to medication (p=.001) and adherence to a healthy diet (p=.000); however, no significant difference was found between groups, in terms of intention to quit smoking, and/or the number of cigarettes smoked (p= .327), (p=.34), respectively. It is documented that SMS is effective in improving adherence to a healthy diet and medication. SMS could be a promising solution for management of different chronic diseases. It is recommended to apply Short Message System (SMS) via cellphone services to improve patient's adherence to a healthy diet and medication. However, further research is needed to support the effectiveness of SMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  8. Microarray-based bioinformatics analysis of the combined effects of SiNPs and PbAc on cardiovascular system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hejing; Zhang, Yannan; Shi, Yanfeng; Feng, Lin; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology and growing environmental pollution, the combined toxic effects of SiNPs and pollutants of heavy metals like lead have received global attentions. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiovascular effects of the co-exposure of SiNPs and lead acetate (PbAc) in zebrafish using microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Although there was no other obvious cardiovascular malformation except bleeding phenotype, bradycardia, angiogenesis inhibition and declined cardiac output in zebrafish co-exposed of SiNPs and PbAc at NOAEL level, significant changes were observed in mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. STC-GO analysis indicated that the co-exposure might have more toxic effects on cardiovascular system than that exposure alone. Key differentially expressed genes were discerned out based on the Dynamic-gene-network, including stxbp1a, ndfip2, celf4 and gsk3b. Furthermore, several miRNAs obtained from the miRNA-Gene-Network might play crucial roles in cardiovascular disease, such as dre-miR-93, dre-miR-34a, dre-miR-181c, dre-miR-7145, dre-miR-730, dre-miR-129-5p, dre-miR-19d, dre-miR-218b, dre-miR-221. Besides, the analysis of miRNA-pathway-network indicated that the zebrafish were stimulated by the co-exposure of SiNPs and PbAc, which might cause the disturbance of calcium homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. As a result, cardiac muscle contraction might be deteriorated. In general, our data provide abundant fundamental research clues to the combined toxicity of environmental pollutants and further in-depth verifications are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effect of yerba mate intake on the cardiovascular system: a post hoc analysis study in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    da Veiga, D.T.A.; Bringhenti, R.; Copes, R.; Tatsch, E.; Moresco, R.N.; Comim, F.V.; Premaor, M.O.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increased in postmenopausal women, which contributes to the burden of illnesses in this period of life. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native bush from Southern South America. Its leaves are rich in phenolic components, which may have antioxidant, vasodilating, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic proprieties. This post hoc analysis of the case-control study nested in the Obesity and Bone Fracture Cohort evaluated the consumpt...

  10. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Voora, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI. Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 – a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  11. Pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic adipose tissues contribute to systemic inflammation and calcified coronary atherosclerosis independent of body fat composition, anthropometric measures and traditional cardiovascular risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Lin, Tin-Yu; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I.; Yang, Fei-Shih; Chen, Su-Chiu; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Cury, Ricardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis has traditionally been proposed to be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measures. However, clinical data regarding the independent value of visceral adipose tissue in addition to such traditional predictors remains obscure. Materials and methods: We subsequently studied 719 subjects (age: 48.1 ± 8.3 years, 25% females) who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for coronary calcium score (CCS) quantification. Baseline demographic data and anthropometric measures were taken with simultaneous body fat composition estimated. Visceral adipose tissue of pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic fat was quantified by MDCT using TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, CA). Traditional cardiovascular risk stratification was calculated by metabolic (NCEP ATP III) and Framingham (FRS) scores and high-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) was taken to represent systemic inflammation. The independent value of visceral adipose tissue to systemic inflammation and CCS was assessed by utilizing multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of all subjects enrolled in this study, the mean values for pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue were 74.23 ± 27.51 and 7.23 ± 3.69 ml, respectively. Higher visceral fat quartile groups were associated with graded increase of risks for cardiovascular diseases. Both adipose burdens strongly correlated with anthropometric measures including waist circumference, body weight and body mass index (all p < 0.001). In addition, both visceral amount correlates well with ATP and FRS scores, all lipid profiles and systemic inflammation marker in terms of Hs-CRP (all p < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline variables, both visceral fat were independently related to Hs-CRP levels (all p < 0.05), but only pericardial fat exerted independent role in coronary calcium deposit. Conclusion: Both visceral adipose tissues strongly correlated with systemic inflammation beyond traditional

  12. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  13. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down-r...

  14. The reaction of the cardio-vascular and sympathico-adrenal systems to intellectual activity with emotional stress. [human operator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashevskaya, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of emotiogenic factors on an operator's intellectual activity were studied for differing working regimes on an experimental control panel that provided for light, sonic, and electrocutaneous stimuli. The latter stimulus was activated automatically if the subject gave an incorrect response. It was shown that the working capacity of the operator under stress depends to a great extent on the effect of the emotiogenic factors on the individual functioning characteristics of the cardiovascular and sympathetic-adrenal systems. Moral, intellectual, willpower, emotional, and other personality traits are decisive factors of operator function.

  15. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  16. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to use a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate the support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous pulsatile valveless dual-piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared with measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared with the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device.

  17. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  18. The insulin-like growth factor I system: physiological and pathophysiological implication in cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Anversa, Piero

    2015-02-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. A number of theories have been speculated for the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, interrupted neurohormonal regulation and compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Recent evidence has revealed that adults with severe growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) deficiency such as Laron syndrome display increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. IGF-1 signaling may regulate contractility, metabolism, hypertrophy, apoptosis, autophagy, stem cell regeneration and senescence in the heart to maintain cardiac homeostasis. An inverse relationship between plasma IGF-1 levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as associated cardiovascular complications has been identified, suggesting the clinical promises of IGF-1 analogues or IGF-1 receptor activation in the management of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms between IGF-1 and metabolic syndrome are still poorly understood. This mini-review will discuss the role of IGF-1 signaling cascade in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in particular the susceptibility to overnutrition and sedentary life style-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and other features of metabolic syndrome. Special attention will be dedicated in IGF-1-associated changes in cardiac responses in various metabolic syndrome components such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The potential risk of IGF-1 and IGF-1R stimulation such as tumorigenesis is discussed. Therapeutic promises of IGF-1 and IGF-1 analogues including mecasermin, mecasermin rinfabate and PEGylated IGF-1 will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of systematic pulse-limited physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system in patients over 65 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiuk, Tomasz; Folga, Andrzej; Mamcarz, Artur

    2013-04-20

    The influence of physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system of elderly persons has not been sufficiently investigated yet. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of regular 6-week physical exercise using the Nordic walking (NW) method in a group of elderly persons on their physical performance and regulation of selected parameters assessing the cardiovascular system. Fifty patients over 65 years of age participated in the study. The study encompassed: medical interview, physical examination, resting ECG, spiroergometry examination, 6MWT (6-minute walk test) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). During the exercise programme, the pulse was monitored using pulsometers. After the completion of the training, check-up tests assessing the same parameters were performed. The control group consisted of 18 persons over 65 years of age with similar cardiovascular problems. In the test group, duration of the physical effort increased by 1.02 min (p = 0.0001), the maximum load increased by 10.68 W (p = 0.0001), values of VO2max by 2.10 (p = 0.0218), distance improved in 6MWT by 75.04 m (p = 0.00001), systolic blood pressure decreased by 5.50 mm Hg (p = 0.035) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.50 mm Hg (p = 0.054) as compared to the control group. Systematic NW physical exercise limited by the pulse had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of elderly persons as assessed with main parameters. A short 6-week programme of endurance exercises had a hypotensive effect in elderly persons over 65 years of age.

  20. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M; Davis, Barry R; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke-singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome-and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality-singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90-1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79-1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96-1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73-1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90-1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72-1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65-1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78-1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with

  1. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes.Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014. Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and direct renin (DR inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke-singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome-and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality-singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants, with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90-1.18, ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79-1.19, DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96-1.81, and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73-1.38. For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90-1.40, ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72-1.29, DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65-1.57, and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78-1.84. No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with

  2. Impact of Vitamin D on the Cardiovascular System in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Franczyk, Beata; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Olszewski, Robert; Rysz, Jacek

    2018-06-01

    In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is much more common than in the general population. The role of vitamin D deficiency had been underestimated until a significant association was found between vitamin D therapy and survival benefit in haemodialysis patients. Vitamin D deficiency is present even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. The results of experimental studies have revealed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and impairment of cardiac contractile function, higher cardiac mass and increased myocardial collagen content. Experimental models propose that intermediate end points for the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and higher risk of cardiovascular disease comprise diminished left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), enhanced left ventricular diastolic function, and decreased frequency of heart failure. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated an association between the use of active vitamin D therapy in patients on dialysis and with CKD and improved survival. However, there are also many studies indicating important adverse effects of such treatment. Therefore, large randomized trials are required to analyze whether supplementation of vitamin D may affect outcomes and whether it is safe to be used in CKD patients.

  3. Effect of Piper sarmentosum Extract on the Cardiovascular System of Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats: Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Piper sarmentosum (PS is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C, PS-treated control group (CTx, untreated diabetic group (D, and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx. Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg body weight was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125 g/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM. DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues.

  4. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week and detraining (DT on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n=8, sedentary infarcted (SI, n=9, trained infarcted (TI,  n=10; 3 months of ET, and detrained infarcted (DI, n=11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT. After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis, and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI.

  5. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Aline Alves; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; Oyama, Lila Missae; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Barboza, Catarina de Andrade; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Figueroa, Diego; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI. PMID:25045207

  6. Role of Geographic Information System in Assessing Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease: An Experience From a Low- and Middle-Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamparampil, Mathew Joseph; Mohan, Ananth; Jose, Chinu; Sadheesan, Deepthi Kottassery; Aby, Jemin Jose; Vasudevakaimal, Prasannakumar; Varghese, Sara; Surendrannair, Anish Tekkumkara; Ashokan, Achu Laila; Madhusoodhanan, Resmi Santhakumari; Ilyas, Insija Selene; Rajeevan, Amjith; Karthikeyan, Sreekanth Balakrishnan; Devadhas, Krishna Sulochana; Raghunath, Rajesh; Surendran, Sethulekshmi; Muraleedharanpillai, Harikrishnan; Nujum, Zinia Thajudeen

    2018-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The determinants of CVD in an urban population using conventional and geographic information system techniques were attempted as a community-based census-type cross-sectional study in Kerala, India, among 1649 individuals residing in 452 households. Sociodemographic details, risk factor exposures, and self-reported disease prevalence were determined. Location of houses, wells from which subjects drew drinking water, and distances of the house from the outer road (proxy for air pollution) were mapped using differential global positioning system and pH of water samples determined. Prevalence of CVD was 5.8%. Significant predictors of CVD were male gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Statistically significant spatial association was found between CVD and groundwater pH. Geographic information system technology is useful in identification of spatial clustering and disease hotspots for designing preventive strategies targeting CVD.

  7. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interrelation between the changes of phase functions of cardiac muscle contraction and biochemical processes as an algorithm for identifying local pathologies in cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Fedosov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims The interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper. Materials and methods Several methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism. Results Phase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith. Conclusion The method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.

  9. Effects of glucose ingestion on autonomic and cardiovascular measures during rest and mental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synowski, S.J.; Kop, W.J.; Warwick, Z.S.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of dietary sugar consumption may result in dysregulated glucose metabolism and lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk via autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular dysfunction. Altered cardiovascular function can be examined using perturbation tasks such as mental

  10. Association between a dietary quality index based on the food standard agency nutrient profiling system and cardiovascular disease risk among French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Assmann, Karen E; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K

    2017-05-01

    In France, the implementation of a front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL) is currently under consideration as a strategic tool to allow consumers making healthier food choices. This FOP label is based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS), reflecting the overall nutritional quality of foods. At the individual level, an energy-weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed has been elaborated (FSA-NPS DI). Our objective was to investigate the prospective association between the FSA-NPS DI and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. 75,801 participants to the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24h dietary records during the first 2y of the follow-up, were followed between 2009 and 2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize the associations between FSA-NPS DI and the incidence of CVDs. 509 major cardiovascular events were diagnosed (262 coronary heart diseases and 247 strokes). A higher FSA-NPS DI, characterizing lower dietary quality, was associated with increased CVD risk (HR for a 1-point increment =1.08 (1.03-1.13); HR Q4vs.Q1 =1.40 (1.06-1.84), P trend Q4-Q1 =0.01). This association tended to be stronger in overweight subjects (HR for a 1-point increment =1.12 (1.04-1.19); P interaction =0.003). These results suggest that lower dietary quality, as reflected by a higher FSA-NPS DI, may be associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk, especially in at-risk individuals (overweight population). They support the public health relevance of developing a front-of-pack nutrition label based on this score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejbisz, A; Warchoł-Celińska, E; Lenders, J W M; Januszewicz, A

    2015-12-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism varies considerably between different studies among hypertensive patients, depending on patient selection, the used diagnostic methods, and the severity of hypertension. Prevalence rates vary from 4.6 to 16.6% in those studies in which confirmatory tests to diagnose primary aldosteronism were used. There is also growing evidence indicating that prolonged exposure to elevated aldosterone concentrations is associated with target organ damage in the heart, kidney, and arterial wall, and high cardiovascular risk in patients with primary aldosteronism. Therefore, the aim of treatment should not be confined to BP normalization and hypokalemia correction, but rather should focus on restoring the deleterious effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system. Current evidence convincingly demonstrates that both surgical and medical treatment strategies beneficially affect cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the long term. Further studies can be expected to provide better insight into the relationship between cardiovascular risk and complications and the genetic background of primary aldosteronism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  14. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  16. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with chronic kidney disease and its relationship with the functional status of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Postovitenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an important medical, social and economic problem nowadays. Patients with CKD are known to have an increased risk of development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. However, the causes and pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications are not well understood. One of the recently recognized “non-traditional” risk factors for the increased development of cardiovascular pathology in severe stages of CKD is hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC. The article presents the results of study of HHC frequency in patients with different stages of CKD as well as the relationship between HHC and endothelial dysfunction and structural-functional status of the heart. The study involved 148 persons with different stages of CKD who underwent immunoenzyme determination of total plasma homocysteine (HC, echocardiography, carotid ultrasonograghy, endothelial function was assessed as well. It was found that among the patients with CKD, 26 (21.1% had normal and 34 (27.7% had subnormal HC levels, mild HHC was observed in 30 (24.4% and moderate HHC – in 33 (26.8% cases, i.e. the total number of patients with elevated HC level was 88.9%. It should be noted that no patients with normal HC level were found among those with stage four CKD as well as in dialysis patients. The increase of blood plasma HC level was actually proportional to the severity of renal failure, which in its turn led to the shift in the number of cases towards higher rank indices of HHC level. In particular, while there were no patients with HHC among those with CKD-I, more than 50% of such patients were found in the group with CKD-V. Reduced myocardial contractility and echocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD were found to be closely associated with HC concentrations in blood plasma. The data presented clearly demonstrate strong inverse correlation between endothelial dysfunction indices and HC level. So, the endothelium

  17. Periodontal disease and its connection to systemic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in young American Indian/Alaskan natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, Nicole; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Finlayson, Tracy L; Kelley, Scott T; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). No known studies evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease status and biomarkers of CVD risk in the American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) population despite their disproportionately high rates of poor oral health and cardiovascular disease-related outcomes. This study compared levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) across increasing severity of periodontal disease status among younger adults between the ages of 21 and 43 years. Plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP were measured in adult participants (ages 21 to 43 years) as part of a study of periodontal disease and CVD risk among an AI/AN population in southern California (n = 59). Periodontal evaluations were performed and disease status was classified into three categories based on highest probing depth (none/mild: disease or active infection were excluded. Severe periodontitis was significantly associated with increased levels of IL-6 compared with those with none or mild periodontitis before controlling for other variables (P = 0.02), but lacked significance after controlling for sex, BMI, smoking status, and high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.09). Moderate periodontal disease was positively associated with IL-6 levels after controlling for potential confounders (P = 0.01). Periodontal status was not associated with CRP, before or after adjusting for covariates. In this otherwise healthy AI/AN adult sample, moderate periodontal disease compared with none or mild periodontal disease was associated with increased levels of IL-6. High levels of CRP found in this population warrant further research. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  18. Cardiovascular Parameters of Nigerian Physiotherapy Students Dur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination and tests are routine academic task during which students engage in mental exercis-es, writing, and/or practical demonstrations under pressure with stress placed on the cardiovascu-lar system. This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular parameters of students before, during and after an ...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  20. Hydro-mechanical foundation for blood swirling vortex flows formation in the cardio-vascular system and the problem of artificial heart creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo da Vinci perhaps was the first who paid attention to the energetic efficiency of existence of vortices emerging near sines of Valsalva and defining normal functioning (opening of aortal valve. However up to now a fundamental problem of defining of mechanisms of mysterious energetic efficiency of functioning of cardio-vascular system (CVS of blood feeding of the organism is still remaining significantly not solved and this is, for example, one of the main restriction for the creation of artificial heart and corresponding valve systems. In the present paper, results witnessing possible important role of the very hydro-mechanical mechanism in the realization of the noted energetic efficiency of CVS due to formation in the CVS of spiral structural organization of the arterial blood flow observed by methods of MRT and color Doppler-measuring in the left ventricular of the heart and in aorta.

  1. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gong

    Full Text Available Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9, 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8 per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%, respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (P<0.001, while lower incidence but higher mortality and case-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001. We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  2. The clinical performance of an office-based risk scoring system for fatal cardiovascular diseases in North-East of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf G Sepanlou

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are becoming major causes of death in developing countries. Risk scoring systems for CVD are needed to prioritize allocation of limited resources. Most of these risk score algorithms have been based on a long array of risk factors including blood markers of lipids. However, risk scoring systems that solely use office-based data, not including laboratory markers, may be advantageous. In the current analysis, we validated the office-based Framingham risk scoring system in Iran.The study used data from the Golestan Cohort in North-East of Iran. The following risk factors were used in the development of the risk scoring method: sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, and diabetes. Cardiovascular risk functions for prediction of 10-year risk of fatal CVDs were developed.A total of 46,674 participants free of CVD at baseline were included. Predictive value of estimated risks was examined. The resulting Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC was 0.774 (95% CI: 0.762-0.787 in all participants, 0.772 (95% CI: 0.753-0.791 in women, and 0.763 (95% CI: 0.747-0.779 in men. AUC was higher in urban areas (0.790, 95% CI: 0.766-0.815. The predicted and observed risks of fatal CVD were similar in women. However, in men, predicted probabilities were higher than observed.The AUC in the current study is comparable to results of previous studies while lipid profile was replaced by body mass index to develop an office-based scoring system. This scoring algorithm is capable of discriminating individuals at high risk versus low risk of fatal CVD.

  3. Digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzen, P.H.; Brennecke, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present book contains 27 papers presented at an international symposium on digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology held in Kiel in 1982. The main themes were as follows. Introductory reviews, digital systems for X-ray video imaging, quantitative X-ray image analysis, and clinical applications. (MG)

  4. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  5. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Warchol-Celinska, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Januszewicz, A.

    2015-01-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary

  6. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  7. Analysis of cardiovascular system responses to forced vital capacity in COPD Análise das respostas do sistema cardiovascular ao teste de capacidade vital forçada na DPOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. R. Mendes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The forced vital capacity (FVC test is routinely performed to evaluate pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the influence of the FVC maneuver on the cardiovascular system of patients with COPD is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the behavior of heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and heart rate variability (HRV during the FVC test in COPD patients. METHODS: Nineteen men with COPD (72±7 years, GOLD stage I=3, II=5, III=7 and IV=4 patients performed the FVC test while having their HR monitored. HRV was assessed in time (rMSSD and frequency domains (LF, HF and LF/HF at rest, before and after the best FVC maneuver. BP was measured at rest, immediately before and at the end of the test, as well as 10 minutes after the end of the test. RESULTS: At the beginning of the FVC maneuver, HR decreased (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O teste de capacidade vital forçada (CVF é rotineiramente realizado na avaliação da função pulmonar de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC. Entretanto, permanece pouco compreendida a influência do teste de CVF sobre o sistema cardiovascular de pacientes com DPOC. OBJETIVOS: Analisar o comportamento da frequência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial (PA e variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC no teste de CVF na DPOC. MÉTODOS: Dezenove homens com DPOC (72 ± 7 anos, no estágio de gravidade GOLD I=3, II=5, III=7 e IV=4 pacientes realizaram a manobra de CVF e tiveram sua FC monitorada durante todo o exame, e a VFC analisada nos domínios do tempo (rMSSD e da frequência (BF, AF e BF/AF durante o repouso, antes e após a melhor manobra de CVF. A PA foi analisada no repouso, imediatamente ao final da manobra de CVF e 10 minutos após o término de todos os testes. RESULTADOS: Ao início da manobra de CVF, a FC reduziu (p<0,001 e, em seguida, aumentou progressivamente até o final do teste (p<0,001. Após término da manobra, a FC continuou

  8. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Jeph, Sunil; Agarwal, Prachi P.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  9. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  10. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  11. Cardiovascular lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronuovo, J.J. Jr.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Flanigan, P.; Schuler, J.J.; Jonasson, O.

    1983-08-01

    The technique of lymphoscintigraphy when applied to the heart and blood vessels correlates well with results of anatomic investigations of arterial and cardiac lymphatic vessels reported in the literature. Five dogs and eight rabbits underwent lymphoscintigraphy of the heart and aorta, as well as the iliac, femoral, and tibial arteries. After surgical exposure, approximately 500 microCi of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled antimony sulfide was injected into the myocardium or the adventitial-medial plane of an artery. The colloid particle size of 4 to 12 m mu causes resorption and transport only via the lymphatic vessels. Twenty-one preparations were imaged from 2 to 48 hours after administration. This method provides a functional demonstration that the tibial and femoral arteries of both species are invested with lymphatics. The first echelon of lymph nodes which drain muscular arteries are imaged within 2 hours. Regional lymph nodes could not be seen to drain the aorta or iliac arteries. Anterior left ventricular myocardial injection in the dog showed a single cardiac lymph node. This drainage pattern has been described previously by other investigators. In the rabbit a similarly placed injection visualized a group of regional cardiac nodes. Ligation of the collecting ducts afferent to the cardiac node in the dog prevented removal of the isotope from the heart at 3, 6, and 9 hours. At 24 hours the liver and spleen were imaged, the radiocolloid gaining entrance to the blood vascular system presumably via myocardial lymphaticovenous anastomoses. Lymphoscintigraphy reflects physiologic processes such as lymph transport, filtration, and reticuloendothelial function. It defines regional patterns of cardiac and arterial lymph drainage. It can confirm experimentally produced impairment of lymph drainage from a defined area of tissue. Lymphoscintigraphy should be useful in the investigation of the significance of lymph drainage to diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

  12. Cardiovascular lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronuovo, J.J. Jr.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Flanigan, P.; Schuler, J.J.; Jonasson, O.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of lymphoscintigraphy when applied to the heart and blood vessels correlates well with results of anatomic investigations of arterial and cardiac lymphatic vessels reported in the literature. Five dogs and eight rabbits underwent lymphoscintigraphy of the heart and aorta, as well as the iliac, femoral, and tibial arteries. After surgical exposure, approximately 500 microCi of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled antimony sulfide was injected into the myocardium or the adventitial-medial plane of an artery. The colloid particle size of 4 to 12 m mu causes resorption and transport only via the lymphatic vessels. Twenty-one preparations were imaged from 2 to 48 hours after administration. This method provides a functional demonstration that the tibial and femoral arteries of both species are invested with lymphatics. The first echelon of lymph nodes which drain muscular arteries are imaged within 2 hours. Regional lymph nodes could not be seen to drain the aorta or iliac arteries. Anterior left ventricular myocardial injection in the dog showed a single cardiac lymph node. This drainage pattern has been described previously by other investigators. In the rabbit a similarly placed injection visualized a group of regional cardiac nodes. Ligation of the collecting ducts afferent to the cardiac node in the dog prevented removal of the isotope from the heart at 3, 6, and 9 hours. At 24 hours the liver and spleen were imaged, the radiocolloid gaining entrance to the blood vascular system presumably via myocardial lymphaticovenous anastomoses. Lymphoscintigraphy reflects physiologic processes such as lymph transport, filtration, and reticuloendothelial function. It defines regional patterns of cardiac and arterial lymph drainage. It can confirm experimentally produced impairment of lymph drainage from a defined area of tissue. Lymphoscintigraphy should be useful in the investigation of the significance of lymph drainage to diseases of the heart and blood vessels

  13. [Practical Use of Doppler Ultrasonography of the Cardiovascular System and Clinical Laboratory Tests for the Management of Pulmonary Embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoko

    2015-08-01

    Acute or chronic pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious disease, and the risk of mortality is increased if untreated. In 90% of cases the embolus source is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs or pelvic cavity. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize these as venous thromboembolism (VTE) which includes both DVT and PE. I suggest that Doppler ultrasonography of cardiovascular and clinical laboratory tests provide very valuable medical support for the management of VTE. Specifically, in the early diagnosis of VTE and the prevention of fatal PE, Doppler ultrasonography (cardiac and vascular) can provide very useful information. On the other hand, blood coagulation and thrombophilia tests are important to determine the risk of VTE and evaluate the effect of anticoagulant therapy on VTE. In this paper, I explain the main points of each examination of VTE by describing representative cases. I also show the results on investigating cases in our hospital involving diseases related to VTE and the onset site of DVT. In addition, I introduce how we convey the results of analysis to the clinical side.

  14. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María C; Rossetti, Víctor; Grondona, Ezequiel; Lo Presti, Silvina; Paglini, Patricia M; Rivero, Virginia; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose was to investigate the effects of essential plant-oil of Schinus areira L. on hemodynamic functions in rabbits, as well as myocardial contractile strength and airways inflammation associated to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. This study shows the important properties of the essential oil (EO) of S. areira studied and these actions on lung with significant inhibition associated to LPS, all of which was assessed in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and evidenced by stability of the percentage of alveolar macrophages, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and without pathway modifications in conjugated dienes activity. Clinical status (morbidity or mortality), macroscopic morphology and lung/body weight index were unaffected by the administration of the EO S. areira. Furthermore, the ex vivo analysis of isolated hearts demonstrated the negative inotropic action of the EO of S. areira in a mice model, and in rabbits changes in the hemodynamic parameters, such as a reduction of systolic blood pressure. We conclude that EO S. areira could be responsible for modifications on the cardiovascular and/or airway parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Achieving best outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease in China by enhancing the quality of medical care and establishing a learning health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lixin; Krumholz, Harlan M; Li, Xi; Li, Jing; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-10-10

    China has an immediate need to address the rapidly growing population with cardiovascular disease events and the increasing number of people living with this illness. Despite progress in increasing access to services, China faces the dual challenge of addressing gaps in quality of care and producing more evidence to support clinical practice. In this Review, we address opportunities to strengthen performance measurement, programmes to improve quality of care, and national capacity to produce high-impact knowledge for clinical practice. Moreover, we propose recommendations, with implications for other diseases, for how China can immediately make use of its Hospital Quality-Monitoring System and other existing national platforms to assess and improve performance of medical care, and to generate new knowledge to inform clinical decisions and national policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of the Japanese Nationwide Cardiovascular Prevention System Health Guidance on Smoking Cessation Among Smokers: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Okuda, Nagako; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kabayama, Mai; Torii, Sayuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Kamide, Kei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether 2 types of personalized health guidance (repeated and single counseling) in the Japanese nationwide cardiovascular prevention system promoted smoking cessation among smokers. The study included 47,745 Japanese smokers aged 40 to 74 years classified into 2 personalized health guidance schemes. After a 1-year follow-up, we compared the rates of smoking cessation between individuals who had received counseling ("supported") and those who had not received counseling ("unsupported"). Using propensity score matching analysis, we estimated the average treatment effect (ATE) of each approach on smoking cessation after balancing out the characteristics between the supported and unsupported groups. The propensity score regression model included age, medical insurance type, weight gain since the age of 20 years, exercise, eating habits, alcohol intake, quality of sleep, readiness to modify lifestyle, willingness to receive support, and body mass index. In the repeated counseling scheme, the age-adjusted rates of smoking cessation in the supported and unsupported groups were 8.8% and 6.3% for males, and 9.8% and 9.1% for females respectively. In the single counseling scheme, the corresponding rates were 8.4% and 7.3% for supported and unsupported males, and 11.0% and 11.7% for supported and unsupported females respectively. The ATE of repeated counseling was +2.64% (95% confidence interval: +1.51% to +3.77%) for males and +3.11% (-1.85% to +8.07%) for females. The ATE of single counseling was +0.61% (-1.17% to +2.38%) for males and -1.06% (-5.96% to +3.85%) for females. In the Japanese cardiovascular prevention system, repeated counseling may promote smoking cessation among male smokers.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility and safety of adenosine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with MR conditional pacemaker systems at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Wiele, Oliver; Garmer, Marietta; Urbien, Rhyan; Busch, Martin; Kara, Kaffer; Mateiescu, Serban; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Schulte-Hermes, Michael; Garbrecht, Marc; Hailer, Birgit

    2015-12-22

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) with adenosine stress is a valuable diagnostic tool in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, despite the development of MR conditional pacemakers CMR is not yet established in clinical routine for pacemaker patients with known or suspected CAD. A possible reason is that adenosine stress perfusion for ischemia detection in CMR has not been studied in patients with cardiac conduction disease requiring pacemaker therapy. Other than under resting conditions it is unclear whether MR safe pacing modes (paused pacing or asynchronous mode) can be applied safely because the effect of adenosine on heart rate is not precisely known in this entity of patients. We investigate for the first time feasibility and safety of adenosine stress CMR in pacemaker patients in clinical routine and evaluate a pacing protocol that considers heart rate changes under adenosine. We retrospectively analyzed CMR scans of 24 consecutive patients with MR conditional pacemakers (mean age 72.1 ± 11.0 years) who underwent CMR in clinical routine for the evaluation of known or suspected CAD. MR protocol included cine imaging, adenosine stress perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement. Pacemaker indications were sinus node dysfunction (n = 18) and second or third degree AV block (n = 6). Under a pacing protocol intended to avoid competitive pacing on the one hand and bradycardia due to AV block on the other no arrhythmia occurred. Pacemaker stimulation was paused to prevent competitive pacing in sinus node dysfunction with resting heart rate >45 bpm. Sympatho-excitatory effect of adenosine led to a significant acceleration of heart rate by 12.3 ± 8.3 bpm (p pacemakers. Heart rate response to adenosine has to be considered for the choice of pacing modes during CMR.

  19. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D

    2015-05-18

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  20. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott C.; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  1. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  2. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Mwangi, Ann; Chege, Patrick; Simiyu, Chrispinus J; Aswa, Daniel F; Odhiambo, David; Obala, Andrew A; Ayuo, Paul; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa O

    2013-09-01

    To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Population based survey of residents in an HDSS. Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya. 4037 adults ≥ 18 years of age. Home based survey using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable intake. The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR 26-50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 ± 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 ± 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) or eat ≥ 5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) compared to men. The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally relevant subgroup differences that could inform future prevention efforts.

  3. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    with the increasing opportunities and challenges in multidisciplinary research, the Science Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professionals (CCNAP) recognised the need for a position statement to guide researchers, policymakers and funding bodies to contribute to the advancement...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  4. Hepatitis C virus and cardiovascular: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a systemic disease that leads to increased risks of cirrhosis and its complications, as well as extrahepatic disturbances, including immune-related disorders and metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and steatosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that HCV infection can increase cardiovascular risk, and that viral eradication can improve cardiovascular outcomes in the clinical setting. These data are strengthened by evidence identifying potential mechanisms (indirectly linking HCV infection to vascular damage. However, the high prevalence of both HCV infection and cardiovascular alterations, as well as the presence of contrasting results not identifying any association between HCV infection and cardiovascular dysfunction, provides uncertainty about a direct association of HCV infection with cardiovascular risk. Further studies are needed to clarify definitively the role of HCV infection in cardiovascular alterations, as well as the impact of viral eradication on cardiovascular outcomes. These features are now more attractive, considering the availability of new, safe, and very effective interferon-free antiviral agents for the treatment of HCV infection. This review aims to discuss carefully available data on the relationship between HCV infection and cardiovascular risk.

  5. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  6. The effect of terahertz electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system and orbital vessels in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Eremenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim.To study the effect of terahertz (THz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency (129 GHz on cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters of orbital arteries following the irradiation of bioactive points in healthy volunteers and age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients.Materials and methods. 18 healthy volunteers (36 eyes and 20 AMD patients (34 eyes were examined. Blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities, resistance index (RI in orbital arteries before and following THz radiation of two bioactive points VB1 and TR23 at atmospheric oxygen frequency 129 GHz in continuouswave generation mode were measured.Results. First data on the effect of THz waves at atmospheric oxygen irradiation and absorption molecular spectrum frequency (129 GHz in continuous wave generation mode on ocular hemodynamics in healthy persons and AMD patients are presented. Following THz irradiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency (129 GHz, common hemodynamicparameters (BP, HR decreased. In healthy volunteers, systolic and diastolic BP reduced by 22.83±4.09 and 8.82±0.98 mm Hg, respectively (р<0.05, HR reduced by 6.11±0.15 bpm (р<0.05. In AMD patients, systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by 45.55±0.43 and 9.56±1.42 mm Hg, respectively (р<0.05, HR decreased by 6.15±1.1 bpm (р<0.05. In AMD patients, systolic blood flow velocity significantly reduced by 2.89±0.1 cm / sec in central retinal artery and increased by0.9‑5.97 cm / sec in short posterior ciliary arteries and ophthalmic artery. RI in these vessels decreased by 0.13, 0.11, 0.13 and 0.12, respectively.Conclusion. THz waves at atmospheric oxygen irradiation and absorption molecular spectrum frequency (129 GHz are safe and cause no side effects on general health of healthy volunteers and AMD patients. Besides, this method improves ocular hemodynamics.

  7. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system Prevención de la enfermedad cardiovascular basada en tratamiento hipolipemiante: un reto para el sistema de salud de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Gómez-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. RESULTS: A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%.OBJETIVO: Calcular el porcentaje de adultos que requiere tratamiento hipolipemiante de acuerdo con las recomendaciones del Programa Nacional de Educación en Colesterol-III, usando los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4040 individuos con edad entre 20 y 69 años estudiados bajo un ayuno de 9 a 12 horas. RESULTADOS: Un equivalente de enfermedad cardiovascular fue identificado en 13.8% de los participantes. El 31.5% de la población tenía >2 factores de riesgo cardiovascular. La concentración de colesterol LDL estuvo arriba de la meta terapéutica en 70% de los casos con alto riesgo cardiovascular y en el 38.6% de los sujetos con >2 factores de riesgo. Cerca de 12 millones de mexicanos deben modificar su estilo de vida para reducir su concentración de colesterol LDL. Casi 8 millones califican para recibir tratamiento farmacológico. CONCLUSIONES: Una tercera parte de los adultos requiere alguna forma de tratamiento hipolipemiante (cambios en el estilo de vida: 36

  8. Telemetry system for monitoring the ECG for patients with high cardiovascular risk. Main design requirements and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J; Meissimilly, G; Berovides, JD

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the main design requirements concerning the setting up of a telemetry ECG monitoring system are presented. The design's most important technical solutions as well as some details are also discussed. This system is intended to provide skilled medical assistance during the cardiac rehabilitation of both asymptomatic and high risk coronary patients

  9. 'Integrative Physiology 2.0': Integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. van der Velden (Jolanda); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased '-omics' techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of

  10. Subclinical Kidney Damage in Hypertensive Patients: A Renal Window Opened on the Cardiovascular System. Focus on Microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulè, Giuseppe; Castiglia, Antonella; Cusumano, Claudia; Scaduto, Emilia; Geraci, Giulio; Altieri, Dario; Di Natale, Epifanio; Cacciatore, Onofrio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Cottone, Santina

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is one of the major target organs of hypertension.Kidney damage represents a frequent event in the course of hypertension and arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ESRD has long been recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, over the past 20 years a large and consistent body of evidence has been produced suggesting that CV risk progressively increases as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declines and is already significantly elevated even in the earliest stages of renal damage. Data was supported by the very large collaborative meta-analysis of the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium, which provided undisputable evidence that there is an inverse association between eGFR and CV risk. It is important to remember that in evaluating CV disease using renal parameters, GFR should be assessed simultaneously with albuminuria.Indeed, data from the same meta-analysis indicate that also increased urinary albumin levels or proteinuria carry an increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality. Thus, lower eGFR and higher urinary albumin values are not only predictors of progressive kidney failure, but also of all-cause and CV mortality, independent of each other and of traditional CV risk factors.Although subjects with ESRD are at the highest risk of CV diseases, there will likely be more events in subjects with mil-to-moderate renal dysfunction, because of its much higher prevalence.These findings are even more noteworthy when one considers that a mild reduction in renal function is very common in hypertensive patients.The current European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension recommend to sought in every patient signs of subclinical (or asymptomatic) renal damage. This was defined by the detection of eGFR between 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or the

  11. Efeito do vinho tinto associado ao exercício físico no sistema cardiovascular de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos Efecto del vino tinto asociado al ejercicio físico en el sistema cardiovascular de ratones espontáneamente hipertensos Effect of red wine associated with physical exercise in the cardiovascular system of spontaneously hipertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Soares Filho

    2011-04-01

    effect. Beverage-derived polyphenols have antioxidant properties benefiting blood vessels. There is little evidence on the consumption of red wine associated with PE and the influences on the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical exercise (PE and moderate red wine intake interaction on systolic blood pressure (SBP, high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, physical performance (PP and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Sample of 32 SHRs divided into four groups: wine and exercise group (WEG, wine group (WG, exercise group (EG and control group (CG. Red wine doses were given by intra-gastric gavage, during ten weeks, coincident with PE period, performed on treadmills. The SHRs received red wine doses of 3.715 ml/kg/day. Physical performance was analyzed by maximal exercise test (MET and LVEF by echocardiographic measures. SBP measurement was made before and after the PE protocol. RESULTS: Demonstrated that the three groups which suffered intervention presented significant SBP reduction compared to CG. At the end of the protocol, WEG showed the largest reduction. Like in SBP results, WEG showed the best outcome on HDL levels at the experiment end. There was no significant difference of physical performance and LVEF between groups. CONCLUSION: PE associated with moderate red wine intake has cardioprotective effects on SBP and HDL levels in SHR. Their physical performance and LVEF are not modified.

  12. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  13. Effect of decimeter waves on functional state of cardiovascular system, some biochemical and immunological indices of myocardium infarction patients during convalescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Yu.Yu.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.E.

    An attempt was made to determine optimal localization for the action of decimeter waves (DMW) and its intensity, and to evaluate the action of DMW on the functions of the cardiovascular system. Clinical biochemical and immunological indices were determined in myocardium infarction patients during the early convalescent period. The study was carried out on 186 male patients 47.5 years old on the average, 4 to 10 weeks after infarction. When applied at the same location, no significant differences could be observed in reflex reactions or in therapeutic effect when a 20 or 40 Vt intensity was applied. Considerable differences were seen in relationship to the location of applied DMW. Optimal results were obtained with 40 Vt intensity and D/sub I/-D/sub IV/ localization. The effect of DMW through segmental-vegetative apparatus gave more pronounced results than through the endocrine system or through peripheral vessels. DMW applied under such conditions optimized reparatory processes in cardiac muscle and improved immunological reactivity of the organism. 9 references.

  14. Adding dimension to cellular mechanotransduction: Advances in biomedical engineering of multiaxial cell-stretch systems and their application to cardiovascular biomechanics and mechano-signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, O; Schneidereit, D; Nikolaev, Y A; Nikolova-Krstevski, V; Schürmann, S; Wirth-Hücking, A; Merten, A L; Fatkin, D; Martinac, B

    2017-11-01

    Hollow organs (e.g. heart) experience pressure-induced mechanical wall stress sensed by molecular mechano-biosensors, including mechanosensitive ion channels, to translate into intracellular signaling. For direct mechanistic studies, stretch devices to apply defined extensions to cells adhered to elastomeric membranes have stimulated mechanotransduction research. However, most engineered systems only exploit unilateral cellular stretch. In addition, it is often taken for granted that stretch applied by hardware translates 1:1 to the cell membrane. However, the latter crucially depends on the tightness of the cell-substrate junction by focal adhesion complexes and is often not calibrated for. In the heart, (increased) hemodynamic volume/pressure load is associated with (increased) multiaxial wall tension, stretching individual cardiomyocytes in multiple directions. To adequately study cellular models of chronic organ distension on a cellular level, biomedical engineering faces challenges to implement multiaxial cell stretch systems that allow observing cell reactions to stretch during live-cell imaging, and to calibrate for hardware-to-cell membrane stretch translation. Here, we review mechanotransduction, cell stretch technologies from uni-to multiaxial designs in cardio-vascular research, and the importance of the stretch substrate-cell membrane junction. We also present new results using our IsoStretcher to demonstrate mechanosensitivity of Piezo1 in HEK293 cells and stretch-induced Ca 2+ entry in 3D-hydrogel-embedded cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-06

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.P.; Nguyen, K.-L.; Han, F.; Zhou, Z.; Salusky, I.; Ayad, I.; Hu, P.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r 1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications.

  17. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  18. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  19. ‘Integrative Physiology 2.0’: integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Duncker, Dirk J

    2011-01-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased ‘-omics’ techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of single genes or proteins, towards a more holistic approach by studying networks and interactions between individual components of networks. From a conceptual standpoint, systems biology elicits a ‘back to the future’ experience for any integrative physiologist. However, many of the new techniques and modalities employed by systems biologists yield tremendous potential for integrative physiologists to expand their tool arsenal to (quantitatively) study complex biological processes, such as cardiac remodelling and heart failure, in a truly holistic fashion. We therefore advocate that systems biology should not become/stay a separate discipline with ‘-omics’ as its playing field, but should be integrated into physiology to create ‘Integrative Physiology 2.0’. PMID:21224228

  20. A Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular Response to Dynamic Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magosso, E

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented, The model includes the pulsating heart, the systemic and pulmonary, circulation, a functional description of muscle...

  1. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans [Department of Radiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium); Walter Desmet [Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans; Walter Desmet

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  3. Development of RI protein chip system for measurement of ADMA as risk factor of liver disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established

  4. Development of RI protein chip system for measurement of ADMA as risk factor of liver disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo

    2010-05-01

    ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established

  5. Cloud-Based Smart Health Monitoring System for Automatic Cardiovascular and Fall Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, P; Orrico, A; Scala, P; Crispino, F; Pecchia, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the design and the preliminary validation of a platform developed to collect and automatically analyze biomedical signals for risk assessment of vascular events and falls in hypertensive patients. This m-health platform, based on cloud computing, was designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, and to provide proactive remote monitoring via data-mining functionalities. A retrospective study was conducted to train and test the platform. The developed system was able to predict a future vascular event within the next 12 months with an accuracy rate of 84 % and to identify fallers with an accuracy rate of 72 %. In an ongoing prospective trial, almost all the recruited patients accepted favorably the system with a limited rate of inadherences causing data losses (<20 %). The developed platform supported clinical decision by processing tele-monitored data and providing quick and accurate risk assessment of vascular events and falls.

  6. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY ADAPTATSYONNOY ABILITIES CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM FOR PHYSICAL EXEMENATION BY MORPHOLOGICAL, TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OSCILLOGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Martsenyuk; D. V. Vakulenko; L. O. Vakulenko

    2015-01-01

    Offer Author Information Technology morphological, temporal and spectral analysis of waveforms (recorded at rest and after exercise), the introduction of analytical treated for clinical interpretation of the results, evaluation and decision-making to doctors significantly increases the information content of the procedure of blood pressure measurement. Can be used for early detection and prenosological premorbid state and functional reserve of the circulatory system, help more effectively to ...

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY ADAPTATSYONNOY ABILITIES CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM FOR PHYSICAL EXEMENATION BY MORPHOLOGICAL, TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OSCILLOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Offer Author Information Technology morphological, temporal and spectral analysis of waveforms (recorded at rest and after exercise, the introduction of analytical treated for clinical interpretation of the results, evaluation and decision-making to doctors significantly increases the information content of the procedure of blood pressure measurement. Can be used for early detection and prenosological premorbid state and functional reserve of the circulatory system, help more effectively to plan preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  8. Subject-specific cardiovascular system model-based identification and diagnosis of septic shock with a minimally invasive data set: animal experiments and proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffrey Chase, J; Starfinger, Christina; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Dauby, Pierre C; Desaive, Thomas; Shaw, Geoffrey M

    2011-01-01

    A cardiovascular system (CVS) model and parameter identification method have previously been validated for identifying different cardiac and circulatory dysfunctions in simulation and using porcine models of pulmonary embolism, hypovolemia with PEEP titrations and induced endotoxic shock. However, these studies required both left and right heart catheters to collect the data required for subject-specific monitoring and diagnosis—a maximally invasive data set in a critical care setting although it does occur in practice. Hence, use of this model-based diagnostic would require significant additional invasive sensors for some subjects, which is unacceptable in some, if not all, cases. The main goal of this study is to prove the concept of using only measurements from one side of the heart (right) in a 'minimal' data set to identify an effective patient-specific model that can capture key clinical trends in endotoxic shock. This research extends existing methods to a reduced and minimal data set requiring only a single catheter and reducing the risk of infection and other complications—a very common, typical situation in critical care patients, particularly after cardiac surgery. The extended methods and assumptions that found it are developed and presented in a case study for the patient-specific parameter identification of pig-specific parameters in an animal model of induced endotoxic shock. This case study is used to define the impact of this minimal data set on the quality and accuracy of the model application for monitoring, detecting and diagnosing septic shock. Six anesthetized healthy pigs weighing 20–30 kg received a 0.5 mg kg −1 endotoxin infusion over a period of 30 min from T0 to T30. For this research, only right heart measurements were obtained. Errors for the identified model are within 8% when the model is identified from data, re-simulated and then compared to the experimentally measured data, including measurements not used in the

  9. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Matthews

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded.MethodsWe undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012–2014. Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded.ResultsApproximately 23% (n = 478 of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99% were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0–86%. Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4–82.4; p < 0.001. Eleven percent (n = 53 of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16. Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor

  10. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina

    2014-01-01

    cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND.......6 × 10(-6)) in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans...... by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8)) compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can...

  11. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  12. Effects of Music Therapy on the Cardiovascular and Autonomic Nervous System in Stress-Induced University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Jeong, Hyeon Cheol; Yim, Jong Eun; Jeon, Mi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Stress is caused when a particular relationship between the individual and the environment emerges. Specifically, stress occurs when an individual's abilities are challenged or when one's well-being is threatened by excessive environmental demands. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of music therapy on stress in university students. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 33) or the control group (n = 31). Music therapy. Initial measurement included cardiovascular indicators (blood pressure and pulse), autonomic nervous activity (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], normalized low frequency, normalized high frequency, low/high frequency), and subjective stress. After the first measurement, participants in both groups were exposed to a series of stressful tasks, and then a second measurement was conducted. The experimental group then listened to music for 20 minutes and the control group rested for 20 minutes. A third and final measurement was then taken. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the first or second measurement. However, after music therapy, the experimental group and the control group showed significant differences in all variables, including systolic blood pressure (p = .026), diastolic blood pressure (p = .037), pulse (p music tends to relax the body and may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These results suggest music therapy as an intervention for stress reduction.

  13. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  14. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  15. Crowdfunding for cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Zhang, HongJu Janet; Aydar, Mehmet; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The competition for public cardiovascular research grants has recently increased. Independent researchers are facing increasing competition for public research grant support and ultimately may need to seek alternative funding sources. Crowdfunding, a financing method of raising funds online by pooling together small donations from the online community to support a specific initiative, seems to have significant potential. However, the feasibility of crowdfunding for cardiovascular research remains unknown. Here, we performed exploratory data analysis of the feasibility of online crowdfunding in cardiovascular research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  17. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner.

  18. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C: a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakerolhosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner

  19. Food Consumption and its impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions focused on the globalized food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozafarrian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, based on a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in CVD, the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries, age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggest the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps are highlighted. There are large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. Based on the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods/emphasizing plant protein sources, provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. PMID:26429085

  20. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  1. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  2. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J. Eapen, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.

  3. Acute change in glomerular filtration rate with inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system does not predict subsequent renal and cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine M; Barzilay, Joshua; Gao, Peggy; Smyth, Andrew; Schmieder, Roland E; Tobe, Sheldon; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Mann, Johannes F E

    2017-03-01

    Initiation of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may cause an acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the prognostic significance of this is unknown. We did a post hoc analysis of patients with, or at risk for, vascular disease, in two randomized controlled trials: Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant participants with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), whose median follow-up was 56 months. In 9340 patients new to renin-angiotensin system blockade, who were then randomized to renin-angiotensin system blockade, a fall in GFR of 15% or more at 2 weeks after starting renin-angiotensin system blockade was seen in 1480 participants (16%), with persistence at 8 weeks in 700 (7%). Both acute increases and decreases in GFR after initiation of renin-angiotensin system blockade were associated with tendencies, mostly not statistically significant, to increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes, which occurred in 1280 participants, and of microalbuminuria, which occurred in 864. Analyses of creatinine-based outcomes were suggestive of regression to the mean. In more than 3000 patients randomized in TRANSCEND to telmisartan or placebo, there was no interaction between acute change in GFR and renal or cardiovascular benefit from telmisartan. Thus, both increases and decreases in GFR on initiation of renin-angiotensin system blockade are common, and may be weakly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Changes do not predict increased benefit from therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Care-bolus tracking systems in multislice-helical computed tomography - a new method in the screening of cardiovascular failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueckle, C.A.; Kickuth, R.; Kirchner, E.M.; Liermann, D.; Kirchner, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Recently bolus tracking systems were developed to improve the timing of intravenous contrast media application in helical computed tomography. We investigated the benefit of this new method as a parameter of the cardiac function.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 64 patients which incidentally underwent bolus triggered contrast enhanced helical CT and invasive investigation of the heart within one week. All examinations were performed on the CT scanner Somatom Plus 4 Volume Zoom (Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany) using the C.A.R.E. trademark Bolus software. This performs repetitive low- dose test scans (e.g. for the abdomen: 140 kV, 20 mA, TI 0,5 s) and measures the Hounsfield attenuation (increase over the baseline) in a preselected region of interest. The displayed increase of vascular density over the time after peripheral contrast media injection (75 ml Iopromid (300 mg/ml), 2 ml/s) was categorised to three types: (a) rapid increase, (b) deceleration before a 100 HE threshold was reached and (c) one or more peaks. The findings of the invasive investigation of the heart were correlated to the findings of the bolus-tracking measurements.Results. The examinations were categorized as follows: 19 type A, 34 type B, 11 type C. We found a high significant correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and systolic pressure in the left ventricle. There was no correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle, the pressures related to the right ventricle or the ejection fraction. The bolus- tacking system showed a sensitivity of 53, a specificity of 82, an accuracy of 70%, a positive predictive value of 70% and a negative predictive value of 70% in detection of left heart failure.Conclusion. The bolus tracking system C.A.R.E.-bolus copyright often shows atypical Hounsfield attenuation in cases of cardiac failure but is not suitable as a screening method of the cardiopulmonary

  5. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths).

  6. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  7. Longterm Hydroxychloroquine Therapy and Low-dose Aspirin May Have an Additive Effectiveness in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Serena; Pierro, Luciana; Pantano, Ilenia; Iudici, Michele; Valentini, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thromboprophylaxis with low-dose aspirin (ASA) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) seems promising in SLE. We investigated the effects of HCQ cumulative dosages (c-HCQ) and the possible synergistic efficacy of ASA and HCQ in preventing a first CV event (CVE) in patients with SLE. Patients consecutively admitted to our center who, at admission, satisfied the 1997 American College of Rheumatology and/or 2012 Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for SLE, and had not experienced any CVE, were enrolled. The occurrence of a thrombotic event, use of ASA, and c-HCQ were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine the c-HCQ associated with a lower incidence of CVE. Cox regression analysis served to identify factors associated with a first CVE. For the study, 189 patients with SLE were enrolled and monitored for 13 years (median). Ten CVE occurred during followup. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the CVE-free rate was higher in ASA-treated patients administered a c-HCQ > 600 g (standard HCQ dose for at least 5 yrs) than in patients receiving ASA alone, or with a c-HCQ dose < 600 g (log-rank test chi-square = 4.01, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis showed that antimalarials plus ASA protected against thrombosis (HR 0.041 and HR 0.047, respectively), while antiphospholipid antibodies (HR 17.965) and hypertension (HR 18.054) increased the risk of a first CVE. Our results suggest that prolonged use of HCQ plus ASA is thromboprotective in SLE and provides additional evidence for its continued use in patients with SLE.

  8. Comparison of dynamic of autonomic control indices in cardiovascular system under the treatment by ACE inhibitor (Enalapril and beta-blocker (Metoprolol in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Kiselev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to compare the influence of Enalapril and Metoprolol on synchronization of 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. 42 patients aged 49±9 years old with hypertension I, II were included in the study. 0.1 Hz-oscillations in heart rate variability (HRV and blood microcirculation were registered during the passive orthostatic sign while breathing spontaneously. The duration of each test was 10 minutes. Synchronization was estimated as a phase difference between 0.1 Hz-rhythms in heart rate and in filling of blood microcirculation. Quantitative measures of synchronization were also estimated. In addition frequency values of HRV spectrum in LF- and HF-ranges were assessed. Enalapril and Metoprolol had comparable effect on blood pressure reduction. Treatment with both Enalapril and Metoprolol in patients with significant vegetative dysfunction resulted in repair of functional interaction between 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. Enalapril was preferred in hypertensive patients with prevalence of disorders of vegetative regulation of blood microcirculation. Metoprolol influenced positively on 0,1 Hz-rhythm synchronization in patients with predominance of heart vegetative regulation dysfunction and in patients with sympathicotonia. In patients with hypertension and initially normal level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-mechanisms treatment with Enalapril or Metoprolol caused functional dissociation. Differentiated approach to the choice of hypertensive therapy should consider individual peculiarities of system vegetative dysfunction. The level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system should especially be evaluated initially and during the treatment

  9. Cardiovascular Disease in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Morali D; Nguyen, Anh V; Brown, Spandana; Robbins, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    In patients with acromegaly, chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads to the development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Its main features are biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and in later stages, systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Surgical and/or pharmacological treatment of acromegaly and control of cardiovascular risk factors help reverse some of these pathophysiologic changes and decrease the high risk of cardiovascular complications.

  10. Effects of Some Indigenous Plants of North Karnataka (India) on Cardiovascular and Glucose Regulatory Systems in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Chadchan, Kailash S; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Biradar, M S; Kanthe, Pallavi S; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Bagoji, Ishwar B; Das, Swastika

    2017-11-08

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki) leaves are a few of indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people of north Karnataka in the diet. Studies on these plants showed some potential anti-diabetic efficacies. To examine the effect of leaves extracts of Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Cicer arietinum Linn and Lactuca scariola Linn on cardiovascular integrity, glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In vitro and in vivo tests on glucose regulatory systems and molecular markers such as - NOS3, HIF- 1α and VEGF were conducted in alloxan induced diabetic rats supplemented with all the three plant extracts. Electrophysiological analysis (HRV, LF: HF ratio, baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) and histopathogy of myocardial tissues and elastic artery were evaluated in diabetic rats treated with L. scariola linn. Out of these three plant extracts, Lactuca scariola Linn supplementation showed significant beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling pathways in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Furthermore, effects of sub chronic supplementation of Lactuca scariola Linn aqueous extracts showed significant improvement in sympatho-vagal balance in diabetic rats by increase of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and regaining of Baroreflex Sensitivity (BRS). These results were also corroborated with myocardial and elastic artery histopathology of Lactuca scariola Linn supplemented diabetic rats. These findings indicate an adaptive pathway for glucose homeostasis, oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms and cardio protective actions in alloxan - induced diabetic rats supplemented with Lactuca scariola Linn extracts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Detection of Cardiovascular Anomalies: An Observer-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in [1] is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in [2], used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.

  12. Cardiovascular complications following thoracic radiotherapy in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Borchsenius, Julie I Helene; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications following thoracic radiotherapy in patients with cancer are well described. Advancements in surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatments have led to an increasing number of cancer survivors and thus an increasing number of patients with long-term side effects...... of their cancer treatments. This article describes the short- and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following thoracic radiotherapy and further, optimal cardiovascular assessments and diagnostic tools in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients....

  13. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  14. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  15. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  16. Systemic right ventricular fibrosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with clinical outcome, mainly new-onset atrial arrhythmia, in patients after atrial redirection surgery for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydman, Riikka; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Ho, Siew Yen; Ernst, Sabine; Swan, Lorna; Li, Wei; Wong, Tom; Sheppard, Mary; McCarthy, Karen P; Roughton, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Pennell, Dudley J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts outcomes in patients with transposition of the great arteries post atrial redirection surgery. These patients have a systemic right ventricle (RV) and are at risk of arrhythmia, premature RV failure, and sudden death. Fifty-five patients (aged 27±7 years) underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance and were followed for a median 7.8 (interquartile range, 3.8-9.6) years in a prospective single-center cohort study. RV LGE was present in 31 (56%) patients. The prespecified composite clinical end point comprised new-onset sustained tachyarrhythmia (atrial/ventricular) or decompensated heart failure admission/transplantation/death. Univariate predictors of the composite end point (n=22 patients; 19 atrial/2 ventricular tachyarrhythmia, 1 death) included RV LGE presence and extent, RV volumes/mass/ejection fraction, right atrial area, peak Vo(2), and age at repair. In bivariate analysis, RV LGE presence was independently associated with the composite end point (hazard ratio, 4.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.60-15.28]; P=0.005), and only percent predicted peak Vo(2) remained significantly associated with cardiac events after controlling for RV LGE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95]; P=0.009/5%). In 8 of 9 patients with >1 event, atrial tachyarrhythmia, itself a known risk factor for mortality, occurred first. There was agreement between location and extent of RV LGE at in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance and histologically documented focal RV fibrosis in an explanted heart. There was RV LGE progression in a different case restudied for clinical indications. Systemic RV LGE is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcome especially arrhythmia in transposition of the great arteries, thus LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance should be incorporated in risk stratification of these patients. © 2015 American Heart

  17. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  18. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... National Patient Register was used to defining the first date of experiencing a cardiovascular event by means of a discharge diagnosis and/or having performed a coronary bypass operation or revascularization of the coronary arteries. The proportion of patients with already established CVD at the diagnosis...

  19. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  20. Freqüência de doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica e de seus fatores de risco em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    2007-06-01

    cardiovasculares deve ser objeto de novos estudos.INTRODUCTION: the pathogenesis of coronary disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients is not completely understood. Risk factors associated with lupus or its treatment may be associated with traditional risk factors for coronary disease. Such risk factors are more common in patients with lupus. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency of cardiovascular disease and traditional risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at Rheumatology Division of Hospital das Clínicas of Minas Gerais Federal University. METHODS: 172 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were evaluated. Cardiovascular events, traditional risk factors and clinical-laboratorial findings were investigated in this cross-sectional research. RESULTS: the mean age (SD of the patients was 38.5 years (11.2 years. 95.9% were female and 64.5% were non white. Cardiovascular disease was identified in 8 patients (4.7%, with 11 different diagnoses. Three patients had coronary insufficiency, three had stroke and five had peripheral arterial disease. Systemic arterial hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (48.8%, followed by dyslipidemia in 70 patients (40.7% and hypertriglyceridemia in 51 patients (29.7%. LDL-c > 100 mg/dl was found in 77 patients (44.8%. Among 165 female patients, 67 (40.6% had menopause, 43.3% of them with early menopause. CONCLUSION: the present study describes the frequency of risk factors for coronary artery disease in a Brazilian sample of lupus patients. The impact of recognition and management of those risk factors in prevention of cardiovascular events should be object of others studies.

  1. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  2. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  3. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  4. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  5. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) or direct action on the heart and ... significant effect of caffeine on the cardiovascular system. Several other studies .... carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise.

  6. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  7. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  8. Nutrition and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  10. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  11. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin?Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Catal?-L?pez, Ferr?n; Mac?as Saint-Gerons, Diego; Gonz?lez-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M.; Davis, Barry R.; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tob?as, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, C?sar; Tabar?s-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Chronic high blood pressure can damage blood vessels, heart, and kidneys, and cause cardiovascular and kidney (or renal) disease. Diabetes increases the risk for high blood pressure. An estimated two-thirds of adults with diabetes have high blood pressure or take blood-pressure-reducing drugs (also called antihypertensives). Because diabetes itself increases the risk for heart and kidney diseases, controlling blood pressure is important. Several of the drugs common...

  12. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Israel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV. However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D velocity acquisition sequence for concise quantification of SPCF and flow distribution in patients with SV. Methods 29 patients with SV physiology prospectively underwent CMR (1.5 T (n = 14 bidirectional cavopulmonary connection [BCPC], age 2.9 ± 1.3 years; and n = 15 Fontan, 14.4 ± 5.9 years and 20 healthy volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 13.1 years served as controls. A single whole-heart 4D velocity acquisition and five 2D flow acquisitions were performed in the aorta, superior/inferior caval veins, right/left pulmonary arteries to serve as gold-standard. The five 2D velocity acquisition measurements were compared with 4D velocity acquisition for validation of individual vessel flow quantification and time efficiency. The SPCF was calculated by evaluating the disparity between systemic (aortic minus caval vein flows and pulmonary flows (arterial and venour return. The pulmonary right to left and the systemic lower to upper body flow distribution were also calculated. Results The comparison between 4D velocity and 2D flow acquisitions showed good Bland-Altman agreement for all individual vessels (mean bias, 0.05±0.24 l/min/m2, calculated SPCF (−0.02±0.18 l/min/m2 and significantly shorter 4D velocity acquisition-time (12:34 min/17:28 min,p 2; Fontan 0.62±0.82 l/min/m2 and not in controls (0.01 + 0.16 l/min/m2, (3 inverse relation of right/left pulmonary artery perfusion and right/left SPCF (Pearson = −0.47,p = 0.01 and (4 upper to lower body flow distribution trend related to the weight (r = 0.742, p  Conclusions 4D

  13. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  14. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome – the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Marciniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35–60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  15. Cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects: lack of evidence for a central nervous system site of action based on hemodynamic studies with cocaine methiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, L W; Rodak, D J; Kuhn, F E; Wahlstrom, S K; Tessel, R E; Visner, M S; Schaer, G L; Gillis, R A

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that cocaine acts directly in the brain to enhance central sympathetic outflow. However, some studies suggested that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine are related to a peripheral action. To characterize further the site of cocaine's cardiovascular effect, we compared the hemodynamic effects of cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) with those observed after administration of an equimolar dose (2.62 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) of cocaine methiodide, a quaternary derivative of cocaine that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, by using sufentanil-sedated dogs. Cocaine produced significant (p < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+37+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+55+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+5.3+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (+2.4+/-0.9 L/min). Cocaine methiodide produced increases in heart rate (+57+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+45+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+3.4+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (1.1+/-0.9 L/min), which were not significantly different from those observed with cocaine. Because opiate sedation potentially might have attenuated central sympathetic outflow, we further confirmed the qualitative similarity of the actions of cocaine and cocaine methiodide on heart rate and blood pressure in unsedated, conscious dogs. Our data suggest that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine result primarily from a peripheral site of action.

  16. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome - the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka Rutkowska, Jolanta; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35-60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  17. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  18. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  20. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  1. Pharmacological Strategies to Retard Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaras, Irene; Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Lakatta, Edward G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the leading cause of death in the United States. Traditionally, the effort to prevent CVD has been focused on addressing the conventional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and high circulating levels of triglycerides. However, recent preclinical studies have identified new approaches to combat CVD. Calorie restriction has been reproducibly shown to prolong lifespan in various experimental model animals. This has led to the development of calorie restriction mimetics and other pharmacological interventions capable to delay age-related diseases. In this review, we will address the mechanistic effects of aging per se on the cardiovascular system and focus on the pro-longevity benefits of various therapeutic strategies that support cardiovascular health. PMID:27174954

  2. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  3. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2011 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  5. Cardiovascular manifestations of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Stephen J; Fisher, Michael; Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R

    2011-12-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of alkaptonuria relate to deposition of ochronotic pigment within heart valves, endocardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. We assessed 16 individuals with alkaptonuria for cardiovascular disease, including full electrocardiographic and echocardiographic assessment. The self reported prevalence of valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease was low. There was a significant burden of previously undiagnosed aortic valve disease, reaching a prevalence of over 40% by the fifth decade of life. The aortic valve disease was found to increase in both prevalence and severity with advancing age. In contrast to previous reports, we did not find a significant burden of mitral valve disease or coronary artery disease. These findings are important for the clinical follow-up of patients with alkaptonuria and suggest a role for echocardiographic surveillance of patients above 40 years old.

  6. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  7. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  8. Cardiovascular oscillations: in search of a nonlinear parametric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrivskyy, Andriy; Luchinsky, Dmitry; McClintock, Peter V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Stefanovska, Aneta; Timucin, Dogan

    2003-05-01

    We suggest a fresh approach to the modeling of the human cardiovascular system. Taking advantage of a new Bayesian inference technique, able to deal with stochastic nonlinear systems, we show that one can estimate parameters for models of the cardiovascular system directly from measured time series. We present preliminary results of inference of parameters of a model of coupled oscillators from measured cardiovascular data addressing cardiorespiratory interaction. We argue that the inference technique offers a very promising tool for the modeling, able to contribute significantly towards the solution of a long standing challenge -- development of new diagnostic techniques based on noninvasive measurements.

  9. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  10. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  11. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  12. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  13. Psoriasis and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaby, Line; Ahlehoff, Ole; de Thurah, Annette

    2017-01-01

    So far, systematic reviews have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in psoriatic patients, though some results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to update the current level of evidence through a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central...... Register databases. In total, 13 high-quality observational studies estimating the incidence of CVD were included. Patients with mild psoriasis had an increased risk of stroke [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.0-1.19] and myocardial infarction (MI) (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35), but not cardiovascular...... death. The risks of both stroke (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.60), MI (HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.43) and cardiovascular death (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67) were increased in patients with severe psoriasis. In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis confirmed that patients with psoriasis have an increased...

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE INCIDENCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DISEASES IN THE FAR NORTH MIGRANTS OVER THE PERIOD OF READAPTATION TO THE NEW CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Anatolyevich Yaskevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To study the frequency and structure of cardiovascular diseases of the Far North migrants within the period of readaptation to the new climatic conditions. Materials and methods. 145 migrants with stages II–III of arterial hypertension (AH coming from the Far North arrived in the southern regions of central Siberia for permanent residence. The survey included questionnaires, clinical, instrumental, and functional and laboratory research methods. Results. After moving to central Siberia, the hypertensive crisis is more common in people who lived in the Far North for 30 years or more. An increase in the hypertensive crisis frequency was observed in men, rather than women, whereas the stroke incidence in female migrants gets higher, but remains unchanged in male migrants. An increase in the incidence of diseases that complicate the hypertension progression was detected in the migrants during the period following the migration. An increase in the incidence of angina attacks and strokes as well as a trend towards an increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction and heart failure after moving to central Siberia is caused by an increase in the level of neurotic disorders associated with social and economic factors. Conclusion. The identified patterns should be taken into account in the construction of prevention and rehabilitation programs for the Far North migrants along with an obligatory assessment of the adaptive and readaptive capabilities of the organism. Both the follow-up plan and the list of the required measures should be made individually, while taking into account the identified cardiovascular diseases, concomitant pathology and risk factors. Should the migrant be diagnosed with any cardiovascular diseases, they need to consult a cardiologist with the purpose of correcting both medicated and medication-free therapy for the readaptation period.

  15. Cardiovascular safety of biologic therapies for the treatment of RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Furer, Victoria; Farkouh, Michael E

    2011-11-15

    Cardiovascular disease represents a major source of extra-articular comorbidity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A combination of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and RA-related factors accounts for the excess risk in RA. Among RA-related factors, chronic systemic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. A growing body of evidence--mainly derived from observational databases and registries--suggests that specific RA therapies, including methotrexate and anti-TNF biologic agents, can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events in patients with RA. The cardiovascular profile of other biologic therapies for the treatment of RA has not been adequately studied, including of investigational drugs that improve systemic inflammation but alter traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the absence of large clinical trials adequately powered to detect differences in cardiovascular events between biologic drugs in RA, deriving firm conclusions on cardiovascular safety is challenging. Nevertheless, observational research using large registries has emerged as a promising approach to study the cardiovascular risk of emerging RA biologic therapies.

  16. Protean manifestations of vitamin D deficiency, part 3: association with cardiovascular disease and disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David S H

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the risk factors of inflammation, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular hypertrophy. As a result there is an increase in cardiovascular events (CVEs) associated with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency itself or secondary hyperparathyroidism or both may be responsible for the increase in CVEs. Correction of vitamin D deficiency may decrease the incidence of CVEs. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, depression, and chronic pain and muscle weakness. Vitamin D deficiency is early treated with oral vitamin D supplements which may improve the manifestations of the diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency.

  17. [Air pollution and cardiovascular toxicity: known risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, A; Filleul, L; Eilstein, D; Harrabi, I; Tessier, J F

    2004-03-01

    Review of studies about epidemiological and physiopathological knowledge of ambient air particles short-term cardio-vascular effects. CURRENTS AND STRONG POINTS: Many studies, in contrasted countries for pollution's sources, meteorological conditions or socio-demographical characteristics, have shown health effects due to ambient air particles. After having studied mainly the respiratory effects of particulate air pollution, epidemiologists are now interested in the cardio-vascular effects of ambient air particles. In fact, serious effects seem to exist in fragile people which can get to emergency department visits, hospitalisation and even death. In addition, studies have shown less serious effects, but likely to be frequent (cardiac symptoms, and stoppages for cardio-vascular causes, notably). The exact mechanism by which particles have cardio-vascular adverse health effects is unknown, but experimental and epidemiological studies have led to several hypotheses: local pulmonary effects seem to be followed by systemic effects, which would be responsible for effects on the electrical activity of the heart through cardiac autonomic dysfunction and effects on the blood supply to the heart. The objective of this work is to summarise epidemiological and physiopathological knowledge about the cardio-vascular effects of ambient air particles. To evaluate the real importance of cardio-vascular effects due to particulate air pollution and to identify their exact mechanism, a more precise knowledge of detailed causes of deaths and hospitalisations and a better knowledge of less serious effects, but likely to be frequent, is necessary. Equally, a detailed identification of fragile people is essential for developing preventive actions.

  18. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna L. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  19. Antenatal steroids and the IUGR fetus: are exposure and physiological effects on the lung and cardiovascular system the same as in normally grown fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Soo, Poh Seng; McGillick, Erin V; Hiscock, Jennifer; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I Caroline; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  1. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses.

  2. In a Heartbeat: Light and Cardiovascular Physiology

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    Sarah L. Chellappa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research. Findings show a time-of-day dependent increase in relative sympathetic tone associated with bright light in the morning but not in the evening hours. Furthermore, dynamic light in the early morning hours can reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked transition on cardiac modulation. On the contrary, effects of numerous light parameters, such as illuminance level and wavelength of monochromatic light, on cardiac function are mixed. Therefore, in future research studies, light modalities, such as timing, duration, and its wavelength composition, should be taken in to account when testing the potential of light as a non-invasive countermeasure for adverse cardiovascular events.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

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    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  5. [Quality management in cardiovascular echography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullace, Giuseppe

    2002-12-01

    The quality management of an organization can be defined as the ability to identify, plan and implement programs of measure, analysis, verification and control that allow to monitor management, resources, activities, processes and output/outcome of the same organization, including the satisfaction of the customers. Whatever the model used, it is demonstrated that the management-quality system, either for professional quality or for organization, turns out to be effective even in the health organizations within and to any level of organizational-structural complexity. The present paper concerns the experience of the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography (SIEC) on quality certification, both as a scientific society compared to other health organizations and to cardiovascular echo laboratories, and the definition of minimum requirements for the accreditation of the same laboratories. The model most frequently used for quality management is represented by the ISO 9000: Vision 2000, that is a management model with specific reference to the organization and the customer satisfaction. The model applied to the health structure needs a rapid change in mentality that addresses the operators to define, share and achieve objectives to be brought on by means of an active collaboration, group activity and deep sense of belonging necessary to the attainment of expected objectives. When the model is applied by a scientific society, it is necessary to take into account the different structural and functional organization, the constitution and the operators differing on the point of view of origin, experiences, mentality, and roles. The ISO 9000: Vision 2000 model can be applied also to the cardiovascular echo laboratory which may be compared to a simple organization; for its corrected functioning, SIEC has defined minimal requirements for the accreditation, realization and modalities to carry out and manage quality. The quality system represents a new way of operating of an

  6. Understanding changes in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chummun, Harry

    Cardiovascular pathophysiological changes, such as hypertension and enlarged ventricles, reflect the altered functions of the heart and its circulation during ill-health. This article examines the normal and altered anatomy of the cardiac valves, the contractile elements and enzymes of the myocardium, the significance of the different factors associated with cardiac output, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in the heart beat. It also explores how certain diseases alter these functions and result in cardiac symptoms. Nurses can benefit from knowledge of these specific changes, for example, by being able to ask relevant questions in order to ascertain the nature of a patients condition, by being able to take an effective patient history and by being able to read diagnostic results, such as electrocardiograms and cardiac enzyme results. All this will help nurses to promote sound cardiac care based on a physiological rationale.

  7. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  8. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury ... Keywords: Oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, cell signaling and transduction mechanisms, antioxidants, dietary phenolics.

  9. Pioglitazone and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes receiving concomitant treatment with nitrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, or insulin: results from the PROactive study (PROactive 20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Erland; Spanheimer, Robert; Charbonnel, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are often treated with multiple glucose-lowering and cardiovascular agents. The concomitant use of nitrates, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, or insulin has been linked to a potential increase in myocardial ischemic risk with rosiglitazone. The PROactive database provides an opportunity to investigate the effects of these medications on the potential macrovascular benefits reported with pioglitazone. The PROactive study was a randomized double-blind prospective trial that evaluated mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in 5238 patients with T2DM and macrovascular disease. Patients received pioglitazone or placebo in addition to their baseline glucose-lowering and cardiovascular medications. The effect of pioglitazone on composite endpoints was evaluated, including all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, as well as safety events of edema and serious heart failure, in subgroups using nitrates, RAS blockers, or insulin at baseline. The risk of all-cause death, MI, and stroke for pioglitazone versus placebo was similar regardless of the baseline use of nitrates, RAS blockers, or insulin, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.81 to 0.87. Similar results were obtained for the other composite endpoints analyzed. There were no significant interactions between baseline medication subgroups and treatment. The increased risk of edema and serious heart failure was consistent across the baseline medication subgroups. This post hoc analysis did not reveal an increased risk of macrovascular events with pioglitazone in patients receiving nitrates, RAS blockers, or insulin. Rather, all patients realized the same trend towards benefit with pioglitazone, and adverse events of edema and heart failure were predictable. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Cardiovascular Physiology of Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  11. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  12. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  13. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  14. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gongora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  15. Cardiovascular diseases and periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G

    2003-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry